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1

Wet Artificial Life: The Construction of Artificial Living Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of artificial cell-like entities - chemical systems that are able to self-replicate and evolve - requires the integration of containers, metabolism, and information. In this chapter, we present possible candidates for these subsystems and the experimental achievements made toward their replication. The discussion focuses on several suggested designs to create artificial cells from nonliving material that are currently being pursued both experimentally and theoretically in several laboratories around the world. One particular approach toward wet artificial life is presented in detail. Finally, the evolutionary advantage of cellular aggregates over naked replicator systems and the evolutionary potential of the various approaches are discussed. The enormous progress toward man-made artificial cells nourishes the hope that wet artificial life might be achieved within the next several years.

Fellermann, Harold

2

Artificial life and living systems: Insight into artificial life and its implications in life science research  

PubMed Central

Advanced technology has made it possible to build machines and systems like robots, which are capable of making intelligent decisions. Robots capable of self-replication and perform human functions are also available. The current challenge is to design evolutionary systems with high complexity comparable to that of biological networks. This is proposed to be achieved by ALife (Artificial Life). Here, we describe the promises provided by ALife for life sciences.

Guruprasad, Sarvothaman; Sekar, Kanagaraj

2006-01-01

3

A combat complex system based on artificial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combat complex system named Arsenal is composed of a great deal of agents which could sense the surrounding as well as interact and collaborate with each other. Using bottom-up and synthesis artificial life method, Arsenal studies the emergence of combat tactics, namely the forming tactics under different surrounding, mission and opposed tactics. Arsenal models agent with BMCS modal to

Yanliang Cui; Dechang Pi

2008-01-01

4

Artificial life down under.  

PubMed

For many years, Australian researchers have been contributing to the areas of artificial life and complex adaptive systems. This report highlights some of the Australian-based activities in these areas. PMID:16053577

Abbass, Hussein A

2005-01-01

5

Breeding Rhythms with Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in developing intelligent systems for music composition. In this paper we focus on our research into generative rhythms. We have adopted an Artificial Life (A-Life) approach to intelligent systems design in order to develop generative algorithms inspired by the notion of music as social phenomena that emerge from the overall behaviour of interacting autonomous software agents. Whereas

Joao M. Martins; Eduardo R. Miranda

6

Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often heard in Artificial Life (A-Life) circles that contemporary biology studies life-as-we-know-it (an Earth based, carbon chain phenomenon), whereas A-Life takes as its domain of study life-as-it-could-be. But lacking a clear definition of \\

Brian L. Keeley

7

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

8

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

9

Artificial Life and Molecular Evolutionary Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial life is extending the scope of molecular evolutionary biology as it tries to complement natural life on earth by searching for systems with properties that are sufficient to allow for evolution. Evolution is characterized by specific forms of dynamics that are based on the capability of replication. RNA molecules form a toy universe calles the RNA world that shares

Peter Schuster

1995-01-01

10

Natural language from artificial life.  

PubMed

This article aims to show that linguistics, in particular the study of the lexico-syntactic aspects of language, provides fertile ground for artificial life modeling. A survey of the models that have been developed over the last decade and a half is presented to demonstrate that ALife techniques have a lot to offer an explanatory theory of language. It is argued that this is because much of the structure of language is determined by the interaction of three complex adaptive systems: learning, culture, and biological evolution. Computational simulation, informed by theoretical linguistics, is an appropriate response to the challenge of explaining real linguistic data in terms of the processes that underpin human language. PMID:12171637

Kirby, Simon

2002-01-01

11

Artificial life: organization, adaptation and complexity from the bottom up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial life attempts to understand the essential general properties of living systems by synthesizing life-like behavior in software, hardware and biochemicals. As many of the essential abstract properties of living systems (e.g. autonomous adaptive and intelligent behavior) are also studied by cognitive science, artificial life and cognitive science have an essential overlap. This review highlights the state of the art

Mark A. Bedau

2003-01-01

12

Exploration in the Complexity of Possible Life: Abstracting and Synthesizing the Principles of Living Systems - Proceedings of the German Workshop on Artificial Life (7th) Held in Jena, Germany on 26-28 Jul 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics of the conference will cover the whole area of research in Artificial Life (AL), in particular: Modelling of biological processes, systems biology, adaptive behaviour, pattern recognition, perception and evolution of sensors, morphology and actuato...

S. Artmann P. Dittrich

2006-01-01

13

Artificial life: The coming evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their in...

J. D. Farmer A. Belin

1990-01-01

14

Artificial Life Needs a Real Epistemology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foundational controversies in artificial life and artificial intelligence arise from lack of decidable criteria for defining the epistemic cuts that separate knowledge of reality from reality itself, e.g., description from construction, simulation from realization, mind from brain. Selective evolution began with a description-construction cut, i.e., the genetically coded synthesis of proteins. The highly evolved cognitive epistemology of physics requires an

Howard H. Pattee

1995-01-01

15

From Artificial Life to In Silico Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical research today stands at a crossroads. There is a widening gulf between the extent of knowledge regarding basic mechanistic processes and the ability to integrate that information into explanatory hypotheses of system-level behavior. Techniques from the Artificial Life community can aid in bridging this gulf by providing means for visualizing and instantiating mechanistic hypotheses. This will allow the development of in silico laboratories where conceptual models can be examined, checked, and modified. NetLogo is a “low threshold, high ceiling” software toolkit that has been used to develop agent-based models (ABMs) in a multiplicity of domains and provides a good platform for the computational instantiation of biomedical knowledge. This chapter presents a brief overview of NetLogo and describes a series of ABMs of acute inflammation at multiple levels of biological organization.

An, Gary; Wilensky, Uri

16

Rocking Stamper and Jumping Snakes from a Dynamical Systems Approach to Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical systems offer intriguing possibilities as a substrate for the generation of behavior because of their rich behavioral complexity. However this complexity together with the largely covert relation between the parameters and the behavior of the agent is also the main hindrance in the goal oriented design of a behavior system. This paper presents a general approach to the self-regulation

Ralf Der; Frank Hesse; Georg Martius

2006-01-01

17

Artificial Life and Biomechanical Simulation of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review our recent work on human simulation, specif- ically: (1) an artificial life framework that addresses the problem of emulating the rich complexity of human ap- pearance and activity in urban environments, resulting in autonomous pedestrian models, and (2) a comprehen- sive biomechanical model of the human body that con- fronts the combined challenge of modeling and control- ling

Demetri Terzopoulos

2009-01-01

18

Advances in Artificial Life - Impacts on Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents a series of interdisciplinary exchanges between the authors - one a psychologist and philosopher, the other a computer scientist- as they pondered some of the scientific and cultural challenges of the new millennium. The paper briefly reviews the closer-than-ever possibility of creating artificial life, intelligence and cultures brought about by recent developments in the fields of biology,

R. Krasnogor; N. Krasnogor

19

Artificial Life and Real World Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper motivates the use of biological mechanisms in the construction of artificial systems by pointing to the growing need for open complex real world computing in distributed networked computers, software agents and intelligent autonomous robots. It then discusses in some more detail trends in this last application area, focusing in particular on how new complexity may be generated.

Luc Steels; Mario Tokoro

1995-01-01

20

Path Dependence in the Evolution of Artificial Life NSF Graduate Fellowship Proposed Plan of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

I propose to use Artificial Life as a vehicle for studying how path dependence can manifest itself in evolving sys- tems, how it affects the development of the system's con- stituents, how it can enhance or detract from the applica- tion of Artificial Life techniques, and how these findings generalize to biological systems. To achieve this goal, I will examine

Adam Megacz

21

An intelligent remote monitoring system for artificial heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based database system for intelligent remote monitoring of an artificial heart has been developed. It is important for patients with an artificial heart implant to be discharged from the hospital after an appropriate stabilization period for better recovery and quality of life. Reliable continuous remote monitoring systems for these patients with life support devices are gaining practical meaning. The

Jaesoon Choi; J. W. Park; Jinhan Chung; B. G. Min

2005-01-01

22

Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities. Prototype explanation systems have been added to...

D. Gomboc H. C. Lane M. Van Lent M. G. Core S. Solomon

2006-01-01

23

Control of artificial muscles of lower limb of artificial life body  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes simply a method how to control air muscles of lower limes of an artificial life body (denoted ALB) developed recently (called ICHIRO), at the Artificial Life and Robotics Laboratory of Oita University, Japan, by using compressed air controllers. The number of total air muscles is 22 where 11 air muscles are arranged in each leg. The experimental

M. Sugisaka

2007-01-01

24

Toxicological Characteristics of the Artificial Atmosphere of Closed Ecological Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Closed ecological systems (CES) are usually understood to be 'inhabited areas of space ships and submarines hermetically isolated from the environment with the crew, artificial gaseous medium, life support systems and other equipment and materials'. The d...

V. V. Kustov L. A. Tyunov

1971-01-01

25

Artificial life, the second law of thermodynamics, and Kolmogorov Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the basic features of life is replication. Indeed one of the three components of evolution is inheritance, which implies some similarity (both phenotypic and genotypic) between parents and offspring. Life is a process and not a substance (e.g. being carbon-based does not capture what life is), and this therefore justifies an algorithmic definition. Artificial life is concerned with

J. R. Woodward; A. Farjudian

2010-01-01

26

Making Right(s) Decision: Artificial life and Rights Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of robotics in industry, education and entertainment, artificial intelligent robots challenge the way we think about relationships between humans and machines. This study examines critical issues in artificial life and rights, which are an emergent but, as yet, little understood area of educational inquiry through one of the most popular video game, The Sims. Since The Sims

Juyun Kim

2005-01-01

27

Artificial Immune Systems in Bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) represent one of the most recent and promising approaches in the branch of bio-inspired techniques. Although this open field of research is still in its infancy, several relevant results have been achieved by using the AIS paradigm in demanding tasks such as the ones coming from computa- tional biology and biochemistry. The chapter will show

Vitoantonio Bevilacqua; Filippo Menolascina; Roberto Teixeira Alves; Stefania Tommasi; Giuseppe Mastronardi; Myriam Regattieri Delgado; Angelo Paradiso; Giuseppe Nicosia; Alex Alves Freitas

2008-01-01

28

Artificial intelligence and intelligent tutoring systems  

SciTech Connect

As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.

Livergood, N.D.

1989-01-01

29

Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that\\u000adefends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or\\u000amolecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with\\u000athe help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action\\u000afrom a local and also a global perspective

Uwe Aickelin; Dipankar Dasgupta

2008-01-01

30

Artificial Immune Systems for Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Immune Systems (AISs) are computational methods inspired by the biological immune system and thus classified as\\u000a a nature-inspired meta-heuristic along with genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, and\\u000a others. This chapter is focused on the application of AISs to solve optimization problems. Optimization is a mathematical\\u000a principle largely applied to design and operational problems in all types

Heder S. Bernardino; Helio J. C. Barbosa

2009-01-01

31

Design of Tasting Perception System of Artificial Fish Based on Fuzzy Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial fish for computer animation is created with artificial life. In order to enrich perceptive abilities of artificial fish and exhibit vivid animation, a kind of virtual tasting perception system of artificial fish is proposed. Firstly, the tasting perception model in Intelligent Virtual Environment (IVE) is built. Secondly, two-layer recognition model of tasting perception is designed according to the biological

Xian-yu Meng; Xiao-yang He; Yan-rong Xue; Feng-hua Li

2009-01-01

32

A Web-Based Patient Support System Using Artificial Intelligence to Improve Health Monitoring and Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes have reached epidemic proportions since the last decade in India. An estimated 75 million people in India would become diabetic by 2025. However, the existing healthcare infrastructure is inadequate to meet the demands of this exploding population. Provisioning a web-based patient support system that helps in patient centered decision making and physician

U. M. Ashwinkumar; K. R. Anandakumar

2012-01-01

33

"Life is a verb": inflections of artificial life in cultural context.  

PubMed

This review essay surveys recent literature in the history of science, literary theory, anthropology, and art criticism dedicated to exploring how the artificial life enterprise has been inflected by--and might also reshape--existing social, historical, cognitive, and cultural frames of thought and action. The piece works through various possible interpretations of Kevin Kelly's phrase "life is a verb," in order to track recent shifts in cultural studies of artificial life from an aesthetic of critique to an aesthetic of conversation, discerning in the process different styles of translating between the concerns of the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and sciences of the artificial. PMID:17355191

Helmreich, Stefan

2007-01-01

34

Exploring the learning potential of an artificial life simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

CULUTRE is an Artificial Life simulation that aims to provide primary school children with opportunities to become actively engaged in the high-order thinking processes of problem solving and critical thinking. A preliminary evaluation of CULTURE has found that it offers the freedom for children to take part in process-oriented learning experiences. Through providing children with opportunities to make inferences, validate

Peta Wyeth; Helen C. Purchase

2001-01-01

35

Artificial Nutrition and Hydration at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy surrounds the issue of care at the end of life (EOL) for older adults. Technological advances and the legal, ethical, clinical, religious, cultural, personal, and fiscal considerations in the provision of artificial hydration and nutrition support to older adults near death are presented in this comprehensive review.

Roschelle A. Heuberger

2010-01-01

36

[An improved connecting system for artificial hearts].  

PubMed

The certain connection of the artificial ventricles to the vascular system has a decisive importance in the implantation of an artificial heart. Demands concerning tightness, reliability, easy attendance, and anatomic fit are to be considered especially in the construction of a suitable connecting system. A modified bayonet system came in use. The connection between the artificial heart and the vascular system is placed here by distortions of a tightening ring. PMID:6730604

Behrens, P; Jirasek, S; Urbaszek, W; Klinkmann, H; Schuldt, G

1984-01-01

37

A Graph Grammar Approach to Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the high-level language of relational growth grammars (RGGs) as a formalism designed for the specification of ALife models. RGGs can be seen as an extension of the well-known parametric Lindenmayer systems and contain rule-based, procedural, and object-oriented features. They are defined as rewriting systems operating on graphs with the edges coming from a set of user-defined relations, whereas

Ole Kniemeyer; Gerhard H. Buck-sorlin; Winfried Kurth

2004-01-01

38

Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of ”the artificial myocardium” has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The

Tomoyuki Yambe; Yasuyuki Shiraishi; Makoto Yoshizawa; Akira Tanaka; Ken-ichi Abe; Fumihiro Sato; Hidetoshi Matsuki; Masayoshi Esashi; Yoichi Haga; Shigenao Maruyama; Toshiyuki Takagi; Yun Luo; Eiji Okamoto; Yutaka Kubo; Motohisa Osaka; Shunsuke Nanka; Yoshifumi Saijo; Yoshiaki Mibiki; Tasuku Yamaguchi; Mune-ichi Shibata; Shinichi Nitta

2003-01-01

39

Molecular Computation and Evolutionary Wetware: A Cutting-Edge Technology for Artificial Life and Nanobiotechnologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the new frontiers opened by the integration of artificial life and nanobiotechnologies, this paper reviews mainstream biomolecular computation from the viewpoint of an information processing mechanism, computing methods, and problem-solving algorithms. We also discuss evolutionary wetware as a tool for unconventional computing, inspired by biomolecular systems in nature. Biomolecular computation uses a different paradigm of computing than that

Jian-qin Liu; Katsunori Shimohara

2007-01-01

40

Artificial-life researchers try to create social reality.  

PubMed

Some scientists, among them cosmologist Stephen Hawking, argue that computer viruses are alive. A better case might be made for many of the self-replicating silicon-based creatures featured at the fourth Conference on Artificial Life, held on 5 to 8 July in Boston. Researchers from computer science, biology, and other disciplines presented computer programs that, among other things, evolved cooperative strategies in a selfish world and recreated themselves in ever more complex forms. PMID:17782127

Flam, F

1994-08-12

41

Foundations of and Recent Advances in Artificial Life Modeling with Repast 3 and Repast Simphony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial life focuses on synthesizing “life-like behaviors from scratch in computers, machines, molecules, and other alternative media” [24]. Artificial life expands the “horizons of empirical research in biology beyond the territory currently circumscribed by life-as-we-know-it” to provide “access to the domain of life-as-it-could-be” [24]. Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) are used to create computational laboratories that replicate real or potential behaviors of actual or possible complex adaptive systems (CAS). The goal of agent modeling is to allow experimentation with simulated complex systems. To achieve this, agent-based modeling uses sets of agents and frameworks for simulating the agent's decisions and interactions. Agent models show how complex adaptive systems may evolve through time in a way that is difficult to predict from knowledge of the behaviors of the individual agents alone. Agent-based modeling thus provides a natural framework in which to perform artificial life experiments. The free and open source Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit (Repast) family of tools consists of several advanced agent-based modeling toolkits.

North, Michael J.; Macal, Charles M.

42

MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas System  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Current state-of-the-art artificial pancreas systems are either based on traditional linear control theory or rely on mathematical models of glucose-insulin dynamics. Blood glucose control using these methods is limited due to the complexity of the biological system. The aim of this study was to describe the principles and clinical performance of the novel MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas (MDLAP) System. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The MDLAP applies fuzzy logic theory to imitate lines of reasoning of diabetes caregivers. It uses a combination of control-to-range and control-to-target strategies to automatically regulate individual glucose levels. Feasibility clinical studies were conducted in seven adults with type 1 diabetes (aged 19–30 years, mean diabetes duration 10 ± 4 years, mean A1C 6.6 ± 0.7%). All underwent 14 full, closed-loop control sessions of 8 h (fasting and meal challenge conditions) and 24 h. RESULTS The mean peak postprandial (overall sessions) glucose level was 224 ± 22 mg/dl. Postprandial glucose levels returned to <180 mg/dl within 2.6 ± 0.6 h and remained stable in the normal range for at least 1 h. During 24-h closed-loop control, 73% of the sensor values ranged between 70 and 180 mg/dl, 27% were >180 mg/dl, and none were <70 mg/dl. There were no events of symptomatic hypoglycemia during any of the trials. CONCLUSIONS The MDLAP system is a promising tool for individualized glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes. It is designed to minimize high glucose peaks while preventing hypoglycemia. Further studies are planned in the broad population under daily-life conditions.

Atlas, Eran; Nimri, Revital; Miller, Shahar; Grunberg, Eli A.; Phillip, Moshe

2010-01-01

43

The dilemma of the symbols: analogies between philosophy, biology and artificial life.  

PubMed

This article analyzes some analogies going from Artificial Life questions about the symbol-matter connection to Artificial Intelligence questions about symbol-grounding. It focuses on the notion of the interpretability of syntax and how the symbols are integrated in a unity ("binding problem"). Utilizing the DNA code as a model, this paper discusses how syntactic features could be defined as high-grade characteristics of the non syntactic relations in a material-dynamic structure, by using an emergentist approach. This topic furnishes the ground for a confutation of J. Searle's statement that syntax is observer-relative, as he wrote in his book "Mind: A Brief Introduction". Moreover the evolving discussion also modifies the classic symbol-processing doctrine in the mind which Searle attacks as a strong AL argument, that life could be implemented in a computational mode. Lastly, this paper furnishes a new way of support for the autonomous systems thesis in Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence, using, inter alia, the "adaptive resonance theory" (ART). PMID:24109563

Spadaro, Salvatore

2013-10-01

44

Optimizing production with artificial lift systems  

SciTech Connect

There are four basic artificial lift systems in use today; gas-lift (GL), sucker rod pumping (SRP), electric subsurface centrifugal pumps (ESP), and subsurface hydraulic (SSHP). All of these systems are time proven and will satisfactorily perform the task for which they were designed. Once the factors that will influence the operation of a lift system have been defined, the design engineer must consider the advantages of the basic systems. The more common oil field problems which affect artificial lift are listed. The {ital relative} merits of each system with these problems are noted; however, the severity of any one of the adverse conditions may dictate the optimum system.

Patton, L.D. (Patton and Associates, Aurora, CO (US))

1989-07-01

45

Self-organisation and emergence in artificial life: concepts and illustrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an illustrated review of artificial life as a synthetic approach to the study of behaviours, systems and organisms. The article starts with a discussion about the methodological advantages of using bottom-up, instead of top–down, approaches for the computational synthesis of natural behaviours. As an outcome of bottom-up modelling, the resulting behaviours synthesised are characterised by two fundamental

Yupanqui Julho Munoz; Leandro Nunes De Castro

2009-01-01

46

Applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 30 papers. Some of the titles are: operating systems for CD/ROM; the impact of optical storage technology on education; the future of expert systems in the financial services industry; the future of compact disk/DC-1 explosive ordinance disposal rendered safe information system; and will artificial intelligence improve computer based training (CBT) development process.

Not Available

1987-01-01

47

Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an artificial immune system (AIS)that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse andadaptive. It captures many features of the vertebrateimmune system and places them in thecontext of the problem of protecting a networkof computers from illegal intrusions.1 INTRODUCTIONThe immune system is highly complicated and appears tobe precisely tuned to the problem of detecting and eliminatinginfections. We believe that it also

1999-01-01

48

Architecture for an Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security, in the form of a

Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie Forrest

2000-01-01

49

Learning using an artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based upon models of the natural immune system. This natural system is an example of an evolutionary learning mechanism which possesses a content addressable memory and the ability to «forget» little-used information. It is also an example of an adaptive non-linear network in which control is decentralized and

John E. Hunt; Denise E. Cooke

1996-01-01

50

Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial immune systems (AISs) to date have generally been inspired by naive biological metaphors. This has limited the effectiveness of these systems. In this position paper two ways in which AISs could be made more biologically realistic are discussed. We propose that AISs should draw their inspiration from organisms which possess only innate immune systems, and that AISs should employ

Jamie Twycross; Uwe Aickelin

2007-01-01

51

Artificial immune systems: application to autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the immune system is to protect the living body against invaders through the use of defensive mechanisms. Some previous researchers have used artificial immune systems (AIS) to solve diverse engineering problems. The purpose of the paper is to apply the AIS technique to a distributed autonomous robotics system (DARS) problem. One of the classic problems in DARS

Hossam Meshref; Hugh VanLandingham

2000-01-01

52

Darwinian Approach to Artificial Neural Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self-organization in artificial neural systems and simulated genetic methods for determining functional parameters of such systems have been combined. This leads to a model of the genome as a self-organizing system on a supra-organism level, and to sugges...

W. B. Dress J. R. Knisley

1987-01-01

53

Comparative relative strength in artificial immune systems: system wellness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on an aspect of artificial immune systems not yet addressed by research, and demonstrates that as immune system metaphors grow and evolve in complexity, overall network health can play a role in the vulnerability and strength of the network. Recent works have suggested the analogous role of the immune system to computer security systems. As artificial immune

Nathaniel J. Melby

2005-01-01

54

An artificial immune system for data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simplified view of those parts of the human immune system which can be used to provide the basis for a data analysis tool. The motivation for and reasoning behind such a model is given and the desire for a ‘transparent’ model and meaningful visualization and interpretation techniques is noted. A minimalist formulation of an artificial immune system

Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; John Hunt

2000-01-01

55

How Do We Evaluate Artificial Immune Systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) concerns the study and development of computationally interesting abstractions of the immune system. This survey tracks the development of AIS since its inception, and then attempts to make an assessment of its usefulness, defined in terms of 'distinctiveness' and 'effectiveness.' In this paper, the standard types of AIS are examined—Negative Selection, Clonal Selection

Simon M. Garrett

2005-01-01

56

Artificial Muscles: Actuators for Biorobotic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biorobotic research seeks to develop new robotic technologies modeled after the performance of human and animal neuromuscular systems. The development of one component of a biorobotic system, an artificial muscle and tendon, is reported here. The device is based on known static and dynamic properties of biological muscle and tendon that were extracted from the literature and used to mathematically

Glenn K. Klute; Joseph M. Czerniecki; Blake Hannaford

2002-01-01

57

An Associative Memory Artificial Neural Network System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural network system using Hopfield and Kosko associative memory algorithms. Both of algorithms are used for recognising patterns from partial\\/noisy input o r from other associated patterns. The recognition ra te of the system has been effectively improved by adjusting the network's parameters and by modifying the associative memory function for converging to a global

Manling Ren; Daizhong Su; David Al-Dabass

58

Compensatory Controller Based on Artificial Immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanisms of biological immune system (BIS) and presents a application approach of artificial immune system (AIS) based on the mechanisms of biological immune system in control system. In organism adaptive immune system, Th-cells activate B-cells to produce antibodies , but Ts-cells suppress B-Cells to produce antibodies. According to the amount of inbreaking antigens, the biological immune

Wenqing Chen; Jianzhong Zhou; Hongbin Wei

2006-01-01

59

Towards a Science of Experimental Complexity: An Artificial-Life Approach to Modeling Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial-life techniques--specifically, agent-based models and evolutionary learning algorithms--provide a potentially powerful new approach to understanding some of the fundamental processes of combat. This paper takes a step toward this goal by introducing two simple artificial-life-like \\

Andy Ilachinski; Carl von Clausewitz

60

Flexible transcutaneous transformer for artificial heart system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible transcutaneous transformer utilizing amorphous magnetic fiber for an artificial heart system is reported. The transformer can transmit electrical energy of 20 W with an efficiency of over 90%; the primary current density does not greatly depend on the relative displacement of the coils. The temperature rise of the transformer was about 6°C in a phantom test

H. Matsuki; M. Shiiki; K. Murakami; K. Nadehara; T. Yamamoto

1990-01-01

61

Artificial Representation of Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and complexity of present-day power systems have increased to the point where the prediction of the behavior of the system by analytical methods is more and more difficult. The solution of commercial networks by Kirchhoff's Laws or by cut and try methods, even with the help of star-delta transformations, leads to such involved equations that the need for

H. H. Spencer; H. L. Hazen

1925-01-01

62

A Complex Artificial Immune System and Its Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper proposes a new complex artificial immune system based on biological immune system. The complex data representation and complex expressions of weights are introduced into the traditional artificial immune system, in which binary or real value data representation was used. The proposed complex artificial immune system imitates the immune response mechanism closely and incorporates the complex partial autocorrelation

Wei Wang; Shangce Gao; Fangjia Li; Zheng Tang

63

Reactively and Anticipatory Behaving Agents for Artificial Life Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive behavior is still considered and the exact opposite for the anticipatory one. Despite the advances on the field of anticipation there are little thoughts on relation with the reactive behavior, the similarities and where the boundary is. In this article we will present our viewpoint and we will try to show that reactive and anticipatory behavior can be combined. This is the basic ground of our unified theory for anticipatory behavior architecture. We still miss such compact theory, which would integrate multiple aspects of anticipation. My multi-level anticipatory behavior approach is based on the current understanding of anticipation from both the artificial intelligence and biology point of view. As part of the explanation we will also elaborate on the topic of weak and strong artificial life. Anticipation is not matter of a single mechanism in a living organism. It was noted already that it happens on many different levels even in the very simple creatures. What we consider to be important for our work and what is our original though is that it happens even without voluntary control. We believe that this is novelty though for the anticipation theory. Naturally research of anticipation was in the beginning of this decade focused on the anticipatory principles bringing advances on the field itself. This allowed us to build on those, look at them from higher perspective, and use not one but multiple levels of anticipation in a creature design. This presents second original though and that is composition of the agent architecture that has anticipation built in almost every function. In this article we will focus only on first two levels within the 8-factor anticipation framework. We will introduce them as defined categories of anticipation and describe them from theory and implementation algorithm point of view. We will also present an experiment conducted, however this experiment serves more as explanatory example. These first two levels may seem trivial, but growing interest in implicit anticipation and reactive anticipation in last two years suggest that this is worthwhile topic. The simplicity of them is intentional to demonstrate our way of thinking and understanding of the topic. The comparison with other results is possible only when these levels are integrated into the complex architecture, as will be shown below that can also act as standalone.

Kohout, Karel; Nahodil, Pavel

2010-11-01

64

Agent Wars with Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we discuss the use of concepts from Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) in computer games. The computer player in\\u000a such games is typically called the AI but the AI is rarely truly intelligent which detracts from human enjoyment of such games.\\u000a We illustrate making the AI truly intelligent in the context of simplified games by having two AIs

Gayle Leen; Colin Fyfe

2004-01-01

65

Artificial Cochlea Design Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in the design of an artificial cochlea is investigated in depth. Interdigitated finger (comb), cantilever, bridge, and mirror resonators are presented as possible devices used to implement the artificial ...

G. C. Dalton

1996-01-01

66

Artificial Neural Networks Applied to Power Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a relatively new branch of artificial intelligence. Based on models of the human brain, these networks offer features that are copied from the brain, such as pattern-recognition-based operation, content addressability...

A. G. Jongepier

1996-01-01

67

Ten Errors Regarding End of Life Issues, and Especially Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events, including the conflict over Terri Schiavo, and the death of Pope John Paul II, have made necessary renewed attention to the Church’s teaching regarding end of life care and treatment, especially the artificial provision of nutrition and hydration to those unable to feed themselves. According to the Church’s general approach to end of life matters, it is not

Christopher Tollefsen

68

Artificial Aging as a Predictor of Paper's Future Useful Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment with the artificial aging of paper which--in contrast with the usual practice--was carried out at relatively low temperatures (i.e., 50-95 degrees Celsius), and not on laboratory handsheets, but on naturally aged paper from the commercial production of four centuries, produced results justifying the thesis that there may be at best…

Bansa, Helmut; Hofer, Hans-H.

1989-01-01

69

Anticipation and the artificial: aesthetics, ethics, and synthetic life  

Microsoft Academic Search

If complexity is a necessary but not sufficient premise for the existence and expression of the living, anticipation is the\\u000a distinguishing characteristic of what is alive. Anticipation is at work even at levels of existence where we cannot refer\\u000a to intelligence. The prospect of artificially generating aesthetic artifacts and ethical constructs of relevance to a world\\u000a in which the natural

Mihai Nadin

2010-01-01

70

Artificial immune systems as a novel soft computing paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial immune systems (AIS) can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. Their develop- ment and application domains follow those of soft computing paradigms such as artificial neural networks (ANN), evolutionary algorithms (EA) and fuzzy systems (FS). Despite some isolated efforts, the field of AIS still lacks

Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis

2003-01-01

71

A resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis. The work presented here builds upon previous work on artificial immune systems for data analysis. A population control mechanism, inspired by the natural immune system, has been introduced to control population growth and allow termination of the learning algorithm. The new algorithm is presented, along with the immunological

Jon Timmis; Mark Neal

2001-01-01

72

Development of an Artificial Intelligent Diagnosis System for Transformer Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces artificial intelligence system method and describes the developing and application in transformer fault diagnosis. An artificial intelligent system (TFDAI) design includes selection of input, network topology, synaptic connection weights, two-passageway, and output. This paper introduces the new intelligence technology in the transformer fault diagnosis -TFDAI System. TFDAI based data processing and diagnostic techniques are described in detail.

Yang Qiping; Xue Wude; Lan Zhida

2005-01-01

73

Artificial Life as an Aid to Astrobiology: Testing Life Seeking Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for signatures of fossil or present life in our so- lar system requires autonomous devices capable of investigating remote locations with limited assistance from earth. Here, we use an artiflcial chemistry model to create spatially complex chemical environments. An autonomous experimentation technique based on evolutionary compu- tation is then employed to explore these environments with the aim of discovering

Florian Centler; Peter Dittrich; Lawrence Ku; Naoki Matsumaru; Jeffrey O. Pfaffmann; Klaus-peter Zauner

2003-01-01

74

Artificial intelligence-methods in decision and control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence methods were applied to the design and implementation of some decision and control systems. A so-called semantic approach to control and decisions was developed and artificial intelligence methods were used to provide a realizable implementation. These concepts were tested using applications from robust identification and control of time-varying systems, intelligent navigation, and intelligent simulation of differential games. An

Lirov

1987-01-01

75

Proceedings of intelligent engineering systems through artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the edited versions of the technical presentation of ANNIE '91, the first international meeting on Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering. The conference covered the theory of Artificial Neural Networks and its contributions in the engineering domain and attracted researchers from twelve countries. The papers in this edited book are grouped into four categories: Artificial Neural Network Architectures; Pattern Recognition; Adaptive Control, Diagnosis and Process Monitoring; and Neuro-Engineering Systems.

Dagli, C.H. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Engineering Management); Kumara, S.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Management Systems Engineering); Shin, Y.C. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-01-01

76

Artifact and Artifice : Building Artificial Life for Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toys and play-things are often engineered to replicate the character of real organisms. In the past, inventors often lavished great expense on their life-like automata, their constraints typically related to the mechanical technology they employed and the amount of time and effort they were able to commit to the enterprise. The devices which are currently produced are usually intended for

Alan Dorin

77

A study of creep-fatigue life prediction using an artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, using AISI 316 stainless steel, creep-fatigue tests were carried out under various test conditions (different\\u000a total strain ranges and hold times) to verify the applicability of the artificial neural network method to creep-fatigue life\\u000a prediction. Life prediction was also made by the modified Coffin-Manson method and the modified Ostegren method using 21 data\\u000a points out of a

Young Il Kwon; Byeong Soo Lim

2001-01-01

78

Outlines of Artificial Life: A Brief History of Evolutionary Individual Based Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the research field of Artificial Life, the concepts of emergence and adaptation form the basis of a class of models which describes reproducing individuals whose characteristics evolve over time. These models allow to in- vestigate the laws of evolution, to observe emergent phenomena at individual and population level, and additionally yield new design techniques for com- puter animation and

Stefan Bornhofen; Claude Lattaud

2005-01-01

79

Using Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence For Real Estate Forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of expert systems and artificial intelligence, (in particular the application of neural networks) to real estate forecasting. While there is a great deal of literature about the use of artificial intelligence for mass appraisal, there is relatively little work on how it can be applied in real estate forecasting. This paper examines the current uses

Peter Rossini

2000-01-01

80

Artificial Lighting Interference on Free Space Photoelectric Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial lighting is a main source of interference on free space photoelectric systems for communication applications. This work presents digital measurements and numerical analysis of the time and frequency characteristics of artificial lighting interference using Welch Power Spectral Density estimate and spectrogram with Short Time Fourier Transform. Measurements of time waveforms and spectra of incandescent lamps, tubular and compact fluorescent

Maximilian Hauske; Dayong Shi; Marc Ihle; Friedrich K. Jondral

81

A learning automata based artificial immune system for data classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an artificial immune system in which learning automata are used to adaptively determine the values of its parameters. Learning automata are used for altering the shape of receptor portion of antibodies to better complementarily match the confronted antigen. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed artificial immune computer experiments have been conducted. The

A. H. M. Azandaryani; M. R. Meybodi

2009-01-01

82

Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad

Robert Schmitt; Ulrich Marx; Heike Walles; Lena Schober

2011-01-01

83

Use of artificial living system for pavement distress survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of pavement surface distress survey is of considerable interest since it facilitates road maintenance. Pavement distress detection algorithm is proposed, which includes preprocessing and artificial life algorithm. In nature, bee population consists of different species of bees. Different species of bees cooperate with others and build combs. The process of building combs is based on a bottom-up structure instead

H. G. Zhang; Q. Wang

2004-01-01

84

Communication Systems through Artificial Earth Satellites (Selected Pages).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Principles of the Construction of Communication Systems Through Artificial Earth Satellites; Motion of Satellites and Duration of Periods of Communication; Signal Level at the Input of Receiver; Noise Level at the Input of a Receiver; Calculatio...

N. I. Kalashnikov

1987-01-01

85

Development of an Electrically-Activated Artificial Muscle System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrically-activated artificial muscle system is described which uses weakly acidic contractile polymers sensitive to pH changes. pH changes are produced through electrodialysis of a solution compartment containing the muscle membrane. Mathematical e...

A. Fragala A. LaConti J. Boyack J. Enos

1970-01-01

86

The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

By classifying information processing tasks which are suitable for artificial intelligence approaches we determine an architectural structure for large systems. We visualize a three-layer architecture of private applications, mediating information servers, and an infrastructure which provides information resources.

Gio Wiederhold

1992-01-01

87

Artificial-intelligence methods in decision and control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial-intelligence methods were applied to the design and implementation of some decision and control systems. A so-called semantic approach to control and decisions was developed and artificial-intelligence methods were used to provide a realizable implementation. These concepts were tested using applications from robust identification and control of time-varying systems, intelligent navigation, and intelligent simulation of differential games. An aspect of

Lirov

1987-01-01

88

An artificial eye for evaluating videobased eye recording systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Videobased corneal-reflection-to-pupil-center systems are widely used in eye movement research. In this paper, an artificial\\u000a eye drawn on a computer screen is presented. The artificial eye provides a way to simulate measurements of eye position in\\u000a human subjects. The method allows testing videobased systems on the level of the signal and on the level of the calibration\\u000a algorithm used to

Daniel Cavegn; Johan Van Rensbergen; Géry d’Ydewalle

1993-01-01

89

Adaptive battle agents: emergence in artificial life combat models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore emergent behavior in an agent-based model of a complex system. The particular complex system we consider is a battlefield simulation. These agents are modeled in the RePast agent-based modeling environment. We will explore how agents of various capabilities and differing task sets affect the outcome of a battle. The capabilities of these agents include, but are not limited to, the ability to maneuver on the battlefield, receive and understand messages, formulate and send messages and attack enemy agents.

Baker, Thomas J. A.; Botting, Matthew; Berryman, Matthew J.; Ryan, Alex; Grisogono, Anne-Marie; Abbott, Derek

2005-02-01

90

DAISY: An Object-Oriented System for Distributed Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an object-oriented distributed system, called DAISY, for the development and experimentation of Distributed Artificial Intelligence systems and algorithms. This system is based on two programming levels: object level and agent level. Both the levels allow to define, implement and experiment systems. While the object level offers a large set of low level programming means (a large set

Agostino Poggi

1994-01-01

91

The Research on Artificial Olfaction System-Electronic Nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has presented an artificial olfactory system, based on the structure and mechanism of biological olfactory system. The main goal of our study was to expound the principle of olfaction system of human body. It has complex structure model and of which structure and mechanism still under exploration. We built the model of sensory system mechanism, depicted the olfactory

C W Li; G D Wang

2006-01-01

92

Development of a miniaturised hydraulic actuation system for artificial hands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will present a powerful miniaturised hydraulic system of compact design that is used for the actuation of artificial hands. This system was developed as an alternative to today's commonly used electromechanical prosthetic actuation systems. System components and hand prototypes reflect many years of experience of our laboratory in rehabilitation medicine, CAD design and prototyping, mechanical engineering, electronic construction,

A. Kargov; T. Werner; C. Pylatiuk; S. Schulz

2008-01-01

93

Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

94

Generating compact classifier systems using a simple artificial immune system.  

PubMed

Current artificial immune system (AIS) classifiers have two major problems: 1) their populations of B-cells can grow to huge proportions, and 2) optimizing one B-cell (part of the classifier) at a time does not necessarily guarantee that the B-cell pool (the whole classifier) will be optimized. In this paper, the design of a new AIS algorithm and classifier system called simple AIS is described. It is different from traditional AIS classifiers in that it takes only one B-cell, instead of a B-cell pool, to represent the classifier. This approach ensures global optimization of the whole system, and in addition, no population control mechanism is needed. The classifier was tested on seven benchmark data sets using different classification techniques and was found to be very competitive when compared to other classifiers. PMID:17926714

Leung, Kevin; Cheong, France; Cheong, Christopher

2007-10-01

95

Cognition and (Artificial) Cognitive Systems - explanatory & exploratory notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly sketch some of the many concepts and issues involved in cogni- tion and cognitive systems research and engineering, and describe in very broad terms, some of many potential application areas. We emphasise the need for exploring new architectures for artificial cognitive systems as well as new approaches to modelling and building such systems, also informed by insights into

Hans-Georg Stork

96

An Architecture for Real-Time Distributed Artificial Intelligent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new architecture for a real-time distributed artificial intelligence system: DENIS—a Dynamic Embedded Noticeboard Information System. The fundamental idea underlying the architecture draws heavily upon a distributed human system analogy, as seen, for example, in the workplace. The aim of DENIS is to provide a simple, meaningful means by which autonomous intelligent agents can cooperate and coordinate

J. Holt; M. G. Rodd

1994-01-01

97

Model-Based Testing and Validation on Artificial Intelligence Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss how viewing an artificial intelligence (AI) system as a model leads to certain criteria for testing methodologies. This includes a discussion of how certain mathematical techniques for testing AI systems can be used as criteria for determining the AI System's adequacy when no other models are available. We give an example of an error due

Gang Liu; Qun Liu; Wentao Zhang

2007-01-01

98

AICAMS: artificial intelligence crime analysis and management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert systems and artificial intelligence technologies have a significant role to play in the development of tools to support police operations. Systems have been successfully demonstrated in the areas of breaking and entering, criminal profiling, tracking serial criminals and others. In this paper, we describe the development of a system that will support police investigations in several crime areas. The

John W. Brahan; Kai P. Lam; Hilton Chan; William Leung

1998-01-01

99

Recognising Promoter Sequences Using An Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based on the human immune system. The AIS possesses an adaptive learning mechanism which enables antibodies to emerge which can be used for classification tasks. In this paper, we describe how the AIS has been used to evolve antibodies which can classify promoter containing and promoter negative DNA sequences. The

Denise E. Cooke; John E. Hunt

1995-01-01

100

Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

2003-01-01

101

Computational verb systems: a new paradigm for artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational verb systems can help machines to implement, understand and use verbs as human perception of dynamics. By using computational verbs we can embed dynamical experiences of human experts into artificial intelligence. Computational verbs, which are models of verbs in nature languages, are basic building blocks of computational verb systems. In this paper, computational verbs are used to represent dynamical

Tao Yang II

2000-01-01

102

Sky distribution of artificial sources in the galactic belt of advanced cosmic life.  

PubMed

In line with the concept of the galactic belt of advanced life, we evaluate the sky distribution of detectable artificial sources, using a simple astrophysical model. The best region to search is the median band of the Milky Way in the Vulpecula-Cygnus region, together with a narrower one in Carina. Although this work was done in view of a proposal to send a SETI probe at a gravitational focus of the Sun, we recommend these sky regions particularly for the searches of the sky survey type. PMID:11540597

Heidmann, J

1994-12-01

103

libtissue - a Software System for Incorporating Innate Immunity into Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper the authors argue the case for incorporating concepts from innate immunity into Artificial Immune Systems and present an outline for a conceptual frame- work for such systems. A number of key general properties observed in the biological innate and adaptive immune systems were highlighted, and how such properties might be instantiated in artificial systems was discussed

Jamie Twycross; Uwe Aickelin

104

Transcutaneous Energy and Information Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Totally-Implantable Artificial Heart(TAH) system, Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System(TOITS) and Externally Coupled Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System(ECTETS) are effective for driving, controlling and monitoring the TAH. Using these systems, a patient needs to wear an optical coupler and a transcutaneous transformer separately, and then the patient's QOL (Quality of Life) will be deteriorated. In this paper, for improving the QOL, the energy and information transmission using an unified transcutaneous transformer was investigated, and their information transmission characteristics were evaluated.

Tamura, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

105

Transcutaneous Energy and Information Transmission System for a Totally-Implantable Artificial Heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Totally-Implantable Artificial Heart (TAH) system, Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System (TOITS) and Externally Coupled Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System (ECTETS) are effective for driving, controlling and monitoring the TAH. Using these systems, a patient needs to wear an optical coupler and a transcutaneous transformer separately, and then the patient's QOL (Quality of Life) will be deteriorated. Therefore, we research the energy and information transmission by wearing an unified transcutaneous transformer. In this paper, the unified transcutaneous transformer for the energy and information transmission was investigated. As a result, the unified transformer, by which the coupling between the energy and information transmission was reduced, was developed.

Tamura, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

106

Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Theoretical Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main finding of complex systems research is that there can be a disconnect between the local behavior of the interacting elements of a complex system and regularities that are observed in the global behavior of that system, making it virtually impossible to derive the global behavior from the local rules. It is arguable that intelligent systems must involve some

Richard LOOSEMORE

107

Modular Artificial ?-Cell System: A Prototype for Clinical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The quest toward an artificial ?-cell has been accelerating, propelled by recent technological advances in subcutaneous glucose sensors and insulin pumps. The development and clinical testing of algorithms involves several challenges: communication and data transfer between a sensor and a pump via computer, a human interface presenting real-time information to the physician, safety issues when an automated system is

Eyal Dassau; Howard Zisser; Cesar C. Palerm; Bruce A. Buckingham; Francis J. Doyle III

2008-01-01

108

Vaccine-Enhanced Artificial Immune System for Multimodal Function Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper emulates a biological notion in vaccines to promote exploration in the search space for solving multimodal function optimization problems using artificial immune systems (AISs). In this method, we first divide the decision space into equal subspaces. The vaccine is then randomly extracted from each subspace. A few of these vaccines, in the form of weakened antigens, are then

Kumlachew M. Woldemariam; Gary G. Yen

2010-01-01

109

The chemistry of materials for artificial Darwinian systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The best materials for artificial systems able to evolve under natural selection are unlikely to be the same as for natural organisms. This is so particularly for genetic materials, where the overriding need for high fidelity of replication points to crystal growth processes as providing the key part of the mechanism rather than organic polymerizations. The genetic information would then

A. G. Cairns-smith

1988-01-01

110

Nonlinear system identification and model reduction using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for nonlinear system identification and model reduction using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The ANN is used to model plant input–output data, with the states of the model being represented by the outputs of an intermediate hidden layer of the ANN. Model reduction is achieved by applying a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based technique to the weight matrices

Vinay Prasad; B. Wayne Bequette

2003-01-01

111

Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

1996-01-01

112

Novel mechanism of artificial finger using double planetary gear system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new mechanism for artificial fingers. It enables adduction\\/abduction of the MP joint in addition to the synergetic flexion\\/extension of the DIP, PIP and MP joints. The key mechanism is the newly invented double planetary gear system (DPGS) that allows three DOF motions of the finger in a compact placement of all actuators in a palm. The

Koichi Koganezawa; Yasutaka Ishizuka

2008-01-01

113

Artificial Immune System for Solving Constrained Optimization Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an artificial immune system (AIS) based on the CLONALG algorithm for solving constrained (numerical) optimization problems. We develop a new mutation operator which produces large and small step sizes and which aims to provide better exploration capabilities. We validate our proposed approach with 13 test functions taken from the specialized literature and we compare our

Susana C. Esquivel; Carlos Artemio Coello Coello; Victoria S. Aragón

2007-01-01

114

Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light

Jonathan G. Bornstein; Peter S. Friedman

1985-01-01

115

Artificial intelligence for explosive ordnance disposal system (AI-EOD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial intelligence explosive ordnance disposal system (AI-EOD), developed in support of the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center, is a neural network AI-based multiple-incident identification, recording, and tracking system featuring state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management. It is concluded that the AI-EOD has proven itself by meeting the goals established for it. The system separates the reasoning

B. Williams; J. Holland

1992-01-01

116

A Virtual and Real HCI System Based on Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researches and implements a virtual and real moving objects interaction system in augmented reality (AR) environment based on artificial immune system. A custom artificial immune algorithm is applied in this paper in order to solve the collision detection problems with virtual and real objects. System mainly realized a fast collision detection algorithm to detect the process of actual

Ming Chen; Yimin Chen; Zhengwei Yao

2008-01-01

117

An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self-organising in nature, maintains a memory of past encounters and has the ability to continually learn about new encounters. From a computational point of view, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration to computer scientists and engineers alike. As computational problems become more complex, increasingly, people are seeking

J. Timmis; T. Knight; L. N. de Castro; E. Hart

118

Artificial Baroreflex: Clinical Application of a Bionic Baroreflex System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We proposed a novel therapeutic strategy against central baroreflex failure: implementation of an artificial baroreflex system to automatically regulate sympathetic vasomotor tone, ie, a bionic baroreflex system (BBS), and we tested its efficacy in a model of sudden hypotension during surgery. Methods and Results—The BBS consisted of a computer-controlled negative-feedback circuit that sensed arterial pressure (AP) and automatically computed the

F. Yamasaki; Can Zheng; Atsunori Kamiya; Hiroshi Takaki; Masaru Sugimachi; Kenji Yusuke Yanagiya; Takayuki Sato; Toru Kawada; Masashi Inagaki; Teiji Tatewaki; K. Yamamoto; K. Sunagawa; T. Ushida; T. Yokoyama; M. Ando; K. Yamashita

2006-01-01

119

Multiobjective Optimization by a Modified Artificial Immune System Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

http:\\/\\/www.polito.it\\/cadema Abstract. The aim of this work is to propose and validate a new multi- objective optimization algorithm based on the emulation of the immune system behavior. The rationale of this work is that the artificial im- mune system has, in its elementary structure, the main features required by other multiobjective evolutionary algorithms described in literature. The proposed approach is

Fabio Freschi; Maurizio Repetto

2005-01-01

120

Artificial Neural Networks for microscopic evacuation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to safely evacuate a large number of people from public facilities is a challenging problem. Therefore, the analysis of evacuation process has attracted an increasing interest over the last decades. Models for evacuating people can be divided into two main subcategories: macroscopic and microscopic models. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an intelligent system

Zouhour Neji Ben Selem; Sihem Jelassi; Hend Bouziri

2011-01-01

121

An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications  

SciTech Connect

An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.

1996-04-01

122

Artificial Neural Networks in Decision Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concepts of neural networks and presents an overview of the applications of neural networks in decision\\u000a support systems (DSS). Neural networks can be viewed as supporting at least two types of DSS: data driven and model-driven.\\u000a First, neural networks can be employed as data analysis tools for forecasting and prediction based on historical data in a

Dursun Delen; Ramesh Sharda

123

Application of Artificial Intelligence Technique in Distributed Generation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief description of current situation of distributed generation system, and points out that microgrid\\u000a can run in two kinds of operation modes. The key problems which need to be cautiously considered exist in each operation mode\\u000a are summarized, and advanced artificial intelligence techniques are adopted to solve those problems as effective tools. The\\u000a application situation and

Guoqing Weng; Youbing Zhang; Yi Hu

2009-01-01

124

An artificial compound eyes imaging system based on MEMS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an artificial compound eyes imaging system with planar structure based on MEMS fabrication technology. Firstly, we used the photo-resist reflow method to fabricate a 9??9 microlens array on a planar glass substrate, as the lenses of the compound eyes. Its transverse size is 0.9 ?? 0.9 cm2 and thickness is about 0.7 mm. Then we built an

Si Di; Hui Lin; Ruxu Du

2009-01-01

125

Artificial rehydration in the last days of life: is it beneficial?  

PubMed

Dehydration is a common concern in palliative care, and can be an emotive issue for patients and their families (Patchett, 1998). Family members instinctively wish to continue caring for a dying relative, and no more so than by giving nourishment. When the time comes that food cannot be tolerated, giving fluid can seem to be the last way of providing the patient with comfort and nurture. Dehydration may be perceived as the reason for death, rather than a natural part of the dying process. Is it therefore reasonable to give patients fluid by an alternative method? Hypodermoclysis (HDC), or subcutaneous hydration, is sometimes used to administer fluids in the last days of life in a palliative care setting. This article aims to consider the benefits and problems associated with artificial rehydration in these circumstances. PMID:18026063

Bavin, Lyn

2007-09-01

126

Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.  

PubMed

A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6?°C for ??14?days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. PMID:23692154

Aak, A; Rukke, B A

2013-05-22

127

Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

2011-02-01

128

Artificial Neural Network Based Designing System for Induction Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial neural network (ANN) based designing method has been proposed for induction motors. Based on the real design data for various types of induction motors with different rating, three-layered cascaded artificial neural networks have been specified and trained to estimate the fundamental quantities and parameters, and also to give proper sizes of the target induction motor. Totally, thirty-four cage rotor type induction motors, which were designed by different engineers, have been selected for the training data. These induction motors have different ratings, different capacities, and different usage, i. e., driving units for pumps, compressors, and fans. The type of cooling method is totally enclosed the fan cooled type for all the selected induction motors. Through the numerical simulations based on the actual design data for different types of induction motors, the efficiency of the proposed designing system has been demonstrated.

Ikeda, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takaaki; Hiyama, Takashi

129

Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering Application of artificial neural network for predicting fatigue crack propagation life of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In this work, fatigue crack propagation life of 7020 T7 and 2024 T3 aluminum alloys under the influence of load ratio was predicted by using artificial neural network (ANN). Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Numerous phenomenological models have been proposed for predicting fatigue life of the components under the influence of load ratio to take into account the mean load effect. Findings: In

J. R. Mohanty; B. B. Verma; D. R. K. Parhi; P. K. Ray

130

Optimal design and fatigue life prediction for QFN solder joints by BP Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the theories of Back-Propagation (BP) Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA), combining with multiple statistical analysis method, fatigue life prediction and technological parameter optimization of QFN solder joints were studied in this paper. Firstly, correlation coefficient matrix of the swatch was gained by factor analysis; taking length and width of the pad, stand-off and the solder

Wu Zhaohua

2010-01-01

131

Small crack property of austenitic stainless steel with artificial corrosion pit in long life regime of fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the fatigue strength in a long life regime of austenitic stainless steel with respect to the stress concentration, rotating bending fatigue tests were performed with pitted specimens (pit specimens). The Type 316NG and Type 304TP steel specimens had some artificial corrosion pits in its center. Further, in order to investigate the existence of a non-propagating crack

Kiyotaka Masaki; Yasuo Ochi; Takashi Matsumura

2006-01-01

132

An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms.

Schultz, D.E.; Hurd, J.W.; Brown, S.K.

1987-01-01

133

Natural and artificial systems for rechrage and infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhabitants of Berlin, just about 3.4 million, are supplied with drinking water by its own groundwater resources exclusively. In order to conserve the natural available groundwater, it is enriched intensively by bank filtration from surface waters and artificial recharge. Hence, the volume of the groundwater storage, its quality and the proportion of artificially recharged or bank filtered water are of significant importance for a sustainable water management in Berlin. This was an obvious reason to initiate a larger cooperation project on the topic "bank filtration" named NASRI (Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). The interdisciplinary project will concentrate on microorganisms and trace organic substances of surface waters. It will focus, for example on questions of the emergence and removal of pharmaceutical residues during bank filtration. The fate and the destination of other specific trace substances as well as of bacteria and viruses are other objectives of the research programme. Several different field sites, semi-technical facilities and laboratory experiments are used for a comprehensive understanding of the different mechanisms.

Fritz, B.; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S.; Pekdeger, A.

2003-04-01

134

Life in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

135

An artificial compound eye system for large field imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of science and technology, optical imaging system has been widely used, and the performance requirements are getting higher and higher such as lighter weight, smaller size, larger field of view and more sensitive to the moving targets. With the advantages of large field of view, high agility and multi-channels, compound eye is more and more concerned by academia and industry. In this work, an artificial spherical compound eye imaging system is proposed, which is formed by several mini cameras to get a large field of view. By analyzing the relationship of the view field between every single camera and the whole system, the geometric arrangement of cameras is studied and the compound eye structure is designed. By using the precision machining technology, the system can be manufactured. To verify the performance of this system, experiments were carried out, where the compound eye was formed by seven mini cameras which were placed centripetally along a spherical surface so that each camera points in a different direction. Pictures taken by these cameras were mosaiced into a complete image with large field of view. The results of the experiments prove the validity of the design method and the fabrication technology. By increasing the number of the cameras, larger view field even panoramic imaging can be realized by using this artificial compound eye.

Liu, Yan; Shi, Lifang; Shi, Ruiying; Dong, Xiaochun; Deng, Qiling; Du, Chunlei

2012-11-01

136

Development of an artificial placenta IV: 24 hour venovenous extracorporeal life support in premature lambs.  

PubMed

An extracorporeal artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that a venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta would maintain fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, and adequate gas exchange for 24 hours. A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term = 145 days) was used (n = 9). The right jugular vein was cannulated for VV-ECLS outflow, and an umbilical vein was used for inflow. The circuit included a peristaltic roller pump and a 0.5 m(2) hollow fiber oxygenator. Lambs were maintained on VV-ECLS in an "amniotic bath" for up to 24 hours. Five of nine fetuses survived for 24 hours. In the survivors, average mean arterial pressure was 69 ± 10 mm Hg for the first 4 hours and 36 ± 8 mm Hg for the remaining 20 hours. The mean fetal heart rate was 202 ± 30. Mean VV-ECLS flow was 94 ± 20 ml/kg/min. Using a gas mixture of 50% O(2)/3% CO(2) and sweep flow of 1-2 L/min, the mean pH was 7.27 ± 0.09, with Po(2) of 35 ± 12 mm Hg and Pco(2) of 48 ± 12 mm Hg. Necropsy revealed a patent ductus arteriosus in all cases, and there was no gross or microscopic intracranial hemorrhage. Complications in failed attempts included technically difficult cannulation and multisystem organ failure. Future studies will enhance stability and address the factors necessary for long-term support. PMID:22370685

Gray, Brian W; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Kim, Anne C; Gadepali, Samir; Koch, Kely L; Capizzani, Tony R; Bartlet, Robert H; Mychaliska, George B

137

Artificial hydration and alimentation at the end of life: a reply to Craig.  

PubMed Central

Dr Gillian Craig (1) has argued that palliative medicine services have tended to adopt a policy of sedation without hydration, which under certain circumstances may be medically inappropriate, causative of death and distressing to family and friends. We welcome this opportunity to defend, with an important modification, the approach we proposed without substantive background argument in our original article (2). We maintain that slowing and eventual cessation of oral intake is a normal part of a natural dying process, that artificial hydration and alimentation (AHA) are not justified unless thirst or hunger are present and cannot be relieved by other means, but food and fluids for (natural) oral consumption should never be 'withdrawn'. The intention of this practice is not to alter the timing of an inevitable death, and sedation is not used, as has been alleged, to mask the effects of dehydration or starvation. The artificial provision of hydration and alimentation is now widely accepted as medical treatment. We believe that arguments that it is not have led to confusion as to whether or not non-provision or withdrawal of AHA constitutes a cause of death in law. Arguments that it is such a cause appear to be tenuously based on an extraordinary/ordinary categorisation of treatments by Kelly (3) which has subsequently been interpreted as prescriptive in a way quite inconsistent with the Catholic moral theological tradition from which the distinction is derived. The focus of ethical discourse on decisions at the end of life should be shifted to an analysis of care, needs, proportionality of medical interventions, and processes of communication.

Ashby, M; Stoffell, B

1995-01-01

138

Considerations of design for life support systems.  

PubMed

During the design phase for construction of artificial ecosystems, the following considerations are important. (1) Influences on living things in the ecosystem, such as lifestyles and physiological functions caused by stresses due to environmental changes. The long stay in the artificial ecosystem has a possibility to lead to evolutional change in the living things. (2) The system operation method in trouble, which relates to maintainability. (3) The system metamorphosis according to new technologies. (4) Route minimization of material flow that leads to an optimum system layout. PMID:14503521

Ashida, Akira

2003-01-01

139

Modular Artificial ?-Cell System: A Prototype for Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Background The quest toward an artificial ?-cell has been accelerating, propelled by recent technological advances in subcutaneous glucose sensors and insulin pumps. The development and clinical testing of algorithms involves several challenges: communication and data transfer between a sensor and a pump via computer, a human interface presenting real-time information to the physician, safety issues when an automated system is used to administer insulin, and an architecture that supports different sensors, pumps, and control algorithms. These challenges were addressed in the development of a modular artificial ?-cell system for clinical research. Methods The developmental environment of MATLAB® (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA) allowed the flexible implementation of communication protocols for different sensors and pumps. The system has a plug-and-play option for the control algorithm and a human interface that presents and logs the data, enforces protocol safety rules, and facilitates physician oversight. Results A novel platform for use in clinical research trials was realized as a bridge toward a portable unit. This prototype encapsulates communication between the control algorithm, the pump, and the sensors. Its intuitive human interface presents all the relevant patient information to the physician and allows events to be electronically logged. It facilitates subject safety by way of integrated interlocks, checklists, and alarms. Conclusion The modular design of the system allows for the robust testing of various sensors and pumps as well as feedback control, meal detection, predictive hypoglycemia alarms, and device-related algorithms to detect sensor or pump failure.

Dassau, Eyal; Zisser, Howard; C. Palerm, Cesar; A. Buckingham, Bruce; Jovanovic, Lois; J. Doyle III, Francis

2008-01-01

140

Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids  

SciTech Connect

This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

2005-07-01

141

The implementation of artificial intelligence in control systems  

SciTech Connect

Some concepts of artificial intelligence are reviewed, particularly as they apply to control systems of accelerators. Logical representation and formal reasoning are discussed briefly, as well as production systems, which describe various systems based on the idea of condition-action pairs (productions). Procedural knowledge, which deals with routine activities that rarely require change, is described. Frames are defined, which provide a convenient structure for representing knowledge. Frames consist of information about objects. For a given frame there are various slots, and for each slot there are various facets, each containing various data. Direct analogical representation is defined as a class of representation which represents knowledge in a natural analog manner, allowing observation of facts in many cases to be achieved quickly and easily compared to deduction. Architecture of systems applied to accelerator control is then described. (LEW)

Koul, R.; Weygand, D.P.

1987-01-01

142

Mathematical Formulation of Public Electric Transport Scheduling Task for Artificial Immune Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes mathematical formulation and application of artificial immune system for scheduling tasks for public electric transport. Artificial immune system is inspired by human immune system to simulate the process of interaction between antigens and antibodies. The task of scheduling in transport system is represented as one of the most well-known flow shop problem. Artificial immune system as a genetic based method is used to solve such task. Mathematical model and algorithm is proposed to create optimal schedule for public electric transport for minimization of electric energy consumption and time. Numerical example shows several steps of algorithm for artificial immune system for scheduling task solution.

Gorobetz, Mikhail; Alps, Ivars; Levchenkov, Anatoly

2009-01-01

143

Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision re- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the prevailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artificial animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as autonomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems. To be opera- tive in

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

144

Optimization of mechanical structures using serial and parallel artificial immune systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shape optimization problem of structures can be solved using methods based on sensitivity analysis information or non gradient\\u000a methods based on genetic algorithms or on artificial immune systems. This paper is devoted to the method based on the serial\\u000a and parallel artificial immune system. Artificial immune systems are developed on the basis of mechanism discovered in biological\\u000a immune systems

Waclaw Kus; Tadeusz Burczynski

145

The Medical Applications of Attribute Weighted Artificial Immune System (AWAIS): Diagnosis of Heart and Diabetes Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In our previous work, we had been proposed a new artificial immune system named as Attribute Weighted Artificial Immune System\\u000a (AWAIS) to eliminate the negative effects of taking into account of all attributes in calculating Euclidean distance in shape-space\\u000a representation which is used in many network-based Artificial Immune Systems (AISs). This system depends on the weighting\\u000a attributes with respect to

Seral Sahan; Kemal Polat; Halife Kodaz; Salih Günes

2005-01-01

146

ANUBIS: artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system.  

PubMed

Gain tuning is a crucial part of controller design and depends not only on an accurate understanding of the system in question, but also on the designer's ability to predict what disturbances and other perturbations the system will encounter throughout its operation. This letter presents ANUBIS (artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system), a novel biologically inspired technique for automatically tuning controller parameters in real time. ANUBIS is based on the Bayesian brain concept and modifies it by incorporating a model of the neuromodulatory system comprising four artificial neuromodulators. It has been applied to the controller of EchinoBot, a prototype walking rover for Martian exploration. ANUBIS has been implemented at three levels of the controller; gait generation, foot trajectory planning using Bézier curves, and foot trajectory tracking using a terminal sliding mode controller. We compare the results to a similar system that has been tuned using a multilayer perceptron. The use of Bayesian inference means that the system retains mathematical interpretability, unlike other intelligent tuning techniques, which use neural networks, fuzzy logic, or evolutionary algorithms. The simulation results show that ANUBIS provides significant improvements in efficiency and adaptability of the three controller components; it allows the robot to react to obstacles and uncertainties faster than the system tuned with the MLP, while maintaining stability and accuracy. As well as advancing rover autonomy, ANUBIS could also be applied to other situations where operating conditions are likely to change or cannot be accurately modeled in advance, such as process control. In addition, it demonstrates one way in which neuromodulation could fit into the Bayesian brain framework. PMID:22970879

Smith, Benjamin J H; Saaj, Chakravarthini M; Allouis, Elie

2012-09-12

147

An Artificial Kidney System Suitable for Multiple Simultaneous Dialysis  

PubMed Central

The standard twin-coil Kolff artificial kidney has been redesigned to a single-pass system employing cold dialysis, bath-heated and recirculated within the coil. With considerably reduced bath requirements, a comparable dialysis is achieved in spite of a lower bath-to-blood urea gradient. Coil pressure is monitored by a simplified high-and-low pressure control system linked to a specially designed roller blood pump. The re-use of priming blood and disposable coils have proved economical and feasible. A considerable reduction in bacterial growth has been achieved. The Kolff system retains its capacity in the management of acute renal failure and has proved efficient in twice-weekly six-hour chronic hemodialyses. ImagesFig. 2

Ackman, C. F. D.; Handa, S. P.; Morrin, P. A. F.; Bruce, A. W.

1967-01-01

148

Development of an Electrohydraulic Total Artificial Heart System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) system has been developed. The EHTAH system consists of diaphragm-type blood pumps, an electrohydraulic actuator, an internal control unit, a transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS), a transcutaneous optical telemetry system (TOTS), and an internal battery. The reciprocating rotation of the impeller generates oil pressure which drives the blood pumps at alternating intervals. The blood pumps and the actuator were successfully integrated into the pump unit without oil conduits. As a result of miniaturizing the blood pumps and the actuator, the displacement volume and weight of the EHTAH system decreased to 872 ml and 2492g, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum flow rate and efficiency increased up to 12 L/min and 15.4%. The pump units and the EHTAH systems were successfully implanted in 36 calves weighing from 55 to 87kg. In the longest case, the ca1f with the pump unit survived for 87 days and the calf with the EHTAH system survived for 70 days. The EHTAH system was powered by the TETS, and was powered everyday by the internal battery for 40 minutes. These results indicate that the EHTAH system has the potential to become a fully implantable cardiac replacement system.

Homma, Akihiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Shioya, Kyoko; Lee, Hwan Sung; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Kakuta, Yukihide; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Nishinaka, Tomohiro; Koshiji, Kohji

149

Design of speaker recognition system based on artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speaker recognition is to recognize speaker's identity from its voice which contains physiological and behavioral characteristics unique to each individual. In this paper, the artificial neural network model, which has very good capacity of non-linear division in characteristic space, is used for pattern matching. The speaker's sample characteristic domain is built for his mixed voice characteristic signals based on Kmeanlbg algorithm. Then the dimension of the inputting eigenvector is reduced, and the redundant information is got rid of. On this basis, BP neural network is used to divide capacity area for characteristic space nonlinearly, and the BP neural network acts as a classifier for the speaker. Finally, a speaker recognition system based on the neural network is realized and the experiment results validate the recognition performance and robustness of the system.

Chen, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Lin, Han; Li, Jinlong

2012-10-01

150

Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Abbod, Maysam; Amira, Abbes; Zaidi, Habib

2010-01-01

151

An artificial intelligence system for computer-assisted menu planning.  

PubMed

Planning nutritious and appetizing menus is a complex task that researchers have tried to computerize since the early 1960s. We have attempted to facilitate computer-assisted menu planning by modeling the reasoning an expert dietitian uses to plan menus. Two independent expert systems were built, each designed to plan a daily menu meeting the nutrition needs and personal preferences of an individual client. One system modeled rule-based, or logical, reasoning, whereas the other modeled case-based, or experiential, reasoning. The 2 systems were evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses identified. A hybrid system was built, combining the best of both systems. The hybrid system represents an important step forward because it plans daily menus in accordance with a person's needs and preferences; the Reference Daily Intakes; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and accepted aesthetic standards for color, texture, temperature, taste, and variety. Additional work to expand the system's scope and to enhance the user interface will be needed to make it a practical tool. Our system framework could be applied to special-purpose menu planning for patients in medical settings or adapted for institutional use. We conclude that an artificial intelligence approach has practical use for computer-assisted menu planning. PMID:9739801

Petot, G J; Marling, C; Sterling, L

1998-09-01

152

Model systems for life processes on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the evolution of life forms non-photosynthetic mechanisms have developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and

M. A. Mitz

1974-01-01

153

A Semantic Centric Fault Diagnostic Model Compiling Approach Based Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of artificial immune technology, people set more and more focus on the diagnosis problem in such complex distribution systems based on artificial immunity. However, the current research on the diagnosis problem about the large-scale systems often has not fully taken into account an important factor the semantics in the systems. This paper presents a novel ideal of

Wang Chu-Jiao; Xia Shi-Xiong; Xuan Hong-Peng

2009-01-01

154

Bioregenerative life-support systems.  

PubMed

Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem. PMID:7942592

Mitchell, C A

1994-11-01

155

Combining rule-based expert systems and artificial neural networks for mark-up estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rule-based expert systems and artificial neural networks are two major systems for developing intelligent decision support systems. The integration of the two systems can generate a new system which shares the strengths of both rule-based and artificial neural network systems. This research presents a computer based mark-up decision support system called InMES (integrated mark-up estimation system) that integrates a rule-based

Peter Love

1999-01-01

156

Variable selection for QSAR by artificial ant colony systems.  

PubMed

Derivation of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) usually involves computational models that relate a set of input variables describing the structural properties of the molecules for which the activity has been measured to the output variable representing activity. Many of the input variables may be correlated, and it is therefore often desirable to select an optimal subset of the input variables that results in the most predictive model. In this paper we describe an optimization technique for variable selection based on artificial ant colony systems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of real ants, which are able to find the shortest path between a food source and their nest using deposits of pheromone as a communication agent. The underlying basic self-organizing principle is exploited for the construction of parsimonious QSAR models based on neural networks for several classical QSAR data sets. PMID:12184383

Izrailev, S; Agrafiotis, D K

157

Artificial neural network for location estimation in wireless communication systems.  

PubMed

In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments. PMID:22736978

Chen, Chien-Sheng

2012-03-01

158

An outdoor artificial stream system designed for ecotoxicological studies  

SciTech Connect

Six outdoor artificial streams were designed to simulate natural stream environments. Their primary intended use is to define acceptable threshold toxicity concentrations for chemicals and effluents in the aquatic environment and so provide data that can be used to define water quality criteria more accurately than is possible on the basis of data obtained solely from laboratory tests. Each stream was divided into pool and riffle sections that were colonized by communities of periphyton and invertebrates. They were operated as partly flow-through, partly recirculating systems. The design and construction of the streams are described in detail, and brief descriptions are given of methods of establishing aquatic communities, measuring water quality parameters, and treating the streams with chemicals and effluents. The performance of the streams in environmental research is illustrated by reference to typical data for primary production, for invertebrate diversity and abundance, and for chemical concentrations measured during an experiment of two weeks duration.

Crossland, N.O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Bennett, D.; Maxted, J. (Shell Research Limited, Sittingbourne Research Centre, Kent (England))

1991-10-01

159

Development of Control System for Assisted Circulation Apparatus of Artificial Liver Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced control system used in assisted circulation apparatus of artificial liver support system was developed based on embedded platform and field bus. This system consisted of a cardiopulmonary bypass-controlling system, a blood circulation and reactors status-monitoring system, and a human-machine interface and communication system. Multiple functions are implemented such as on-line monitoring, controlling and driving of the assisted circulation

Yi Pan; Shuming Ye; Hang Chen; Kai Jiang; Yan Sun

2009-01-01

160

Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

1990-09-01

161

Impact detection using ultrasonic waves based on artificial immune system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a structural health monitoring system for judging structural condition of metallic plates by analyzing ultrasonic waves. Many critical accidents of structures like buildings and aircrafts are caused by small structural errors; cracks and loosened bolts etc. This is a reason why we need to detect little errors at an early stage. Moreover, to improve precision and to reduce cost for damage detection, it is necessary to build and update the database corresponding to environmental change. This study focuses our attention on the automatable structures, specifically, applying artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm to determine the structure safe or not. The AIS is a novelty computational detection algorithm inspired from biological defense system, which discriminates between self and non-self to reject nonself cells. Here, self is defined to be normal data patterns and non-self is abnormal data patterns. Furthermore, it is not only pattern recognition but also it has a storage function. In this study, a number of impact resistance experiments of duralumin plates, with normal structural condition and abnormal structural condition, are examined and ultrasonic waves are acquired by AE sensors on the surface of the aluminum plates. By accumulating several feature vectors of ultrasonic waves, a judging method, which can determine an abnormal wave as nonself, inspired from immune system is created. The results of the experiments show good performance of this method.

Okamoto, Keisuke; Mita, Akira

2009-03-01

162

Characterisation and modelling of artificial light interference in optical wireless communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless indoor infrared transmission systems are affected by noise and interference induced by natural and artificial ambient light. While the shot noise induced on the receiver photodiode by steady ambient light has been extensively described and included in system models, the interference produced by artificial light has only been mentioned as a source of degradation and quite simple descriptions have

Adriano J. C. Moreira; Rui T. Valadas; A. M. de Oliveira Duarte

1995-01-01

163

Artificial Neural Network Based Designing System for Induction Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) based designing method has been proposed for induction motors. Based on the real design data for various types of induction motors with different rating, three-layered cascaded artificial neural networks have been specified and trained to estimate the fundamental quantities and parameters, and also to give proper sizes of the target induction motor. Totally, thirty-four cage

Masahiro Ikeda; Takaaki Nakayama; Takashi Hiyama

2005-01-01

164

Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

2007-11-01

165

Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

2013-01-01

166

An artificial intelligence system for power system contingency screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power system security assessment problem is considered. The objective is to investigate the extent to which a computer program with knowledge and inference capabilities can assist a human operator in this task. A rule-based system for screening the consequences of single outages was developed which can be extended to deal with multiple outages. The rules are independent of the

D. J. Sobajic; Yoh-Han Pao

1988-01-01

167

Principles and Methods of Artificial Immune System Vaccination of Learning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Our body has evolved a complex system to combat viruses and other pathogens. Computing researchers have started paying increasing\\u000a attention to natural immune systems because of their ability to learn how to distinguish between pathogens and non-pathogens\\u000a using immunoglobulins, antibodies and memory cells. There are now several artificial immune system algorithms for learning\\u000a inspired by the human natural immune system.

Waseem Ahmad; Ajit Narayanan

168

Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

Cooper, Edwin L.

2010-03-01

169

The development of core-type Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System for artificial heart.  

PubMed

Recently, Artificial Heart (AH) is recognized as the alternate method of the heart graft. Though there are many problems and defect on AH, long term durability, miniaturization and weight saving interfaced with flow rate performance, efficiency of device. Considering rehabilitation into the society and advancement of QOL (Quality of Life), the construction of power source which supplies electric power to the device is important and has many problems. Especially, the electric feeder line restricts behavior of the transplant recipient and disturbs rehabilitation into the society. For solving these problems, Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System (TETS) is noticed and studied. This study proposes core-type TETS. It achieves high magnetic coupling compared with air-core-type TETS which is carried out on clinical study. Because core-type TETS has high magnetic coupling, it is possible to reduce the input current and to miniaturize transformer size. This paper mentions the characteristic of core-type TETS. PMID:17281070

Watada, Masaya; Iwawaki, Kenji; Tamada, Tomoyuki; Ouchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo; Um, Yong-Su

2005-01-01

170

Parametric Modelling of a Flexible Plate Structure Using Artificial Immune System Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric modelling of dynamic systems may benefit from advantages of biologically-inspired immune system, which maintains\\u000a its own system against dynamically changing environments through the interaction between lymphocytes and\\/or antibodies. In\\u000a this paper, artificial immune system with clonal selection algorithm and artificial immune network are used to identify the\\u000a unknown parameters characterising a flexible plate system. The identification is performed on

S. M. Salleh; M. O. Tokhi

2009-01-01

171

Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.

2013-04-01

172

Artificial Heart Devices and Systems: A Conceptual Phase Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The factors studied include: (1) The possible number of people who might benefit if artificial heart devices were successfully developed; (2) The principal technological problems in developing these devices, as determined from review of the present state ...

M. S. Blumberg K. W. Gardiner D. J. Lyman P. M. Newgard

1966-01-01

173

Bayesian Learning of Neural Networks by Means of Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once the design of artificial neural networks (ANN) may require the optimization of numerical and structural parameters, bio-inspired algorithms have been successfully applied to accomplish this task, since they are population-based search strategies capable of dealing successfully with complex and large search spaces, avoiding local minima. In this paper, we propose the use of an artificial immune system for learning

Pablo A. D. Castro; Fernando J. Von Zuben

2006-01-01

174

Artificial intelligence techniques to diagnose and solve heat exchanger and cooling water systems problems  

SciTech Connect

Expert systems are a part of the developing branch of computer science known as Artificial Intelligence. This paper describes Artificial Intelligence, how it relates to the other branches of comptuer science, and where expert systems fit in. It then outlines typical power plant applications and approaches for developing expert systems software and hardware. It describes programs to diagnose centrifugal pumps, condensers, vibrations, and other components of the cooling water system.

Mussalli, Y.G.; Fritsch, T.J.

1986-04-01

175

Learning to Control and Advanced Life Support Systems: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems ...

D. Subramanian

2004-01-01

176

Earth life support for aquatic organisms, system and technical aspects.  

PubMed

The importance of the research on Bioregenerative Life Support has increased dramatically in the last decade not only with regard to possible space flight application but also as a way to obtain a better understanding of our Earth's ecology. A major goal was to reach long-term stability of artificial model systems. Preliminary data are presented on the development of an improved aquatic system, currently dedicated for ground-based research. Closed aquatic ecosystems require reliability of the key parameters of pH, O2 and CO2 concentration and stability of sensors for monitoring. Besides the integration of an artificial lung (holofiber system and air pump with valves, allowing controlled oxygen uptake of air), in parallel to the oxygen producing water plants. Our new approach is to implement opto-chemical sensors, for such environmental monitoring. One major advantage of the new sensor technique is their better long-term reliability as compared to the electrochemical sensors. Our experiment with the new sensor technique has demonstrated satisfactory performance in closed aquatic ecosystems. PMID:11695431

Konig, B; Dunne, M; Slenzka, K

2001-01-01

177

Damage detection based on acceleration data using artificial immune system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is essential in order to prevent damages occurrence in civil structures. This is a particularly important issue as the number of aged structures is increasing. Damage detection algorithms are often based on changes in the modal properties like natural frequencies, modal shapes and modal damping. In this paper, damage detection is completed by using Artificial Immune System (AIS) theory directly on acceleration data. Inspired from the biological immune system, AIS is composed of several models like negative selection which has a great potential for this study. The negative selection process relies on the fact that T-cells, after their maturation, are sensitive to non self cells and can not detect self cells. Acceleration data were provided by using the numerical model of a 3-story frame structure. Damages were introduced, at particular times, by reduction of story's stiffness. Based on these acceleration data, undamaged data (equivalent to self data) and damaged data (equivalent to non self data) can be obtained and represented in the Hamming shape-space with a binary representation. From the undamaged encoded data, detectors (equivalent to T-cells) are derived and are able to detect damaged encoded data really efficiently by using the rcontiguous bits matching rule. Indeed, more than 95% of detection can be reached when efficient combinations of parameters are used. According to the number of detected data, the localization of damages can even be determined by using the differences between story's relative accelerations. Thus, the difference which presents the highest detection rate, generally up to 89%, is directly linked to the location of damage.

Chartier, Sandra; Mita, Akira

2009-03-01

178

Miniaturised technologies for the development of artificial lipid bilayer systems.  

PubMed

Artificially reproducing cellular environments is a key aim of synthetic biology, which has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of cellular mechanisms. Microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) techniques, which enable the controlled handling of sub-microlitre volumes of fluids in an automated and high-throughput manner, can play a major role in achieving this by offering alternative and powerful methodologies in an on-chip format. Such techniques have been successfully employed over the last twenty years to provide innovative solutions for chemical analysis and cell-, molecular- and synthetic- biology. In the context of the latter, the formation of artificial cell membranes (or artificial lipid bilayers) that incorporate membrane proteins within miniaturised LOC architectures offers huge potential for the development of highly sensitive molecular sensors and drug screening applications. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and critical overview of the field of microsystems for creating and exploiting artificial lipid bilayers. Advantages and limitations of three of the most popular approaches, namely suspended, supported and droplet-based lipid bilayers, are discussed. Examples are reported that show how artificial cell membrane microsystems, by combining together biological procedures and engineering techniques, can provide novel methodologies for basic biological and biophysical research and for the development of biotechnology tools. PMID:22301684

Zagnoni, Michele

2012-02-03

179

An artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tank`s AGT-1500 gas turbine engine. This paper describes the design and prototype development of the ANN component of the diagnostic system, which we refer to as ``TEDANN`` for Turbine Engine Diagnostic Artificial Neural Networks.

Illi, O.J. Jr. [Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Knowledge Engineering Group (KEG); Greitzer, F.L.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Reeve, T. [Expert Solutions, Stratford, CT (United States)

1994-04-01

180

Incorporating artificial neural networks into a rule-based financial trading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the incorporation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) into a rule-based financial trading system to enhance and improve trading profitability. It discusses the advantages of artificial neural nets over traditional rule-based-only systems. It also introduces an ideal ANN rule-based financial trading system that can incorporate technical, fundamental and chart analyses into the financial trading decision-making process, which may

C. N. W. Tan

1993-01-01

181

The LIFE Dynamic Chamber System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry-wall IFE designs such as LIFE utilize Xe fill gas to protect the target chamber first wall from x-ray heating and ionic debris. A key question is how cool, settled and clean the Xe must be to permit beam propagation and target transport, and how to reach this state at a 10+ Hz shot repetition rate. Xe is at low density in the target chamber, and purified Xe is reinjected at higher density and lower temperature into the larger outer chamber. Maintenance of this density difference due to blast waves generated by implosion of the target capsules is being assessed with HYDRA and 3D VTF, and possible validation experiments are being investigated. Detailed gas response near the wall is being studied using 3D Miranda. A laboratory-scale theta pinch experiment will study cooling and beam propagation in Xe.

Rhodes, Mark; Kane, Jave; Latkowski, Jeffery; Cook, Andrew; Divol, Laurent; Loosmore, Gwendolen; Scott, Howard; Scullard, Christian; Tabak, Max; Wilks, Scott; Moses, Gregory; Heltemes, Thad; Sacks, Ryan; Pantano, Carlos; Kramer, Richard

2011-11-01

182

Creation of closed life support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews

I. Gitelson

2002-01-01

183

Whole life costing of sewer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK water industry faces a need to manage sewer systems to meet and maintain required levels of service in a cost effective manner whilst minimising social and environmental impacts. Whole life costing approaches have been shown to provide an ideal platform for the evaluation of such a system by taking account of system behaviour, performance and regulation within a

W. Shepherd; A. Cashman; S. Djordjevic; G Dorini; A. Saul; D. Savic; L. Lewis; G. Walters; R. Ashley

184

The physical symbol system hypothesis of Newell and Simon: a classroom demonstration of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essay below deals with Newell and Simon's hypotheses about the nature of intelligent action. The material is suitable for a classroom demonstration of artificial intelligence at the high school level and above.Discussion questions following the essay are designed to encourage making explicit connections between computer science, philosophy, and the life sciences. They are part of an effort to formulate

Nicholas Ourusoff

1985-01-01

185

Explosives and landmine detection using an artificial olfactory system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a portable, artificial olfactory system based on multiple attributes of the sense of smell to identify air-borne odors, including those associated with buried landmines. Brief (1-2 sec) air samples are drawn over an array of optically-interrogated, cross-reactive chemical sensors. These consist of polymers with high sensitivity and relatively narrow specificity for nitroaromatics (Timothy Swager, MIT), as well as those with broader responses, thus permitting discrimination among substances that may be confused for nitroaromatics. Biologically-based pattern matching algorithms automatically identify odors as one of several to which the device has been trained. In discrimination tests, after training to one concentration of 6 odors, the device gave 95% correct identification when tested at the original plus three different concentrations. Thus, as required in real world applications, the device can identify odors at multiple concentrations without explicitly training on each. In sensitivity tests, the device showed 100% detection and no false alarms for the landmine-related compound DNT at concentrations as low as 500 pp-trillion (quantified by GC/MS) - 10 times lower than average canine behavioral thresholds. To investigate landmine detection capabilities, field studies were conducted at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO. In calibration tests, signals from buried PMA1A anti-personnel landmines were clearly discriminated from background. In a limited 9 site "blind" test, PMA1A detection was 100% with false alarms of 40%. Although requiring further development, these data indicate that a device with appropriate sensors and exploiting olfactory principles can detect and discriminate low concentration vapor signatures, including those of buried landmines.

White, Joel E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Kauer, John S.

2004-09-01

186

Optimization of Life Support Systems and Their Systems Reliability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical mod...

L. T. Fan C. L. Hwang L. E. Erickson

1971-01-01

187

Artificial light at night: implications for early life stages development in four temperate freshwater fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flora and fauna have both evolved under a natural cycle of light and dark. But especially in urban areas, the night is now\\u000a increasingly disturbed by artificial light. Many traits and behaviours in fish are triggered by a circadian clock, for example\\u000a hatching and swim bladder inflation, which predominantly take place at dusk or night. As lighting becomes brighter and

Anika Brüning; Franz Hölker; Christian Wolter

2011-01-01

188

Approximate Estimation of the Product Life Cycle Cost Using Artificial Neural Networks in Conceptual Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the design of products and reduce design changes, cost, and time to market, life cycle engineering has\\u000a emerged as an effective approach to address these issues in today’s competitive global market. As over 70% of the total life\\u000a cycle cost of a product is committed at the early design stage, designers can substantially reduce the life

K.-K. Seo; J.-H. Park; D.-S. Jang; D. Wallace

2002-01-01

189

Artificial Neural Network Application for Space Station Power System Fault Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU ...

1995-01-01

190

An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined.

D. E. Schultz; J. W. Hurd; S. K. Brown

1987-01-01

191

Movement control system design for an artificial eye implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the research project reported in this paper is to design an assistive device that will help patients with eye-implant to have natural eye movement. The patients lose their eye for various reasons. The loss of an eye can be solved by the ocular implant. The artificial eye can be made like a real eye cosmetically. But

J. Gu; M. Meng; M. G. Faulkner; A. Cook

1998-01-01

192

Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising

Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

2005-01-01

193

ANVAS: artificial neural variables adaptation system for descriptor selection.  

PubMed

A new algorithm model-oriented for variable selection is presented in this study. It is based on the combination of genetic algorithms (GA) for hyperspace exploration, and counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) for deriving the fitness score. The proposed method performed very well on both well defined synthetic data sets and real academic data sets. PMID:14635726

Mazzatorta, Paolo; Vracko, Marjan; Benfenati, Emilio

194

WeAidU - a decision support system for myocardial perfusion images using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computer-based decision support system for automated in- terpretation of diagnostic heart images (called WeAidU), which is made available via the Internet. The system is based on image processing techniques, artificial neural networks and large well-validated medical databases. We present results us- ing artificial neural networks, and compare with two other classification methods, on a retrospective data

Mattias Ohlsson

2004-01-01

195

A Review on the Application of Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems to Optimization Problems in Operations Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hybrid artificial intelligence systems in operations management has grown during the last years given their ability\\u000a to tackle combinatorial and NP hard problems. Furthermore, operations management problems usually involve imprecision, uncertainty,\\u000a vagueness, and high-dimensionality. This paper examines recent developments in the field of hybrid artificial intelligence\\u000a systems for those operations management problems where hybrid approaches are more

Óscar Ibáñez; Oscar Cordón; Sergio Damas; Luis Magdalena

2009-01-01

196

Withholding Artificially Provided Nutrition and Hydration from Disabled Children-Assessing Their Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on quality of life determinations and limitation of treatment decisions for children with physical and mental disabilities. Issues are addressed through one pediatric convalescent center's ethical dilemma, deliberations and process for decision-making when the organization's definition of quality of life differed from that of the parents wishing to place their child there. The Ethics Committee suggested revised

Amanda L. Stanley

2000-01-01

197

Rapid evolution in crop-weed hybrids under artificial selection for divergent life histories  

PubMed Central

When species hybridize, offspring typically exhibit reduced fitness and maladapted phenotypes. This situation has biosafety implications regarding the unintended spread of novel transgenes, and risk assessments of crop-wild hybrids often assume that poorly adapted hybrid progeny will not evolve adaptive phenotypes. We explored the evolutionary potential of early generation hybrids using nontransgenic wild and cultivated radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, Raphanus sativus) as a model system. We imposed four generations of selection for two weedy traits – early flowering or large size – and measured responses in a common garden in Michigan, USA. Under selection for early flowering, hybrids evolved to flower as early as wild lineages, which changed little. These early-flowering hybrids also recovered wild-type pollen fertility, suggesting a genetic correlation that could accelerate the loss of crop traits when a short life cycle is advantageous. Under selection for large size at reproduction, hybrids evolved longer leaves faster than wild lineages, a potentially advantageous phenotype under longer growing seasons. Although early generation hybrid offspring have reduced fitness, our findings provide novel support for rapid adaptation in crop-wild hybrid populations. Biosafety risk assessment programs should consider the possibility of rapid evolution of weedy traits from early generations of seemingly unfit crop-wild hybrids.

Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A; Sweeney, Patricia M; Ketner, Julie M

2009-01-01

198

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

199

Remaining life estimation of used components in consumer products: Life cycle data analysis by Weibull and artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental awareness and legislative pressures have made manufacturers responsible for the take-back and end-of-life treatment of their products. To competitively exploit these products, one option is to incorporate used components in “new” or remanufactured products. However, this option is partly limited by a firm's ability to assess the reliability of used components. A comprehensive two-step approach is proposed. The first

M. I. Mazhar; S. Kara; H. Kaebernick

2007-01-01

200

Process system optimization for life cycle improvement  

SciTech Connect

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an analytic tool for quantifying the environmental impacts of all processes used in converting raw materials into a final product. The LCA consists of three parts. Life cycle inventory quantifies all material and energy use, and environmental emissions for the entire product life cycle, while impact assessment evaluates actual and potential environmental and human health consequences of the activities identified in the inventory phase. Most importantly, life cycle improvement aims at reducing the risk of these consequences occurring to make the product more benign. when the LCA is performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic analysis, the total economic and environmental benefits and shortcomings of a product or process can be quantified. A methodology has been developed incorporating process performance, economics, and life cycle inventory data to synthesize process systems, which meet life cycle impact-improvement targets at least cost. The method relies on a systematic description of the product life cycle and utilizes successive Linear Programming to formulate and optimize the non-linear, constrained problem which results. The practicality and power of this approach have been demonstrated by examining options for the reduction of emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} from petroleum-based fuels.

Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.

1999-12-31

201

Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

202

Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

Gallagher, M. (Southern California Air Conditioning Distributors, City of Industry, CA (US))

1991-05-01

203

The Immune System in Pieces: Computational Lessons from Degeneracy in the Immune System (Special session: Foundations of Artificial Immune Systems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of degeneracy in biology, including the immune system, is well accepted and has been demonstrated to be present at many different levels. We explore this concept from a computational point of view and demonstrate how we can use computational models of degeneracy to aid the development of more biologically plausible Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). The outcome of these

M. Mendao; J. Timmis; P. S. Andrews; M. Davies

204

Artificial neural networks and the effects of loading conditions on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels  

SciTech Connect

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code contains rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figure 1-90 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data indicate significant decreases in the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR environments when five conditions are satisfied simultaneously. When applied strain range, temperature, dissolved oxygen in the water, and sulfur content of the steel are above a minimum threshold level, and the loading strain rate is below a threshold value, environmentally assisted fatigue occurs. For this study, a data base of 1036 fatigue tests was used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). Once the optimal ANN was designed, ANN were trained and used to predict fatigue life for specified sets of loading and environmental conditions. By finding patterns and trends in the data, the ANN can find the fatigue lifetime for any set of conditions. Artificial neural networks show great potential for predicting environmentally assisted corrosion. Their main benefits are that the fit of the data is based purely on data and not on preconceptions and that the network can interpolate effects by learning trends and patterns when data are not available.

Pleune, T.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-11-01

205

Measuring system of the slab's position in a metallurgical plant using artificial vision techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the artificial vision system. It measures the dimensions and the position of the slabs in a rolling mill and it is part of a positioning system for furnace loading. The structure of the vision system, the geometrical transforms and the image processing operations are presented. This system was designed by the authors and validated on a

L. Frangu; S. Caraman

1999-01-01

206

Application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods for designing and analysis of reconfigurable cellular manufacturing system (RCMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the design and control of a novel hybrid manufacturing system: reconfigurable cellular manufacturing system (RCMS) by using artificial intelligence (AI) approach. It is hybrid as it combines the advantages of cellular manufacturing system (CMS) and reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS). In addition to inheriting desirable properties from CMS and RMS, RCMS provides additional benefits including flexibility and

Bo Xing; Fulufhelo V. Nelwamondo; Kimberly Battle; Wenjing Gao; Tshilidzi Marwala

2009-01-01

207

An Analytical Approach to the Similarities between Swarm Intelligence and Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swarm intelligence and artificial immune system (AIS) are both derived from imitation of nature biology system. Their common characteristic is that they both have simple individuals but appear emergence characteristic in population level through interaction among individuals. In order to explore inherent similarity of complex system, we take ant colony system (ACS) and AIS as objectives to study this similarity

Renbin Xiao; Tinggui Chen; Zhenwu Tao

2011-01-01

208

Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the light emitted by artificial illumination systems.  

PubMed

The light delivered by artificial illumination systems, and in particular by halogen quartz bulbs, contains UVA, UVB, and UVC radiation, is genotoxic to both bacterial and human cells and is potently carcinogenic to hairless mice. Since IARC has classified UV radiation in Group 1, any source of UV light poses a carcinogenic hazard to humans. Suitable regulations would be needed in order to control the safety of the light emitted by artificial light sources. PMID:23371415

De Flora, Silvio

2013-02-01

209

Restoration of an incised mountain stream using artificial step-pool system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment using an artificial step-pool system was conducted to restore the Diaoga River, a seriously incised mountain stream in Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest China. Twenty-four artificial steps, designed to mimic natural step forms, were constructed on three stretches of about 260 m length in the middle reach of the river. Channel topography, hydraulic features, aquatic habitats and stream ecology were

Guo-an Yu; Zhao-Yin Wang; Kang Zhang; Xuehua Duan; Tung-Chiung Chang

2010-01-01

210

Long life reaction control system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future single stage to orbit systems will utilize oxygen/hydrogen propellants in their main propulsion means due to the propellant's high energy content and environmental acceptability. Operational effectiveness studies and life cycle cost studies have indicated that minimizing the number of different commodities on a given vehicle not only reduces cost, but reduces the ground span times in both the pre- and postflight operations. Therefore, oxygen and hydrogen should be used for the reaction controls systems, eliminating the need to deal with toxic or corrosive fluids. When the hydrogen scramjet powered NASP design development began in 1985, new system design studies considered overall integration of subsystems; in the context of that approach, O2/H2 reaction controls system were more than competitive with storable propellant systems and had the additional benefits of lower life cycle cost, rapid turnaround times, and O2 and H2 commodities for use throughout the vehicle. Similar benefits were derived in rocket-powered SSTO vehicles.

Fanciullo, Thomas J.; Judd, Craig

1993-02-01

211

End-of-life decision making regarding infants of artificial reproductive techniques and spontaneous conception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to determine if differences exist in the decisions made regarding dying infants based on method of conception. No studies have examined end-of-life decisions for infants regarding method of conception. Study design: We reviewed the charts of infants who were born and died in our institution between January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2005. Method of conception,

Bridget A. Hempel; Ian R. Holzman

2008-01-01

212

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

Firschein, O.

1984-01-01

213

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also…

Thornburg, David D.

1986-01-01

214

New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

Dubois, Daniel M.

2008-10-01

215

Privacy Protection for Life-log System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous advances in wearable computing and storage technologies enable us to record not just snapshots of an event but the whole human experience for a long period of time. Such a \\\\life-logandamp;quot; system captures important events as they happen, rather than an after-thought. Such a system has applications in many areas such as law enforcement, personal archives, police questioning, and

Jayashri S. Chaudhari

2007-01-01

216

Artificial intelligence: expert systems for corps tactical planning and other applications. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems such as those that play games, diagnose engine problems, or organize cargo loads in ships are all examples of artificial intelligence. The sub-discipline of expert systems deals with computerized imitation of the reasoning of judgment process of human experts. CECOM's expert system for tactical planning draws its tactical expertise from the US Army War College students that comprise study

J. F. Back; A. F. Barbone; G. K. Crocker; L. M. Johnson; L. D. Jones

1987-01-01

217

Artificial Neural Network Modeling Technique for Voltage Stability Assessment of Radial Distribution Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based modeling technique for predicting the voltage stability of radial distribution systems. The modeling technique is based on a new voltage stability index for assessment of radial distribution systems Lv . The index is implemented to investigate a 33-bus distribution system. An ANN model which has an input layer with two input

M. M. Hamada; M. A. A. Wahab; N. G. A. Hemdan

2006-01-01

218

The relationship between artificial intelligence and data mining: application to future military information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the relationship between data mining (DM) and artificial intelligence (AI) and how both can improve future military information systems. As these information systems take advantage of the technology trends, they will derive their upgrades from expert systems, knowledge-bases (KBs), inference engines, robotics, natural language, remote sensing, knowledge discovery (KD), and data mining over networks. This will result

M. G. Ceruti

2000-01-01

219

Thermosiphon solar domestic water heating systems: long-term performance prediction using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to use artificial neural networks (ANN) for the long-term performance prediction of thermosiphonic type solar domestic water heating (SDWH) systems. Thirty SDWH systems have been tested and modelled according to the procedures outlined in the standard ISO 9459-2 at three locations in Greece. From these, data from 27 of the systems were used for

Soteris A Kalogirou; Sofia Panteliou

2000-01-01

220

An Artificial Neural Network–based Expert System for Fruit Tree Disease and Insect Pest Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of an expert system for fruit tree disease and insect pest diagnosis based on artificial neural network (ANN) and geographic information system (GIS). A multiple knowledge acquisition approach was adopted, consisting of interview expert, questionnaire, Web-based search and literature review. The production rule was adopted as the formation of knowledge representation in the system. The

Gang Liu; Xuehong Yang; Yinbing Ge; Yuxin Miao

2006-01-01

221

Real Time Road Sign Recognition System Using Artificial Neural Networks for Bengali Textual Information Box  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Automated Road Sign Recognition system using Artificial Neural Network for the Textual Information box inscribing in Bengali is presented in this paper. The system captures real time images every two seconds and saves them as JPG format files. The system processes the images to find out whether they contain images of road signs or not. The textual information of

Mohammad Osiur Rahman; Fouzia Asharf Mousumi; Edgar Scavino

2009-01-01

222

Real time road sign recognition system using artificial neural networks for bengali textual information box  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Automated Road Sign Recognition system using Artificial Neural Network for the Textual Information box inscribing in Bengali is presented in this paper. The system captures real time images every two seconds and saves them as JPG format files. The system processes the images to find out whether they contain images of road signs or not. The textual information of

Mohammad Osiur Rahman; Fouzia Asharf Mousumi; Edgar Scavino; Aini Hussain; Hassan Basri

2008-01-01

223

Integrating neuromuscular and cyber systems for neural control of artificial legs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design and implementation of a cyber-physical system (CPS) for neurally controlled artificial legs. The key to the new CPS system is the neural-machine interface (NMI) that uses an embedded computer to collect and interpret electromyographic (EMG) signals from a physical system that is a leg amputee. A new deciphering algorithm, composed of an EMG pattern classifier

He Huang; Qing Yang; Fan Zhang; Xiaorong Zhang; Yuhong Liu; Fabian Sierra

2010-01-01

224

Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector  

SciTech Connect

Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

Shitara, Shingo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Masaharu [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Tomizuka, Kazuma [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan)], E-mail: ktomizuka@kirin.co.jp

2008-05-09

225

Artificial Neural Network Based Life Cycle Assessment Model for Product Concepts Using Product Classification Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many companies are beginning to change the way they develop products due to increasing awareness of environmentally conscious\\u000a product development. To copy with these trends, designers are being asked to incorporate environmental criteria into the design\\u000a process. Recently Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to support the decision-making for product design and the best alternative\\u000a can be selected based on

Kwang-kyu Seo; Sung-hwan Min; Hun-woo Yoo

2005-01-01

226

Selected Life-History Traits of Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Reared on Three Artificial Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermetia illucens (L.) was reared on three larval diets to determine their effects on preimaginal development and selected adult life-history traits. Prepupal and adult characteristics were examined for individuals reared on each diet and compared with Þeld-collected prepupae and corresponding emergent adults. Diet did not signiÞcantly inßuence development or survivorship to the prepupal stage. However, adult emergence for all diets

Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

2002-01-01

227

Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with

D. J. Barta; D. L. Henninger

1996-01-01

228

Hybrid Artificial Photosynthetic Systems Comprising Semiconductors as Light Harvesters and Biomimetic Complexes as Molecular Cocatalysts.  

PubMed

Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the photocatalytic mechanisms of H2/O2 evolution and CO2 reduction at the molecular level and to bridge natural and artificial photosynthesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid photocatalyst, biomimetic molecular cocatalysts, and semiconductor light harvester for artificial photosynthesis and therefore provide a promising approach for rational design and construction of highly efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. PMID:23730891

Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

2013-06-01

229

Artificial neural network approach in determining voltage stability in power system networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage stability problems have been one of the major concerns for electric utilities as a result of system heavy loading. As electric power systems are operated under increasingly stressed conditions, the ability to maintain voltage stability becomes a growing concern. This paper reports on an investigation on the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in voltage stability assessment. A multilayer

A. Arunagiri; B. Venkatesh; Stella Morris

2002-01-01

230

Prediction of vapor–liquid equilibrium for binary systems containing HFEs by using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to estimate the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) for the binary systems containing hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and polar compounds. Our new estimation method is composed of three steps. In the first step, the sign of logarithm of activity coefficient (?) is estimated for each binary system using ANN, because it had been found that

Shingo Urata; Akira Takada; Junji Murata; Toshihiko Hiaki; Akira Sekiya

2002-01-01

231

Simulation of artificial neural network controller for automatic generation control of hydro electric power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) controller for automatic generation control of a two area hydro-electric power system. A hierarchical architecture of three layer feed forward neural network (NN) is proposed for controller design, two networks are used, one for identifying the system and other for control respectively, trained based on back propagation algorithm (BPA). The regulator accepts

J. A. Jaleel; T. P. Imthias Ahammed

2008-01-01

232

A system of interpreting somatic sensations for use with artificial hands and limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to develop a prototype of an artificial arm system capable of sensing mechanical stimuli and then transferring these stimuli to the subject so that the subject experience the stimuli as the corresponding somatic sensations. In this system, the virtual sensations were evoked by electrically stimulating a sensory nerve fiber which innervates a single mechanoreceptor unit using a

K. Mabuchi; T. Suzuki; M. Kunimoto; M. Shimojo; N. Kakuta; T. Saito; H. Nishimura; M. Inami; M. Ishikawa

1999-01-01

233

Reducing the Effects of Artificial Light Interference in Wireless Infrared Transmission Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of wireless infrared transmission systems for indoor use is severely impaired by the noise and interference induced by natural and artificial ambient light. In order to combat the effects of ambient light on the system performance, both optical filtering and electrical filtering is usually adopted. However, even when resorting to these techniques, the optical power penalty imposed by

Adriano J. C. Moreira; Rui T. Valadas; Oliveira Duarte

1996-01-01

234

Artificial Light-sensitive Enzymatic Systems as Chemical Amplifiers of Weak Light Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical principles of the amplification of weak light signals, based on photochemical and coupled chemical reactions, are examined. Systems where the dark amplification process is a catalytic reaction involving enzymes are discussed in greatest detail. Artificial enzymatic systems in which the level of catalytic activity can be varied under the influence of light is subjected to a critical analysis.

Ilya V. Berezin; K. Martinek

1979-01-01

235

Integration of a knowledge-based system, artificial neural networks and multimedia for gear design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design is a complicated area consisting of a combination of rules, technical information and personal judgement. The quality of design depends highly on the designer’s knowledge and experience. This system attempts to simulate the design process and to capture design expertise by combining artificial neural networks (ANNs) and knowledge-based system (KBS) together with multimedia (MM). It has been applied to

D Su; M Wakelam; K Jambunathan

2000-01-01

236

Dynamic correction of aberrations in microscopic imaging systems using an artificial point source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biological micromanipulation image aberrations are introduced not only by the optical system, but also by the immersion liquid. Whereas optical system aberrations are constant and it is relatively easy to measure and correct for them, the immersion caused aberrations are variable in time and space. In this paper a method using a spherical microparticle as an artificial point source

Marcus Reicherter; Witold Górski; Tobias Haist; Wolfgang Osten

2004-01-01

237

Use of Kernel Functions in Artificial Immune Systems for the Nonlinear Classification Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the fact that there exist only a small number of complex systems in artificial immune systems (AISs) that solve nonlinear problems, there is a need to develop nonlinear AIS approaches that would be among the well-known solution methods. In this study, we developed a kernel-based AIS to compensate for this deficiency by providing a nonlinear structure via transformation

Seral Özsen; Salih Günes; Sadik Kara; Fatma Latifoglu

2009-01-01

238

A neural network approach for a single-camera based Artificial Compound Eye System (ACES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work studies an Artificial Compound Eye System (ACES) which consists of a camera, a main lens, and a lenslet array. Similar to the compound eye systems in arthropods, one single shot of the ACES can simultaneously capture the visual image of an object from hundreds of different viewpoints, which essentially record the object's 3D information. Due to the special

Weiming Li; Siyao Fu; Guosheng Yang; Xinkai Kuai

2011-01-01

239

Artificial neural network based fault diagnostic system for electric power distribution feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a fast, efficient, artificial neural network (ANN) based fault diagnostic system (FDS) for distribution feeders. The principal functions of this diagnostic system are: (i) detection of fault occurrence, (ii) identification of faulted sections, and (iii) classification of faults into types, e.g. HIFs (high impedance faults) or LIFs (low impedance faults). This has been achieved

E. A. Mohamed; N. D. Rao

1995-01-01

240

Experimental Use of Artificial Intelligence for (Future) ATC Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expert system shell and an expert system were implemented on an IBM compatible mainframe computer; The expert system shell was produced in Pascal. The expert system represents a planning position of an air traffic controller suite, where aircraft confl...

F. Krella

1986-01-01

241

Development and Application of a Three-Dimensional Artificial Visual System  

PubMed Central

A three-dimensional artificial visual system has been developed to aid in the analysis of three-dimensional fluorescence images of smooth muscle cells. The artificial visual system consists of three sets of three-dimensional spatial filters that locate the discrete bodies of protein concentration in a cell, classify the concentration bodies as globular or oval, and determine the three-dimensional orientation of the oval bodies. A graphic model of the protein distribution is then created. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Coggins, James M.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; Fay, Frederic S.

1985-01-01

242

Life table parameters, reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and estimated cost of rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on an artificial diet.  

PubMed

The impact of an insect-free artificial diet provided at nymphal and/or adult stage upon the developmental rate, life table parameters, and fertility table parameters was examined for Podisus maculiventris (Say). This study showed that when fed an insect-free artificial diet during both the nymphal and adult stage, developmental time was prolonged, preoviposition period was extended, and reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) were significantly lower than when fed larval insect prey at both nymphal and adult stages. Additionally, feeding larval prey to adults reared as nymphs on an artificial diet significantly increased the proportion of fertile females, the number of eggs laid by mated females, the reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase, but the mean generation time was not significantly different. Likewise, feeding artificial diet to adults reared on larval prey resulted in a significant reduction in reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase. The "realized" cost to rear P. maculiventris on the artificial diet was calculated (as the cost to double the population size) using raw material cost, fertility table parameters and doubling time values. Raw material cost for rearing P. maculiventris colony on Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was only 1.4 times higher than the cost of artificial diet raw materials required to rear the same size colony. However, the realized cost of rearing was 3.5 times higher when rearing on artificial diet because of the prolonged developmental time and reduced reproductive output. The cost efficiency of rearing a beneficial insect on an artificial diet that decreases the intrinsic rate of increase of a colony is discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of supplementing adult diets with natural prey at the reproductive stage. PMID:11777035

Wittmeyer, J L; Coudron, T A

2001-12-01

243

A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems.  

PubMed

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity. PMID:23983638

Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

2013-07-31

244

Progress in cybernetics and systems research. Vol. XI. Data base design. International Information Systems. Semiotic Systems. Artificial Intelligence. Cybernetics and Philosophy. Special aspects  

SciTech Connect

This book covers current research topics in six areas. These are data base design, international information systems, semiotic systems, artificial intelligence, cybernetics and philosophy, and special aspects of systems research. 1326 references.

Trappl, R.; Findler, N.V.; Horn, W.

1982-01-01

245

Real Time Implementation of an Artificial Immune System Based Controller for a DSTATCOM in an Electric Ship Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new adaptive control strategy based on artificial immune system (AIS) for a DSTATCOM in an electric ship power system is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM is a shunt compensation device, which can be used to improve the power quality during the pulse power requirements in a naval shipboard system. The role of DSTATCOM controller is very important to meet

Pinaki Mitra; Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy

2008-01-01

246

Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power Systems via Combination of Monte Carlo Simulation and Artificial Immune Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is very useful in adequacy evaluation of complex power systems. However, it may be time-consuming when power flow analysis is needed to determine the status of each system state. In this study, we combine Monte Carlo simulation and artificial immune recognition system (AIRS), an effective classifier for imbalanced data set, in order to expedite the state

Lingfeng Wang; C. Singh

2008-01-01

247

Artificial and natural nucleic acid self-assembling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleic acids are good candidates for nanomachine construction. They participate in all the processes of life, and so can function as structural building blocks and dynamic catalysts. However, to use nucleic acids as nanomachines, a better understanding of their material properties, how to design structures using them, and their dynamics is needed. We have tried to address these issues, in a small way, with nucleic acid force field development, an attempt at nanostructural design and synthesis using DNA, and a study of the RNA/protein regulatory dynamics of the tryptophan regulatory attenuation protein.

Wood, Marcus

248

Method of formation of artificial organ components using a plastic dispenser system manipulated by a robot.  

PubMed

In order to produce an artificial organ component having a complicated structure, a plastic-forming method was proposed in which small amounts of material were accumulated successively by using a dispenser system manipulated by a robot; a preliminary experiment with silicone rubber was conducted. Components of different shapes were produced, including straight tubes, tapered tubes, bifurcating tubes, tubes having leaflets on the inside, cones, spiral tubes, and tubes with a sack. This method provides the possibility of producing complicated artificial organ components, which are difficult to produce by conventional plastic-processing methods. PMID:3355389

Togawa, T; Matsudaira, H; Hori, M; Tsuchiya, K

1988-02-01

249

Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light harvesting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast spectroscopy and quantum-dynamics simulations of an artificial supramolecular light-harvesting system — a supramolecular triad - provide strong evidence that the quantum-correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds governs the ultrafast electronic charge transfer.

Falke, S. M.; Rozzi, C. A.; Spallanzani, N.; Rubio, A.; Molinari, E.; Brida, D.; Maiuri, M.; Cerullo, G.; Schramm, H.; Christoffers, J.; Lienau, C.

2013-03-01

250

Artificial neural network and support vector Machine approach for locating faults in radial distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) approach for locating faults in radial distribution systems. Different from the traditional Fault Section Estimation methods, the proposed approach uses measurements available at the substation, circuit breaker and relay statuses. The data is analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and the faults are classified according

D. Thukaram; H. P. Khincha; H. P. Vijaynarasimha

2005-01-01

251

Remote Control System of Artificial Fish School and Its Fast Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous work, we have developed an interactive system of artificial fish school for Visual Marine Museum in Hisashi Kawabayashi and Yen-Wei Chen (2009), Kanami Kobayashi (2005), Craig W. Reynolds (1987). In this paper, we focus our researches on its fast implementation and remote control. We propose to use parallel processing techniques and space blocking method for fast implementation.

H. Kawabayashi; M. Khazab; J. Tweedale; L. C. Jain; Y.-W. Chen

2009-01-01

252

SALTWATER INTRUSION AND ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE MODELLING IN THE COASTAL AQUIFER SYSTEM OF CAPOTERRA (SOUTHERN SARDINIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogeological, conceptual, and mathematical models have been defined to study saltwater intrusion phenomena in the coastal aquifer system of the alluvial plai n of Capoterra (southern Sardinia, Italy). Pumping tests and artificial recharge experi ments are carried out in the plain so as to verify the efficiency of a hydrodynamic barrier aimed at contr olling saltwater encroachment and its

Giovanni Barrocu; M. Grazia Sciabica; Gabriele Uras; Andrea Cortis; Elisabetta Vernier

253

Intellimedia Systems: Research and Applications at the Intersection of Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions to challenging applications often emerge from a fruitful combination of knowledge, methods, and techniques from different disci- plines. This talk introduces Intellimedia, a promising research field located at the intersection of research on Multimedia Systems and Artificial Intelligence. In essence, Intellimedia research aims at the innovative and intelligent usage of multiple media to improve human-machine interfaces as well as

Thomas Rist

2002-01-01

254

The Development of the Expert System for Indoor Artificial Ice Skating Rink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of expert system for indoor artificial ice skating rink can make the cumbersome manual design calculation and drawing process simply, and can shorten the construction period and improve work efficiency. Intelligent engineering design software was completed by using the computer programming, combined with neural networks and fuzzy calculation methods. The software is able to realize optimal matching between load

Qing-Gang Zhang; Le-Ren Tao

2010-01-01

255

Editorial Artificial Neural Networks To Systems, Man, And Cybernetics: Characteristics, Structures, And Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this special issue is to present recent high- quality papers that deal with the applications of artificial neural networks (ANN's) to systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC). This special issue explores the state-of-the art in the applications of ANN to the SMC community. ANN's technology has reached a degree of maturity as evidenced by the increasing number of

Mohammad S. Obaidat

1998-01-01

256

Adaptive control and system identification for direct brain control of artificial limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a non-invasive direct brain control of artificial limbs is both challenging and desirable. Such a sensory and control system, if successful, will have profound impact on the disabled. In this paper, we present the design of a control algorithm capable of automatic reconfiguration to account for changing sensor conditions, selection of an appropriate transfer function based on input characteristics,

Christopher M Aasted; Rahmat A. Shoureshi; Benjamin Sarusi

2011-01-01

257

The Impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems on Future University Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the potential of artificial intelligent (AI) systems in the university's core functions of teaching, learning and knowledge nexus, against the background of rapid technological change, globalisation and challenges facing universities to respond to societies' needs in the knowledge age. As knowledge and innovation will drive competitive economic advantage in increasingly Internet defined infrastructures, a new university paradigm

Lalita Rajasingham

258

Diagnostic system for identification of accident scenarios in nuclear power plants using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the work carried out towards developing a diagnostic system for the identification of accident scenarios in 220MWe Indian PHWRs. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), which assists in identifying a transient quickly and suggests the operator to initiate the corrective actions during abnormal operations of the reactor.

T. V. Santosh; A. Srivastava; V. V. S. Sanyasi Rao; A. K. Ghosh; H. S. Kushwaha

2009-01-01

259

An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of negative selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use of negative selection as a network traffic anomaly detector. The results of the negative selection algorithm experiments show a severe scaling problem for handling real network traffic data. The paper concludes by suggesting that the most

Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

2001-01-01

260

Phytoplankton Densities and Growth of 'Mytilus edulis' in an Alaskan Artificial Upwelling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mytilus edulis, reared in an Alaskan artificial upwelling system, grew from a shell length of 8.8 to 30.2 mm in 90 days. Temperatures and salinities in the pond averaged 10.5C and 32.3 parts per thousand by weight. In comparison, the mussels which live in...

A. J. Paul J. M. Paul R. A. Neve

1977-01-01

261

Hybrid artificial liver support system for treatment of severe liver failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To construct a novel hybrid artificial liver support system (HALSS) and to evaluate its efficacy in patients with severe liver failure. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from suckling pig by the modified Seglen's method. Isolated hepatocytes were cultured in a spinner flask for 24 h to form spheroids before use and the functions of spheroids were

Jian-He Gan; Xia-Qiu Zhou; Ai-Lan Qin; Er-Ping Luo; Wei-Feng Zhao; Hong Yu; Jie Xu

2005-01-01

262

On the Use of Hyperspheres in Artificial Immune Systems as Antibody Recognition Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using hyperspheres as antibody recognition regions is an es- tablished abstraction which was initially proposed by theoretical immu- nologists for use in the modeling of antibody-antigen interactions. This abstraction is also employed in the development of many artificial im- mune system algorithms. Here, we show several undesirable properties of hyperspheres, especially when operating in high dimensions and dis- cuss the

Thomas Stibor; Jonathan Timmis; Claudia Eckert

2006-01-01

263

An energy transmission system for an artificial heart using leakage inductance compensation of transcutaneous transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power supply system using a transcutaneous transformer to power an artificial heart through intact skin has been designed and built. In order to realize both high-voltage gain and minimum circulating current, compensation of leakage inductances on both sides of a transcutaneous transformer is proposed. A frequency region which realizes the robustness against coupling coefficient and load variation is identified.

Gyu Bum Joung; Bo H. Cho

1998-01-01

264

Hand-printed arabic character recognition system using an artificial network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character recognition systems can contribute tremendously to the advancement of the automation process and can improve the interaction between man and machine in many applications, including office automation, check verification and a large variety of banking, business and data entry applications. The main theme of this paper is the automatic recognition of hand-printed Arabic characters using artificial neural networks in

Adnan Amin; Humoud B. Al-sadoun; Stephen Fischer

1996-01-01

265

Application of Artificial Neural Network in Jitter Analysis of Dispersion-Managed Communication System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used as numerical methode in solving modified Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with Dispersion Managed System (DMS) for jitter analysis. We take the optical axis z and the time t as input, and then some relevant values such as the change of position and the center frequency of the pulse, and further the mean square time

F. P. Zen; B. E. Gunara; W. Hidayat; Z. A. Thalib; H. Zainuddin; J. Aminuddin

2004-01-01

266

Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system  

PubMed Central

The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting.

Andrea Rozzi, Carlo; Maria Falke, Sarah; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

2013-01-01

267

Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system.  

PubMed

The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting. PMID:23511467

Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Falke, Sarah Maria; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

2013-01-01

268

Studies of zeolite-based artificial photosynthetic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ruthenium polypyridyl compounds of structural formula [(bpy) 2RuL]2+ (RuL) and [(bpy)2RuLDQ]4+ (RuLDQ) (where bpy = bipyridine, L = trans-1,2-bis-4-(4'-methyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl) ethane, LDQ = 1-[4-(4'-methyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-2-[4-(4'-N,N'-tetramethylene-2,2'-bipyridinium)] ethene) were synthesized and purified. From pH titrations, it was found that the Ru complex was a stronger base (pKa* = 6) in the excited state than in the ground state (pKa = 4). Photolysis of the RuL complex in solutions at pH 7 and 12 led to formation of species with increased emission quantum yields, ˜55 nm blue-shift of the emission maximum to 625 nm and disappearance of the absorption band at 330 nm, the latter arising from the olefinic bond of the L ligand. Photoproducts formed at neutral pH have been analyzed. It was found that the major product was a dimer of RuL, dimerizing around the double bond. Photoreactions did not occur in the dark or in the aprotic solvent acetonitrile. We proposed that a Ru(III) radical intermediate was formed by photoinduced excited-state electron and proton transfer, which initiated the dimerization. The radical intermediate also underwent photochemical degradative reductions. Below pH 4, the emission quenching was proposed to arise via protonation of the monoprotonated RuLH + followed by electron transfer to the viologen-type moiety created by protonation. The products of photodegradation at pH > 12 were different from those of pH 7, but the mechanism of the degradation at pH > 12 was not elucidated. RuLDQ was stable under visible irradiation. We examined nanocrystalline zeolite as a host for light absorbing sensitizers (electron donors) and electron acceptors. Nanocrystalline zeolite Y (NanoY) with uniform particle size, pure phase was prepared. NanoY was obtained by periodically removing nanocrystals from the mother liquor and recycling the unused reagents. The nanoparicles were characterized by XRD and TEM. Optically clear colloidal solutions of NanoY were obtained. The Ru complexes were anchored on the surface of zeolites via ion-exchange or "ship-in-bottle" synthesis. The spectroscopic properties of the NanoY-entrapped species including methyl viologen (MV2+), RuL were measured via transmission techniques. The zeolite-encapsulated species were found to have red-shift absorption and emission bands and longer MLCT life times. By incorporating both donors Ru complexes and acceptors MV2+ in NanoY, electron transfer kinetics was examined. LFP study showed a slower back-electron-transfer rate as compared to forward electron transfer. Photochemically generated long-lived charge separation is the key step in processes that aim for conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. We incorporated RuL complex on the surface of a pinhole-free zeolite membrane by quaternization of L and surrounded with intrazeolitic bipyridinium ions (N,N'-trimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium ion, 3DQ2+). Visible-light irradiation of the Ru complex side of the membrane in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor led to formation of PVS-· on the other side. Pore-blocking disilazane-based chemistry allows for Na+ to migrate through the membrane to maintain charge balance, while keeping the 3DQ2+ entrapped in the zeolite. These results provided encouragement that the zeolite membrane based architecture has the necessary features for not only incorporating molecular assemblies with long-lived charge separation but also for ready exploitation of the spatially separated charges to store visible light energy in chemical species. The pore-narrowing strategy applied under mild conditions can be used in control-release of active substances such as drug, pesticides, and herbicides. Methyl viologen (MV2+) was chosen as the guest molecule, since it is widely used as an herbicide and its release is of interest in agricultural applications. To explore the controlled-release capability of the surface-modified zeolite, MV2+-encapsulated zeolite Y particles were used as a model system. A MV2+-loaded zeolite was treated with disilazane reag

Zhang, Haoyu

269

Cognitive Technical Systems - What Is the Role of Artificial Intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly established cluster of excellence COTESYS 1 investigates the realization of cognitive capabilities such as perception, learning, reasoning, planning, and execution for technical systems including humanoid robots, flexi- ble manufacturing systems, and autonomous vehicles. In this paper we describe cognitive technical systems using a sensor-equipped kitchen with a robotic assis- tant as an example. We will particularly consider the

Michael Beetz; Martin Buss; Dirk Wollherr

2007-01-01

270

Solitary Confinement: Using Artificial Cells to Protect Computer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A security framework called Solitary Confinement (SC), using virtual machines to divide a computer system into small disposable units is described. A mixture of traditional computer security with ideas inspired by biology and the immune system are used for the design of the framework, which reduces the amount of damage malicious and buggy software can inflict on a computer system.

Jeff Gilchrist

2005-01-01

271

WSRPS: A Weaning Success Rate Prediction System Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weaning patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for clinical professionals. Medical professionals\\u000a usually make a decision to wean based mostly on their own experience. In this study, we present a weaning success rate prediction\\u000a system (WSRPS); it is a computer-aided system developed from MatLab interfaces using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms.\\u000a The goal of this system

Austin H. Chen; Guan-ting Chen

2009-01-01

272

Handling Constraints in Global Optimization Using Artificial Immune Systems: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) are computational intelligent systems inspired by some processes or theories observed in the\\u000a biological immune system. They have been applied to solve a wide range of machine learning and optimization problems. In this\\u000a chapter the main AIS-based proposals for solving constrained numerical optimization problems are shown. Although the first\\u000a works were hybrid solutions partially based on

Nareli Cruz-Cortés

273

AUTONOMIC ADAPTATION OF NETWORK APPLICATIONS WITH THE INET ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and empirically evaluates a biologi- cally-inspired adaptation mechanism that allows network applications to autonomously adapt to dynamic environ- ment changes in the network. Based on the observation that the immune system has elegantly achieved autono- mous adaptation, the proposed mechanism, called the iNet artificial immune system, follows the mechanisms behind how the immune system detects antigens (e.g.

Chonho Lee; Junichi Suzuki

274

A review of machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence (AI) process models have been successfully developed in\\u000a the past for optimising, predicting or controlling machining processes. In general, these monitoring systems present important\\u000a differences among them, and there are no clear guidelines for their implementation. In order to present a generic view of\\u000a machining monitoring systems and facilitate their implementation, this

Jose Vicente Abellan-Nebot; Fernando Romero Subirón

2010-01-01

275

Benefits and limitations of factitious prey and artificial diets on life parameters of predatory beetles, bugs, and lacewings: a mini-review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary peer-reviewed literature pertaining to rearing of predatory beetles, true bugs, and lacewings was reviewed and\\u000a synthesized. This study focused on the literature published from 1998 to 2007. Advances in rearing were revealed in relation\\u000a to the influence of factitious prey and artificial diets on predator life parameters. Eggs of the Angoumois grain moth and\\u000a Mediterranean flour moth were

Eric W. Riddick

2009-01-01

276

Development of a Through Tubing (Microhole) Artificial Lift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project was to develop a small diameter pump system capable of being deployed through existing production tubing strings in oil\\/gas wells. The pump system would then pump water up an inner tubing string (likely coil tubing) and allow gas to flow in the annulus between the coil tubing and production tubing. Accomplishing this would allow wells

Steve Bodden

2006-01-01

277

Estimation of systemic vascular bed parameters for artificial heart control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extended Kalman filter estimator for the identification of systemic circulation model parameters during cardiac ejection and cardiac filling is described. The estimator has been developed for use in the control of a cardiac ventricular assist device. A lumped element circuit with a time-varying capacitor was used to represent the systemic circulation and the left ventricle. Since the haemodynamic variables

Yih-Choung Yu; J. Robert Boston; Marwan A. Simaan; James F. Antaki

1998-01-01

278

Stages of Ethical Development in Artificial General Intelligence Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel theory of the stages of ethical development in intelligent systems is proposed, incorporating prior related theories by Kohlberg and Gilligan, as well as Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This theory is then applied to the ethical development of integrative AGI systems that contain components carrying out simulation and uncertain inference - the key hypothesis being that effective integration

Ben Goertzel; Stephan Vladimir Bugaj

2008-01-01

279

Identification of power system load dynamics using artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Power system loads are important for planning and operation of an electric power system. Load characteristics can significantly influence the results of synchronous stability and voltage stability studies. This paper presents a methodology for identification of power system load dynamics using neural networks. Input-output data of a power system dynamic load is used to design a neural network model which comprises delayed inputs and feedback connections. The developed neural network model can predict the future power system dynamic load behavior for arbitrary inputs. In particular, a third-order induction motor load neural network model is developed to verify the methodology. Neural network simulation results are illustrated and compared with the induction motor load response.

Bostanci, M.; Koplowitz, J.; Taylor, C.W. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)]|[Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1997-11-01

280

Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

1995-02-01

281

Detection technique for artificially illuminated objects in the outer solar system and beyond.  

PubMed

Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10(-3). Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope ? ? (d log F/d log D)=-4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit ?=-2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of ? for thousands of KBOs. If objects with ?=-2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. PMID:22490065

Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L

2012-04-10

282

Artificial spin system using composite structures of d- and s-wave superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the spontaneous half-quantized magnetic fluxes, a d-wave superconducting dot in an s-wave superconductor can be considered as a spin. Using two-components Ginzburg Landau equation, we obtained stable magnetic structures of this system and investigate its properties. Especially, the interaction between two d-wave superconducting dots is anisotropic and depends on their distance. So, we can construct various artificial spin systems changing lattice structure of d-wave superconducting dots.

Kato, Masaru; Hirayama, Masaki; Nakajima, Susumu; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko; Ishida, Takekazu

2007-03-01

283

Optimised Coverage of Non-self with Evolved Lymphocytes in an Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural immune system (NIS) protects the body against unwanted foreign material (non-self cells) that could damage the body (self cells). The NIS can be modeled into an artificial immune system (AIS) to detect any non-self patterns in a non-biological environment. Detectors in the NIS can change from their initial mature status to memory status detectors or to annihilated status.

A. J. Graaff; A. P. Engelbrecht

2006-01-01

284

Design of wireless transcutaneous energy transmission system for totally artificial hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wireless transcutaneous energy transmission system has been developed for totally artificial hearts. The complete system includes a dc-to-dc converter, dc-to-high-frequency transfer circuit, a coil-coupling structure, and a high-frequency-to-dc rectifying circuit. The power transfer is stabilized by feedback control of the phase of the input impedance of the resonant circuit. Experimental results showed that the output voltage variation was kept

C.-C. Tsai; B.-S. Chen; C.-M. Tsai

2000-01-01

285

Optimization of Steel Catenary Risers for Offshore Oil Production Using Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an application of Artificial Immune System (AIS) using Clonalg to the synthesis and optimization procedure of a Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) for floating oil production systems at deep and\\u000a ultra-deep waters. The evaluation of the behavior of riser configurations, needed for the calculation of the fitness function\\u000a in the optimization procedure by an evolutionary algorithm, requires a

Ian N. Vieira; Beatriz S. L. P. De Lima; Breno P. Jacob

2008-01-01

286

Real-time operation guide system for sintering process with artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize the sintering process, a real-time operation guide system with artificial intelligence was developed,\\u000a mainly including the data acquisition online subsystem, the sinter chemical composition controller, the sintering process\\u000a state controller, and the abnormal conditions diagnosis subsystem. Knowledge base of the sintering process controlling was\\u000a constructed, and inference engine of the system was established. Sinter chemical compositions

Xiao-hui Fan; Xu-ling Chen; Tao Jiang; Tao Li

2005-01-01

287

Life Stress and Illness: A Systems Approach  

PubMed Central

The link between stress and illness has been forged by researchers like Holmes and Rahe whose Social Readjustment Rating Scale can be used by family physicians to assess their patients' stress. The concept of stress has been clarified by the systems approach to illness. Stress and illness are embedded in a biopsychosocial matrix of several systems levels, each of which may be a source of stress as well as a support system. Stress is not the end result of a linear chain of causes and effects, but part of a feedback system in a community or family. The family is the major source of lifestyle and personality, the health belief system and modes of problem solving and coping, as well as of stress and support. The family physician can have a major role in educating the individual and family about stress and illness, and in altering the meaning of stress from catastrophe to challenge and source of growth. Anticipatory guidance for the normal crises of the life cycle and the crises of illness, loss and death can help prevent further family dysfunction and illness. Imagesp537-a

Christie-Seely, Janet

1983-01-01

288

A Standpipe Heat Exchanger for Use in a Standard CO2 Gas Supply System for Powered Artificial Limbs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irregular pressure regulation and abnormally high system pressures occurring under certain conditions in a standard carbon dioxide gas supply system used for artificial limbs have been investigated. A major reason for the reported malfunctioning was found...

A. J. Barter R. Hastings

1968-01-01

289

Artificial plaque removal with Carisolv system: a clinical approach.  

PubMed

In the present study, removal of artifcial plaque in pits and fissures with the Carisolv system was compared with that of conventional bristle brush methoda in vitro. The results indicate that in the dental clinic, complete plaque removal with the Carisolv is possible, and in addition to acid etching, treated cavity was almost free of debris which might increase sealant retention. PMID:17550047

Yamada, Yoshishige; Hossain, Mozammal; Kimura, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yukio; Masuda, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Yuko; Matsumoto, Koukichi

2007-01-01

290

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

291

Development of a Through Tubing (Microhole) Artificial Lift System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a small diameter pump system capable of being deployed through existing production tubing strings in oil/gas wells. The pump system would then pump water up an inner tubing string (likely coil tubing) and allow gas to flow in the annulus between the coil tubing and production tubing. Accomplishing this would allow wells that are currently loaded up (unable to flow at high enough rates to lift the fluid out of the wellbore) to continue to produce additional gas/oil reserves. The project was unable to complete a working test system due to unforeseen complexities in coupling the system components together in part due to the small diameter. Although several of the individual components were sourced and secured, coupling them together and getting electricity to the motor proved technically more difficult than expected. Thus, the project is no longer active due primarily to the complications realized in coupling the components and the difficulties in getting electricity to the submersible motor in a slimhole system. The other problem in finishing this project was the lack of financial resources. When the grant was first applied for it was expected that it would be awarded in early 2004. Since the grant was not actually awarded until the end of August 2004, GPS had basically run out of $$$ and the principle developer (Steve Bodden) had to find a full time job which began in late July 2004. When the grant was finally awarded in late August, it was still hoped that the project could proceed as a part time development but with less financial exposure to the partners in GPS. This became very problematic as it still had many technical obstacles to overcome to get it to the stage of prototype testing.

Steve Bodden

2006-09-30

292

Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the “Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System” (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem

Volker Bluem; Frank Paris

2001-01-01

293

A resource limited artificial immune system algorithm for supervised classification of multi\\/hyper-spectral remote sensing imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource limited artificial immune system (RLAIS), a new computational intelligence approach, is being increasingly recognized as one of the most competitive methods for data clustering and analysis. Nevertheless, owing to the inherent complexity of the conventional RLAIS algorithm, its application to multi\\/hyper?class remote sensing image classification has been considerably limited. This paper explores a novel artificial immune algorithm based

L. Zhang; Y. Zhong; B. Huang; P. Li

2007-01-01

294

Creating a two-layered augmented artificial immune system for application to computer network intrusion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer network security has become a very serious concern of commercial, industrial, and military organizations due to the increasing number of network threats such as outsider intrusions and insider covert activities. An important security element of course is network intrusion detection which is a difficult real world problem that has been addressed through many different solution attempts. Using an artificial immune system has been shown to be one of the most promising results. By enhancing jREMISA, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm inspired artificial immune system, with a secondary defense layer; we produce improved accuracy of intrusion classification and a flexibility in responsiveness. This responsiveness can be leveraged to provide a much more powerful and accurate system, through the use of increased processing time and dedicated hardware which has the flexibility of being located out of band.

Judge, Matthew G.; Lamont, Gary B.

2009-05-01

295

Creation of closed life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably contribute to the solution of the most pressing terrestrial problem - energy efficient production of food.

Gitelson, I.

296

Wireless Innovations as Enablers for Complex & Dynamic Artificial Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific and technological innovations of the last few decades in the field of wireless telecommunications and networking\\u000a have enabled a wide area of applications and services in healthcare, transportation, environmental protection, infotainment,\\u000a industrial automation, homeland security, smart urban environments and other disparate fields. At the same time the complexity\\u000a and criticality of these systems creates many technical challenges in their

Spyridon Vassilaras; Gregory S. Yovanof

2010-01-01

297

Catalysis and Life-Support Systems in Outer Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several methods of using catalysts in spacecraft life support systems are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on methods (catalytic) of utilizing waste products for crew life support functions. Formulas and charts are provided which show the rough dimen...

O. V. Krylov V. A. Naumov Y. Y. Sinyak

1974-01-01

298

Systems Biology, Synthetic Biology and the Origin of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition and applications of systems biology and synthetic biology can be broadened to encompass research on two fundamental problems facing biologists today: How did life begin? Can we fabricate a laboratory version of cellular life?

D. Deamer

2010-01-01

299

Systems Biology, Synthetic Biology and the Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition and applications of systems biology and synthetic biology can be broadened to encompass research on two fundamental problems facing biologists today: How did life begin? Can we fabricate a laboratory version of cellular life?

Deamer, D.

2010-04-01

300

Comparative evaluation of different membranes for the construction of an artificial liver support system.  

PubMed

During the past decades, many technological improvements have been made in the construction of extracorporeal liver support systems. Among these achievements, membranes of artificial capillary system, used as substrates of hepatocyte growth, aroused our interest in their application for the construction of bioreactors. The present paper studied the comparison of hepatocyte growth and function on six different membranes. Four of them are cellulose based membranes, Cuprophan, Hemophan, Cellulose acetate, and Bioflux; two are synthetic polymer SPAN and Polysulphone. Human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721, with moderately differentiated hepatocyte-specific functions, was inoculated into the hollow fiber cartridges. These cells were allowed to attach and to grow over these membranes. It was found that there existed differences in hepatocyte immobilization and growth among these membranes. They influenced the growth and functions of hepatoma cells in vitro to some extent. These results show that membrane is an important factor in the construction of capillary membrane bioreactors for artificial liver support. PMID:9093892

Qiang, S; Yaoting, Y; Hongyin, L; Klinkmann, H

1997-02-01

301

Artificial lymphatic drainage systems for vascularized microfluidic scaffolds.  

PubMed

The formation of a stably perfused microvasculature continues to be a major challenge in tissue engineering. Previous work has suggested the importance of a sufficiently large transmural pressure in maintaining vascular stability and perfusion. Here we show that a system of empty channels that provides a drainage function analogous to that of lymphatic microvasculature in vivo can stabilize vascular adhesion and maintain perfusion rate in dense, hydraulically resistive fibrin scaffolds in vitro. In the absence of drainage, endothelial delamination increased as scaffold density increased from 6 to 30 mg/mL and scaffold hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor of 20. Single drainage channels exerted only localized vascular stabilization, the extent of which depended on the distance between vessel and drainage as well as scaffold density. Computational modeling of these experiments yielded an estimate of 0.40-1.36 cm H2O for the minimum transmural pressure required for vascular stability. We further designed and constructed fibrin patches (0.8 × 0.9 cm(2)) that were perfused by a parallel array of vessels and drained by an orthogonal array of drainage channels; only with the drainage did the vessels display long-term stability and perfusion. This work underscores the importance of drainage in vascularization, especially when a dense, hydraulically resistive scaffold is used. PMID:23281125

Wong, Keith H K; Truslow, James G; Khankhel, Aimal H; Chan, Kelvin L S; Tien, Joe

2012-12-24

302

An artificial immune system for solving production scheduling problems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the production scheduling problems focusing on those related to flexible job-shop scheduling. Job-shop\\u000a and flexible job-shop scheduling problems are one of the most frequently encountered and hardest to optimize. This article\\u000a begins with a review of the job-shop and flexible job-shop scheduling problem, and follow by the literature on artificial\\u000a immune systems (AIS) and suggests ways them

Ahmad Shahrizal Muhamad; Safaai Deris

303

Influence of Substrate Composition and Current Velocity on Macroinvertebrates in a Semi-Artificial System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of substrate composition and current speed on the composition of macroinvertebrate communities under controlled hydraulic conditions using a semi-artificial system. Two sizes of substrate material (20 mm and 50 mm mean diameter) in five combinations were used to present variable substrata composition. Additionally, water velocity was set at three different levels—0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 ms. Current

Francesca Ciutti; Cristina Cappelletti; Catia Monauni; Maurizio Siligardi

2004-01-01

304

Development of simple fitness landscapes for peptides by artificial neural filter systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of artificial neural filter systems as fitness functions for sequence-oriented peptide design was evaluated. Two example applications were selected: classification of dipeptides according to their hydrophobicity and classification of proteolytic cleavage-sites of protein precursor sequences according to their mean hydrophobicities and mean side-chain volumes. The cleavage-sites covered 12 residues. In the dipeptide experiments the objective was to separate

Gisbert Schneider; Johannes Schuchhardt; Paul Wrede

1995-01-01

305

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING ON THE HYBRID LIGHTING SYSTEM COUPLED DAYLIGHT WITH ARTIFICIAL LIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The plant always exchanges the energy and material from the environment interactively (the photosynthesis effect anGEUHDWKLQJHIIHFW??WRVXSSO\\\\?WKHQXWULHQWIRUPDLQWDLQLQJWKH? OLIHRILWVHOI??7KH??KHDW¥?DQG??OLJKW¥?IURP? sun are the key factors. This study, was attempted to analyze the characteristics of sunlight (illumination and wavelength on the leaf surface), and then to develop a hybrid lighting system, which connected the daylight with some artificial lights, to mimic the characteristics

Po-Cheng CHOU

306

On Diversity and Artificial Immune Systems: Incorporating a Diversity Operator into aiNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When constructing biologically inspired algorithms, important properties to consider are openness, diversity, interaction,\\u000a structure and scale. In this paper, we focus on the property of diversity. Introducing diversity into biologically inspired\\u000a paradigms is a key feature of their success. Within the field of Artificial Immune Systems, little attention has been paid\\u000a to this issue. Typically, techniques of diversity introduction, such

Paul S. Andrews; Jon Timmis

2005-01-01

307

Apsis:. AN Artificial Planetary System in Space to Probe Extra-Dimensional Gravity and MOND  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made to test Newton's inverse-square law using the perihelion shift of test masses (planets) in free fall within a spacecraft located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Such an artificial planetary system in space (APSIS) will operate in a drag-free environment with controlled experimental conditions and minimal interference from terrestrial sources of contamination. We demonstrate that such a

Varun Sahni; Yuri Shtanov

2008-01-01

308

Multi-label Hierarchical Classification of Protein Functions with Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes two versions of an Artificial Immune System (AIS) - a relatively recent computational intelligence paradigm\\u000a – for predicting protein functions described in the Gene Ontology (GO). The GO has functional classes (GO terms) specified\\u000a in the form of a directed acyclic graph, which leads to a very challenging multi-label hierarchical classification problem\\u000a where a protein can be

Roberto Teixeira Alves; Myriam Regattieri Delgado; Alex Alves Freitas

2008-01-01

309

Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.  

PubMed

A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n?=?1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2?mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients. PMID:23506242

Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

2013-03-18

310

Applications of Artificial Intelligence Systems in the Analysis of Epidemiological Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the germane literature suggests that the use of artificial intelligence (AI) statistical algorithms in epidemiology\\u000a has been limited. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using AI systems in large-scale sets of epidemiological data\\u000a to extract inherent, formerly unidentified, and potentially valuable patterns that human-driven deductive models may miss.

Andreas D. Flouris; Jack Duffy

2006-01-01

311

Alkaline phosphatase refolding assisted by sequential use of oppositely charged detergents: A new artificial chaperone system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel artificial chaperone system, based on combination of oppositely charged detergents, was elaborated to refold soluble alkaline phosphatase. Upon dilution of urea-denatured alkaline phosphatase to a nondenaturing urea concentration in the presence of the capturing agent, complexes of the detergent and non-native protein molecules are formed and thereby the formation of protein aggregates is prevented. The so-called captured protein

Razieh Yazdanparast; Fariba Khodagholi; Effat Souri

2008-01-01

312

A Trail Based Internet-Domain Recommender System using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of artificial neural networks, trained with patterns extracted from trail data, as recommender systems. More specifically, feed-forward Multilayer-Perceptrons trained with the Backpropagation Algorithm were used to assign a rating to pairs of do- mains, based on the number of people that have traversed between them. This rating, applied to the hyper-graph neighborhood of an HTML

Tobias Berka; Wernher Behrendt; Erich Gams; Siegfried Reich

313

Rule based artificial intelligence expert system for determination of upper extremity impairment rating.  

PubMed

Quantitative evaluation of upper extremity impairment, a percentage rating most often determined using a rule based procedure, has been implemented on a personal computer using an artificial intelligence, rule-based expert system (AI system). In this study, the rules given in Chapter 3 of the AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment (Third Edition) were used to develop such an AI system for the Apple Macintosh. The program applies the rules from the Guides in a consistent and systematic fashion. It is faster and less error-prone than the manual method, and the results have a higher degree of precision, since intermediate values are not truncated. PMID:8334872

Lim, I; Walkup, R K; Vannier, M W

1993-04-01

314

Product Life Cycle Costing Applied to Manufacturing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Cycle Costing (LCC) supports the adaptation of product features, both consumer and capital goods, to their life cycle. The costs of production, installation, usage and disposal are analyzed and allocated, aiming at the minimum of the total cost. A new method to calculate the life cycle costs of capital goods, such as machines and manufacturing systems, is presented to

E. Westkämper; D. v. d. Osten-Sacken

1998-01-01

315

Service life prediction modelling of adhesive ceramic tiling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ceramic tiling on building facades has a history of long durability and service life, a number of service life anomalies in modern buildings have occurred. To identify the factors and address this problem, a method is developed for the service life prediction of adhesive ceramic tiling systems based on a successful model for render and natural stone cladding. The

Rita Bordalo; Jorge de Brito; Pedro Lima Gaspar; Ana Silva

2011-01-01

316

Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum

Christophe Lasseur

2008-01-01

317

An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System  

PubMed Central

Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time.

Martinelli, Eugenio; Polese, Davide; Dini, Francesca; Paolesse, Roberto; Filippini, Daniel; Lundstrom, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

2011-01-01

318

Life-support system: emergency medical care for conventions.  

PubMed

The life-support system described provides on-site emergency medical care for a designated group of people. It consists of a fixed subunit, a back-up emergency department; a temporary subunit, a life support station, and a mobile subunit, an ambulance and mobile medical personnel. A proposal for a life-support system for indoor conventions is presented with specifications of personnel, communications, supplies, registrant education and life-support team function. Results, critique, and discussion of a life-support station at the 1974 Annual ACEP/EDNA Scientific Assembly are presented. PMID:1271595

Meislin, H W; Rosen, P; Sternbach, G W

1976-05-01

319

Self-Assembly Strategies for Integrating Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor?acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular 'wires' that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition properties to facilitate self-assembly of complete, functional artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we explore how self-assembly strategies involving ?-stacking can be used to integrate light harvesting with charge separation and transport.

Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

2011-09-28

320

Natural and artificial intelligence. Processor systems compared to the human brain  

SciTech Connect

This comparison of artificial intelligence systems to the human brain has implications for a variety of disciplines. Original views are specified and compared with traditional models. Main Features: 1. Integration of logic programming in the brain functions. 2. New computer parallel architecture (for hardware engineers). 3. Main principles of symbolic manipulation by logic programming (for software engineers in Al, expert systems and logic programming). 4. Logical models of brain connections and functions (for neuroscientists). 5. Definition of memory types and functions (for psychologists). 6. Parallel between Al applied to robots and theory of knowledge (for philosophers).

de Callatay, A.M.

1986-01-01

321

Examination of artificial intelligence and decision support systems in support of managerial decision making  

SciTech Connect

The merging of the artificial intelligence (AI) and decision support systems (DSS) philosophies seems to be a logical eventuality in future years of software system development. The complexity of the managerial decision making environment portends that applications of sophisticated concepts such as those associated with AI are an inevitable outcome if responsive DSS are to be provided. A conceptual framework for this merging is proposed in this paper. This model incorporates four modules, one of which, the AI and learning module, is responsible for the active role which characterizes the use of AI concepts in their projected role. 25 references.

Wang, M.S.Y.; Roach, T.W.

1984-01-01

322

An Artificial Immune System with Feedback Mechanisms for Effective Handling of Population Size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a feedback artificial immune system (FAIS). Inspired by the feedback mechanisms in the biological immune system, the proposed algorithm effectively manipulates the population size by increasing and decreasing B cells according to the diversity of the current population. Two kinds of assessments are used to evaluate the diversity aiming to capture the characteristics of the problem on hand. Furthermore, the processing of adding and declining the number of population is designed. The validity of the proposed algorithm is tested for several traveling salesman benchmark problems. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm when compared with the traditional genetic algorithm and an improved clonal selection algorithm.

Gao, Shangce; Wang, Rong-Long; Ishii, Masahiro; Tang, Zheng

323

Artificial Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model chemical and biochemical systems as collectives of interacting stochastic automata, with each automaton representing\\u000a a molecule that undergoes state transitions. In this artificial biochemistry, automata interact by the equivalent of the law of mass action. We investigate several simple but intriguing automata collectives\\u000a by stochastic simulation and by ODE analysis.

Luca Cardelli

2009-01-01

324

Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults  

SciTech Connect

Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Applequist, C. A. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Chasensky, T.M. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-03-01

325

Micro- and macroorganisms in life support systems (problem of coexistence)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every life support system has an associated microflora that is not essential to functioning of the system. At the same time, the confined space of a closed system increases the significance of the associated microflora causing closer contact between components and enhancing the intensity of exchange between them. For any life support system that is functioning normally. there exists an optimum between the effort necessary to maintain the system in a healthy state and the damage the introduction of alien microflora can cause.

Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Huttenbach, R. C.

1996-01-01

326

The INCA system: a further step towards a telemedical artificial pancreas.  

PubMed

Biomedical engineering research efforts have accomplished another level of a "technological solution" for diabetes: an artificial pancreas to be used by patients and supervised by healthcare professionals at any time and place. Reliability of continuous glucose monitoring, availability of real-time programmable insulin pumps, and validation of safe and efficient control algorithms are critical components for achieving that goal. Nevertheless, the development and integration of these new technologies within a telemedicine system can be the basis of a future artificial pancreas. This paper introduces the concept, design, and evaluation of the "intelligent control assistant for diabetes, INCA" system. INCA is a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based personal smart assistant to provide patients with closed-loop control strategies (personal and remote loop), based on a real-time continuous glucose sensor (Guardian RT, Medtronic), an insulin pump (D-TRON, Disetronic Medical Systems), and a mobile general packet radio service (GPRS)-based telemedicine communication system. Patient therapeutic decision making is supervised by doctors through a multiaccess telemedicine central server that provides to diabetics and doctors a Web-based access to continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion data. The INCA system has been technically and clinically evaluated in two randomized and crossover clinical trials showing an improvement on glycaemic control of diabetic patients. PMID:18632327

Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando Pérez, M Elena; Vering, Thomas; Rigla Cros, Mercedes; Bott, Oliver; García-Sáez, Gema; Pretschner, Peter; Brugués, Eulalia; Schnell, Oliver; Patte, Caroline; Bergmann, Joachim; Dudde, Ralf; de Leiva, Alberto

2008-07-01

327

Fuzzy learning vector quantization neural network and its application for artificial odor recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a kind of fuzzy algorithm for learning vector quantization is developed and used as pattern classifiers with a supervised learning paradigm in artificial odor discrimination system. In this type of FLVQ, the neuron activation is derived through fuzziness of the input data, so that the neural system could deal with the statistical of the measurement error directly. During learning,the similarity between the training vector and the reference vectors are calculated, and the winning reference vector is updated in two ways. Firstly, by shifting the central position of the fuzzy reference vector toward or away from the input vector, and secondly, by modifying its fuzziness. Two types of fuzziness modifications are used, i.e., a constant modification factor and a variable modification factor. This type of FLVQ is different in nature with FALVQ, and in this paper, the performance of FNLVQ network is compared with that of FALVQ in artificial odor recognition system. Experimental results show that both FALVQ and FNLVQ provided high recognition probability in determining various learn-category of odors, however, the FNLVQ neural system has the ability to recognize the unlearn-category of odor that could not recognized by FALVQ neural system.

Kusumoputro, Benyamin; Budiarto, Hary; Jatmiko, Wisnu

2000-03-01

328

Artificial intelligence: expert systems for corps tactical planning and other applications. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Systems such as those that play games, diagnose engine problems, or organize cargo loads in ships are all examples of artificial intelligence. The sub-discipline of expert systems deals with computerized imitation of the reasoning of judgment process of human experts. CECOM's expert system for tactical planning draws its tactical expertise from the US Army War College students that comprise study group. Computer scientists who have a long-term commitment to the CECOM project work with the study group experts to extract and understand what rules, guidelines, or thought processes the group uses to generate a tactical plan for a Corps operation. The computer scientist takes these lists of information and converts them into computer knowledge which eventually becomes rules that will govern program output. In the heuristic environment of tactical planning, it would not be unreasonable to expect the finished expert system to contain between 20 and 50,000 such rules. The multi-year approach to the project is driven home by the recognition that a hand-crafted expert system might have 20 rules after the first year of effort. By working with CECOM's knowledge engineers, participating in numerous group sessions, going on TDY trips, and reading extensively, study group members developed an appreciation for some of the difficulties and opportunities associated with the use of artificial intelligence in its various military applications.

Back, J.F.; Barbone, A.F.; Crocker, G.K.; Johnson, L.M.; Jones, L.D.

1987-03-23

329

Hypersaline Microbial Systems of Sabkhas: Examples of Life's Survival in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life and living systems need several important factors to establish themselves and to have a continued tradition. In this article the nature of the borderline situation for microbial life under heavy salt stress is analyzed and discussed using the example of biofilms and microbial mats of sabkha systems of the Red Sea. Important factors ruling such environments are described, and

Wolfgang Elisabeth Krumbein; Anna A. Gorbushina; Elisabeth Holtkamp-Tacken

2004-01-01

330

Regenerative life support systems-Why do we need them?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and

D. J. Barta; D. L. Henninger

1994-01-01

331

Applications of Living Systems Theory to Life in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conceptual system and methodology of living systems theory appear to be of value to research on life in isolated environments. A space station, which must provide suitable conditions for human life in a stressful environment that meets none of the bas...

J. G. Miller

1992-01-01

332

Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment.

Gaurav Misra

2010-01-01

333

Artificial intelligence and the law: will expert systems replace expert lawyers  

SciTech Connect

Summary form only given, as follows. The commercial availability of expert systems utilizing specially developed knowledge bases raises significant questions about their potential utility in the practice of law. These systems, built with the aid of recent developments in artificial intelligence research, may only prove useful in certain areas of legal practice. Counselling and interviewing are areas where expert systems are likely to effect marked changes in the practice of law. In contract, computerized legal research using a knowledge-based system is more difficult to envision. This is due to complexities presented by the multiplicity of sources of the law, and by conflicting opinions and interpretations in the common law. In the coming decade, use of expert systems in science and medicine will grow rapidly, and attempts will continue to be made to automate the legal reasoning process. As past research efforts have demonstrated, this will not be an easy task.

Grossman, G.S.

1983-01-01

334

Recognizing animal-caused faults in power distribution systems using artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Faults are likely to occur in most power distribution systems. If the causes of the faults are known, specific action can be taken to eliminate the fault sources as soon as possible to avoid unnecessary costs, such as power system down-time cost, that are caused by failing to identify the fault sources. However, experts that can accurately recognize the causes of distribution faults are scarce and the knowledge about the nature of these faults is easily transferable from person to person. Therefore, artificial neural networks are used in this paper to recognize the causes of faults in power distribution systems, based on fault currents information collected for each outage. Actual field data collected by Duke Power Company are used in this paper. The methodology and implementation of artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic for the identification of animal-caused distribution faults will be presented. Satisfactory results have been obtained, and the developed methodology can be easily generalized and used to identify other causes of faults in power distribution systems.

Chow, Mo Yuen; Yee, S.O. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Taylor, L.S. (Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States). Distribution Engineering)

1993-07-01

335

Direct observation of magnetic monopole defects in an artificial spin-ice system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustration is the inability to satisfy the bonding requirements of all pairs in a system. Spin-ice materials have proven to be a model system to study frustration, and more recently they have been shown both theoretically and experimentally to be home to exotic excitations, whereby the atomic magnetic moments fractionalize into monopoles. Two-dimensional Kagome and square lattice systems have been shown to capture the physics of frustration and reproduce the ice-rules. In this study we have carried out magnetic force microscopy (MFM) at remanence in order to understand the magnetic reversal of an artificial kagome ice structure. We find that during the switching process ice-rule violating defects which carry magnetic charge are created and hop through the lattice with further increments to the magnetic field. These defects are the two-dimensional equivalent of magnetic monopoles in bulk spin-ice and hence are defined as monopole defects. The dynamics of the monopole defects through the artificial spin ice system will be discussed. High resolution MFM imaging at vertices and OOMMF simulations allow the micro-magnetic configuration of a monopole defect to be resolved.

Ladak, Sam; Read, Dan; Perkins, Garry; Branford, Will; Cohen, Lesley

2010-03-01

336

Vacuum generation in pneumatic artificial heart drives with a specially designed ejector system.  

PubMed

To improve the filling characteristics of pneumatically driven membrane artificial hearts (AHs), a vacuum is applied during diastole. This paper describes an ejector system for AH-drivers based on the Venturi effect, which was designed for this purpose. It provides vacuums of more than -40 mmHg at flow rates up to 50 l/min requiring a supplying primary gas pressure of less than 150 kPa (1140 mmHg). Under normal working conditions, the necessary supply flow was less than 5l/min. The device is small, cheap, quiet and fail-safe, and has been evaluated successfully in experimental and clinical use. PMID:2357149

Schima, H; Huber, L; Spitaler, F

1990-06-01

337

Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transcutaneous optical information transmission system (TOITS) offers the most promising method for noninvasively transmitting the information to control a total artificial heart (TAH). We had used light-emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD) with different wavelengths for full-duplex bidirectional communication in the TOITS. In this study, reduction of optical crosstalk in full-duplex bidirectional communication was investigated by using a combination of two orthogonal polarizers with the same wavelength. As a result, we confirmed that optical crosstalk could be prevented for communication through a cow's skin (3.5 mm thick) and that the signal waveform could be transmitted satisfactorily.

Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji

338

Animat Vision: Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision r e- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artific ial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the pr evailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artifici al animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as aut onomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems.

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

1995-01-01

339

Risk assessment and life prediction of complex engineering systems  

SciTech Connect

Many complex engineering systems will exceed their design life expectancy within the next 10 to 15 years. It is also expected that these systems must be maintained and operated beyond their design life. This paper presents a integrated approach for managing the risks associated with aging effects and predicting the residually expectancy these systems, The approach unifies risk assessment, enhanced surveillance and testing, and robust computational models to assess the risk, predict age, and develop a life-extension management procedure. It also relies on the state of the art in life-extension and risk assessment methods from the nuclear power industry. Borrowing from the developments in decision analysis, this approach should systematically identify the options available for managing the existing aging systems beyond their intended design life.

Garcia, M.D.; Varma, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heger, A.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

1996-03-01

340

Rearing greater rhea (Rhea americana) chicks: is adoption more effective than the artificial intensive system?  

PubMed

(1) Survival and weight gain of farmed Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) chicks reared by the adult males that adopted them were compared with those of chicks reared under an artificial intensive system. (2) Both variables were periodically recorded up to the age of 3 months. Gompertz growth curves were fitted to individual growth data using the average adult weight of this population as asymptote. (3) No significant differences in survival rate were detected between systems (adoption=47%, intensive=43%). However, during the first half of the breeding season (mid-spring to mid-summer), the growth rate of adopted chicks (0.01481) was higher than that of intensively reared chicks (0.01296). (4) The adoption system may be more effective in terms of growth, and is probably more efficient in cost/effectiveness than the artificial intensive technique most frequently used. Adoption by males has additional advantages, such as a correct imprinting of the chicks and the selection of more capable individuals. Therefore, it should be used not only commercially but also in conservation projects where individuals are released to the wild. PMID:15835248

Barri, F R; Navarro, J L; Maceira, N O; Martella, M B

2005-02-01

341

Investigation of the Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recurrent and feedforward artificial neural networks are developed as wavefront reconstructors. The recurrent neural network studied is the Hopfield neural network and the feedforward neural network studied is the single layer perceptron artificial neural...

A. H. Suzuki

1991-01-01

342

Design of an artificial immune system as a novel anomaly detector for combating financial fraud in the retail sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retail sector often does not possess sufficient knowledge about potential or actual frauds. This requires the retail sector to employ an anomaly detection approach to fraud detection. To detect anomalies in retail transactions, the fraud detection system introduced in this work implements various salient features of the human immune system. This novel artificial immune system, called CIFD (Computer Immune

Jungwon Kim; Arlene Ong; Richard E. Overill

2003-01-01

343

Development of autonomous paracorporeal and implanted artificial heart and circulatory assist systems.  

PubMed

The development of autonomous systems for the artificial heart (AH) and for circulatory assistance (CA) has taken several directions. Studies relating to one direction--the development of paracorporeal and implanted systems based on thermal or electric motors--have been conducted at our institute in two stages, moving from stationary systems to totally implanted systems for long-term use. The development of these systems is described. Improvements in the linear solenoid motor, used in some of the first paracorporeal systems, enabled progress toward the development of implanted CA systems based on a reversing electrohydraulic actuator. Modifications were also made in the control system. Early animal testing of these systems indicated that they could be effective in unburdening the heart cavities during left and right bypasses. Full implantation, however, demanded that the devices have improved forms and dimensions and less weight. Smaller electromechanical systems are being developed, and we are experimenting with ways to increase the overall autonomy of the system. An orthotopic model of an implanted AH is promising. Experiments continue on the use of the body's own skeletal muscles to create a blood pump. PMID:3566582

Shumakov, V I; Kiselev, Iu M; Tolpekin, V E; Makeev, A N; Razgulov, M M; Vasin, S L

1987-02-01

344

The University of Leeds: Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems at the University of Leeds draws from "expertise in solid mechanics and mechatronics to carry out multi-disciplinary R&D." The group's research focuses on materials, structural optimization, dynamic systems, automotive applications, control systems and mobile robotics. This website describes the organization's current research activities as well as future plans. The group's theoretical and practical research activities include, for example, dynamic material properties and processing, which they apply to studies of impact crashworthiness of composite race-car structures and impact biomechanics such as in spinal burst fracture. The group also houses the Leeds/Ricardo Automotive Driveline research program. A bibliography of publications is posted here, but the full articles are available only to staff and students who can access the University of Leeds Publications Database. The research section, however, provides a nice overview of the various projects.

345

Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

Pennock, K A

1991-07-01

346

Monitoring natural and artificial radioactivity enhancement in the Aegean Sea using floating measuring systems.  

PubMed

In the present work, the enhancement of radioactivity due to rainfall in the Aegean Sea using floating measuring systems was observed and quantified. The data were acquired with a NaI underwater detection system, which was installed on a floating measuring system at a depth of 3m. The results of natural and artificial radioactivity are discussed taking into account the rainfall intensity and wind direction. The activity concentration of (214)Bi increased up to (991+/-102)Bq/m(3) after strong rainfall in the North Aegean Sea in winter (humid period) with east wind direction. On other hand, the maximum activity concentration reached the level of (110+/-10)Bq/m(3) in summer (dry period) during south winds. PMID:18495486

Tsabaris, C

2008-04-12

347

Identification of artificial gamma-emitting nuclides using a scintillator-based gamma-ray spectral logging system  

SciTech Connect

The standard spectral gamma ray logging system used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contains a large sodium iodide detector which provides high efficiency but low energy resolution. To enhance the capabilities of this system for identifying artificial gamma-emitting nuclides, I developed and implemented a simple procedure for extracting artificial components from low-resolution gamma-ray spectra. This procedures uses three bias spectra, developed by a consultant using numerical modeling, representing the spectral response of the downhole instrument to naturally occurring potassium, uranium and thorium family gamma rays in a large-diameter air-filled borehole. To extract the artificial spectral components, the three basis spectra are first scaled to the recorded field spectrum using the usual spectral windows for K, U and Th; these windows bracket the photopeaks at 1.46, 1.76 and 2.61 MeV. Since most of the contribution from artificial nuclides will fall below 1.26 MeV (the lower limit of the potassium window) this scaling process should be insensitive to the presence of artificial nuclides. The scaled basis spectra are then subtracted from the field data, leaving a residual spectrum consisting of noise plus the contribution of any artificial gamma-emitting nuclides. This process is repeated for each spectrum in the log, or the spectra can be accumulated over any desired depth range for better statistics. Rather than inspect each spectrum visually, a parameter can be computed which indicates the presence of artificial nuclides; this parameter can be plotted along with the usual K, U and Th concentration estimates as a function of depth. These techniques have been used successfully on field data and provide us with an inexpensive screening tool to detect artificial nuclides along boreholes. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Conaway, J.G.

1991-01-01

348

Theoretical and experimental decisions in the creation of an artificial ecosystem for human life support in space.  

PubMed

All of man's former space flights were not real ventures into space in the biological sense, as his life was supported with unregenerated earth supplies. The coming stage of space exploration requires man's long existence in the cosmos and on the other planets. This stage of man's activity outside the earth become possible only by creating small man-made ecosystems, permitting the support of his metabolism by the recycling of substances of the terrestrial biosphere. Creation of such systems is a new scientific and technical task. Man-made ecosystems are a new product of man's activity, which have no complete analogy, either in nature, or in technology. Stochastic mechanisms, which stabilize biogeocenosis, cannot be effective in small ecosystems. A technique of parametric control over biosynthesis made it possible to calculate, and put to practice, an ecosystem for man with a cyclic regeneration of the atmosphere, water and, partially, food. The specific bio-technological properties of small man-made ecosystems are being analysed. The possibility of their application for man's excursions into space and for the settlement of other planets is being considered. PMID:12206189

Kirensky, L V; Gitelson, I I; Terskov, I A; Kovrov, B G; Lisovsky, G M; Okladnikov, Y N

1971-01-01

349

Three tier architecture for controlling space life support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing life support for remote facilities requires maintaining environmental conditions beneficial to humans and plants, and managing resources like water, product gases, and food. Appropriate allocation and coordination of these tasks among humans, robots, and life support systems is important for efficient operations. The need for operational flexibility and reactivity combined with the need to reduce crew workload and the

D. Schreckenghost; P. Bonasso; D. Kortenkamp; D. Ryan

1998-01-01

350

Robot System to Search for Signs of Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This describes a robot system that can be used to look for the tell-tale signs of life on Mars. Currently, NASA has satellites in orbit that can identify broad regions to explore in its search for life. NASA also has instruments that can examine samples of Martian soil to see if they contain any indications of biological activity. This leaves

Gary T. Anderson; Edward W. Tunstel; Edmond W. Wilson

2007-01-01

351

Self-organized network with a supervised training and its comparison with FALVQ in artificial odor recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial odor recognition system is developed in order to mimic the human sensory test in cosmetics, parfum and beverage industries. The developed system however, lacks of ability to recognize the unknown type of odor. To improve the system's capability, a hybrid neural system with a supervised learning paradigm is developed and used as a pattern classifier. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid neural system is investigated, together with that of FALVQ neural system.

Kusumoputro, Benyamin; Rostiviani, Linda; Saptawijaya, Ari

2000-07-01

352

Use of artificial neural networks for analysis of complex physical systems  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical models of physical systems are used, among other purposes, to improve our understanding of the behavior of physical systems, predict physical system response, and control the responses of systems. Phenomenological models are frequently used to simulate system behavior, but an alternative is available - the artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is an inductive, or data-based model for the simulation of input/output mappings. The ANN can be used in numerous frameworks to simulate physical system behavior. ANNs require training data to learn patterns of input/output behavior, and once trained, they can be used to simulate system behavior within the space where they were trained.They do this by interpolating specified inputs among the training inputs to yield outputs that are interpolations of =Ming outputs. The reason for using ANNs for the simulation of system response is that they provide accurate approximations of system behavior and are typically much more efficient than phenomenological models. This efficiency is very important in situations where multiple response computations are required, as in, for example, Monte Carlo analysis of probabilistic system response. This paper describes two frameworks in which we have used ANNs to good advantage in the approximate simulation of the behavior of physical system response. These frameworks are the non-recurrent and recurrent frameworks. It is assumed in these applications that physical experiments have been performed to obtain data characterizing the behavior of a system, or that an accurate finite element model has been run to establish system response. The paper provides brief discussions on the operation of ANNs, the operation of two different types of mechanical systems, and approaches to the solution of some special problems that occur in connection with ANN simulation of physical system response. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate system simulation with ANNs.

Benjamin, A.; Altman, B.; O`Gorman, C.; Rodeman, R.; Paez, T.L.

1996-12-31

353

Portable electronic nose system with gas sensor array and artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable electronic nose system has been fabricated and characterized using an oxide semiconductor gas sensor array and artificial neural network. The sensor array consists of such thick-film oxide semiconductor sensing materials as Pd-doped WO3, Pt-doped SnO2, TiO2–Sb2O5–Pd-doped SnO2, TiO2–Sb2O5–Pd-doped SnO2+Pd-coated layer, Al2O3-doped ZnO and PdCl2-doped SnO2. The portable electronic nose system consists of an Intel 80c196kc as CPU, an

Hyung-Ki Hong; Chul Han Kwon; Seung-Ryeol Kim; Dong Hyun Yun; Kyuchung Lee; Yung Kwon Sung

2000-01-01

354

System concept and analysis of an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognition of performance limitations associated with traditional skywave over-the-horizon (OTH) high frequency (HF) radars has led a number of investigators to propose the creation of an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) in the upper atmosphere, in order to reflect ground-based radar signals for OTH surveillance. The AIM is produced by beaming sufficient electromagnetic power to the lower ionosphere (around 70 km) to enhance the in situ ionization level to 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 8) electrons/cu cm, thereby providing an ionized layer capable of reflecting radar frequencies of 30 to 90 MHz. This paper presents a baseline AIM system concept and an associated performance evaluation, based upon the relevant ionization and propagation physics and in the context of air surveillance for the cruise missile threat. Results of the subject study indicate that a system using this concept would both complement and enhance the performance of the existing skywave OTH radars.

Short, Robert D.; Stewart, Clayton V.; Wallace, Tom; Lallement, Pierre; Koert, Peter

1990-08-01

355

Improvement of artery radii determination with single ultra sound channel hardware & in vitro artificial heart system.  

PubMed

In several clinical and experimental circumstances, it is widely necessary to characterize the bio-mechanical changes induced by atherosclerosis to the arterial wall. In this context, the purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to propose a low cost ultrasound setup to improve artery radii determination in elasticity experiments, based on two transducers using a single channel ultrasound hardware. Secondly, to present an in vitro artificial heart system developed in our laboratory, which provides a wide range of hemodynamic parameters in arterial elasticity assessment experiments. It can be used in a liquid, stand alone mode or blowing air to a Jarvik device. This system will be integrated in future works with the proposed ultrasound setup to provide real time elasticity measurements. PMID:21096436

Balay, G; Brum, J; Bia, D; Armentano, R L; Negreira, C A

2010-01-01

356

Biological life-support systems for Mars mission.  

PubMed

Mars mission like the Lunar base is the first venture to maintain human life beyond earth biosphere. So far, all manned space missions including the longest ones used stocked reserves and can not be considered egress from biosphere. Conventional path proposed by technology for Martian mission LSS is to use physical-chemical approaches proved by the experience of astronautics. But the problem of man living beyond the limits of the earth biosphere can be fundamentally solved by making a closed ecosystem for him. The choice optimum for a Mars mission LSS can be substantiated by comparing the merits and demerits of physical-chemical and biological principles without ruling out possible compromise between them. The work gives comparative analysis of ecological and physical-chemical principles for LSS. Taking into consideration universal significance of ecological problems with artificial LSS as a particular case of their solution, complexity and high cost of large-scale experiments with manned LSS, it would be expedient for these works to have the status of an International Program open to be joined. A program of making artificial biospheres based on preceding experience and analysis of current situation is proposed. PMID:11537063

Gitelson, J I

1992-01-01

357

Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

1995-06-01

358

A photocatalyst-enzyme coupled artificial photosynthesis system for solar energy in production of formic acid from CO2.  

PubMed

The photocatalyst-enzyme coupled system for artificial photosynthesis process is one of the most promising methods of solar energy conversion for the synthesis of organic chemicals or fuel. Here we report the synthesis of a novel graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst which covalently bonded the chromophore, such as multianthraquinone substituted porphyrin with the chemically converted graphene as a photocatalyst of the artificial photosynthesis system for an efficient photosynthetic production of formic acid from CO(2). The results not only show a benchmark example of the graphene-based material used as a photocatalyst in general artificial photosynthesis but also the benchmark example of the selective production system of solar chemicals/solar fuel directly from CO(2). PMID:22769600

Yadav, Rajesh K; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Oh, Gyu Hwan; Park, No-Joong; Kong, Ki-jeong; Kim, Jinheung; Hwang, Dong Won; Biswas, Soumya K

2012-07-06

359

Aspects of a Natural Language Based Artificial Intelligence System Report Number Seven: Language and the Structure of Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ARIS is an artificial intelligence system which uses the English language to learn, understand, and communicate. The system attempts to simulate the psychoneurological processes which enable man to communicate verbally. It uses a modified stratificational grammar model and is being programed in PL/1 (a programing language) for an IBM 360/67…

Borden, George A.

360

Towards an artificial immune system for network intrusion detection: an investigation of clonal selection with a negative selection operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes research towards the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. Specifically, we focus on one significant component of a complete AIS, static clonal selection with a negative selection operator, describing this system in detail. Three different data sets from the UCI repository for machine learning are used in the experiments. Two important factors,

Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

2001-01-01

361

Development of Artificial Neural Networks-Based In-Process Flash Monitoring (ANN-IPFM) System in Injection Molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an artificial neural networks-based in-process flash monitoring system (ANN-IPFM)\\u000a in the injection molding process. This proposed system integrates two sub-systems. One is the vibration monitoring sub-system\\u000a that utilizes an accelerometer sensor to collect and process vibration signals during the injection molding process. The other,\\u000a a threshold prediction sub-system, predicts a control threshold based on

Joseph Chen; Mandara Savage

2007-01-01

362

Ethical Challenges With Deactivation of Durable Mechanical Circulatory Support at the End of Life: Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Total Artificial Hearts.  

PubMed

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and total artificial hearts (TAHs) are surgically implanted as permanent treatment of unrecoverable heart failure. Both LVADs and TAHs are durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices that can prolong patient survival but also alter end-of-life trajectory. The permissibility of discontinuing assisted circulation is controversial because device deactivation is a life-ending intervention. Durable MCS is intended to successfully replace native physiological functions in heart disease. We posit that the presence of new lethal pathophysiology (ie, a self-perpetuating cascade of abnormal physiological processes causing death) is a central element in evaluating the permissibility of deactivating an LVAD or a TAH. Consensual discontinuation of durable MCS is equivalent with allowing natural death when there is an onset of new lethal pathophysiology that is unrelated to the physiological functions replaced by an LVAD or a TAH. Examples of such lethal conditions include irreversible coma, circulatory shock, overwhelming infections, multiple organ failure, refractory hypoxia, or catastrophic device failure. In all other situations, deactivating the LVAD/TAH is itself the lethal pathophysiology and the proximate cause of death. We postulate that the onset of new lethal pathophysiology is the determinant factor in judging the permissibility of the life-ending discontinuation of a durable MCS. PMID:22398630

Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

2012-03-22

363

Progress of an electrohydraulic total artificial heart system with a separate energy converter.  

PubMed

We have been developing an electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) system. The system consists of diaphragm blood pumps, an abdominally placed energy converter, an internal controller, a transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system, a transcutaneous optical information transfer system, and internal and external lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The energy converter was optimized to obtain better oil transfer. Maximum cardiac output and efficiency of the EHTAH were increased from 8 L/min to 10 L/min and from 10% to 12%, respectively. The volume of the energy converter was reduced from 280 to 210 ml. The pumping unit was successfully implanted in 68-85 kg calves without anatomic problems, and the calves survived up to 10 days with good circulatory results. The maximum temperature rise of the implanted energy converter was only 1 degrees C. Stable performance of the TET system was confirmed in goats for more than 1 month. DC-DC energy transfer efficiency with 20 W of energy transmission remained within the range of 80% to 85%, and no significant temperature rise was observed in the implanted circuit. The internal Li-ion battery was also evaluated in a goat, and the maximum temperature rise during the charging period was 1.5 degrees C, while the charging and discharging times were 72 and 58 min, respectively. We conclude that our system has progressed in its development as a practical implantable system. PMID:10503628

Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Taenaka, Y; Nakamura, M; Endo, S; Takano, H; Koshiji, K; Fukui, Y; Murai, T; Tsukahara, K

364

Intelligent automated control of life support systems using proportional representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective automatic control of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) is a crucial component of space ex- ploration. An ALSS is a coupled dynamical system which can be extremely sensitive and difficult to predict. As a result, such systems can be difficult to control using deliberative and deter- ministic methods. We investigate the performance of two machine learning algorithms, a genetic

Annie S. Wu; Ivan I. Garibay

2004-01-01

365

CASAS: An Effective Measurement System for Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The California Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) is a comprehensive educational system designed to enable adult educators to develop and evaluate a life skills curriculum for competency based educational programs. The system comprises the CASAS Competency List, the CASAS Item Bank, the User's Manual, the Curriculum Index and Matrix, and…

Stiles, Richard L.; And Others

366

CASAS: An Effective Measurement System for Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The California Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) is a comprehensive educational system designed to enable adult educators to develop and evaluate a life skills curriculum for competency based educational programs. The system comprises the CASAS Competency List, the CASAS Item Bank, the User's Manual, the Curriculum Index and Matrix, and…

Stiles, Richard L.; And Others

367

A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

2007-01-01

368

Similarities of artificial photosystems by ruthenium oxo complexes and native water splitting systems.  

PubMed

The nature of chemical bonds of ruthenium(Ru)-quinine(Q) complexes, mononuclear [Ru(trpy)(3,5-t-Bu(2)Q)(OH(2))](ClO(4))(2) (trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone) (1), and binuclear [Ru(2)(btpyan)(3,6-di-Bu(2)Q)(2)(OH(2))](2+) (btpyan = 1,8-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyrid-4'-yl)anthracene, 3,6-t-Bu(2)Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone) (2), has been investigated by broken-symmetry (BS) hybrid density functional (DFT) methods. BS DFT computations for the Ru complexes have elucidated that the closed-shell structure (2b) Ru(II)-Q complex is less stable than the open-shell structure (2bb) consisting of Ru(III) and semiquinone (SQ) radical fragments. These computations have also elucidated eight different electronic and spin structures of tetraradical intermediates that may be generated in the course of water splitting reaction. The Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian model for these species has been derived to elucidate six different effective exchange interactions (J) for four spin systems. Six J values have been determined using total energies of the eight (or seven) BS solutions for different spin configurations. The natural orbital analyses of these BS DFT solutions have also been performed in order to obtain natural orbitals and their occupation numbers, which are useful for the lucid understanding of the nature of chemical bonds of the Ru complexes. Implications of the computational results are discussed in relation to the proposed reaction mechanisms of water splitting reaction in artificial photosynthesis systems and the similarity between artificial and native water splitting systems. PMID:22761310

Tanaka, Koji; Isobe, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

2012-07-03

369

Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life.  

PubMed

Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system. PMID:9243009

Shock, E L

1996-01-01

370

Artificial Rheotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul

2013-03-01

371

Topological defects from doping and quenched disorder in artificial ice systems  

SciTech Connect

We examine the ice-rule obeying and ice-rule breaking vertices in an artificial spin ice system created using magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors with nanostructured pinning arrays. We show that this system can be doped by changing the external field to move the number of vortices away from commensurability and create sites that contain two or zero vortices. For a square ice, the doping leads to the formation of a grain boundary of vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In commensurate systems where the ice rules are obeyed, we can introduce random disorder at the individual pinning sites to create regions where vortices may not be able to flip from one side of the trap to another. For weak disorder, all of the vertices still obey the ice rules, while at intermediate levels of disorder we find grain boundaries of vertices which do not obey the ice rules. For strong disorder it is possible to create isolated paired vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In summary, we have shown that an artificial square ice can be created using vortices in a type-II superconductor interacting with a periodic array of pinning sites where each site has a double well potential. By defining the direction of the effective spin according to the side of the double well occupied by the vortex, we find that this system obeys the ice rules for square ice. We add disorder to the system in the form of randomness of the height of the potential barrier at the center of the well, and obtain vertex configurations using a rotating drive protocol which is similar to the shaking ac magnetic field used in nanomagnetic systems. For weak disorder the entire system still obeys the square ice rules. For intermediate disorder, ice-rule breaking vertices appear and form grain boundaries, while for strong disorder there are both gain boundaries and isolated paired defects. In a system with uniform potential barrier heights, we introduce disorder by moving away from commensurability and creating Home pinning sites that contain two or zero vortices. In this case we find grain boundaries that emanate from the defect site and span the sample.

Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV

2010-01-01

372

Using coherent pulse width and edge modulations in artificial neural systems.  

PubMed

This paper describes an existing silicon implementation of an artificial neural system based on coherent pulse width and edge modulation techniques. A chip set with different neural functions has been conceived, manufactured and tested. Neural circuits have been optimized for lowest computation energy and highest reconfigurability. The main device is a 32 x 32 synaptic array consuming 10 mW of power at 140 MCPS. Synapsis size is about 7.200 microns 2 using a standard 1.5 microns CMOS technology. The problem of interfacing robotic sensors and actuators is addressed: voltage, current and resistance-based sensors are considered for the measurement of physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, strain, etc. Low resolution imaging sensors for robotic vision are also considered. PMID:8049802

Reyneri, L M; Chiaberge, M; Del Corso, D

1993-12-01

373

New adaptive artificial viscosity method for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new finite volume method for solving general multidimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Our method is based on an appropriate numerical flux and a high-order piecewise polynomial reconstruction. The latter is utilized without any computationally expensive nonlinear limiters, which are typically needed to guarantee nonlinear stability of the scheme. Instead, we enforce stability of the proposed method by adding a new adaptive artificial viscosity, whose coefficients are proportional to the size of the weak local residual, which is sufficiently large (˜?, where ? is a discrete small scale) at the shock regions, much smaller (˜??, where ? is close to 2) near the contact waves, and very small (˜?4) in the smooth parts of the computed solution.We test the proposed scheme on a number of benchmarks for both scalar conservation laws and for one- and two-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics. The obtained numerical results clearly demonstrate the robustness and high accuracy of the new method.

Kurganov, Alexander; Liu, Yu

2012-10-01

374

Spectral pattern recognition of controlled substances in street samples using artificial neural network system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NarTest fluorescent technique is aimed at the detection of analyte of interest in street samples by recognition of its specific spectral patterns in 3-dimentional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS) measured with NTX2000 analyzer without chromatographic or other separation of controlled substances from a mixture with cutting agents. The illicit drugs have their own characteristic SFS features which can be used for detection and identification of narcotics, however typical street sample consists of a mixture with cutting agents: adulterants and diluents. Many of them interfere the spectral shape of SFS. The expert system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) has been developed and applied for such pattern recognition in SFS of street samples of illicit drugs.

Poryvkina, Larisa; Aleksejev, Valeri; Babichenko, Sergey M.; Ivkina, Tatjana

2011-04-01

375

Hybrid optical fiber sensor and artificial neural network system for bioethanol quality control and productivity enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol is produced by bio-chemical process that converts sugar or biomass feedstock into ethanol. After bio-chemical process, the solution is distilled under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature, in order to obtain an ethanol-water solution. However, the ethanol concentration analysis is generally performed off-line and, sometimes, a re-distillation process becomes necessary. In this research, an optical apparatus based on Fresnel reflection has been used in combination with artificial neural networks for determination of bioethanol concentration in hydro-alcoholic solution at any temperature. The volumetric concentration and temperature effect was investigated. This intelligent system can effectively detect and update in real-time the correction of distillation parameters to reduce losses of bioethanol and also to improve the quality in a production plant.

Gusken, Edmilton; Salgado, Ricardo M.; Rossell, Carlos E. V.; Ohishi, Takaaki; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2008-06-01

376

Expert system for heart function based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a computer-aided diagnosis system for heart function based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic is introduced. Typical parameters reflecting heart function, provided by echocardiography, were used as input of neural networks and their corresponding heart functions as output. To obtain an analytic and discrimination model closer to brain, we combined fuzzy theory with neural network technology, and input parameters are fuzzily treated. During distinguishing morbid style, we used fuzzy interval, fuzzy number and its related possibility distribution concepts, and selected appropriate operator, and so get its corresponding membership, meanwhile membership was put out of interval of linguistic to consist with language expression. The network selected was BP, and back- propagation algorithm was used to train the network. After studying the result evaluated by expert, the neural network was used to appreciate 150 testees' heart function, of which 90.7% was consistent with experts' diagnosis.

Yu, Wei; Li, Xiaoying; Yu, Daoyin; Mao, Yi; Hua, Qi

1998-09-01

377

Autonomous self-configuration of artificial neural networks for data classification or system control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful methods for the classification of multi-dimensional data as well as for the control of dynamic systems. In general terms, ANNs consist of neurons that are, e.g., arranged in layers and interconnected by real-valued or binary neural couplings or weights. ANNs try mimicking the processing taking place in biological brains. The classification and generalization capabilities of ANNs are given by the interconnection architecture and the coupling strengths. To perform a certain classification or control task with a particular ANN architecture (i.e., number of neurons, number of layers, etc.), the inter-neuron couplings and their accordant coupling strengths must be determined (1) either by a priori design (i.e., manually) or (2) using training algorithms such as error back-propagation. The more complex the classification or control task, the less obvious it is how to determine an a priori design of an ANN, and, as a consequence, the architecture choice becomes somewhat arbitrary. Furthermore, rather than being able to determine for a given architecture directly the corresponding coupling strengths necessary to perform the classification or control task, these have to be obtained/learned through training of the ANN on test data. We report on the use of a Stochastic Optimization Framework (SOF; Fink, SPIE 2008) for the autonomous self-configuration of Artificial Neural Networks (i.e., the determination of number of hidden layers, number of neurons per hidden layer, interconnections between neurons, and respective coupling strengths) for performing classification or control tasks. This may provide an approach towards cognizant and self-adapting computing architectures and systems.

Fink, Wolfgang

2009-05-01

378

Well-controlled experimentation in artificial catchments as the key to better understand natural hydrologic systems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catchments are open dynamic systems that process mass and momentum, and drive energy and entropy towards an equilibrium state of development. The formulation of equations to explain these systems results in a number of redundant variables for which constitutive relationships are required at the scale of integration. This so called "closure problem" exists due to the generally unknown relationship between hydrologic state variables and fluxes. Traditionally, we deal with two complementary approaches in hydrological research: i) experimental catchment studies and ii) physically-based hydrological modelling. The unique character of each catchment and of its eco-hydrological processes often does not allow conclusions by analogy, which would require similarity and homogeneity of catchment features. Generalised theories to cope with both the closure problem and the singularity of catchments in hydrological research have not been derived so far, and the modelling of flow processes in catchments is still impeded e. g. by scale incompatibilities of involved parameters. One of the main questions addressed in our contribution is: How much improvement in hydrological research is possible by well-controlled experimentation fields as artificially created catchments? The definition of parameters and boundary conditions in such well-controlled experiments allows for an improvement in observation strategies and therefore a systematic learning from observed data and an enhanced understanding of the interrelation of given structures and process triggers. Also, the conditions for targeted testing of hydrological hypotheses are considered to be the best possible. In our contribution we identify examples for the determination of such processes and their description e.g. for water transport in the soil matrix, structure and dynamics of sedimentation as well as erosion in the artificial catchment Chicken Creek, Lusatia, Germany. We also show that there are still challenging aspects even in well-controlled experiments, e.g. when dealing with non-equilibrium conditions and related threshold phenomena.

Holländer, H.; Schoenheinz, D.; Stadler, S.

2012-04-01

379

Modeling flow and sediment transport in a river system using an artificial neural network.  

PubMed

A river system is a network of intertwining channels and tributaries, where interacting flow and sediment transport processes are complex and floods may frequently occur. In water resources management of a complex system of rivers, it is important that instream discharges and sediments being carried by streamflow are correctly predicted. In this study, a model for predicting flow and sediment transport in a river system is developed by incorporating flow and sediment mass conservation equations into an artificial neural network (ANN), using actual river network to design the ANN architecture, and expanding hydrological applications of the ANN modeling technique to sediment yield predictions. The ANN river system model is applied to modeling daily discharges and annual sediment discharges in the Jingjiang reach of the Yangtze River and Dongting Lake, China. By the comparison of calculated and observed data, it is demonstrated that the ANN technique is a powerful tool for real-time prediction of flow and sediment transport in a complex network of rivers. A significant advantage of applying the ANN technique to model flow and sediment phenomena is the minimum data requirements for topographical and morphometric information without significant loss of model accuracy. The methodology and results presented show that it is possible to integrate fundamental physical principles into a data-driven modeling technique and to use a natural system for ANN construction. This approach may increase model performance and interpretability while at the same time making the model more understandable to the engineering community. PMID:12447580

Yitian, Li; Gu, Roy R

2003-01-01

380

A Visual Artificially Intelligent Surveillance System to protect against the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Visual Artificially Intelligent Surveillance (VAIS) System is to test the feasibility of using image processing technology to monitor the movement of personnel and special nuclear materials (SNM) inside production facilities. To fulfill this purpose the VAIS System must to be able detect and track moving objects; detect non-moving objects; classify objects as a type of special nuclear material; and evaluate a set of rules governing the interactions between objects and personnel. The VAIS System will be used as an aid to secure against insider threats by monitoring the area in a camera's field of view and highlighting conditions that may require further evaluation by security personnel. The primary areas it will be used are sheltered, secured areas where movement of personnel and SNMs is common. The advantage of using image processing is that it can use a video system currently installed in the controlled area and it is generally non-intrusive; it does not require sensors to be attached to the objects or personnel it is tracking. This paper will discuss the goals of the VAIS project, list some major requirements of the system, discuss its design, and give the project status.

Kurtz, V.I.

1990-01-01

381

Innovations in technology for the treatment of diabetes: clinical development of the artificial pancreas (an autonomous system).  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health presented a public workshop to facilitate medical device innovation in the development of the artificial pancreas (or autonomous system) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus on November 10, 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss four aspects of artificial pancreas research and development, including: (1) the current state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus; (2) challenges in developing this expert device system using existing technology; (3) clinical expectations for these systems; and (4) development plans for the transition of this device system toward an outpatient setting. The patients discussed how clinical science, system components, and regulatory policies will all need to harmonize in order to achieve the goal of seeing an AP product brought forward to the marketplace for patients to use. PMID:21722597

Klonoff, David C; Zimliki, Charles L; Stevens, Lcdr Alan; Beaston, Patricia; Pinkos, Arleen; Choe, Sally Y; Arreaza-Rubín, Guillermo; Heetderks, William

2011-05-01

382

Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an Autonomous System)  

PubMed Central

The Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health presented a public workshop to facilitate medical device innovation in the development of the artificial pancreas (or autonomous system) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus on November 10, 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss four aspects of artificial pancreas research and development, including: (1) the current state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus; (2) challenges in developing this expert device system using existing technology; (3) clinical expectations for these systems; and (4) development plans for the transition of this device system toward an outpatient setting. The patients discussed how clinical science, system components, and regulatory policies will all need to harmonize in order to achieve the goal of seeing an AP product brought forward to the marketplace for patients to use.

Klonoff, David C; Zimliki, Charles L; Stevens, LCDR Alan; Beaston, Patricia; Pinkos, Arleen; Choe, Sally Y; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Heetderks, William

2011-01-01

383

Life support system with autonomous control employing plant photosynthesis.  

PubMed

This research was aimed at obtaining a closed control system. This was achieved by placing all the technological processes providing for human vital activities within the hermetically sealed space, and by transferring the entire control and guidance of these processes to people inhabiting the system. In contrast to existing biological life support systems, man has been included not only as a participant of metabolism, but as an operator who is the central figure in collecting information, making decisions and controlling all technological processes. To tackle this problem, the "BIOS-3" experimental complex was created for performing long-term experiments using different structures of biological life-support system. The experiment lasted six months and consisted of three stages. During the first stage the system was comprised of two equivalent phytotrons with the culture of wheat and an assortment of vegetable plants, and the living compartment. At the second stage, one of the phytotrons was removed while a compartment of chlorella cultivators was introduced. The third stage differed from the second, the former using wheat phytotron and the latter employing phytotron with an assortment of vegetable cultures. Three men inhabited the system simultaneously. The experiment demonstrated that a biological life support system controlled autonomously from the inside is feasible within a small confined space. However, immunological and microbiological research shows, that the medium created by the system is not fully adequate for man. In conclusion, some prospects have been outlined for further studies of biological life support systems. PMID:11829022

Gitelson, I I; Terskov, I A; Kovrov, B G; Sidko, F Y; Lisovsky, G M; Okladnikov, Y N; Belyanin, V N; Trubachov, I N; Rerberg, M S

384

Life cycle assessment of an alkaline fuel cell CHP system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life cycle assessment (LCA) of an alkaline fuel cell based domestic combined heat and power (CHP) system is presented. Literature on non-noble, monopolar cell design and stack construction was reviewed, and used to produce a life cycle inventory for the construction of a 1kW stack. Inventories for the ancillary components of other commercial fuel cell products were consulted, and

I. Staffell; A. Ingram

2010-01-01

385

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing for every possible contingency seems daunting, but with teamwork and some help from the government, it's almost do-able. There is a great system out there that will help business professionals and educators develop a strong, effective emergency preparedness plan. If they haven't done a good job of implementing a solid emergency response…

Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

2011-01-01

386

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO EVALUATING RAIL LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corus Rail Technologies (CRT) has undertaken a major project involving track studies of Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF), with support from Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU). The work takes a systems approach and involves the development and application of a suite of numerical models used to investigate the in-service conditions of track components with particular emphasis on RCF. The suite of models,

Tom Kay; Simon Iwnicki; Yann Bezin

387

Artificial intelligence in electric power systems--A survey of the Japanese industry  

SciTech Connect

The major work on the theory and application of artificial intelligence (Al), which includes expert systems, is going on in the US, Europe and Japan. The Japanese electric utility industry, manufacturers, universities and the government have taken a focused goal-oriented approach in this regard. The author has studied the Japanese involvement in this field and visited eight Japanese R and D laboratories, where the Al and expert system related activities (in the power industry) is discussed. This paper provides a comprehensive look at the combined Japanese effort. The current topics of interest are: (1) Al and its application in power engineering; (2) problems in Al applications development and their solutions; (3) practical system examples; and (4) Al applications to power systems of the future. Out of the 97 papers cited in this paper, 10 were produced by electric utilities, 10 by manufacturers, 17 by universities and 60 were joint efforts. This shows the level and importance of joint collaborative research among the Japanese researchers. Even though they are working on many theoretical aspects of the Al technology including automated knowledge acquisition and verification, they still use significant amount of theoretical work done in the US for successful prototyping of Al based tools. It is, however, safe to say that the use of Al tools in the Japanese electric power industry is far more widespread than what is seen in the US or in Europe.

Rahman, S. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

1993-08-01

388

A comparative study of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems using an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are highly productive ocean regions. Yet, substantial differences in net primary production (NPP) exist within and between these systems for reasons that are still not fully understood. Here, we explore the leading physical processes and environmental factors controlling NPP in EBUS through a comparative study of the California, Canary, Benguela, and Humboldt Current systems. The identification of NPP drivers is done with the aid of an artificial neural network analysis based on self-organizing-maps (SOMs). We show that in addition to the expected NPP enhancing effect of stronger alongshore wind, three factors have an inhibiting effect: (1) strong eddy activity, (2) narrow continental shelf, and (3) deep mixed layer. The co-variability of these 4 drivers defines in the context of the SOM a continuum of 100 patterns of NPP regimes in EBUS. These are grouped into 4 distinct classes using a Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. Our objective classification of EBUS reveals important variations of NPP regimes within each of the four EBUS, particularly in the Canary and Benguela Current systems. Our results show that the Atlantic EBUS are generally more productive and more sensitive to upwelling favorable winds because of a weaker factors inhibiting NPP. Perturbations of alongshore winds associated with climate change may therefore lead to contrasting biological responses in the Atlantic and the Pacific EBUS.

Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

2011-10-01

389

A comparative study of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems using an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are highly productive ocean regions. Yet, substantial differences in net primary production (NPP) exist within and between these systems for reasons that are still not fully understood. Here, we explore the leading physical processes and environmental factors controlling NPP in EBUS through a comparative study of the California, Canary, Benguela, and Humboldt Current systems. The NPP drivers are identified with the aid of an artificial neural network analysis based on self-organizing-maps (SOM). Our results suggest that in addition to the expected NPP enhancing effect of stronger equatorward alongshore wind, three factors have an inhibiting effect: (1) strong eddy activity, (2) narrow continental shelf, and (3) deep mixed layer. The co-variability of these 4 drivers defines in the context of the SOM a continuum of 100 patterns of NPP regimes in EBUS. These are grouped into 4 distinct classes using a Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. Our objective classification of EBUS reveals important variations of NPP regimes within each of the four EBUS, particularly in the Canary and Benguela Current systems. Our results show that the Atlantic EBUS are generally more productive and more sensitive to upwelling favorable winds because of weaker factors inhibiting NPP. Perturbations of alongshore winds associated with climate change may therefore lead to contrasting biological responses in the Atlantic and the Pacific EBUS.

Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

2012-01-01

390

Light and Life: Exotic Photosynthesis in Binary Star Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for hosting photosynthetic life on Earth-like planets within binary\\/multiple stellar systems was evaluated by modelling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in: (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems and (iii) three-star systems were investigated and a range of stable radiation environments found to be possible. These environmental conditions

J. T. O'Malley-James; J. A. Raven; C. S. Cockell; J. S. Greaves

2011-01-01

391

Gas exchange between humans and multibiological life support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) in lunar or Mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between humans and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, microalgae and so on must be investigated in order to place

Ling Tong; Dawei Hu; Hong Liu; Ming Li; Yuming Fu; Boyang Jia; Fangzhou Du; Enzhu Hu

2011-01-01

392

Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting

Martin C Heller; Gregory A Keoleian; Timothy A Volk

2003-01-01

393

Nonlinear estimation-based dipole source localization for artificial lateral line systems.  

PubMed

As a flow-sensing organ, the lateral line system plays an important role in various behaviors of fish. An engineering equivalent of a biological lateral line is of great interest to the navigation and control of underwater robots and vehicles. A vibrating sphere, also known as a dipole source, can emulate the rhythmic movement of fins and body appendages, and has been widely used as a stimulus in the study of biological lateral lines. Dipole source localization has also become a benchmark problem in the development of artificial lateral lines. In this paper we present two novel iterative schemes, referred to as Gauss-Newton (GN) and Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithms, for simultaneously localizing a dipole source and estimating its vibration amplitude and orientation, based on the analytical model for a dipole-generated flow field. The performance of the GN and NR methods is first confirmed with simulation results and the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) analysis. Experiments are further conducted on an artificial lateral line prototype, consisting of six millimeter-scale ionic polymer-metal composite sensors with intra-sensor spacing optimized with CRB analysis. Consistent with simulation results, the experimental results show that both GN and NR schemes are able to simultaneously estimate the source location, vibration amplitude and orientation with comparable precision. Specifically, the maximum localization error is less than 5% of the body length (BL) when the source is within the distance of one BL. Experimental results have also shown that the proposed schemes are superior to the beamforming method, one of the most competitive approaches reported in literature, in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. PMID:23538856

Abdulsadda, Ahmad T; Tan, Xiaobo

2013-03-28

394

The generation ready-reserve power determined in the interconnected power system by means of the artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the usage of artificial neural network (ANN) for the online determination of the amount of the ready reserve (RR) required for compensation of power deficit in power systems. Here the power deficit is a consequence of the outage of the synchronized generators and failure of the other forms of the operational reserve to act compensationally. RR consists

S. Halilcevic; F. Gubina

1999-01-01

395

Artificial neural network-based maximum power point tracking control for variable speed wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller using artificial neural networks (ANN) for variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed. The algorithm uses Jordan recurrent ANN and is trained online using back propagation. The inputs to the networks are the instantaneous output power, maximum output power, rotor speed and wind speed, and the output is the rotor

J. S. Thongam; P. Bouchard; H. Ezzaidi; M. Ouhrouche

2009-01-01

396

An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated

M. Berenguel; F. R. Rubio; A. Valverde; P. J. Lara; M. R. Arahal; E. F. Camacho; M. López

2004-01-01

397

Artificial-vision stereo system as a source of visual information for preventing the collision of vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper explains the principle of automatically determining the position of extended and point objects in 2-D space of recognizing them by means of an artificial-vision stereo system from the measured coordinates of conjugate points in stereo pairs, and also analyzes methods of identifying these points.

Machtovoi, I.A. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1994-10-01

398

Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,…

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

2003-01-01

399

Environmental assessment of two artificial reef systems off southern Portugal (Faro and Olhão): A question of location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates environmental assessment of artificial reef systems deployed at different areas in terms of nutrient cycling and seabed organic enrichment. Two identical artificial reef systems: Olhão Artificial Reef—OAR (37°00'55?N and 007°44'54?W) and Faro Artificial Reef—FAR (36°58'65?N and 008°00'91?W) were deployed in southern Portuguese coast, adjacent to a highly productive coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa) in 1990 and monitorized over two years (1992-1993). Water samples were collected within OAR and FAR systems, inside the lagoon (L) and in a non-reef area (NRA) to evaluate nutrient dynamics. Settled particles and sediment cores were also sampled within OAR and FAR to determine aluminium, calcium, silicon and chlorophyll a and organic and inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. Results obtained showed that: (i) water column nutrients evidenced seasonal and spatial variability. The maximum nutrients concentration was recorded inside the lagoon and in OAR, mainly during warmer periods. Ammonium, nitrate and silicate in OAR were statistically higher ( p<0.01, n=18) than in FAR and NRA; (ii) particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in FAR settled particles were significantly higher ( p<0.005) than those collected at OAR; and (iii) organic carbon and nitrogen, calcium, aluminium and chlorophyll a in OAR upper sediment were higher than at FAR. The overall results suggest that OAR is a productive system, emphasizing its contribution to the trophic chain pull out, while FAR presented oceanic oligotrophic water.

Vicente, M.; Falcão, M.; Santos, M. N.; Caetano, M.; Serpa, D.; Vale, C.; Monteiro, C.

2008-04-01

400

Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to…

Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

2007-01-01

401

Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,…

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

2003-01-01

402

A Short Version of SIS (Support Intensity Scale): The Utility of the Application of Artificial Adaptive Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to present a shortened version of the SIS (support intensity scale) obtained by the application of mathematical models and instruments, adopting special algorithms based on the most recent developments in artificial adaptive systems. All the variables of SIS applied to 1,052 subjects with ID (intellectual disabilities)…

Gomiero, Tiziano; Croce, Luigi; Grossi, Enzo; Luc, De Vreese; Buscema, Massimo; Mantesso, Ulrico; De Bastiani, Elisa

2011-01-01

403

Statistical modeling of the geometrical structure of the system of artificial air pores in autoclaved aerated concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometrical structure of the system of artificial air pores in autoclaved concrete is studied, based on samples from laboratory and industry. The single pores are approximated by spheres, the corresponding radius distribution is determined by means of stereological methods. The resulting distribution is not a classical standard distribution, but instead requires a mixture of three components, one of them

Ilja Kadashevich; Hans-Jürgen Schneider; Dietrich Stoyan

2005-01-01

404

The artificial endothelium.  

PubMed

As the world of critical care medicine advances, extracorporeal therapies (ECC) have become commonplace in the management of the high risk intensive care patient. ECC encompasses a wide variety of technologies from hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and plasmapheresis, to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and hepatic support. The development of internal man made organs is the next step with ventricular assist devices and artificial lungs. As we advance the technologies with smaller devices, and more intricate circuitry, we lack the keystone necessary to control the blood-biomaterial interface. For the last 50 years much has been learned about surface induced thrombosis and attempts have been made to prevent it with alternative systemic anticoagulation, circuitry surface modifications, or a combination of both. Despite these efforts, systemic or regional anticoagulation remain necessary for both laboratory and clinical application of ECC. As such, the development of an endothelial-like, biomimetic surface to reduce or perhaps even eliminate the blood activation/thrombus formation events that occur upon exposure to artificial surfaces is paramount. PMID:21289481

Reynolds, Melissa M; Annich, Gail M

2011-01-01

405

An artificial intelligence system for assisting nuclear power plant operators in the diagnosis of the response to plant faults and transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial intelligence system is being developed using the Conceptual Structures and Representation Language (CSRL) developed at The Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). This system combines three subsystems, which have been independently developed to perform the following tasks: (1) detecting changes in the state of the plant that may lead to conditions requiring operator response and

B. K. Hajek; J. E. Stasenko; R. Bhatnagar; S. Hashemi

1987-01-01

406

Artificial intelligence as a discursive practice: the case of embodied software agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore some of the ways in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) is mediated discursively. I assume that AI is informed by an “ancestral dream” to reproduce nature by artificial means. This dream drives the production of “cyborg discourse”, which hinges on the belief that human nature (especially intelligence) can be reduced to symbol manipulation and hence replicated

Sean Zdenek

2003-01-01

407

Application of genetic algorithm to the development of artificial intelligence module system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence is an extremely important aspect of modern technological progress. It represents humanity's long-time dream of elevating computers beyond the realm of simple machines for the calculation and processing of data. With the incorporation of artificial intelligence, computers are able to engage in behavior similar to human thought, helping humans perform necessary tasks of cognition, theorizing, and even judgment.

Hsien-tang Wu; Wen-ta Hsiao; Chih-tsang Lin; Tao-ming Cheng

2011-01-01

408

Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

2010-12-01

409

A Life-Like Agent Interface System with Second Life Avatars on the OpenSimulator Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a design of a life-like agent interface system with Second Life avatars on a 3D virtual world. We have\\u000a implemented our prototype system on the OpenSimulator server, instead of the Linden Lab’s Second Life server. It is open source\\u000a and a Second Life official viewer can connect it. Although it is still an alpha version and has

Hiroshi Dohi; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2009-01-01

410

Biological model of vision for an artificial system that learns to perceive its environment  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to design an artificial vision system for use in robotics applications. Because the desired performance is equivalent to that achieved by nature, the authors anticipate that the objective will be accomplished most efficiently through modeling aspects of the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the biological visual system. Information enters the biological visual system through the retina and is passed to the lateral geniculate and optic tectum. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) also receives information from the cerebral cortex and the result of these two inflows is returned to the cortex. The optic tectum likewise receives the retinal information in a context of other converging signals and organizes motor responses. A computer algorithm is described which implements models of the biological visual mechanisms of the retina, thalamic lateral geniculate and perigeniculate nuclei, and primary visual cortex. Motion and pattern analyses are performed in parallel and interact in the cortex to construct perceptions. We hypothesize that motion reflexes serve as unconditioned pathways for the learning and recall of pattern information. The algorithm demonstrates this conditioning through a learning function approximating heterosynaptic facilitation.

Blackburn, M.R.; Nguyen, H.G.

1989-06-01

411

Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning  

SciTech Connect

Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

412

Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space.  

PubMed

Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space. PMID:22992434

Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

2012-03-01

413

Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

414

Regenerative life support systems--why do we need them?  

PubMed

Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars. PMID:11540213

Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

1994-11-01

415

An artificial arm/hand system with a haptic sensory function using electric stimulation of peripheral sensory nerve fibers.  

PubMed

We are currently developing an artificial arm/hand system which is capable of sensing stimuli and then transferring these stimuli to users as somatic sensations. Presently, we are evoking the virtual somatic sensations by electrically stimulating a sensory nerve fiber which innervates a single mechanoreceptor unit at the target area; this is done using a tungsten microelectrode that was percutaneously inserted into the use's peripheral nerve (a microstimulation method). The artificial arm/hand system is composed of a robot hand equipped with a pressure sensor system on its fingers. The sensor system detects mechanical stimuli, which are transferred to the user by means of the microstimulation method so that the user experiences the stimuli as the corresponding somatic sensations. In trials, the system worked satisfactorily and there was a good correlation between the pressure applied to the pressure sensors on the robot fingers and the subjective intensities of the evoked pressure sensations. PMID:24110391

Mabuchi, Kunihiko

2013-07-01

416

Composting in advanced life support systems.  

PubMed

Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production. PMID:11541773

Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

1998-01-01

417

Emergency life support system aiming preprimed oxygenator.  

PubMed

Development have been achieved of a new blood pump for next generation Percutaneous Cardio-Pulmonary Support (PCPS) system and a novel surface coating method for silicone membrane hollow fiber by physical adsorption using a copolymer composed of a 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit and a hydrophobic unit. The new blood pump, named the Troidal Convolution Pump (TCP), is based on the principle of a cascade pump and perfused 5 L/min and 350 mmHg at 2450 rpm. The novel copolymer composed of 30% MPC unit and 3-(methacryloyloxy) propyltris (trimethylsiloxy) silane (MPTSSi) unit (PMMSi30) was the most suitable molecular design on a silicone surface. The PMMSi30 coated surface adsorbed 7.2 % as much protein a non-coated surface adsorbed. PMID:24111039

Isoyama, Takashi; Ariyoshi, Koki; Nii, Kyosuke; Saito, Itsuro; Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Ishii, Kohei; Hara, Shintaro; Imachi, Kou; Takai, Madoka; Abe, Yusuke

2013-07-01

418

Inteligencia Artificial E Possivel (Is Artificial Intelligence Possible).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial intelligence is the part of Computer Science which deals with the building of computer systems that show characteristics normally associated with intelligence in human behavior. Artificial intelligence has two major goals: (1) a programmatic on...

E. L. F. Senne S. A. Sandri

1984-01-01

419

14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space...Environmental control and life support systems. 460...Environmental control and life support systems. ...conditions adequate to sustain life and consciousness...which includes oxygen and carbon dioxide, and any...

2010-01-01

420

14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space...Environmental control and life support systems. 460...Environmental control and life support systems. ...conditions adequate to sustain life and consciousness...which includes oxygen and carbon dioxide, and any...

2009-01-01

421

Closed Ecological Systems, Space Life Support and Biospherics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter explores the development of a new type of scientific tool – man-made closed ecological systems. These systems\\u000a have had a number of applications within the past 50 years. They are unique tools for investigating fundamental processes\\u000a and interactions of ecosystems. They also hold the potentiality for creating life support systems for space exploration and\\u000a habitation outside of Earth’s

Mark Nelson; Nickolay S. Pechurkin; John P. Allen; Lydia A Somova; Josef I. Gitelson

422

Integration of life cycle assessment in the environmental information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  As the sustainability improvement becomes an essential business task of industry, a number of companies are adopting IT-based\\u000a environmental information systems (EIS). Life cycle assessment (LCA), a tool to improve environmental friendliness of a product,\\u000a can also be systemized as a part of the EIS. This paper presents a case of an environmental information system which is

Jong-Hwan Eun; Ji-Ho Son; Jeong-Min Moon; Jong-Shik Chung

2009-01-01

423

Coupling Plant Growth and Waste Recycling Systems in a Controlled Life Support System (CELSS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One signific...

J. L. Garland

1992-01-01

424

Reliability Studies for the Nuclear-Powered Artificial Heart Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By assuming that the failures of an artificial heart system with a mean life of 10 y can be modeled by a particular probability distribution, both the probability of a failure in the system within t years and the reliability required of each subsystem and...

M. Horita R. K. Zeigler

1976-01-01

425

A method for projecting useful life of LED lighting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated a non-invasive method to determine the junction temperature of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in a system. Because the primary cause for the AlGaInP LED degradation is junction temperature, this method can be used to predict LED life. Currently, life estimates of LED lighting systems quoted by manufacturers (commonly 100,000 hours) are based on the average life of a single LED measured under specific laboratory conditions. In reality, rates of degradation are much different for LEDs in a system than for those in a laboratory environment because the packaging and the environmental conditions in which the system operates can affect LED performance. Current practices for estimation require time-consuming life tests to accurately predict the life of LEDs. Therefore, a rapid estimation method for LED life is needed. Based on previous studies, the authors chose to focus on the measurement of junction temperature and its relationship to LED degradation. The primary objective of this study was to verify that wavelength shift could be used to estimate accurately the junction temperature of 5mm epoxy encapsulated AlGaInP LEDs. In this study, the junction temperature was increased by changing the drive current while holding the ambient temperature surrounding the LED constant, and by changing the surrounding temperature while holding the drive current steady. Experimental results from this study showed that for commercial LEDs, peak wavelengths shift proportionally to junction temperature regardless of how the temperature is created at the junction, and that this linear relationship could be used as a direct measure of the junction temperature. Because the primary cause for the degradation of AlGaInP LEDs is junction heat, the light output degradation rate of these types of LEDs can be predicted by measuring the spectral shift. Therefore, LED systems can be evaluated without disassembly in their intended application.

Hong, Eugene; Narendran, Nadarajah

2004-01-01

426

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

427

Stability of free and encapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 in yogurt and in an artificial human gastric digestion system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of encapsulation on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 (ATCC 4356) in yogurt and during artificial gastric digestion. Strain ATCC 4356 was added to yogurt either encapsulated in calcium alginate or in free form (unencapsulated) at levels of 8.26 and 9.47 log cfu/g, respectively, and the influence of alginate capsules (1.5 to 2.5mm) on the sensorial characteristics of yogurts was investigated. The ATCC 4356 strain was introduced into an artificial gastric solution consisting of 0.08 N HCl (pH 1.5) containing 0.2% NaCl or into artificial bile juice consisting of 1.2% bile salts in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth to determine the stability of the probiotic bacteria. When incubated for 2h in artificial gastric juice, the free ATCC 4356 did not survive (reduction of >7 log cfu/g). We observed, however, greater survival of encapsulated ATCC 4356, with a reduction of only 3 log cfu/g. Incubation in artificial bile juice (6 h) did not significantly affect the viability of free or encapsulated ATCC 4356. Moreover, statistically significant reductions (~1 log cfu/g) of both free and encapsulated ATCC 4356 were observed during 4-wk refrigerated storage of yogurts. The addition of probiotic cultures in free or alginate-encapsulated form did not significantly affect appearance/color or flavor/odor of the yogurts. However, significant deficiencies were found in body/texture of yogurts containing encapsulated ATCC 4356. We concluded that incorporation of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria did not substantially change the overall sensory properties of yogurts, and encapsulation in alginate using the extrusion method greatly enhanced the survival of probiotic bacteria against an artificial human gastric digestive system. PMID:23021757

Ortakci, F; Sert, S

2012-09-26

428

Lameness scoring system for dairy cows using force plates and artificial intelligence.  

PubMed

Lameness scoring is a routine procedure in dairy industry to screen the herds for new cases of lameness. Subjective lameness scoring, which is the most popular lameness detection and screening method in dairy herds, has several limitations. They include low intra-observer and inter-observer agreement and the discrete nature of the scores which limits its usage in monitoring the lameness. The aim of this study is to develop an automated lameness scoring system comparable with conventional subjective lameness scoring by means of artificial neural networks. The system is composed of four balanced force plates installed in a hoof-trimming box. A group of 105 dairy cows was used for the study. Twenty-three features extracted from ground reaction force (GRF) data were used in a computer training process which was performed on 60 per cent of the data. The remaining 40 per cent of the data were used to test the trained system. Repeatability of the lameness scoring system was determined by GRF samples from 25 cows, captured at two different times from the same animals. The mean sd was 0.31 and the mean coefficient of variation was 14.55 per cent, which represents a high repeatability in comparison with subjective vision-based scoring methods. Although the highest sensitivity and specificity values were seen in locomotion score groups 1 and 4, the automatic lameness system was both sensitive and specific in all groups. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 72 per cent in locomotion score groups 1 to 4, and it was 100 per cent specific and 50 per cent sensitive for group 5. PMID:22141114

Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghamsari, S Mehdi; Nowrouzian, I; Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghidary, S Shiry

2011-12-02

429

High-rate artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

Clegg, J.D.

1988-03-01

430

Remote Monitoring Life Management System for Gas Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Life-Management System (LMS), for optimizing the reliability and maintenance costs of hot-gas-path components, was developed previously. Based on LMS, the Life-Management System with Remote Monitoring (LMSRM) for the real-time evaluation of damage and the residual life times of the hot-gas-path components of gas turbines was developed in the current work. Damage to these components is accurately evaluated by using a new equivalent operating time that takes data gathered by on-line sensors into account. The new equivalent operating time is thus calculated by using the number of start-ups/shut-downs, the number of variations in loading, and by such real-time data, as temperature, pressure, and composition of intake air.

Gotoh, Jin'ichiro; Hayasaka, Yasushi; Sakurai, Shigeo; Ikeda, Hiraku

431

Thinking beyond Means-Ends Analysis: Role of impulse-driven human creativity in the design of artificially intelligent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While goal-directed problem solving as advocated by Herbert Simon's means-ends analysis model has primarily shaped the course of design research on artificially intelligent systems, we contend that there is a definite disregard of a key phase within the overall design process that in fact logically precedes the problem solving phase. While the systems designers have been obsessed with goal-directed problem

Dongming Xu; Yonggui Wang; Sukanto Bhattacharya

432

Artificial Limbs  

MedlinePLUS

... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, a prosthesis, ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

433

Sweeteners - artificial  

MedlinePLUS

... in carbonated low-calorie beverages and other products. Neotame is an artificial sweetener used in many diet ... lifetime. The artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K, saccharin, neotame, and sucralose are all FDA approved. Aspartame is ...

434

Implantable control, telemetry, and solar energy system in the moving actuator type total artificial heart.  

PubMed

The moving actuator type total artificial heart (TAH) developed in the Seoul National University has numerous design improvements based upon the digital signal processor (DSP). These improvements include the implantability of all electronics, an automatic control algorithm, and extension of the battery run-time in connection with an amorphous silicon solar system (SS). The implantable electronics consist of the motor drive, main processor, intelligent Li ion battery management (LIBM) based upon the DSP, telemetry system, and transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system. Major changes in the implantable electronics include decreasing the temperature rise by over 21 degrees C on the motor drive, volume reduction (40 x 55 x 33 mm, 7 cell assembly) of the battery pack using a Li ion (3.6 V/cell, 900 mA.h), and improvement of the battery run-time (over 40 min) while providing the cardiac output (CO) of 5 L/min at 100 mm Hg afterload when the external battery for testing is connected with the SS (2.5 W, 192.192, 1 kg) for the external battery recharge or the partial TAH drive. The phase locked loop (PLL) based telemetry system was implemented to improve stability and the error correction DSP algorithm programmed to achieve high accuracy. A field focused light emitting diode (LED) was used to obtain low light scattering along the propagation path, similar to the optical property of the laser and miniature sized, mounted on the pancake type TET coils. The TET operating resonance frequency was self tuned in a range of 360 to 410 kHz to provide enough power even at high afterloads. An automatic cardiac output regulation algorithm was developed based on interventricular pressure analysis and carried out in several animal experiments successfully. All electronics have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo and prepared for implantation of the TAH. Substantial progress has been made in designing a completely implantable TAH at the preclinical stage. PMID:9527287

Ahn, J M; Lee, J H; Choi, S W; Kim, W E; Omn, K S; Park, S K; Kim, W G; Roh, J R; Min, B G

1998-03-01

435

Totally implantable total artificial heart and ventricular assist device with multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system.  

PubMed

A multipurpose miniature electromechanical energy system has been developed to yield a compact, efficient, durable, and biocompatible total artificial heart (TAH) and ventricular assist device (VAD). Associated controller-driver electronics were recently miniaturized and converted into hybrid circuits. The hybrid controller consists of a microprocessor and controller, motor driver, Hall sensor, and commutation circuit hybrids. The sizing study demonstrated that all these components can be incorporated in the pumping unit of the TAH and VAD, particularly in the centerpiece of the TAH and the motor housing of the VAD. Both TAH and VAD pumping units will start when their power line is connected to either the internal power pack or the external battery unit. As a redundant driving and diagnostic port, an emergency port was newly added and will be placed in subcutaneous location. In case of system failure, the skin will be cut down, and an external motor drive or a pneumatic driver will be connected to this port to run the TAH. This will minimize the circulatory arrest time. Overall efficiency of the TAH without the transcutaneous energy transmission system was 14-18% to deliver pump outputs of 4-9 L/min against the right and left afterload pressures of 25 and 100 mm Hg. The internal power requirement ranged from 6 to 13 W. The rechargeable batteries such as NiCd or NiMH with 1 AH capacity can run the TAH for 30-45 min. The external power requirement, when TETS efficiency of 75% was assumed, ranged from 8 to 18 W. The accelerated endurance test in the 42 degrees C saline bath demonstrated stable performance over 4 months. Long-term endurance and chronic animal studies will continue toward a system with 5 years durability by the year 2000. PMID:8141662

Takatani, S; Orime, Y; Tasai, K; Ohara, Y; Naito, K; Mizuguchi, K; Makinouchi, K; Damm, G; Glueck, J; Ling, J

1994-01-01

436

Approaches to resource recovery in controlled ecological life support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of resources from waste streams in a space habitat is essential to minimize the resupply burden and achieve self sufficiency. The ultimate goal of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is to achieve the greatest practical level of mass recycle and provide self sufficiency and safety for humans. Several mission scenarios leading to the ultimate application could employ

D. L. Bubenheim; T. Wydeven

1994-01-01

437

An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells under day–night cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply was developed for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells. The energy source for the culture is automatically switched to solar light energy (when the weather is sunny), to artificial light energy (during the cloudy period of the day) or to organic carbon source (at night). Thus minimum amount

James C. Ogbonna; Toshihiko Soejima; Charles U. Ugwu; Hideo Tanaka

2001-01-01

438

Realization of cooperative strategies and swarm behavior in distributed autonomous robotic systems using artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method of cooperative control (T-cell modeling) and selection of group behavior strategy (B-cell modeling) based on the immune system in a distributed autonomous robotic system (DARS). The immune system is a living body's self-protection and self-maintenance system. These features can be applied to decision making of optimal swarm behavior in a dynamically changing environment.

Jin-Hyung Jun; Dong-Wook Lee; Kwee-Bo Sim

1999-01-01

439

Artificial photosynthetic reaction center with a coumarin-based antenna system.  

PubMed

In photosynthesis, sunlight is absorbed mainly by antenna chromophores that transfer singlet excitation energy to reaction centers for conversion to useful electrochemical energy. Antennas may likewise be useful in artificial photosynthetic systems that use sunlight to make fuels or electricity. Here, we report the synthesis and spectroscopic properties of a molecular hexad comprising two porphyrin moieties and four coumarin antenna chromophores, all organized by a central hexaphenylbenzene core. Light absorbed by any of the coumarins is transferred to a porphyrin on the 1-10 ps time scale, depending on the site of initial excitation. The quantum yield of singlet energy transfer is 1.0. The energy transfer rate constants are consistent with transfer by the Förster dipole-dipole mechanism. A pyridyl-bearing fullerene moiety self-assembles to the form of the hexad containing zinc porphyrins to yield an antenna-reaction center complex. In the resulting heptad, energy transfer to the porphyrins is followed by photoinduced electron transfer to the fullerene with a time constant of 3 ps. The resulting P(•+)-C60(•-) charge-separated state is formed with an overall quantum yield of 1.0 and decays with a time constant of 230 ps in 1,2-difluorobenzene as the solvent. PMID:23534929

Garg, Vikas; Kodis, Gerdenis; Liddell, Paul A; Terazono, Yuichi; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

2013-04-11

440

Regional groundwater productivity potential mapping using a geographic information system (GIS) based artificial neural network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial neural network model (ANN) and a geographic information system (GIS) are applied to the mapping of regional groundwater productivity potential (GPP) for the area around Pohang City, Republic of Korea. The model is based on the relationship between groundwater productivity data, including specific capacity (SPC) and its related hydrogeological factors. The related factors, including topography, lineaments, geology, and forest and soil data, are collected and input into a spatial database. In addition, SPC data are collected from 44 well locations. The SPC data are randomly divided into a training set, to analyse the GPP using the ANN, and a test set, to validate the predicted potential map. Each factor's relative importance and weight are determined by the back-propagation training algorithms and applied to the input factor. The GPP value is then calculated using the weights, and GPP maps are created. The map is validated using area under the curve analysis with the SPC data that have not been used for training the model. The validation shows prediction accuracies between 73.54 and 80.09 %. Such information and the maps generated from it could serve as a scientific basis for groundwater management and exploration.

Lee, Saro; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Yongsung; Park, Inhye

2012-12-01

441

An Investigation of Water Level Prediction in Urban Drainage System Using Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pumping stations are the major hydraulic facilities for the elimination of flood in highly developed cities and therefore play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan area. Accurate predictions of inner water level in urban drainage systems are necessary and important for successful operation of pumping stations. In view of the characteristics of artificial neural networks (ANNs), the model was introduced in this study for extracting rainfall-water level patterns from torrential rain events. The Yu-Cheng pumping station, Taipei city, is used as a case study, where historical records which contain information of rainfall amounts and inner water levels are used to train and verify the ANN's performance. First, we directly construct the ANN for multistep ahead water level predictions by using 11 storm events at gauging sites. The optimal structure and parameters are then tested via 3 different events. Second, the storm water management model (SWMM) was utilized for the purpose of generating data at un-gauged sites. Data generated from SWMM were further used to train the ANN. Finally, a comparison of water level prediction between SWMM and ANN are given. Our preliminary results show that the ANN is capable of constructing accurate and reliable water level prediction. The results also exemplify the need for a detailed investigation on SWMM-derived error that could propagate the input error into the ANN models.

Chang, F.; Chiang, Y.; Chiu, Y.; Ho, Y.; Chang, L.; Wang, Y.

2008-12-01

442

Comparison of the CardioWest Total Artificial Heart, the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System and the Thoratec Ventricular Assist System in bridge to transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Device selection has historically been supported by minimal comparative data. Since 1994, we have implanted 43 patients with the CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (CW), 23 with the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System (N), and 26 with the Thoratec Ventricular Assist System (T). This experience provides a basis for our device selection criteria.Methods. We reviewed retrospectively the results for survival,

Jack G Copeland; Richard G Smith; Francisco A Arabia; Paul E Nolan; Vinod K Mehta; Michael S McCarthy; Kathleen A Chisholm

2001-01-01

443

Earth analogs for Martian life. Microbes in evaporites, a new model system for life on Mars.  

PubMed

The prospect of life on Mars today is daunting. Especially problematic for a potential life form is a lack of water, particularly in a liquid state; extremely cold temperatures; ultraviolet and ionizing radiation; and soil oxidants. Yet, "oases" where life might persist have been suggested to occur in rocks (in analogy with endolithic microorganisms described from deserts around the world), in polar ice caps (in analogy with snow and ice algae) and in possible volcanic regions (in analogy with chemoautotrophs living in deep sea hydrothermal vents); all are critically examined. Microorganisms are known to be able to survive in salt crystals, and recently it has been shown that organisms can metabolize while encrusted in evaporites. Because evaporites are thought to occur on Mars and can attenuate light in the UV range while being far more transparent to radiation useful for photosynthesis (400-700 nm), and because of the properties of these "endoevaporitic" organisms, I propose that such communities provide a new model system for studying potential life on Mars. On the basis of this model, I suggest possibilities for site selection for future exobiological experiments on Mars. PMID:11538366

Rothschild, L J

1990-01-01

444

Life cycle assessment of municipal waste water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Cycle Assessment was applied to municipal planning in a study of waste water systems in Bergsjön, a Göteborg suburb,\\u000a and Hamburgsund, a coastal village. Existing waste water treatment consists of mechanical, biological and chemical treatment.\\u000a The heat in the waste water from Bergsjön is recovered for the district heating system. One alternative studied encompassed\\u000a pretreatment, anaerobic digestion or drying

Anne-Marie Tillman; Mikael Svingby; Henrik Lundström

1998-01-01

445

Psychiatric Symptoms and Quality of Life in Systemic Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare conjunctive tissue disorder characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, and vascular obliteration phenomena. Patients with SSc often experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, determined by the disfiguration, the pain, the fatigue sensation, and the difficult in daily life occupations. The characteristics of the disease may influence the perceived quality of life (QoL) in people with SSc. Methods: This is a narrative review aiming to define the amount of impairment of Quality of Life in patients with Systemic Sclerosis and the component of this impairment due to depressive or other psychiatric symptoms. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed for the key words “Psychiatric symptoms and Systemic Sclerosis”; “Quality of life and Systemic Sclerosis”; “Depressive Disorders and Systemic Sclerosis”. Results: Psychiatric symptoms are frequents in patients with SSc, but pain, fatigue, disability, body changes don’t appear to explain the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in SSc. Many studies founded a significant impairment in SSc patients’ QoL, and despite the undeniable correlation between physical symptoms and SSc patients’ QoL, mental health was found significantly impaired. Discussion: The high rate of depression seems to strictly correlate with poor quality of life, and this finding needs more research to establish the cause of such a correlation. Patients’ point of view regarding their health-related QoL could help physicians to enlarge the knowledge about physical and mental correlates of the disease, and to fit therapies as patient required. Particular attention must be given to provide the patient with correct information, in order to mitigate the anxious state on disease course, and to enhance coping skills of the patients.

Mura, G; Bhat, Krishna M; Pisano, A; Licci, G; Carta, MG

2012-01-01

446

Development of a reflected optical fiber system for measuring oxygen saturation in an integrated artificial heart-lung system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a blood oxygen saturation (OS) monitoring system for use with an integrated artificial heart-lung system (IAHLS). The OS monitoring system consists of two paired optical fiber probes (OFPs) and a measurement system. To investigate the effect of the OFP configuration and incident light wavelength on the relationship between OS and the reflectance ratio for wavelengths of 810 and 645 nm, we performed theoretical analyses of the relationship between OS and R810/R645 using a diffusion equation. The prototype OFP located on the blood outlet port of our IAHLS housing was evaluated using an in vitro test. An OS range of 65-100% was adjusted to supply oxygen and nitrogen gas to the IAHLS. The blood flow rate was maintained at 3 L/min by the rotational speed of an impeller in the IAHLS. The OS-corrected blood from the IAHLS was measured using a commercial gas analyzer. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between the theoretical ratio of R810/R645 and OS, and between measured OS and the reflectance ratio of R810/R645 were 0.97 and 0.78, respectively. In conclusion, we confirmed that the development of this oximetry system is applicable for IAHLS. PMID:18201289

Yasuda, Toshitaka; Saito, Tomohiko; Kihara, Tatsuya; Takatani, Setsuo; Funakubo, Akio

2008-01-15

447

The influence of Latino ethnocultural factors on decision making at the end of life: withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration.  

PubMed

In this article, the author reviews the legal precedents that underpin the policies and practices found in most medical settings in relation to artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as the context for exploring the end-of-life (EOL) care decision-making process of Latinos. The literature related to Latino beliefs and practices is reviewed. Specifically examined are the ways in which the values of familismo, filial duty, respect for authority figures, and personalismo play a major role in this group's decision-making process. Finally, the perspectives of ethicists who argue that Western bioethical approaches fail to recognize that cultural norms and values as well as religious convictions play a significant role in shaping moral deliberations, including the decision to withdraw ANH from individuals with a terminal illness, are explored. From a cross-cultural ethical perspective, it is important for health care providers to understand that in a pluralistic society, patients and their families bring multiple models of healing and decision making to clinical encounters based on different cultural and religious values. PMID:21132596

Del Río, Norma

2010-01-01

448

Artificial Immune System Based Reliability Appraisal Methodology of Power Generation Systems with Wind Power Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability appraisal of power-generating system is an effective measure to ensure proper system operations in the face of various uncertainties such as equipment failures and variations of generation and load. The integration of time-dependent sources such as wind turbine generators (WTGs) makes the reliability evaluation process more challenging. Due to the large number of system states involved in a power-generating

Lingfeng Wang; Chanan Singh

2007-01-01

449

Service system fundamentals: Work system, value chain, and life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service systems produce all services of significance and scope, yet the concept of service system is not well articulated in the service literature. This paper presents three interrelated frameworks as a first cut at the fundamentals of service systems. These frameworks identify basic building blocks and organize important attributes and change processes that apply across all service systems. Although relevant

Steven Alter

2008-01-01

450

Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange cons...

C. Galindo D. J. Barta D. L. Henninger D. W. Ming J. E. Gruener K. E. Henderson S. L. Steinberg

2001-01-01

451

A classification system for beans using computer vision system and artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer vision system (CVS) was developed for the quality inspection of beans, based on size and color quantification of samples. The system consisted of a hardware and a software. The hardware was developed to capture a standard image from the samples. The software was coded in Matlab for segmentation, morphological operation and color quantification of the samples. For practical

K?vanç K?l?ç; ?smail Hakki Boyac?; Hamit Köksel; ?smail Küsmeno?lu

2007-01-01

452

Continuous Glucose Monitoring Considerations for the Development of a Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas System  

PubMed Central

Background Commercialization of a closed-loop artificial pancreas system that employs continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and interstitial fluid glucose sensing has been encumbered by state-of-the-art technology. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices with improved accuracy could significantly advance development efforts. However, the current accuracy of CGM devices might be adequate for closed-loop control. Methods The influence that known CGM limitations have on closed-loop control was investigated by integrating sources of sensor inaccuracy with the University of Virginia Padova Diabetes simulator. Non-glucose interference, physiological time lag and sensor error measurements, selected from 83 Enlite™ glucose sensor recordings with the Guardian® REAL-Time system, were used to modulate simulated plasma glucose signals. The effect of sensor accuracy on closed-loop controller performance was evaluated in silico, and contrasted with closed-loop clinical studies during the nocturnal control period. Results Based on n = 2472 reference points, a mean sensor error of 14% with physiological time lags of 3.28 ± 4.62 min (max 13.2 min) was calculated for simulation. Sensor bias reduced time in target for both simulation and clinical experiments. In simulation, additive error increased time <70 mg/dl and >180 mg/dl by 0.2% and 5.6%, respectively. In-clinic, the greatest low blood glucose index values (max = 5.9) corresponded to sensor performance. Conclusion Sensors have sufficient accuracy for closed-loop control, however, algorithms are necessary to effectively calibrate and detect erroneous calibrations and failing sensors. Clinical closed-loop data suggest that control with a higher target of 140 mg/dl during the nocturnal period could significantly reduce the risk for hypoglycemia.

Keenan, D Barry; Grosman, Benyamin; Clark, Harry W; Roy, Anirban; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Shah, Rajiv V; Mastrototaro, John J

2011-01-01

453

Artificial muscle actuators for haptic displays: system design to match the dynamics and tactile sensitivity of the human fingerpad  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscles (EPAMTM) based on dielectric elastomers have the bandwidth and the energy density required to make haptic displays that are both responsive and compact. Recent work at Artificial Muscle Inc. has been directed toward the development of thin, high-fidelity haptic modules for mobile handsets. The modules provide the brief tactile "click" that confirms key press, and the steady state "bass" effects that enhance gaming and music. To design for these capabilities we developed a model of the physical system comprised of the actuator, handset, and user. Output of the physical system was passed through a transfer function to covert vibration into an estimate of the intensity of the user's haptic sensation. A model of fingertip impedance versus button press force is calibrated to data, as is impedance of the palm holding a handset. An energy-based model of actuator performance is derived and calibrated, and the actuator geometry is tuned for good haptic performance.

Biggs, S. James; Hitchcock, Roger N.

2010-03-01

454

Diagnosis of diabetes diseases using an Artificial Immune Recognition System2 (AIRS2) with fuzzy K-nearest neighbor.  

PubMed

The use of expert systems and artificial intelligence techniques in disease diagnosis has been increasing gradually. Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) is one of the methods used in medical classification problems. AIRS2 is a more efficient version of the AIRS algorithm. In this paper, we used a modified AIRS2 called MAIRS2 where we replace the K- nearest neighbors algorithm with the fuzzy K-nearest neighbors to improve the diagnostic accuracy of diabetes diseases. The diabetes disease dataset used in our work is retrieved from UCI machine learning repository. The performances of the AIRS2 and MAIRS2 are evaluated regarding classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values. The highest classification accuracy obtained when applying the AIRS2 and MAIRS2 using 10-fold cross-validation was, respectively 82.69% and 89.10%. PMID:21695498

Chikh, Mohamed Amine; Saidi, Meryem; Settouti, Nesma

2011-06-22

455

Optical performance monitoring in 40-Gbps optical duobinary system using artificial neural networks trained with reconstructed eye diagram parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique using artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from reconstructed eye diagrams for optical performance monitoring in 40-Gbps optical duobinary (ODB) system is demonstrated. Firstly, the optical signal is asynchronously sampled by short pulse in the nonlinear medium such as semiconductor optical amplifier and highly nonlinear fiber, the sampled and collected data is then processed by improved software synchronization algorithm to obtain reconstructed eye diagrams without data clock recovery. Secondly, the features of the reconstructed eye diagrams are extracted to train the three-layer preceptor artificial neural network. Finally, the outputs of trained neural network are used to monitor multiple optical signal impairments. Simulation experiments of optical signal noise ratio (OSNR), chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring in 40-Gbps ODB system is presented. The proposed monitoring scheme can accurately identify simultaneous impairment with the root-mean-square (RMS) monitoring error less than 3%.

Lai, Jun-Sen; Yang, Ai-Ying; Zuo, Lin; Sun, Yu-Nan

2011-11-01

456

Leaf-architectured 3D hierarchical artificial photosynthetic system of perovskite titanates towards CO? photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels.  

PubMed

The development of an "artificial photosynthetic system" (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO? reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO? photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH?). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO? as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as "architecture-directing agents" for APS towards CO? photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle. PMID:23588925

Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

2013-01-01

457

Pilot Inventory Complex Adaptive System (PICAS): An Artificial Life Approach to Managing Pilot Retention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The retention of skilled pilots continues to be a problem that plagues the United States Air Force. After spending millions of dollars on training and education, it is disheartening to see the mass exodus of experienced aviators from the Air Force that ha...

M. P. Gaupp

1999-01-01

458

Simulation and Estimation of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for Asymmetric Binary Systems (CO 2 Alcohols) Using Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since it is not always possible to carry out experiments at all desired temperatures and pressures, generally thermodynamic\\u000a models based on equations of state are used for estimation of vapor-liquid equilibrium. In this work, a method using artificial\\u000a neural network (ANN) was designed and applied to simulate and estimate the VLE for the binary asymmetric systems containing\\u000a CO2 and Alcohols.

Reza Abedini; Iman Zanganeh; Mohammad Mohagheghian

2011-01-01

459

Artificial immune system in dynamic environments solving time-varying non-linear constrained multi-objective problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bio-inspired artificial immune system is developed to track dynamically the Pareto fronts of time-varying constrained multi-objective\\u000a problems with changing variable dimensions. It executes in order T-module, B-module, and M-module within a run period. The\\u000a first module is designed to examine dynamically whether the environment changes or whether a change takes place in the optimization\\u000a problem, while creating an initial

Zhuhong Zhang; Shuqu Qian

2011-01-01

460

Artificial Intelligent Systems Based on Supervised HUMANN for Differential Diagnosis of Cognitive Impairment: Towards a 4P-HCDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential and early diagnosis of cognitive impairment (CI) continues being one of the crucial points to which clinical\\u000a medicine faces at every level of attention, and a significant public health concern. This work proposes new CI diagnostic\\u000a tools based on a data fusion scheme, artificial neural networks and ensemble systems. Concretely we have designed a supervised\\u000a HUMANN [1] with capacity

Patricio García Báez; Miguel Angel Pérez Del Pino; Carlos Fernández Viadero; Carmen Paz Suárez Araujo

2009-01-01

461

Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

462

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

463

Tool Life Detecting System Using Damage Sensor-Integrated Insert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-process tool life detecting system has been developed. In order to detect tool life, we monitored breakage of an electrical conductive thin film band of titanium nitride (TiN) on flank faces of a ceramic insert that was an insulation material. The conductive band was parallel to the cutting edge and was broken by fracture of the cutting edge or excessive tool wear. A coil and a capacitor were connected in series to the band on an insert to make a series resonance circuit in a tool holder for turning, or in an arbor for face milling. A detecting coil with high frequency oscillator was coupled to the coil in the holder/arbor electromagnetically. An electromagnetic induction between two coils was used to take the signal from the insert. The system developed in this study showed good stability against electric noises radiated from electrical devices of machine tools.

Sekiya, Katsuhiko; Yamane, Yasuo; Torimoto, Ayumu

464

Current Technological Approaches for a Wearable Artificial Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that continuously supports renal function during ambulation or social activities out of hospital. With the aim of improving dialysis patients’ quality of life, WAK systems have been in development for several decades. Technological evolutions in dialysis membrane and dialysate regeneration have been paving the way to wearability, and the possibility of implantation,

Jeong Chul Kim; Claudio Ronco

2011-01-01

465

Maternal olfactory cues synchronize the circadian system of artificially raised newborn rabbits.  

PubMed

In European newborn rabbits, once-daily nursing acts as a strong non-photic entraining cue for the pre-visual circadian system. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information regarding which of the non-photic cues are capable of modulating pup circadian system. In this study, for the first time, we determined that the mammary pheromone 2-methylbut-2-enal (2MB2) presented in the maternal milk acts as a non-photic entraining cue. We evaluated the effect of once-daily exposure to maternal olfactory cues on the temporal pattern of core body temperature, gross locomotor activity and metabolic variables (liver weight, serum glucose, triacylglycerides, free fatty acids, cholecystokinin and cholesterol levels) in newborn rabbits. Rabbit pups were separated from their mothers from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P8 and were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: nursed by a lactating doe (NAT); exposed to a 3-min pulse of maternal milk (M-Milk), mammary pheromone (2MB2), or water (H2O). To eliminate maternal stimulation, the pups of the last three groups were artificially fed once every 24-h. On P8, the rabbits were sacrificed at different times of the day. In temperature and activity, the NAT, M-Milk and 2MB2 groups exhibited clear diurnal rhythmicity with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to nursing. In contrast, the H2O group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters, lacking the anticipatory component. At the metabolic level, all of the groups exhibited a diurnal pattern with similar phases in liver weight and metabolites examined. The results obtained in this study suggest that during pre-visual stages of development, the circadian system of newborn rabbits is sensitive to the maternal olfactory cues contained in milk, indicating that these cues function as non-photic entraining signals mainly for the central oscillators regulating the expression of temperature and behavior, whereas in metabolic diurnal rhythmicity, these cues lack an effect, indicating that peripheral oscillators respond to milk administration. PMID:24040161

Montúfar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Trejo-Muñoz, Lucero; Hernández-Campos, Oscar; Navarrete, Erika; Caldelas, Ivette

2013-09-05

466

A modified artificial immune system based pattern recognition approach -- an application to clinic diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper introduces a modified artificial immune system (AIS)-based pattern recognition method to enhance the recognition ability of the existing conventional AIS-based classification approach and demonstrates the superiority of the proposed new AIS-based method via two case studies of breast cancer diagnosis. Methods and materials Conventionally, the AIS approach is often coupled with the k nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm to form a classification method called AIS-kNN. In this paper we discuss the basic principle and possible problems of this conventional approach, and propose a new approach where AIS is integrated with the radial basis function – partial least square regression (AIS-RBFPLS). Additionally, both the two AIS-based approaches are compared with two classical and powerful machine learning methods, back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and orthogonal radial basis function network (Ortho-RBF network). Results The diagnosis results show that: (1) both the AIS-kNN and the AIS-RBFPLS proved to be a good machine leaning method for clinical diagnosis, but the proposed AIS-RBFPLS generated an even lower misclassification ratio, especially in the cases where the conventional AIS-kNN approach generated poor classification results because of possible improper AIS parameters. For example, based upon the AIS memory cells of “replacement threshold = 0.3”, the average misclassification ratios of two approaches for study 1 are 3.36% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 9.07% (AIS-kNN), and the misclassification ratios for study 2 are 19.18% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 28.36% (AIS-kNN); (2) the proposed AIS-RBFPLS presented its robustness in terms of the AIS-created memory cells, showing a smaller standard deviation of the results from the multiple trials than AIS-kNN. For example, using the result from the first set of AIS memory cells as an example, the standard deviations of the misclassification ratios for study 1 are 0.45% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 8.71% (AIS-kNN) and those for study 2 are 0.49% (AIS-RBFPLS) and 6.61% (AIS-kNN); and (3) the proposed AIS-RBFPLS classification approaches also yielded better diagnosis results than two classical neural network approaches of BPNN and Ortho-RBF network. Conclusion In summary, this paper proposed a new machine learning method for complex systems by integrating the AIS system with RBFPLS. This new method demonstrates its satisfactory effect on classification accuracy for clinical diagnosis, and also indicates its wide potential applications to other diagnosis and detection problems.

Zhao, Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E.

2011-01-01

467

Airlift deployment analysis system life cycle cost analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Airlift Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) is an automated system that will provide Headquarters, Military Airlift Command (HQ MAC) with planning, scheduling, and analysis tools for peacetime and contingency airlift operations. This Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis identifies cost factors impacting ADANS during its life cycle. This analysis lists exact costs when known and reasonable estimates of other costs. This report states costs in fiscal year (FY) dollars for costs already expended (FY86--FY89) and in FY90 dollars for projected costs. Factors that could have a substantial impact on the ADANS life cycle development and maintenance costs are noted. The development effort will conclude in FY92. This LCC analysis covers a 15-year period from FY86--FY00. The total costs of ADANS is projected to be approximately $60 million. Of this total, about 20% is for development of functional capability, about 9% for development of the cross-cutting subsystems, and about 71% for program and system support. The total Oak Ridge National Laboratory development cost for FY86--FY92 is about $27.5 million; the total cost for HQ MAC is about 32.5 million. 32 tabs.

Truett, L.F.; Das, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Worthington, J.C. (Sybase, Inc. (USA))

1990-08-01

468

Artificial and Natural Icing Tests of the UH-60A Helicopter Configured with the XM-139 Multiple Mine Dispensing System (VOLCANO).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A limited evaluation of the UH-60A helicopter with XM-139 Multiple Delivery Mine Dispensing System (VOLCANO) was conducted to determine the capability to operate safely in a moderate environment. Artificial and natural icing tests were conducted at Duluth...

D. A. Downey R. C. Murrell C. J. Young

1988-01-01

469

Entropy-Based Model for Interpreting Life Systems in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treats qi as the core of the human life systems. Starting with a hypothetical correlation between TCM qi and the entropy theory, we address in this article a holistic model for evaluating and unveiling the rule of TCM life systems. Several new concepts such as acquired life entropy (ALE), acquired life entropy flow (ALEF) and acquired

Guo-lian Kang; Shao Li; Ji-feng Zhang

2008-01-01

470

Artificial Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet...and the most threatened. Artificial reefs may help stem the loss of these valuable and beautiful habitats, with shipwrecks, old subway cars, and other structures taking the place of living coral or rocky outcrops. The following Web sites introduce artificial reefs, reef ecology, and some ongoing efforts to establish reef communities in the U.S. and beyond. PBS's NATURE offers a fascinating look at the artificial reefs created by the thousands of shipwrecks and downed planes from World War II that riddle the South Pacific (1). This is the companion Web site to the documentary War Wrecks of the Coral Seas, and it includes some great multimedia features. The next site comes from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and contains an excellent photo gallery of coral ecosystems around the world (2). The collection includes six pages of artificial reef photos taken in the Pacific. The following site comes from the online companion to the BBC's acclaimed documentary series The Blue Planet. Based on the episode The Web of Life, this site offers a fun, multimedia challenge for learning about and testing one's knowledge of coral reefs (3). The site includes a section on artificial reefs (click on Take it Further). Next, an August 2001 segment from National Public Radio's All Things Considered explores efforts to create artificial reefs using decommissioned New York City subway cars -- a project of Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control in the Division of Fish and Wildlife (4). Likewise, the non-profit group Artificial Reefs of the Keys is working to bring a de-commissioned military ship to the Florida Keys (5). The New Jersey Scuba Diver Web site provides an excellent introduction to artificial reef ecology; focused on reefs in New Jersey, of course. The mini-tutorial comes courtesy of William Figly, Principal Fisheries Biologist for the New Jersey Artificial Reef Program (6). The Fall 2001 issue of California Wild, the magazine of the California Academy of Sciences, addresses the benefits and concerns of off shore oil rigs becoming artificial reefs (7). Finally, visitors will find dozens of news articles and Web links related to artificial reefs in this entry, a page from the New England Artificial Reef Society Web site (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

471

The INCA System: A Further Step Towards a Telemedical Artificial Pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical engineering research efforts have accomplished another level of a ldquotechnological solutionrdquo for diabetes: an artificial pancreas to be used by patients and supervised by healthcare professionals at any time and place. Reliability of continuous glucose monitoring, availability of real-time programmable insulin pumps, and validation of safe and efficient control algorithms are critical components for achieving that goal. Nevertheless, the

Enrique J. Gómez; M. Elena Hernando; Thomas Vering; Mercedes Rigla Cros; Oliver Bott; Gema García-sáez; Peter Pretschner; Eulalia Brugués; Oliver Schnell; Caroline Patte; Joachim Bergmann; Ralf Dudde; Alberto De Leiva

2008-01-01

472

Artificial neural-net based dynamic security assessment for electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive pattern recognition approach based on highly parallel information processing using artificial neural networks is discussed. The high adaptability of these networks allows them to synthesize the complex mappings that carry the input attributes and features into the single-valued space of the critical fault clearing times. Appropriate input feature selection makes this approach a candidate for handling a topologically

Dejan J. Sobajic; Yoh-Han Pao

1989-01-01

473

Prediction of vapor–liquid equilibrium data for ternary systems using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most solvents used in the semiconductor industry are toxic and costly. Thus, the solvents should be recovered for re-use in these processes by distillation methods, and vapor–liquid equilibrium data are necessary for the design and operation of distillation columns. These data can be estimated using activity coefficient models. In this work, artificial neural networks were applied to predict and estimate

Viet D. Nguyen; Raymond R. Tan; Yolanda Brondial; Tetsuo Fuchino

2007-01-01

474

Mapping of solar energy potential in Indonesia using artificial neural network and geographical information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of this study is to determine the theoretical potential of solar irradiation in Indonesia by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) method. The second objective is to visualize the solar irradiation by province as solar map for the entire of Indonesia. The geographical and meteorological data of 25 locations that were obtained from NASA database are used for

Meita Rumbayan; Asifujiang Abudureyimu; Ken Nagasaka

2012-01-01

475

Signal transmission system for high frequency magnetic telemetry for an artificial heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implanted artificial hearts require monitoring of their driving condition and fault detection. We evaluate transmission ability in the presence of magnetic noise while using the magnetic coupling of a transcutaneous coil as the signal transmission method through the skin. Furthermore, we examine the possibility of multi-channel signal transmission

Mamoru Takahashi; Kentaro Watanabe; Fumihiro Sato; Hidetoshi Matsuki

2001-01-01

476

Intelligent agent system for human-robot interaction through artificial emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our work is to realize an agent for intelligent interaction between humans and robots, embedding a computational model of artificial emotions with learning and self-adaptation features. The gesture of a human can cause the robot to change its “emotional state”, which is exhibited by means of integrated visual media, environmental lights, music, and changes in robot's style

Kenji Suzuki; Antonio Camurri; Pasqualino Ferrentino; Shuji Hashimoto

1998-01-01

477

Artificial feeding system for the squash bug, anasa tristis (de geer)(heteroptera: coreidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash bugs, Anasa tristis, did not feed on liquid diet-filled sachets used tradionally for homopterans, or on pouchlike artificial feed source (AFS) containing a meridic diet developed for rearing the western tarnished plant bug. However, excised cubes of squash fruit, vacuum infiltrated with a su...

478

Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

Gonzales, John M.

2009-04-01

479

Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

480

The Safety and Efficacy of the Artificial Bowel Sphincter for Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and impact on quality of life of the Acticon™ artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted under a common protocol. Patients were evaluated with anal physiology, endoanal ultrasonography, a fecal incontinence scoring system, fecal incontinence quality of life assessment, and

W. Douglas Wong; Susan M. Congliosi; Michael P. Spencer; Marvin L. Corman; Patrick Tan; Frank G. Opelka; Marcus Burnstein; Juan J. Nogueras; H. Randolph Bailey; Jose Manuel Devesa; Robert D. Fry; Burt Cagir; Elisa Birnbaum; James W. Fleshman; Mallory A. Lawrence; W. Donald Buie; John Heine; Peter S. Edelstein; Sharon Gregorcyk; Paul Antoine Lehur; Francis Michot; P. Terry Phang; David J. Schoetz; Fabio Potenti; Josephine Y. Tsai

2002-01-01

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