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1

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

2

Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

Macelroy, Robert D. (editor); Thompson, Brad G. (editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (editor); Volk, Tyler (editor)

1989-01-01

3

Monitoring of space station life support systems with miniature mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy with artificial intelligence is a promising approach for monitoring the performance of the life support systems in the space station. Such an analytical system can provide the selectivity, sensitivity, speed, small size, and decision making intelligence to detect, identify, and quantify trace toxic compounds which may accumulate in the space station habitat.

Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Wong, Carla M.

1987-01-01

4

Artificial Life and Real Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper explores the general issues in using Artificial Life techniques to program actual mobile robots. In particular it explores the difficulties inherent in transferring programs evolved in a simulated environment to run on an actual robot. It examines the dual evolution of organism morphology and nervous systems in biology. It proposes techniques to capture some

Rodney A. Brooks

1992-01-01

5

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

6

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

7

Computational Musicology: An Artificial Life Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life (A-Life) and Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) provide a variety of new techniques for making and studying music. EA have been used in different musical applications, ranging from new systems for composition and performance, to models for studying musical evolution in artificial societies. This paper starts with a brief introduction to three main fields of application of EA in Music,

Eduardo Coutinho; Marcelo Gimenes; M. Martins; Eduardo R. Miranda

2005-01-01

8

Artificial Life in Computer Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

2007-01-20

9

From Artificial Life to In Silico Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical research today stands at a crossroads. There is a widening gulf between the extent of knowledge regarding basic mechanistic processes and the ability to integrate that information into explanatory hypotheses of system-level behavior. Techniques from the Artificial Life community can aid in bridging this gulf by providing means for visualizing and instantiating mechanistic hypotheses. This will allow the development

Gary An; Uri Wilensky

2009-01-01

10

Three Illustrations of Artificial Life's Working Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Artificial life uses computer models to study the essentialnature of the characteristic processes of complex adaptive systems---proceses such as self-organization, adaptation, and evolution. Work inthe field is guided by the working hypothesis that simple computer modelscan capture the essential nature of these processes. This hypothesis isillustrated by recent results with a simple population of computationalagents whose sensorimotor functionality undergo

Mark A. Bedau

1995-01-01

11

Application and development of biologically plausible neural networks in a multiagent artificial life system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article introduces the system BioAnt, which is a computational simulation of a small colony of ants (up to 99\\u000a members) in which every ant relies on a biologically more plausible artificial neural networks as control mechanism for guidance.\\u000a The environment, in which the ants are placed, is three-dimensional, consisting of the anthill, sugar, water, earth elevations,\\u000a walls and

Marvin Oliver Schneider; João Luís Garcia Rosa

2009-01-01

12

Artificial life: The coming evolution  

SciTech Connect

Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d'A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

13

Computer animation based on artificial life and artificial intelligence: the research of artificial fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, self-reproduction characteristic of artificial life is introduced to computer animation. A self-reproduction model of artificial fish based on gene control is put forward and built. Based on artificial fish's phenotype, the contents of its chromosome are given. Based on this model, heredity rules are given. Artificial fish could reproduce and grow in the virtual marine environment freely

Ban Xiaojuan; Ai Dongmei; Zeng Guangping; Tu Xuyan

2005-01-01

14

Developing an Artificial Life Simulation Package  

SciTech Connect

Recent publications suggest existence of a gap between computer science curricula and industry needs. We show how a software engineering project for developing an Artificial Life Simulation Package can help bridge this gap. The results of experiments investigating the influence of the artificial life parameters: initial population, food, movement, survival, and birth are presented and briefly discussed.

Bailey, D.; Cheek, A.; Paprzycki, M. [Univ. of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

15

Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault toler- ance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second genera-

Uwe Aickelin; Dipankar Dasgupta

2009-01-01

16

From Artificial Life to In Silico Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical research today stands at a crossroads. There is a widening gulf between the extent of knowledge regarding basic mechanistic processes and the ability to integrate that information into explanatory hypotheses of system-level behavior. Techniques from the Artificial Life community can aid in bridging this gulf by providing means for visualizing and instantiating mechanistic hypotheses. This will allow the development of in silico laboratories where conceptual models can be examined, checked, and modified. NetLogo is a “low threshold, high ceiling” software toolkit that has been used to develop agent-based models (ABMs) in a multiplicity of domains and provides a good platform for the computational instantiation of biomedical knowledge. This chapter presents a brief overview of NetLogo and describes a series of ABMs of acute inflammation at multiple levels of biological organization.

An, Gary; Wilensky, Uri

17

Department of Physics Artificial Life  

E-print Network

that is either dead or alive. The development of a system is set by four rules: 1. Any live cell with fewer than, as if by overcrowding. 4. Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbours becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction. 2 is to synthesise a minimal living cell from bottom up. Vesicles seem the most convenient basic building block

Â?umer, Slobodan

18

A Comprehensive Overview of the Applications of Artificial Life  

E-print Network

@cs.yonsei.ac.kr sbcho@cs.yonsei.ac.kr Keywords Artificial life, perspective, simulation, software, hardware, evolution Abstract We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers intelligence, artificial immune network, and agent-based modeling have also produced results. Applications were

Kim, Kyung-Joong

19

Advances in Artificial Life - Impacts on Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents a series of interdisciplinary exchanges between the authors - one a psychologist and philosopher, the other a computer scientist- as they pondered some of the scientific and cultural challenges of the new millennium. The paper briefly reviews the closer-than-ever possibility of creating artificial life, intelligence and cultures brought about by recent developments in the fields of biology,

R. Krasnogor; N. Krasnogor

20

Toward Synthesizing Artificial Neural Networks that Exhibit Cooperative Intelligent Behavior: Some Open Issues in Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tasks that animals perform require a high degree of intelligence. Animals forage for food, migrate, navigate, court mates, rear offspring, defend against predators, construct nests, and so on. These tasks commonly require social interaction\\/cooperation and are accomplished by animal nervous systems, which are the result of billions of years of evolution and complex developmental\\/learning processes. The Artificial Life (AL)

Michael G. Dyer

1993-01-01

21

Biological Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

1997-01-01

22

An intelligent remote monitoring system for artificial heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based database system for intelligent remote monitoring of an artificial heart has been developed. It is important for patients with an artificial heart implant to be discharged from the hospital after an appropriate stabilization period for better recovery and quality of life. Reliable continuous remote monitoring systems for these patients with life support devices are gaining practical meaning. The

Jaesoon Choi; J. W. Park; Jinhan Chung; B. G. Min

2005-01-01

23

Artificial Life p1 RJM 08/01/14 SE4SI12 Artificial Life Part A  

E-print Network

intelligence and/or artificial life Must include novel applet (or video of applet) illustrating work Should Mitchell 2014 #12;History of A Life p4 RJM 08/01/14 SE4SI12 Artificial Life ­ Part A © Dr Richard Mitchell significant, Mathematical Games column in Scientific American, which publicised John Conway's Cellular

Mitchell, Richard

24

Artificial Life: The Utrecht Machine W. Garrett Mitchener  

E-print Network

Artificial Life: The Utrecht Machine W. Garrett Mitchener College of Charleston October 10, 2013 W. Garrett Mitchener (C of C) Utrecht Machine October 10, 2013 1 / 17 #12;Introduction Artificial life is hard W. Garrett Mitchener (C of C) Utrecht Machine October 10, 2013 2 / 17 #12;Introduction Let's start

Mitchener, W. Garrett

25

Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities. Prototype ex- planation systems have been added to simulators, but designers have not heeded the lessons learned from work in explaining expert system behavior. These new explanation systems are not modular and not

Mark G. Core; Michael Van Lent; Dave Gomboc; Steve Solomon; Milton Rosenberg

2006-01-01

26

Measures of Work in Artificial Life  

E-print Network

Definitions of autonomous agents---simple living systems--- have often included the thermodynamic idea that agents need to do work to construct constraints and to maintain these constraints. We show that an ant-pheromone system is sufficiently rich to allow an explanation of its behavior in terms of thermodynamic properties, particularly the work done by the system on itself to build structure. This work is done by an inward pressure whose origin is the antpheromone system itself. The degree of structure formed by the system can be traced back to the behavioral rules of each of the ants---the more relevant information each ant is given in its behavioral repertoire, the more work is done by the system in compressing itself, and the tighter and more constrained is the final structure. The language introduced in this paper can serve as a framework for quantifying the propensity of a system to do work, self-organize and coalesce into life.

Manoj Gambhir Stephen; Stephen Guerin; Daniel Kunkle; Richard Harris

27

Making Right(s) Decision: Artificial life and Rights Reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of robotics in industry, education and entertainment, artificial intelligent robots challenge the way we think about relationships between humans and machines. This study examines critical issues in artificial life and rights, which are an emergent but, as yet, little understood area of educational inquiry through one of the most popular video game, The Sims. Since The Sims

Juyun Kim

2005-01-01

28

Focus on artificial frustrated systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustration in physics is the inability of a system to simultaneously satisfy all the competing pairwise interactions within it. The past decade has seen an explosion of activity involving engineering frustration in artificial systems built using nanotechnology. The most common are the artificial spin ices that comprise arrays of nanomagnets with competing magnetostatic interactions. As well as being physical embodiments of idealized statistical mechanical models in which properties can be tuned by design, artificial spin ices can be studied using magnetic microscopy, allowing all the details of the microstates of these systems to be interrogated, both in equilibrium and when perturbed away from it. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together reports on the latest results from leading groups around the globe in this fascinating and fast-moving field.

Cumings, J.; Heyderman, L. J.; Marrows, C. H.; Stamps, R. L.

2014-07-01

29

Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan Intelligence 2 (AI) is a field of computer science and engineering con­ cerned with the computational: computational psychology, computational philosophy, and machine intelligence. Computational Psychology The goal

Shapiro, Stuart C.

30

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

Lawlor, Joseph

31

[Evaluation of the quality of life in artificial nutrition].  

PubMed

If we define quality of life as being the social, physiological, mental intellectual, and general well being of people, we realize that there is no known health care system that is able to guarantee that well being in all its possible aspects. When we as clinicians assess the positive effects of a treatment applied to a patient, we are not only assessing the offered quality of life, but also the quantity of life, so what we are really assessing is the usefulness. We could say, therefore, that while the quality of life is subjective, not exact, and cannot be quantified, the usefulness on the other hand, can and should be measured and quantified, even though, as this is a subjective assessment, it is somewhat difficult to quantify. The object of our publication is to find an appropriate method for assessing this parameter in the area that concerns us: artificial nutrition. Artificial nutrition is indicated when the patient cannot does not want to, or does not know how to eat in the natural manner. Therefore, in principle it could seem inhuman and even unethical to deny a vital support measure that is practically without any risks in a patient who cannot feed him-or herself. However, in a situation of limited resources, if the treatment were inappropriate we should consider that possibility. Under these circumstances we could consider that even a concept as essential as nutrition (in this case artificial) would lose its inalienable character. In order to assess usefulness, one must include parameters that can be quantified in percentages and whose results can be set out in units of time (years, months, or days). We use the concept of the individual usefulness, whose unit of time is the QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Years). In 1996 we made a personal modification of Rosser's Index, which was specific for evaluating the quality of life obtained by means of artificial nutrition. This consisted of substituting the assessment parameters of intensity of pain, by other that are specific in function of the limitation of the ingestion capacity presented by the patient who was subjected to AN. The third factor that corresponds to the concept of usefulness would be the index of beneficial applicability percentage of patients who benefit from the support. The combination of these three factors, applicability, life expectancy, and quality of life, would yield the usefulness of the procedure. In order to assess usefulness in all its aspects, one must also define intention, as this can be applied with three goals: essential or curative, complementary or adjuvant, and maintenance or merely palliative. We can say that the economical limitations and the cost of the therapeutic resources leads to rationing by the administration. In the face of this action, we would recommend a rational and reasonable restriction of the available resources, which lead to the so-called rationalization, a term that is more correct ethically and esthetically, than rationing. As a final conclusion we could state that ethics and economics help us to use the resources appropriately, without any contradictions, as the economy attempts to give the society the greatest possible degree of well being based on the available resources, and that is an ethical objective, The quantification of the benefits obtained by applying a treatment using measureable units, involves socio-economic concepts such as usefulness, cost/benefit, quality of life, etc. should not elicit rejection as though we were dealing with a merchandising of our ethical values. We clinicians are capable of assessing this together, both with regard to the obtained costs and benefits, and with regard to the final results, both intra- and extra-hospital, and using the appropriate tools, we can reach conclusions that can guide us objectively in making decisions, with the aim of optimizing our therapeutic actions. PMID:9578681

Zarazaga Monzón, A; Culebras, J M; Gómez Candela, C; Cos, A I

1998-01-01

32

Artificial intelligence and intelligent tutoring systems  

SciTech Connect

As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.

Livergood, N.D.

1989-01-01

33

Artificial immune systems for intelligent nurse rostering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurse rostering is an essential and important task for hospital administration. In this paper, an intelligent nurse rostering system is proposed by using two types of artificial immune systems, CLONALG and aiNet, as the intelligent mechanisms. The performance of both artificial immune systems is examined, and the results indicate that both artificial immune systems provide good intelligent solutions to solve

C.-C. Lo; C.-C. Lin; C.-T. Wang; T.-J. Dai; D. Wong

2007-01-01

34

Artificial Intelligence Production Systems  

E-print Network

memory Action part defines the associated problem solving step if the condition is true 3. Recognize-Act Cycle (Algorithm/Interpreter) Initialize working memory with problem start Repeat examining rules and taking action until the problem is solved or nothing new can be concluded Production System Working

Reed, Nancy E.

35

Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model  

E-print Network

in an Artificial Life Agent Model}, booktitle = {Proc. 2008 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life-based artificial life models are commonly constructed without a strict energy conservation rule. We report

Hawick, Ken

36

A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define native intelligence as the specified complexity inherent in the information content of an artificial system. The artificial system is defined as a system that can be encoded in some general purpose language, expressed minimally as some finite length bit string, and decoded by a finite set of rules defined a priori. Using this definition of native intelligence, we

John Albert Horst

2002-01-01

37

Artificial Homeostatic System: A Novel Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers are developing frameworks inspired by natural, es- pecially biological, systems to solve complex real-world problems. This work extends previous work in the field of biologically inspired computing, propos- ing an artificial endocrine system for autonomous robot navigation. Having in- trinsic self-organizing behaviour, the novel artificial endocrine system can be applied to a wide range of problems, particularly those

Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Renan C. Moioli; Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; Fernando J. Von Zuben

2005-01-01

38

Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

39

Extracorporeal Artificial Liver Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most appealing therapeutic approaches for treating any organ failure is the possibility to provide a temporary\\u000a artificial support of its function. In some cases (for example kidney failure) dialysis procedures are widely accepted and\\u000a used, while in others (for example cardiac failure) artificial devices remain largely investigational. In this context, the\\u000a concept of artificial liver support (ALS)

Rafael Bañares; María-Vega Catalina

40

Molecular Computation and Evolutionary Wetware: A Cutting-Edge Technology for Artificial Life and Nanobiotechnologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the new frontiers opened by the integration of artificial life and nanobiotechnologies, this paper reviews mainstream biomolecular computation from the viewpoint of an information processing mechanism, computing methods, and problem-solving algorithms. We also discuss evolutionary wetware as a tool for unconventional computing, inspired by biomolecular systems in nature. Biomolecular computation uses a different paradigm of computing than that

Jian-qin Liu; Katsunori Shimohara

2007-01-01

41

Learning in Artificial Neural Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

1987-01-01

42

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer scientists and engineers, perhaps to make their activities more intelligible and more appealing to lay people, tend\\u000a to use biological metaphors for the products of their activities. Prominent among these are artificial intelligence, neural\\u000a networks, and genetic algorithms. All these are more or less expressions for categories of programs and the way they work.\\u000a The intent (at least of

Daniel Cowan

43

Architecture for an Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security, in the form of a

Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie Forrest

2000-01-01

44

Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune systems to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of

K. KrishnaKumar

2003-01-01

45

Associative properties of artificial immune systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concentrates on analyzing associative properties of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), especially of immunological memory, which is one of the essential characteristics of adaptive immune systems. This memory is able to store and recall patterns when it is required, and can easily categorize new input data. Immunological memory is distributed among the cells in the AIS memory population, and

Barbara Borowik; J. Kucwaj; C. Laird; S. Laird

2008-01-01

46

Image segmentation algorithm research for sport graphics based on artificial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, linking with the basic principle of artificial life for image segmentation, on the basis of theory research, The segmented partitions emerge when the state of the lives reaches an equilibrium. The artificial life approach is promising in image processing because it is inherently parallel and coincides with the self-governing biological process. The final segmentation result is achieved

Zhao Wei-ke; Li Zhan-ping; Shi Jin

2011-01-01

47

Mapping Artificial Immune Systems into Learning Classifier Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents one form of mapping Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) into Learning Classifier Systems (LCS). Artificial\\u000a Immune Systems can be defined as adaptive systems inspired by theoretical models and principles of the biological immune system\\u000a and applied to solve problems in the most diverse domains, from biology to computing. Similar to Learning Classifier Systems,\\u000a already used to model complex

Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Leandro Nunes De Castro; Fernando J. Von Zuben

2002-01-01

48

Missileborne artificial vision system (MAVIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a Companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different Corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of Corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

1994-03-01

49

On artificial immune systems and swarm intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper explores the nature and role of two bio-inspired paradigms, namely Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) and\\u000a Swarm Intelligence (SI). We argue that there are many aspects of AIS that have direct parallels with SI and examine the role\\u000a of AIS and SI in science and also in engineering, with the primary focus being on the immune system. We

Jon Timmis; Paul S. Andrews; Emma Hart

2010-01-01

50

Missileborne Artificial Vision System (MAVIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several years ago when INTEL and China Lake designed the ETANN chip, analog VLSI appeared to be the only way to do high density neural computing. In the last five years, however, digital parallel processing chips capable of performing neural computation functions have evolved to the point of rough equality with analog chips in system level computational density. The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera, and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

1994-01-01

51

Artificial intelligence and space power systems automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various applications of artificial intelligence to space electrical power systems are discussed. An overview is given of completed, on-going, and planned knowledge-based system activities. These applications include the Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) (the expert system interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the early work with the Space Station Experiment Scheduler (SSES); the three expert systems under development in the space station advanced development effort in the core module power management and distribution system test bed; planned cooperation of expert systems in the Core Module Power Management and Distribution (CM/PMAD) system breadboard with expert systems for the space station at other research centers; and the intelligent data reduction expert system under development.

Weeks, David J.

1987-01-01

52

Artificial Life, Adaptive Behavior, Agents Application Oriented Routing with Biologicallyinspired Agents  

E-print Network

Artificial Life, Adaptive Behavior, Agents Application Oriented Routing with Biologically natural synergies when considering measured quality of service. However, it is difficult to know that making best use of network capacity implies load balancing; however, this is a simplistic assumption

White, Tony

53

Photoinduced Energy Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial photosynthesis is a current topic of intensive investigations, both in order to understand the reactions that play a central role in natural photosynthesis as well as to develop highly efficient solar energy conversion systems and molecular optoelectronic devices [1-34]. Artificial photosynthesis is defined as a research field that attempts to mimic the natural process of photosynthesis. Therefore, the outline of natural photosynthesis is described briefly for the better understanding of artificial photosynthesis . Natural photosynthetic system is regarded as one of the most elaborate nanobiological machines [35,36]. It converts solar energy into electrochemical potential or chemical energy, which is prerequisite for the living organisms on the earth. The core function of photosynthesis is a cascade of photoinduced energy and electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the antenna complexes and the reaction center. For instance, in purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) there are two different types of antenna complexes: a core light-harvesting antenna (LH1) and peripheral light-harvesting antenna (LH2) [37-39]. LH1 surrounds the reaction center where charge separation takes place.

Imahori, H.; Umeyama, T.

54

Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

55

Development of an ultrasound thrombolysis system for artificial hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombus formation in artificial hearts remains a key risk factor in the death of patients. Anticoagulant therapy is essential in patients with artificial hearts. However, thrombogenesis can also occur under anticoagulant therapy. Once thrombogenesis has begun, anticoagulant therapy cannot recover the thrombus-free state. Therefore, in order to prevent thrombogenesis in the artificial heart, we developed a prototype ultrasound thrombolysis system.

S. Tsujimura; Y. Sankai

2009-01-01

56

Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

Barta, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

57

Ten Errors Regarding End of Life Issues, and Especially Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events, including the conflict over Terri Schiavo, and the death of Pope John Paul II, have made necessary renewed attention to the Church’s teaching regarding end of life care and treatment, especially the artificial provision of nutrition and hydration to those unable to feed themselves. According to the Church’s general approach to end of life matters, it is not

Christopher Tollefsen

58

An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations  

E-print Network

environments. It is used to examine how different designs for the ants' Artificial Neural Network (ANN) brains. Three senses, vision, smell, and hearing are implemented. A new version of Hebbian rule for short is AntFarm [1]. AntFarm is a tool to investigate the evolution of complex behaviours in complex

Güngör, Tunga

59

Robustness Reducing Model of Distributed Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the model of reducing robustness for the distributed multi-agent system, the robustness analysis problem of the distributed artificial immune system (DAIS) was reduced into robustness analysis problems of all the independent modules of the system. The artificial immune system (AIS) included the module of modeling the normal model, the module of detecting selfs and non-selfs, the module of recognizing

Tao Gong; Zixing Cai

2007-01-01

60

Computer Forensics System Based on Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current computer forensics approaches mainly focus on the network ac- tions capture and analysis the evidences after attacks, which always result in the static methods. Inspired by the theory of artificial immune systems (AIS), a novel model of Computer Forensics System is presented. The concepts and formal definitions of im- mune cells are given, and dynamically evaluative equations for

Jin Yang; Tao Li; Sunjun Liu; Tiefang Wang; Diangang Wang; Gang Liang

2007-01-01

61

Self managed system of sensor network — an artificial ecological system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a self-maintain system based on the concept of the artificial ecological system (AES). Under the framework of the AES, we proposed a model of ecological balancing include the sensor nodes dynamics model (SNDM), the sensor nodes ecological model (SNEM) and the population growth limit model (PGLM). The SNDM is used to implement the diffusion, and the SNEM

Ren C. Luo; Wen H. Chang

2007-01-01

62

INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO  

E-print Network

inspired by the biological immune system, are also built to solve problems. In this thesis, usingINTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO PROCESS ANOMALY DETECTION Jamie January 2007 #12;Abstract This thesis explores the design and application of artificial immune systems

Aickelin, Uwe

63

Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

Huntsberger, Terrance

2005-01-01

64

Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket. Submitted to Artificial Life  

E-print Network

Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket². Submitted to Artificial Life Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket*. Andy Clark Cognitive Science Program Indiana University, Bloomington: Embodiment, Symbols, Situated Reason, Surrogate Situations, Mole Cricket, Singing Burrows, Language

Clark, Andy

65

Artificial Life, unlike artifical intelligence, had humble beginnings. In the case of the latter, when the word itself was born, the first breathtaking results were  

E-print Network

Preface Artificial Life, unlike artifical intelligence, had humble beginnings. In the case intelligence comes up again. Artificial intelligence was conceptually based on "machine functionalism intelligence, and artificial intelligence was a computerized approach to the mind that was designed to capture

Karsai, Istvan

66

Exploration technology surface systems: Artificial gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include the following: technical issues; current, state-of-the-art, and future programs; and Mars direct tether application for artificial gravity.

Hirschbein, Murray

1991-01-01

67

The Pace of Life under Artificial Selection: Personality, Energy Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs.  

E-print Network

The Pace of Life under Artificial Selection: Personality, Energy Expenditure, and Longevity only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use naturalist june 2010 Notes and Comments The Pace of Life under Artificial Selection: Personality, Energy

Indiana University

68

On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders  

E-print Network

On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders Proceedings RASC-2004, The 5th the effect of different affinity measure algorithms for the AIS. Two different affinity measures, Kendall and that, as long as a suitable affinity measure is chosen, results are good. Keywords: Artificial Immune

Aickelin, Uwe

69

Handwritten Icelandic character recognition based on artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial immune systems(1-2) are highly distributed systems based on the principles of the natural system. In this paper, handwritten Icelandic character recognition strategy using artificial immune system was proposed and carefully experimented. With 73 feature coefficients extracted from 24*24 handwritten Russian uppercase character image using 36 sub-meshing coefficients, 24 traversing-times coefficients, 1 segmentation-times coefficients and 12 vertical projection coefficients as

Yu Yang

2011-01-01

70

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

71

in: Second German Workshop on Artificial Life Draft Proceedings  

E-print Network

]. As an example Figure 1 shows the information flow in the chemotaxis system of Escherichia Coli [10: Information flow in the chemotaxis system of Escheri­ chia Coli. Binding of stimulus molecules causes transition occurs with respect to the qualitative behavior of the system, i.e. to the production of prime

Dittrich, Peter

72

A toxicity test in artificial soil based on the life-history strategy of the nematode Plectus acuminatus  

SciTech Connect

The ecological risk assessment of toxicants in soil requires reproducible and relevant test systems using a wide range of species. To supplement present test methods from the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in artificial soil with earthworms and springtails, a toxicity test in OECD artificial soil has been developed using the bacterivorous nematode Plectus acuminatus (Bastian, 1865) (Nematoda; Plectidae). The juvenile to adult ratio was used as a test parameter since previous life-cycle studies pointed out that fitness of P. acuminatus was strongly determined by changes in both reproduction and juvenile survival. Optimal conditions for the performance of nematodes in OECD artificial soil were determined (pH{sub KCl} = 5.5, temperature = 20C, and a moisture content of 70% dry wt. artificial soil), and tests were conducted with cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol. After an exposure period of 3 weeks the EC50 for cadmium was 321.0 {+-} 1.7 mg/kg dry wt., and the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 32 mg/kg dry wt. The EC50 for pentachlorophenol was 47.9 {+-} 1.2 mg/kg dry wt., and the NOEC was <10 mg/kg dry wt. For copper the EC50 was 162 {+-} 0.2 mg/kg dry wt., and the NOEC was 32 mg/kg dry wt. It is concluded that the nematode test may well supplement current coil test systems using earthworms and springtails.

Kammenga, J.E.; Van Koert, P.H.G.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Korthals, G.W.; Bakker, J. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands)

1996-05-01

73

Artificial neural networks in lightning location systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we introduce the use of self organizing Kohonen maps, a type of artificial neural network, for lightning electromagnetic waveform classification. We show how this natural classification can be used to discriminate lightning waveforms in a noisy environment. The utility and functionality of the proposed framework is confirmed by numerical results based on real lightning electric field waveforms

J. L. Bermudez; A. Piras; M. Rubinstein

1996-01-01

74

The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

By classifying information processing tasks which are suitable for artificial intelligence approaches we determine an architectural structure for large systems. We visualize a three-layer architecture of private applications, mediating information servers, and an infrastructure which provides information resources.

Gio Wiederhold

1992-01-01

75

Adaptive battle agents: emergence in artificial life combat models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore emergent behavior in an agent-based model of a complex system. The particular complex system we consider is a battlefield simulation. These agents are modeled in the RePast agent-based modeling environment. We will explore how agents of various capabilities and differing task sets affect the outcome of a battle. The capabilities of these agents include, but are not limited to, the ability to maneuver on the battlefield, receive and understand messages, formulate and send messages and attack enemy agents.

Baker, Thomas J. A.; Botting, Matthew; Berryman, Matthew J.; Ryan, Alex; Grisogono, Anne-Marie; Abbott, Derek

2005-02-01

76

Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

2006-01-01

77

A New Artificial Life Formalization Model: A Worm with a Bayesian Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper shows an application of Bayesian Programming to model a simple artificial life problem: that of a worm trying to\\u000a live in a world full of poison. Any model of a real phenomenon is incomplete because there will always exist unknown, hidden\\u000a variables that influence the phenomenon. To solve this problem we apply a new formalism, Bayesian programming, which

Fidel Aznar Gregori; Maria Del Mar Pujol López; Ramón Rizo Aldeguer; Pablo Suau Pérez

2004-01-01

78

A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system is a complex biological system with a highly distributed, adaptive and self-organising nature. This paper presents an Artificial Immune System (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film recommendation by Collaborative Filtering (CF). Natural evolution and in particular the immune system have not been designed for classical optimisation. However, for

Steve Cayzer; Uwe Aickelin

2008-01-01

79

An overview of the artificial intelligence and expert systems component of RICIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems are the important component of RICIS (Research Institute and Information Systems) research program. For space applications, a number of problem areas that should be able to make good use of the above tools include: resource allocation and management, control and monitoring, environmental control and life support, power distribution, communications scheduling, orbit and attitude maintenance, redundancy management, intelligent man-machine interfaces and fault detection, isolation and recovery.

Feagin, Terry

1987-01-01

80

An integrated artificial photosynthesis system based on peptide nanotubes.  

PubMed

A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD(+) to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems. PMID:24920173

Xue, Bin; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

2014-07-21

81

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

Roman, Monserrate C.

2009-01-01

82

Fail-safe systems for the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas.  

PubMed

For the long-term clinical use of the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas, a fail-safe system is an essential mechanism. Several hardware alarm systems have been incorporated for battery-down, and short-run of the pumps. Software alarm systems for overflow or underflow of the AD converter, empty bags, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, abnormal values of parameters, and excessive insulin infusion have also been built into the system. The software noise filter was effective in eliminating superimposed artificial noises and the noises induced by muscle exercise. Sudden changes in sensor output during glycemic control of diabetics due to short circuit, or disconnection of the sensor lead, were detected as overflow or underflow of the AD converter. A gradual change in the sensor output was heralded by the hyper- or hypoglycemia alarm sound. These data indicated that the fail-safe system built into the wearable artificial endocrine pancreas is useful for the long-term glycemic control of diabetics. PMID:3203976

Goriya, Y; Ueda, N; Nao, K; Yamasaki, Y; Kawamori, R; Shichiri, M; Kamada, T

1988-11-01

83

Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces a new computational intelligence paradigm to perform pattern recognition, named Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). AIS take inspiration from the immune system in order to build novel computational tools to solve problems in a vast range of domain areas. The basic immune theories used to explain how the immune system perform pattern recognition are described and their corresponding

L. N. de Castro; J. Timmis

84

The Development of Artificial Immune System in Topographic Facet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores artificial immune system in feature extraction mechanism. Certain important features like robustness, dynamic, adaptive, error tolerant, distributive are key features of natural immune system. These features have a detailed description. We have used adaptive immune system to develop this extraction method successfully. The terrain has several facets such as water, vegetation, urban, denseurban, barren and many more.

Bidisha Das; Preeti Kumari; Rachna Jindal; Rashmi Rameshwari

2011-01-01

85

Cognition and (Artificial) Cognitive Systems - explanatory & exploratory notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly sketch some of the many concepts and issues involved in cogni- tion and cognitive systems research and engineering, and describe in very broad terms, some of many potential application areas. We emphasise the need for exploring new architectures for artificial cognitive systems as well as new approaches to modelling and building such systems, also informed by insights into

Hans-Georg Stork

86

Artificial Intelligence 119 (2000) 103140 Semi-quantitative system identification  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence 119 (2000) 103­140 Semi-quantitative system identification Herbert Kay 1 78712, USA Received 9 March 1999 Abstract System identification takes a space of possible models of the model best matches the observations. We present SQUID, a method for system identification in which

Kuipers, Benjamin

87

Life in the solar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or

A. Brack

1999-01-01

88

Controlled ecological life-support system. Use of plants for human life-support in space.  

PubMed

Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination. PMID:1357076

Chamberland, D; Knott, W M; Sager, J C; Wheeler, R

1992-08-01

89

Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

1992-01-01

90

An Interactive Electronic Art System Based on Artificial Ecosystemics  

E-print Network

Syst´emes Complexes - Paris ^Ile-de-France Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 57-59 rue. This art system is driven by interactive evolutionary computation, and further augmented using special of model biases [1]. Here we explore the use of an artificial ecosystem as a generative system

Dorin, Alan

91

Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Implement a Multifactor Authentication System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent years have seen a rise in the number of cases of cyber-crime committed through identity theft and fraud. To address this problem, this paper uses adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system, fuzzy logic and artificial neural network to implement a multifactor authentication system through a technique of information fusion. To begin with, the identity attributes are mined using the three

Jackson Phiri; Tie-Jun Zhao; Cong Hui Zhu; Jameson Mbale

2011-01-01

92

Life in the solar system.  

PubMed

Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or near hydrothermal vents. A large fraction of prebiotic organic molecules might have been brought by extraterrestrial-meteoritic and cometary dust grains decelerated by the atmosphere. Any celestial body harboring permanent liquid water may therefore accumulate the ingredients that generated life on the primitive Earth. The possibility that life might have evolved on early Mars when water existed on the surface marks it as a prime candidate in a search for bacterial life beyond the Earth. Europa has an icy carapace. However, cryovolcanic flows at the surface point to a possible water subsurface region which might harbor a basic life form. The atmosphere and surface components of Titan are also of interest to exobiology for insight into a hydrocarbon-rich chemically evolving world. One-handed complex molecules and preferential isotopic fractionation of carbon, common to all terrestrial life forms, can be used as basic indicators when searching for life beyond the Earth. PMID:11543327

Brack, A

1999-01-01

93

Collaborative RFID intrusion detection with an artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current RFID systems are fragile to external attacks, due to the limitations of encryption authentication and physical\\u000a protection methods used in implementation of RFID security systems. In this paper, we propose a collaborative RFID intrusion\\u000a detection method that is based on an artificial immune system (AIS). The new method can enhance the security of RFID systems\\u000a without need to

Haidong Yang; Jianhua Guo; Feiqi Deng

2011-01-01

94

Chip level lithography verification system with artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithography verification of critical dimension variation, pinching, and bridging becomes indispensable in synthesizing mask data for the photolithography process. In handling IC layout data, the software usually use the hierarchical information of the design to reduce execution time and to overcome peak memory usage. However, the layout data become flattened by resolution enhancement techniques, such as optical proximity correction, assist features insertion, and dummy pattern insertion. Consequently, the lithography verification software should take burden of processing the flattened data. This paper describes the hierarchy restructuring and artificial neural networks methods in developing a rapid lithography verification system. The hierarchy restructuring method is applied on layout patterns so that the lithography verification on the flattened layout data can attain the speed of hierarchical processing. Artificial neural networks are employed to replace lithography simulation. We define input parameters, which is major factors in determining patterns width, for the artificial neural network system. We also introduce a learning technique in the neural networks to achieve accuracy comparable to an existing lithography verification system. Failure detection with artificial neural networks outperforms the methods that use the convolution-based simulation. The proposed system shows 10 times better performance than a widely accepted system while it achieves the same predictability on lithography failures.

Shin, Jae-pil; Choi, Jin-sook; Jung, Dae-hyun; Lee, Jee-hyong; Yoo, Moon-hyun; Kong, Jeong-taek

2005-06-01

95

libtissue - a Software System for Incorporating Innate Immunity into Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper the authors argue the case for incorporating concepts from innate immunity into Artificial Immune Systems and present an outline for a conceptual frame- work for such systems. A number of key general properties observed in the biological innate and adaptive immune systems were highlighted, and how such properties might be instantiated in artificial systems was discussed

Jamie Twycross; Uwe Aickelin

96

Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune System along with Genetic algorithm to develop an Intrusion Detection System. Far from Immune Systems. A Genetic Algorithm using genetic operators- selection, cloning, crossover and mutation, we attempt to use Artificial Immune (AIS) System and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to develop an IDS, which

Sanyal, Sugata

97

Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of

N. Toomarian; H. Kirkham

1993-01-01

98

The Use of Mathematical Modeling Relevant to Closed Artificial Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical modeling of ecosystems is now about eight decades old, and has contributed much to the understanding of the dynamics of such systems. Ecosystems can include not only the natural variety, but also artificial systems designed and controlled by humans. These can range from agricultural systems and activated sludge plants, down to mesocosms, microcosms, and aquaria, which may have practical or research applications. Some purposes may require the design of systems that are completely closed, as far as material cycling is concerned. In all cases, mathematical modeling can help not only to understand the dynamics of the system, but also to design methods of control to keep the system operating in desired ranges. This paper reviews mathematical modeling relevant to the simulation and control of closed or semi-closed artificial ecosystems. microcosms, understanding of ecol. A great deal has been learned about the behaviors of communities of ecological organisms through the use of

Deangelis, D.

99

Economic contributions of artificial intelligence to space systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enough experience has been gained in the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to spacecraft missions to permit prediction of the contributions of AI to cost reductions during system integration and test and during operations. The authors present a model and several examples based on case histories and indicate that the decision to use AI can be made from a

J. E. Bare; P. Daley

1990-01-01

100

Impact of artificial "gummy" fingers on fingerprint systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential threats caused by something like real fingers, which are called fake or artificial fingers, should be crucial for authentication based on fingerprint systems. Security evaluation against attacks using such artificial fingers has been rarely disclosed. Only in patent literature, measures, such as live and well detection, against fake fingers have been proposed. However, the providers of fingerprint systems usually do not mention whether or not these measures are actually implemented in emerging fingerprint systems for PCs or smart cards or portable terminals, which are expected to enhance the grade of personal authentication necessary for digital transactions. As researchers who are pursuing secure systems, we would like to discuss attacks using artificial fingers and conduct experimental research to clarify the reality. This paper reports that gummy fingers, namely artificial fingers that are easily made of cheap and readily available gelatin, were accepted by extremely high rates by 11 particular fingerprint devices with optical or capacitive sensors. We have used the molds, which we made by pressing our live fingers against them or by processing fingerprint images from prints on glass surfaces, etc. We describe how to make the molds, and then show that the gummy fingers, which are made with these molds, can fool the fingerprint devices.

Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koji; Hoshino, Satoshi

2002-04-01

101

Training multilayer perceptrons with a Gaussian Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we apply an immune-inspired ap- proach to train Multilayer Perceptrons (MLPs) for classification problems. Our proposal, called Gaussian Artificial Immune System (GAIS), is an estimation of distribution algorithm that replaces the traditional mutation and cloning operators with a probabilistic model, more specifically a Gaussian network, representing the joint distribution of promising solutions. Sub- sequently, GAIS utilizes this

Pablo A. D. Castro; Fernando J. Von Zuben

2011-01-01

102

Design principles of adaptive cellular immunity for artificial immune systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial immune systems (AISs) have been proposed as a new computing paradigm. This paper reviews design principles of adaptive\\u000a cellular immunity, based on the immunological literature rather than the simplified mathematical models which have thus far\\u000a dominated the development of framework for design, interpretation, and application of AISs.

Hugo Antonius Van Den Berg

2009-01-01

103

On evolutionary processes in natural and artificial systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The close links that now exist between biology and computation raise the prospect of setting species evolution in a broader, computat ional context. This context would comprise theories about the origins of pattern and order in complex systems. We argue that several processes play crucial roles in both natural and artificial evolution. One mechanism consists of critical changes between different

David G. Green; David Newth; David Cornforth; Mike Kirley

104

Knowledge Based Systems and Artificial Intelligence Introduction to Rational Decisions  

E-print Network

Knowledge Based Systems and Artificial Intelligence Introduction to Rational Decisions: Making (slides of S. Russel ) http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ #12;A decision-theoretic agent makes rational for medical decisions involving substantial risk (patients with a disability may be

Pizurica, Aleksandra

105

RICIS research review of artificial intelligence and expert systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper summarizes the research accomplishments of the past year for the artificial intelligence and expert systems areas. Most projects have been underway for only a short time; however, overall progress within the areas has been steady and worthwhile. Several projects have already attained their major objectives.

Feagin, Terry

1988-01-01

106

Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems.

Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

2014-01-01

107

Artificial Synesthesia via Sonification: A Wearable Augmented Sensory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design for an implemented, prototype wearable artificial sensory system is presented, which uses data sonification to compensate for normal limitations in the human visual system. The system gives in- sight into the complete visible-light spectra from objects being seen by the user. Long-term wear and con- sequent training might lead to identification of various visually-indistinguishable materials based on the

Leonard N. Foner

1999-01-01

108

Artificial Synesthesia via Sonification: A Wearable Augmented Sensory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A design for an implemented, prototype wearable artificial sensory system is presented, which uses data sonification to compensate for normal limitations in the human,visual system. The system gives insight into the complete visible-light spectra from objects being seen by the user. Long-term wear and consequent training might lead to identification of various visually-indistinguishable materials based on the sounds of

Leonard N. Foner

1997-01-01

109

Dorin, A., "Artifact & Artifice : Building Artificial Life for Play", in Artificial Life, Vol. 10, No. 1, MIT Press, 2004, pp99-112  

E-print Network

, Clayton, Australia 3800 aland@csse.monash.edu.au Abstract Toys and play-things are often engineered the technology is more sophisticated and highly automated than in the past. Consequently, toy makers systems in order to economically construct their simulacra. This paper examines a number of life-like toys

Dorin, Alan

110

Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control  

E-print Network

traffic. The traffic was micro-simulated with each car on a two junction road system modeled individually. The cars themselves were programmed with 'personalities' to better simulate real traffic. A novel AIS was developed to detect, predict, and control...

Negi, Pallav

2007-09-17

111

Artificial Immune System for Multi-Area Economic Dispatch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents artificial immune system for solving multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints considering transmission losses, multiple fuels, valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones. Artificial immune system is based on the clonal selection principle which implements adaptive cloning, hyper mutation, aging operator and tournament selection. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on three different test systems, both small and large, involving varying degree of complexity. Compared with differential evolution, evolutionary programming and real-coded genetic algorithm, considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising alternative approach for solving the MAED problems in practical power system.

De, Shankha Suvra; Hazra, Abhik; Basu, Mousumi

2013-09-01

112

An integrated artificial photosynthesis system based on peptide nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems.A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00295d

Xue, Bin; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

2014-06-01

113

Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this conceptual paper, we consider the state of artificial immune system (AIS) design today, and the nature of the immune the- ories on which they are based. We highlight the disagreement amongst many immunologists regarding the concept of self-non-self discrimina- tions in the immune system, and go on describe on such model that removes altogether the requirement for self-non-self

Paul S. Andrews; Jon Timmis

2005-01-01

114

Artificial Immune System-Based Music Genre Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach for the problem of automated music genre classification, which utilizes an Artificial Immune System\\u000a (AIS)-based classifier. Our inspiration lies in the observation that the natural immune system has the intrinsic property\\u000a of self\\/non-self cell discrimination, especially when the non-self (complementary) space of cells is significantly larger\\u000a than the class of self cells. The AIS-based classifier

Dionisios N. Sotiropoulos; Aristomenis S. Lampropoulos; George A. Tsihrintzis

2008-01-01

115

Artificial immune system based on normal model and immune learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired form natural immune system, a new artificial immune system was proposed to detect, recognize and eliminate the non-selfs such as computer worms and software faults. Because unknown non-selfs are very difficult to detect only by recognizing the features of the non-selfs, a normal model was built to provide an easy and effective tool for completely detecting the unknown non-selfs

Tao Gong

2008-01-01

116

Elevator Group Dynamic Dispatching System Based on Artificial Intelligent Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control is a multi-input and multi-output decision-making problem. It is very difficult to obtain high quality performance by using traditional control method due to the uncertainty of traffic flow and complexity of elevator control. A dynamic dispatching system for elevator group based on artificial intelligent technology is presented in this paper. This system includes traffic pattern identify module

Liting Cao; Shiru Zhou; Shuo Yang

2008-01-01

117

Artificial Baroreflex: Clinical Application of a Bionic Baroreflex System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We proposed a novel therapeutic strategy against central baroreflex failure: implementation of an artificial baroreflex system to automatically regulate sympathetic vasomotor tone, ie, a bionic baroreflex system (BBS), and we tested its efficacy in a model of sudden hypotension during surgery. Methods and Results—The BBS consisted of a computer-controlled negative-feedback circuit that sensed arterial pressure (AP) and automatically computed the

F. Yamasaki; Can Zheng; Atsunori Kamiya; Hiroshi Takaki; Masaru Sugimachi; Kenji Yusuke Yanagiya; Takayuki Sato; Toru Kawada; Masashi Inagaki; Teiji Tatewaki; K. Yamamoto; K. Sunagawa; T. Ushida; T. Yokoyama; M. Ando; K. Yamashita

2006-01-01

118

Solar System Searches for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exobiology--the search for extraterrestrial life and the study of conditions relevant to its origins--has been reborn in the past decade. This rebirth has been driven largely by discoveries related to Earth's deep biosphere, and the recognition that there may be several extraterrestrial environments within our own Solar System that could provide plausible environments for subsurface ecologies. Most prominent among these

C. F. Chyba

1998-01-01

119

Apollo Portable Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a close-up of the working parts of the PLSS.

1968-01-01

120

Apollo Portable Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

1968-01-01

121

An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications  

SciTech Connect

An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.

1996-04-01

122

Artificial Immune Systems and the Grand Challenge for  

E-print Network

and refined into seven "Grand Challenges" 1. IVIS: The Worm, the Weed, and the Bug Breathing life Ubiquitous Computing Systems 5. Architecture of Brain and Mind 6. Dependable Systems Evolution 7. Journeys

Stepney, Susan

123

GAIS: A Gaussian Artificial Immune System for Continuous Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a Gaussian Artificial Immune System (GAIS) to deal effectively with building blocks (high-quality partial\\u000a solutions coded in the solution vector) in continuous optimization problems. By replacing the mutation and cloning operators\\u000a with a probabilistic model, more specifically a Gaussian network representing the joint distribution of promising solutions,\\u000a GAIS takes into account the relationships among the variables of

Pablo A. D. Castro; Fernando J. Von Zuben

2010-01-01

124

Revisiting the Foundations of Artificial Immune Systems for Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advocates a problem-oriented approach for the design of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) for data mining. By problem-oriented approach we mean that, in real-world data mining applications, the design of an AIS should take into account the characteristics of the data to be mined together with the application domain: the components of the AIS - such as its representation,

Alex Alves Freitas; Jonathan Timmis

2007-01-01

125

Towards an intuitive expert system for weaning from artificial ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure for weaning a patient with respiratory insufficiency from mechanical ventilation is complex and requires expertise obtained from long clinical practice. Fuzzy knowledge-based weaning (FuzzyKBWean) is a fuzzy knowledge-based control system that proposes stepwise changes in ventilator settings during the entire period of artificial ventilation at the bedside in real time. Information is obtained from a patient data management

Ch. Schuh; M. Hiesmayr; M. Kaipel; K.-P. Adlassnig

2004-01-01

126

An Affective Intelligent Tutoring System Based on Artificial Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a general solution to an affective intelligent tutoring system. According to artificial psychology theory, it maps the student's emotional state by means of data gathered from the student's self-assessment based on an emotion map. Then a two-dimensional emotional psychology model and a reaction strategy model adopting multi-tier reasoning rules are constructed to detect, analyze and evaluate the

Qiao Xiangjie; Wang Zhiliang; Yu Jun; Meng Xiuyan

2006-01-01

127

Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

2011-03-01

128

Life history and cost analysis for continuous rearing of Perillus bioculatus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on a zoophytogenous artificial diet.  

PubMed

The impact of a zoophytogenous, insect-free artificial diet on the developmental rate, life history parameters, and fertility was examined over 11 consecutive generations for domesticated Perillus biocullatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that when fed an insect-free artificial diet during both the nymphal and adult stages, developmental times were prolonged, and the net reproductive rates (R0) and the intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)) were significantly lower than when fed larval Trichoplusia ni at both nymphal and adult stages. Moreover, the cost to rear P. bioculatus on the artificial diet approached 1.1 times the cost of rearing P. bioculatus on natural prey. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and potential cost-savings of the zoophytogenous artificial diet for rearing a beneficial pentatomid. PMID:15279257

Coudron, T A; Kim, Y

2004-06-01

129

Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project*  

E-print Network

5 Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence The research has been developed under the SocRob project, jointly carried out by the Intelligent Control and Artificial

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

130

for ISMIS91 The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems  

E-print Network

1 for ISMIS­91 The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems Gio Wiederhold Stanford are suitable for artificial intelligence approaches we outline an architectural structure for large systems. In that structure processing modules become specialized. We argue that artificial intelligence programs should

Wiederhold, Gio

131

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development for Biological &  

E-print Network

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development Processing (see Phytochemicals, Advanced Artificial Intelligence) Canning Technology ­ Ted Labuza Cheese Chromatography ­ Mass Spectrometry ­ Chi Chen Food Biotechnology ­ Daniel O'Sullivan; Ted Labuza Food Defense

Amin, S. Massoud

132

Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics.  

PubMed

Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 ?m elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss artificial multiferroics (or multiferroic composites), which hold promise for new applications that involve electric field control of magnetism, or electric and magnetic field responsive devices for high frequency integrated circuit design in microwave and terahertz signal processing. We close with comments on how enhanced functionality can be realised through engineering of nanostructures with interacting ferroic components, creating opportunities for novel spin electronic devices that, for example, make use of the transport of magnetic charges, thermally activated elements, and reprogrammable nanomagnet systems. PMID:23948652

Heyderman, L J; Stamps, R L

2013-09-11

133

Dorin, A., "Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic Art", Proceedings of 3rd European Workshop on Evolutionary Music and Art, Applications of Evo-  

E-print Network

Dorin, A., "Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic Art-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, pp448-457 Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic and epidemiology for its inspiration but its ultimate concerns are in studying epidemics as a process suitable

Dorin, Alan

134

Assuring Life in Composite Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational simulation method is presented to assure life in composite systems by using dynamic buckling of smart composite shells as an example. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 9% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load. The uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects and thereby in the assured life of the shell.

Chamis, Christos c.

2008-01-01

135

An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms.

Schultz, D.E.; Hurd, J.W.; Brown, S.K.

1987-01-01

136

Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.  

PubMed

The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels. PMID:24805216

Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

2013-12-01

137

Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth  

PubMed Central

Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

2014-01-01

138

Life beyond the solar system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of some of the highlights and more recent developments in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The first major problem is one of the generality of the formation of planetary systems. Observations of the nearest stars which are not members of binary or multiple stars indicates that fully half have companions of planetary mass. The presence of organic compounds in meteorites, probably in Jovian planets, in comets, in the interstellar medium, and in cool stars implies that the production of organic compounds essential for the origin of life should be pervasive throughout the universe. Possibilities of interstellar communication are discussed.

Sagan, C.

1972-01-01

139

A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Networks  

E-print Network

The immune system is a complex biological system with a highly distributed, adaptive and self-organising nature. This paper presents an Artificial Immune System (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film recommendation by Collaborative Filtering (CF). Natural evolution and in particular the immune system have not been designed for classical optimisation. However, for this problem, we are not interested in finding a single optimum. Rather we intend to identify a sub-set of good matches on which recommendations can be based. It is our hypothesis that an AIS built on two central aspects of the biological immune system will be an ideal candidate to achieve this: Antigen-antibody interaction for matching and idiotypic antibody-antibody interaction for diversity. Computational results are presented in support of this conjecture and compared to those found by other CF techniques.

Cayzer, Steve

2008-01-01

140

Identification of nonlinear hysteretic systems by artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An identification method is developed for nonlinear hysteretic systems by use of artificial neural network in the paper. Employing the Bouc-Wen differential model widely used for memory-type nonlinear hysteretic systems, the approach sets up a Bouc-Wen model-based neural network. The weights of the designed specifically network correspond to the Bouc-Wen model parameters and are thus physical ones. Taking advantage of powerful function approximation capability of neural network, the nonlinear hysteretic systems can be identified with the proposed approach by network training. The identification scheme is validated by a simulated case and thereafter applied to modeling of a wire cable vibration isolation experimental system. The results show that the presented identification method can identify the nonlinear hysteretic systems with high accuracy.

Xie, S. L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Chen, C. H.; Zhang, X. N.

2013-01-01

141

Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.  

PubMed

Abstract State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators. PMID:25286349

Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

2014-11-01

142

Water oxidation reaction in natural and artificial photosynthetic systems  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the structure and mechanism of water oxidation catalysts is an essential component for developing artificial photosynthetic devices. In the natural water oxidation catalyst, the geometric and electronic structure of its inorganic core, the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5} cluster, has been studied by spectroscopic and diffraction measurements. In inorganic systems, metal oxides seem to be good candidates for water oxidation catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanism in both natural and oxide-based catalysts will helpin further developing efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-12-10

143

The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.

1988-01-01

144

Considerations of design for life support systems.  

PubMed

During the design phase for construction of artificial ecosystems, the following considerations are important. (1) Influences on living things in the ecosystem, such as lifestyles and physiological functions caused by stresses due to environmental changes. The long stay in the artificial ecosystem has a possibility to lead to evolutional change in the living things. (2) The system operation method in trouble, which relates to maintainability. (3) The system metamorphosis according to new technologies. (4) Route minimization of material flow that leads to an optimum system layout. PMID:14503521

Ashida, Akira

2003-01-01

145

Regenerative life support system research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

1988-01-01

146

Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

2012-12-01

147

Controlled Ecological Life Support System - CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a NASA effort to develop bioregenerative systems which provide required life support elements for crews on long duration space missions or extraterrestrial planetary colonizations, is briefly discussed. The CELSS analytical requirements are defined in relation to the life support objectives and priorities of a CELSS. The first phase of the CELSS Breadboard Concept is shown.

Sager, John C.

1992-01-01

148

Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early space flights no significant changes were found (Heidelbaugh et al. 1968;Watt et al. 1985). However, data from a recent head-down bed rest study showed significant decrease in smell sensation (Enck et al. unpublished data) suggesting that fluid shifts might have an impact. If this holds true and which has to be validated in further studies, this seems to play an important role for lowered food intake causing insufficient energy intake and subsequently insufficient supply of most of the macro- and micronutrients. Other nutrients are taken in excess, for example sodium. As it is very well known from daily food consumption especially premanufactured food with high salt content seems to be more palatable than that with low salt content. Salt also functions as preservation which is very important taking into account the space food system limitations (i.e., lack of refrigerators and freezers). The preference for food with high salt intake by astronauts might therefore very likely be caused by altered smell and taste sensations in microgravity.

Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

2007-01-01

149

Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Smernoff, D. T. (editor); Klein, H. P. (editor)

1985-01-01

150

Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

2013-01-01

151

A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection  

PubMed Central

In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

2014-01-01

152

Towards design of a stumble detection system for artificial legs.  

PubMed

Recent advances in design of powered artificial legs have led to increased potential to allow lower limb amputees to actively recover from stumbles. To achieve this goal, promptly and accurately identifying stumbles is essential. This study aimed to 1) select potential stumble detection data sources that react reliably and quickly to stumbles and can be measured from a prosthesis, and 2) investigate two different approaches based on selected data sources to detect stumbles and classify stumble types in patients with transfemoral (TF) amputations during ambulation. In the experiments, the normal gait of TF amputees was perturbed by a controllable treadmill or when they walked on an obstacle course. The results showed that the acceleration of prosthetic foot can accurately detect the tested stumbling events 140-240 ms before the critical timing of falling and precisely classify the stumble type. However, the detector based on foot acceleration produced high false alarm rates, which challenged its real application. Combining electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from the residual limb with the foot acceleration significantly reduced the false alarm rate but sacrificed the detection response time. The results of this study may lead to design of a stumble detection system for instrumented, powered artificial legs; however, continued engineering efforts are required to improve the detection performance and resolve the challenges that remain for implementing the stumble detector on prosthetic legs. PMID:21859635

Zhang, Fan; D'Andrea, Susan E; Nunnery, Michael J; Kay, Steven M; Huang, He

2011-10-01

153

Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results. PMID:20936152

Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Abbod, Maysam; Amira, Abbes; Zaidi, Habib

2010-01-01

154

12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications (AIMSA 2006)  

E-print Network

12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications Representation MAS Conclusion Plan 2 / 17 #12; Need of Intelligent Systems Conclusion Need of Intelligent Systems in an Emergency Situation ? Crisis Management Support System

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

Fernandez, Thomas

156

MOVIE RECOMENDATION SYSTEMS USING AN ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Q Chen, U Aickelin,  

E-print Network

MOVIE RECOMENDATION SYSTEMS USING AN ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Q Chen, U Aickelin, qxc) technology when we build the movie recommendation system. Two different affinity measure algorithms of AIS, Kendall tau and Weighted Kappa, are used to calculate the correlation coefficients for this movie

Aickelin, Uwe

157

Using artificial intelligence techniques for solving power systems problems at undergraduate level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the concept and use of artificial intelligence techniques for solving problems in electrical power systems in the final year of an undergraduate programme in Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Nowadays, the analysis and design of power systems involve numerical computer modeling and simulations. Besides the classical techniques, which are conventionally used for analyzing power systems, artificial intelligence techniques

R. T. F. Ah King; Harry C. S. Rughooputh

2003-01-01

158

The final version of this article will be published in Artificial Life, vol. 9, issue 1, published by the MIT Press.  

E-print Network

researchers in the field. An opening question. From the beginnings of recorded history, human life has beenThe final version of this article will be published in Artificial Life, vol. 9, issue 1, published by the MIT Press. Artefact & Artifice : views on life Alan Dorin Centre for Electronic Media Art School

Dorin, Alan

159

Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

1990-09-01

160

Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

161

Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... experts in providing comfort treatments. Is it considered suicide to refuse artificial nutrition and hydration? No. Everyone ... of a particular disease. It is not considered suicide to refuse or stop a medical treatment that ...

162

Towards Bioregenerative Life Support Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for bioregenerative technologies in order to support life in the closed space environments is essential, mainly because the servicing/resupply and associated mass launch capabilities are limited for economical reasons. Therefore, rooting from an ...

F. Brechignac

1990-01-01

163

Handwritten Nepali character recognition based on wavelet packet transform and artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications, which are based on the single character recognition. In this paper, handwritten Nepali character recognition strategy using artificial immune system(1) and wavelet packet transform(3-5) was proposed and carefully experimented. The preliminary experiment has been done on the consonant character using artificial immune system. With 116 feature coefficients extracted

Yu Yang

2011-01-01

164

A new and cheap medical examination system with artificial intelligence.  

PubMed

This is a medical examination system with artificial intelligence. It is used to find persons who want to obtain higher professional posts in the medical field, including doctors, dentists, nurses, pharmaceutists, etc. It has a question bank of 536,000 multiple choice questions (MCQs), of which 59,500 have pictures. Ten percent of the MCQs is updated every year; the old MCQs in the question bank are used as exercises for the persons who want to obtain higher professional posts. The system, with three distinctive degrees of difficulty, is applicable to three different professional posts: the assistant physician, the resident, and the attending physician. It ensures the general level of assessment for the same professional post, regardless of when one wants to take the system. In addition, the system also guarantees the consistency of the following three factors: the constituent of sub-professions, the classification of MCQs, and the degree of difficulty of each MCQ. Another feature of the system is that the passing score need not be the traditional standard passing score of 60. The passing score is determined by the system according to the requirements of the different professional posts and the degree of difficulty of the MCQs in the system. Therefore, the new method for passing the system is more rational than the traditional one. Moreover, the final score given by the system will be standardized to eliminate sampling errors. The reliability of the system will also be tested after each examination. If the coefficient of reliability is lower than 0.85, the scores will be canceled and examination will be repeated. The system can accept 96 persons simultaneously taking the examination with on-line computers. The people who work in remote places can take examination in their hospital with a personal computer linked via telephone. The system has already been approved by the relevant authoritative departments in China. It has been running successfully for more than six years. During this period of time, 125,645 candidates have taken the exam; 64,078 have passed the examination and have been promoted to higher professional posts. The system runs on local area network and uses a program written in PROLOG and FoxPro. It is estimated that the total cost of developing the system is less than $46,000 (US). PMID:8591559

Zhang, X; Cai, F; Liu, F; Bao, X; Liu, Y

1995-01-01

165

An Appraisal Of Artificial Intelligence Techniques For Industrial Vision Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in industrial vision systems is examined. It is concluded that there are several, quite distinct areas where AI concepts and techniques are likely to be useful. The first is that of designing and planning industrial vision systems. The most obvious application is probably that of analysing complex scenes, about which little or nothing is known in advance. However, the author argues that in a well designed industrial plant there is very little disorder. For example, the orientation of piece parts would not be lost by tossing them into a bin. The cost of re-orientating them can be quite expensive. The well known "bin picking" problem is thus seen as one for which solutions should be sought but instead avoided. The third area where AI techniques might be used is in the task of inspecting either complex objects / assemblies, or those which are made in small quantities. The paper concludes with a discussion about the requirement for a convenient language for expressing both image processing and AI algorithms. The structure of such a language is described.

Batchelor, B. G.

1986-11-01

166

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge representation, industrial expert systems, knowledge bases, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, mathematical logic, robots, flexible manufacturing systems, decision-making in computer-aided planning, computerized control systems, artificial intelligence applied systems, computerized simulation, and natural language.

Ponomaryov, V.M.

1983-01-01

167

The development of core-type Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System for artificial heart.  

PubMed

Recently, Artificial Heart (AH) is recognized as the alternate method of the heart graft. Though there are many problems and defect on AH, long term durability, miniaturization and weight saving interfaced with flow rate performance, efficiency of device. Considering rehabilitation into the society and advancement of QOL (Quality of Life), the construction of power source which supplies electric power to the device is important and has many problems. Especially, the electric feeder line restricts behavior of the transplant recipient and disturbs rehabilitation into the society. For solving these problems, Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System (TETS) is noticed and studied. This study proposes core-type TETS. It achieves high magnetic coupling compared with air-core-type TETS which is carried out on clinical study. Because core-type TETS has high magnetic coupling, it is possible to reduce the input current and to miniaturize transformer size. This paper mentions the characteristic of core-type TETS. PMID:17281070

Watada, Masaya; Iwawaki, Kenji; Tamada, Tomoyuki; Ouchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo; Um, Yong-Su

2005-01-01

168

Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

Cooper, Edwin L.

2010-03-01

169

Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.

2013-04-01

170

Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

1995-01-01

171

Artificial intelligence approach for spot application project system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past four years, CNES has been engaged in a major programme focusing on the development of SPOT Operational Application Projects. With a total of sixty projects now complete, we can draw a number of meaningful conclusions and identify a number of objectives to be satisfied by advanced remote sensing methodology. One of the main conclusions points to the importance of human vision in studies on natural complex space imagery. This being so, visual recognition must be one of the main phases of the ``Pilot Project for the Application of Remote Sensing to Agricultural Statistics'': only human experts have the ability to make a meaningful analysis of Spot TM imagery. Non-expert operators will not be able to manage the subsequent rational production phase alone. The first part of this paper describes an approach to the formalization and modelling of expert know-how based on the use of artificial intelligence. The second part puts forward a cooperative operator/computer system based on a cognitive structure. Our proposal comprises 1) a specific knowledge base, 2) an ergonomic interface associated with functional software that is based on automatic image enhancement coupled with perception support functions.

Lefevre, M. J.; Fisse, G.; Martin, E.; de Boissezon, H.; Galaup, M.

1993-11-01

172

A new evolutionary system for evolving artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new evolutionary system, i.e., EPNet, for evolving artificial neural networks (ANNs). The evolutionary algorithm used in EPNet is based on Fogel's evolutionary programming (EP). Unlike most previous studies on evolving ANN's, this paper puts its emphasis on evolving ANN's behaviors. Five mutation operators proposed in EPNet reflect such an emphasis on evolving behaviors. Close behavioral links between parents and their offspring are maintained by various mutations, such as partial training and node splitting. EPNet evolves ANN's architectures and connection weights (including biases) simultaneously in order to reduce the noise in fitness evaluation. The parsimony of evolved ANN's is encouraged by preferring node/connection deletion to addition. EPNet has been tested on a number of benchmark problems in machine learning and ANNs, such as the parity problem, the medical diagnosis problems, the Australian credit card assessment problem, and the Mackey-Glass time series prediction problem. The experimental results show that EPNet can produce very compact ANNs with good generalization ability in comparison with other algorithms. PMID:18255671

Yao, X; Liu, Y

1997-01-01

173

Artificial intelligence-based systems applied in industrial marketing: An historical overview, current and future insights  

E-print Network

Artificial intelligence-based systems applied in industrial marketing: An historical overview Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering School, 18.071 Granada Spain a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 January 2013

Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

174

Model systems for life processes on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the evolution of life forms nonphotosynthetic mechanisms are developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and analyzed. In the UV search for alternate mechanisms, several different areas may be identified. These involve activated inorganic compounds in the atmosphere, such as the products of photodissociation of carbon dioxide and the organic material which may be created by natural phenomena. In addition, a life system based on the pressure of the atmospheric constituents, such as carbon dioxide, is a possibility. These considerations may be important for the understanding of evolutionary processes of life on another planet. Model systems which depend on these alternative mechanisms are defined and related to presently planned and future planetary missions.

Mitz, M. A.

1974-01-01

175

Artificial Societies, Theory Building and Memetics David Hales (daphal@essex.ac.uk)  

E-print Network

. 1 Artificial Societies Computational modelling and simulation of social systems has a history. The work done in this area is less "simulation" and more "construction". By analogy with artificial intelligence and artificial life, this synthetic approach has become known as artificial societies

Hales, David

176

Systemic oxygen transport in rats artificially selected for running endurance.  

PubMed

The relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences to individual exercise capacity is difficult to determine. Accordingly, animal models in which these influences are carefully controlled are highly useful to understand the determinants of intrinsic exercise capacity. Studies of systemic O(2) transport during maximal treadmill exercise in two diverging lines of rats artificially selected for endurance capacity showed that, at generation 7, whole body maximal O(2) uptake ((.)V(O(2)(max)) was 12% higher in high capacity (HCR) than in low capacity runners (LCR) during normoxic exercise. The difference in (.)V(O(2)(max) between HCR and LCR was larger during hypoxic exercise. Analysis of the linked O(2) conductances of the O(2) transport system showed that the higher (.)V(O(2)(max) was not due to a higher ventilatory response, a more effective pulmonary gas exchange, or an increased rate of O(2) delivery to the tissue by blood. The main reason for the higher (.)V(O(2)(max) of HCR was an increased tissue O(2) extraction, due largely to a higher tissue diffusive O(2) conductance. The enhanced tissue O(2) diffusing capacity was paralleled by an increased capillary density of a representative locomotory skeletal muscle, the gastrocnemius, in HCR. Activities of skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes citrate synthase and beta-HAD were also higher in HCR than LCR. Thus, the functional characteristics observed during exercise are consistent with the structural and biochemical changes observed in skeletal muscle that imply an enhanced capacity for muscle O(2) uptake and utilization in HCR. The results indicate that the improved (.)V(O(2)(max) is solely due to enhanced muscle O(2) extraction and utilization. However, the question arises as to whether it is possible to maintain a continually expanding capacity for O(2) extraction at the tissue level with successive generations, without a parallel improvement in the capacity to deliver O(2) to the exercising muscles. PMID:16344008

Gonzalez, Norberto C; Howlett, Richard A; Henderson, Kyle K; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steve L; Wagner, Harrieth E; Favret, Fabrice; Wagner, Peter D

2006-04-28

177

Development of an artificial placenta V: 70 h veno-venous extracorporeal life support after ventilatory failure in premature lambs  

PubMed Central

Purpose An artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that using a veno-venous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta after ventilatory failure would stabilize premature lambs and maintain normal fetal physiologic parameters for 70h. Methods A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term=145) was used. The right jugular vein (drainage) and umbilical vein (reinfusion) were cannulated with 10–12 Fr cannulas. Lambs were then transitioned to an infant ventilator. After respiratory failure, the endotracheal tube was filled with amniotic fluid, and VV-ECLS total artificial placenta support (TAPS) was initiated. Lambs were maintained on TAPS for 70h. Results Six of seven lambs survived for 70h. Mean ventilation time was 57±22min. During ventilation, mean MAP was 51±14mmHg, compared to 44±14mmHg during TAPS (p=0.001). Mean pH and lactate during ventilation were 7.06±0.15 and 5.7±2.3mmol/L, compared to 7.33±0.07 and 2.0±1.8mmol/L during TAPS (p<0.001 for both). pO2 and pCO2 remained within normal fetal parameters during TAPS, and mean carotid blood flow was 25±7.5mL/kg/min. Necropsy showed a patent ductus arteriosus and no intracranial hemorrhage in all animals. Conclusions The artificial placenta stabilized premature lambs after ventilatory failure and maintained fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, gas exchange, and cerebral perfusion for 70h. PMID:23331807

Gray, Brian W.; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Zakem, Sara J.; Koch, Kelly L.; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Owens, Gabe E.; Bocks, Martin L.; Rabah, Raja; Bartlett, Robert H.; Mychaliska, George B.

2014-01-01

178

Miniaturised technologies for the development of artificial lipid bilayer systems.  

PubMed

Artificially reproducing cellular environments is a key aim of synthetic biology, which has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of cellular mechanisms. Microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) techniques, which enable the controlled handling of sub-microlitre volumes of fluids in an automated and high-throughput manner, can play a major role in achieving this by offering alternative and powerful methodologies in an on-chip format. Such techniques have been successfully employed over the last twenty years to provide innovative solutions for chemical analysis and cell-, molecular- and synthetic- biology. In the context of the latter, the formation of artificial cell membranes (or artificial lipid bilayers) that incorporate membrane proteins within miniaturised LOC architectures offers huge potential for the development of highly sensitive molecular sensors and drug screening applications. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and critical overview of the field of microsystems for creating and exploiting artificial lipid bilayers. Advantages and limitations of three of the most popular approaches, namely suspended, supported and droplet-based lipid bilayers, are discussed. Examples are reported that show how artificial cell membrane microsystems, by combining together biological procedures and engineering techniques, can provide novel methodologies for basic biological and biophysical research and for the development of biotechnology tools. PMID:22301684

Zagnoni, Michele

2012-03-21

179

Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Document contains proceedings of February, 1989 meeting of Scientists of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Includes 25 scientific papers and bibliography of CELSS documents published as NASA reports.

Macelroy, Robert D.

1992-01-01

180

NASA Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate i...

P. L. Evanich, T. M. Crabb, C. F. Gartrell

1992-01-01

181

NASA Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. Th...

P. L. Evanich, T. M. Crabb, C. F. Gartrell

1992-01-01

182

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

183

Development of built-in type and noninvasive sensor systems for smart artificial heart.  

PubMed

It is very important to grasp the artificial heart condition and the physiologic conditions for the implantable artificial heart. In our laboratory, a smart artificial heart (SAH) has been proposed and developed. An SAH is an artificial heart with a noninvasive sensor; it is a sensorized and intelligent artificial heart for safe and effective treatment. In this study, the following sensor systems for SAH are described: noninvasive blood temperature sensor system, noninvasive blood pressure sensor system, and noninvasive small blood flow sensor system. These noninvasive sensor systems are integrated and included around the artificial heart to evaluate these sensor systems for SAH by the mockup experiments and the animal experiments. The blood temperature could be measured stably by the temperature sensor system. Aortic pressure was estimated, and sucking condition was detected by the pressure sensor system. The blood flow was measured by the flow meter system within 10% error. As a result of these experiments, we confirmed the effectiveness of the sensor systems for SAH. PMID:12790374

Yamagishi, Hiromasa; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamane, Takashi; Jikuya, Tomoaki; Tsutsui, Tatsuo

2003-01-01

184

Design Rules for Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

Jones, Harry

2002-01-01

185

An artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tank`s AGT-1500 gas turbine engine. This paper describes the design and prototype development of the ANN component of the diagnostic system, which we refer to as ``TEDANN`` for Turbine Engine Diagnostic Artificial Neural Networks.

Illi, O.J. Jr. [Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Knowledge Engineering Group (KEG); Greitzer, F.L.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Reeve, T. [Expert Solutions, Stratford, CT (United States)

1994-04-01

186

Artificial light at night: implications for early life stages development in four temperate freshwater fish species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flora and fauna have both evolved under a natural cycle of light and dark. But especially in urban areas, the night is now\\u000a increasingly disturbed by artificial light. Many traits and behaviours in fish are triggered by a circadian clock, for example\\u000a hatching and swim bladder inflation, which predominantly take place at dusk or night. As lighting becomes brighter and

Anika Brüning; Franz Hölker; Christian Wolter

2011-01-01

187

Life support systems for Mars transit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

1992-01-01

188

Hybrid Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Solving Ill-Conditioned Linear Systems of Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), this paper proposes a hybrid artificial fish swarm algorithm (HAFSA). The method makes full use of the fast local convergence performance of PSO and the global convergence performance of AFSA, and then is used for solving ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. Finally, the numerical experiment results show that hybrid artificial fish swarm algorithm owns a better global convergence performance with a faster convergence rate. It is a new way to solve ill-conditioned linear systems of equations.

Zhou, Yongquan; Huang, Huajuan; Zhang, Junli

189

An Artificial Intelligence System Suggests Arbitrariness of Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arguments against the death penalty in the United States have centered on due process and fairness. Since the death penalty is so rarely rendered and subsequently applied, it appears on the surface to be arbitrary. Considering the potential utility of determining whether or not a death row inmate is actually executed along with the promising behavior of Artificial Neural

Stamos T. Karamouzis; Dee Wood Harper

2008-01-01

190

Network Intrusion Active Defense Model Based on Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on artificial immune theory, a new model of active defense for analyzing the network intrusion is presented. Dynamically evaluative equations for self, antigen, immune tolerance, mature-lymphocyte lifecycle and immune memory are presented. The concepts and formal definitions of immune cells are given, the hierarchical and distributed management framework of the proposed model are built. Furthermore, the idea of biology

Cheng Zhang; Jing Zhang; Sunjun Liu; Yintian Liu

2008-01-01

191

ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS  

E-print Network

and vehicles by exploiting the inherent sensing capability of ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs). Analogous to its biological counterpart, the IPMC-based lateral line processes #12;the sensor signals through algorithms with an artificial lateral line prototype made of millimeter-scale IPMC sensors, with sensor

Tan, Xiaobo

192

Removing life support: motivations, obligations. An opinion on NCCB Committee for Pro-Life Activities' statement on artificial hydration and nutrition.  

PubMed

In April 1992 the Committee for Pro-Life Activities of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops issued a resource paper titled "Nutrition and Hydration: Moral and Pastoral Reflections." At best, this document and its conclusions may be viewed as a pastoral statement, offering some tentative reasoning and conclusions to be considered in cases that concern the use of medically assisted nutrition and hydration. When discussing the question, is the withholding or withdrawing of medically assisted hydration and nutrition always direct killing? the document applies two principles--"no reasonable hope of benefit" and "involving excessive burdens." The document's crucial part is its admission that artificial hydration and nutrition may be removed without the intention of causing death, and that "this kind of decision should not be equated with a decision to kill or with suicide." The committee assigns decision-making responsibility to patients, families, and healthcare professionals, but continues its discussion for 20 pages and offers cautions conclusions concerning removal of such therapy. Two assumptions seem to underlie the document's overly cautious conclusions, the first being that mere vegetative function mandates continued life support. The first assumption overemphasizes the value of physiological functioning insofar as the purpose of human life is concerned. It also is contrary to the goal of medicine, which envisions restoration of cognitive-affective function as an element of successful therapy. The second assumption is that withdrawal of artificial hydration and nutrition from persons in PVS may lead to euthanasia. But mandating the continuation of nonbeneficial therapy simply because it prolongs physiological function seems to lead people to favor euthanasia rather than reject it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10119534

O'Rourke, K D; deBlois, J

1992-01-01

193

Controlled Ecological Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA CELLS program is based upon the integration of biological and physiochemical processes in order to produce a system that will produce food, a breathable atmosphere, and potable water from metabolic and other wastes. The CELSS concept is described and a schematic system diagram is provided. Central to the CELSS concept is the Plant Growth Chamber, where green plant photosynthesis produces food, and aids in the production of oxygen and water. Progress to date at the Breadboard Facility at the Kennedy Space Center is summarized. The Breadboard Facility will implement the basic techniques and processes required for a CELSS based on photosynthetic plant growth in a ground-based system of practical size and results will be extrapolated to predict the performance of a full-sized system. Current available technology and near-future forecasts for plant growth techniques (focusing on maximum productivity), food sources (to select optimal CELSS plants), and waste management and contaminant control are discussed.

Averner, Maurice M.

1989-01-01

194

A Review on the Application of Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems to Optimization Problems in Operations Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of hybrid artificial intelligence systems in operations management has grown during the last years given their ability\\u000a to tackle combinatorial and NP hard problems. Furthermore, operations management problems usually involve imprecision, uncertainty,\\u000a vagueness, and high-dimensionality. This paper examines recent developments in the field of hybrid artificial intelligence\\u000a systems for those operations management problems where hybrid approaches are more

Óscar Ibáñez; Oscar Cordón; Sergio Damas; Luis Magdalena

2009-01-01

195

The role of artificial intelligence and expert systems in increasing STS operations productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is discussed. A number of the computer technologies pioneered in the AI world can make significant contributions to increasing STS operations productivity. Application of expert systems, natural language, speech recognition, and other key technologies can reduce manpower while raising productivity. Many aspects of STS support lend themselves to this type of automation. The artificial intelligence section of the mission planning and analysis division has developed a number of functioning prototype systems which demonstrate the potential gains of applying AI technology.

Culbert, C.

1985-01-01

196

Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for advanced life support.

Subramanian, Devika

2004-01-01

197

Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling

Jean Brunet; Olivier Gerbi; Philippe André; Elisabeth Davin; Raul Avezuela Rodriguez; Fernando Carbonero; Emilia Soumalainen; Christophe Lasseur

2010-01-01

198

Battery Life Estimation of Mobile Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since battery life directly impacts the extent and duration of mobility, one of the key considerations in the design of a mo- bile embedded system should be to maximize the energy de- livered by the battery, and hence the battery lifetime. To facil- itate exploration of alternative implementations for a mobile embedded system, in this paper we address the issue

Debashis Panigrahi; Sujit Dey; Ramesh R. Rao; Kanishka Lahiri; Carla-fabiana Chiasserini; Anand Raghunathan

2001-01-01

199

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

200

Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Systems Research in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide Artificial Intelligence research has witnessed fast and growing advances. These contributions mainly came from first-world\\u000a nations as other research priorities and needs have been undertaken by less-developed countries. Nevertheless some Latin American\\u000a countries have put significant efforts into AI research so as to advance in the state-of-the-art at international levels.\\u000a This paper describes the history, evolution and main contributions

John Atkinson; Mauricio Solar

2009-01-01

201

The Artificial Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

Glover, D. R.

202

Performance prediction of a ground-coupled heat pump system using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict performance of a horizontal ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system. Performance forecasting is the precondition for the optimal control and energy saving operation of heat pump systems. ANNs have been used in varied applications and they have been shown to be particularly useful in system modelling and system identification.

Hikmet Esen; Mustafa Inalli; Abdulkadir Sengür; Mehmet Esen

2008-01-01

203

Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

204

Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

1982-01-01

205

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

Roman, Monsi C.

2010-01-01

206

A Simple Artificial Life Model Explains Irrational Behavior in Human Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Although praised for their rationality, humans often make poor decisions, even in simple situations. In the repeated binary choice experiment, an individual has to choose repeatedly between the same two alternatives, where a reward is assigned to one of them with fixed probability. The optimal strategy is to perseverate with choosing the alternative with the best expected return. Whereas many species perseverate, humans tend to match the frequencies of their choices to the frequencies of the alternatives, a sub-optimal strategy known as probability matching. Our goal was to find the primary cognitive constraints under which a set of simple evolutionary rules can lead to such contrasting behaviors. We simulated the evolution of artificial populations, wherein the fitness of each animat (artificial animal) depended on its ability to predict the next element of a sequence made up of a repeating binary string of varying size. When the string was short relative to the animats’ neural capacity, they could learn it and correctly predict the next element of the sequence. When it was long, they could not learn it, turning to the next best option: to perseverate. Animats from the last generation then performed the task of predicting the next element of a non-periodical binary sequence. We found that, whereas animats with smaller neural capacity kept perseverating with the best alternative as before, animats with larger neural capacity, which had previously been able to learn the pattern of repeating strings, adopted probability matching, being outperformed by the perseverating animats. Our results demonstrate how the ability to make predictions in an environment endowed with regular patterns may lead to probability matching under less structured conditions. They point to probability matching as a likely by-product of adaptive cognitive strategies that were crucial in human evolution, but may lead to sub-optimal performances in other environments. PMID:22563454

Feher da Silva, Carolina; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius Chrysostomo

2012-01-01

207

A New Rule-Based System for the Construction and Structural Characterization of Artificial Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new rule-based system for an artificial protein design incorporating ternary amino acid polarity (polar, nonpolar, and neutral). It may be used to design de novo ? and ? protein fold structures and mixed class proteins. The targeted molecules are artificial proteins with important industrial and biomedical applications, related to the development of diagnostic-therapeutic peptide pharmaceuticals, antibody mimetics, peptide vaccines, new nanobiomaterials and engineered protein scaffolds.

Štambuk, Nikola; Konjevoda, Paško; Gotovac, Nikola

208

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

209

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

Firschein, O.

1984-01-01

210

Schrodinger's Legacy: Systems and Life Peter Wellstead  

E-print Network

Schr¨odinger's Legacy: Systems and Life Peter Wellstead The Hamilton Institute Revised and reprinted, June 2006 Contents 1 Preamble 2 2 Schr¨odinger's Question 2 3 Schr¨odinger in Ireland 2 3.systemsbiology.ie listed under reports and downloads. 2 Schr¨odinger's Question In 1943, Erwin Schr¨odinger posed

Duffy, Ken

211

Design and analysis artificial intelligence (AI) research for power supply — power electronics expert system (PEES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces design and analysis artificial intelligence (AI) research for power supply named power electronics expert system (PEES). The paper will demonstrate expert system feasibility and summary the architecture. Purpose, main function blocks and runtime performance will be reviewed. Optimized design and analysis models with Delta experts experience knowledge as rules are applied in the system. Rules dynamic check

Wei Li; Jianping Ying

2008-01-01

212

Robot Vision System and Artificial Neural Network for Model Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel vision system and model reconstruction scheme is addressed in this article. The main contribution contains two aspects: first, robot with laser scanning head is used for establishing a vision system, this system can measure 3D surface data for complex freeform surface on line at manufacturing site. Then, using artificial neural network (ANN), a model reconstruction algorithm is developed.

Zi Ma; Huipu Xu; Ying Hu; Jin Huang; Hu Dong

2006-01-01

213

Thermosiphon solar domestic water heating systems: long-term performance prediction using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to use artificial neural networks (ANN) for the long-term performance prediction of thermosiphonic type solar domestic water heating (SDWH) systems. Thirty SDWH systems have been tested and modelled according to the procedures outlined in the standard ISO 9459-2 at three locations in Greece. From these, data from 27 of the systems were used for

Soteris A Kalogirou; Sofia Panteliou

2000-01-01

214

Inspection system based on artificial vision for paint defects detection on cars bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementa- tion of a novel inspection system for detecting defects on car bodies based on artificial vision, implemented in Ford Factory at Almussafes (Spain). The system is based on the principle of performing a lightning sweeping with static imagining system, which causes shadows surrounding defects when merging con- secutive images, coined as defect augmentation

Leopoldo Armesto; Josep Tornero; Alvaro Herraez; Jose Asensio

2011-01-01

215

An intelligent and integrated system of network fault management: artificial intelligence technologies and hybrid architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expert systems have been successfully introduced into network management for some years. But they have showed some limits in coping with the evolution of network configurations and poor expertise which is characteristic of this domain. We propose, in this paper, an intelligent and integrated fault management system, by studying different artificial intelligence techniques such as model-based expert systems, neural networks,

Shanliang Jiang; D. Siboni; A. A. Rhissa; G. Beuchot

1995-01-01

216

A hybrid system for fault detection and sensor fusion based on fuzzy clustering and artificial immune systems  

E-print Network

the sensor signals is generated by the fusion engine. The information provided from the previous two phases is used for fault detection in the third phase based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS) negative selection mechanism. The simulations...

Jaradat, Mohammad Abdel Kareem Rasheed

2007-04-25

217

Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector  

SciTech Connect

Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

Shitara, Shingo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Masaharu [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Tomizuka, Kazuma [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan)], E-mail: ktomizuka@kirin.co.jp

2008-05-09

218

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

219

Comparative study of artificial intelligence-based building thermal control methods – Application of fuzzy, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study’s aim is to develop diverse Artificial Intelligence-based (AI-based) thermal control logics and to compare their performances for identifying potentials as an advanced thermal control method in buildings. Towards that aim, three AI-based control logics have been developed: i) Fuzzy-based control; ii) ANFIS-based (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System-based) control; and iii) ANN-based (Artificial Neural Network-based) control. The last-mentioned two were

Jin Woo Moon; Sung Kwon Jung; Youngchul Kim; Seung-Hoon Han

2011-01-01

220

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

221

Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.  

PubMed

Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the photocatalytic mechanisms of H2/O2 evolution and CO2 reduction at the molecular level and to bridge natural and artificial photosynthesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid photocatalyst, biomimetic molecular cocatalysts, and semiconductor light harvester for artificial photosynthesis and therefore provide a promising approach for rational design and construction of highly efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. PMID:23730891

Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

2013-11-19

222

Design of a hydraulic analog of the circulatory system for evaluating artificial hearts.  

PubMed

A major problem in improving artificial heart designs is the absence of methods for accurate in vitro testing of artificial heart systems. A mock circulatory system has been constructed which hydraulically simulates the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the normal human. The device is constructed of 1/2 in. acrylic sheet and has overall dimensions of 24 in. wide, 16 in. tall, and 8 in. deep. The artificial heart to be tested is attached to the front of the device, and pumps fluid from the systemic venous chamber into the pulmonary arterial chamber and from the pulmonary venous chamber into the systemic arterial chamber. Each of the four chambers is hermetically sealed. The compliance of each chamber is determined by the volume of air trapped above the fluid in that chamber. The pulmonary and systemic resistances are set automatically by bellows-operated valves to simulate the barroreceptor response in the systemic arteries and the passive pulmonary resistance response in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiac output is measured by a turbine flowmeter in the systemic circulation. Results using the Kwan-Gett artificial heart show a good comparison between the mock circulatory system response and the calf response. PMID:1225373

Donovan, F M

1975-01-01

223

Tool for short-term load forecasting in transmission systems based on artificial intelligence techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the use of wavelets and artificial intelligence techniques for short-term load forecast of energy transmission systems. Neural networks, fuzzy logic and wavelets have been investigated so as to determine the best-fit forecasting method for this issue. The development of a forecasting computer system is the outcome of this joint research project with CTEEP Transmissao Paulista.

C. R. Guirelli; J. A. Jardini; L. C. Magrini; J. Yasuoka; A. C. Campos; M. Bastos

2004-01-01

224

ICAIS: A Novel Incremental Clustering Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many kinds of clustering algorithms are proposed, there has been much less work on the incremental clustering. Inspired by the artificial immune systems, the authors apply it to the incremental clustering, propose a novel incremental clustering algorithm called ICAIS. The algorithm mainly uses the mechanism of immune response of the adaptive immune system. The primary immune response corresponds to

Xianghua Li; Tianyang Lu; Zhengxuan Wang; Chao Gao

2008-01-01

225

Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for agent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model proposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in

Khaled M. Khalil; M. Abdel-Aziz; Taymour T. Nazmy; Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem

2010-01-01

226

Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To consider the role of software in system operation, control and automation, and attempts to define intelligence. Methods and Results: Artificial intelligence (AI) is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them

Alain Truchaud; Kyoichi Ozawa; Harry Pardue; Paul Schnipelsky

1995-01-01

227

Detection of explosives in checked airline baggage using an artificial neural system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural system (ANS) has been applied to the problem of discriminating between suitcases with and without explosives. The input to the ANS was data gathered during the field tests of a prototype explosive detection system. The performance of the ANS is contrasted with the standard statistical technique (discriminant analysis) used, and is shown to exceed the performance of

Patrick M. Shea; Vincent Lin

1989-01-01

228

Reconstruction of hyperspectral cutaneous data from an artificial neural network-based multispectral imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an integrated MultiSpectral Imaging (MSI) system yielding hyperspectral cubes by means of artificial neural networks is described. The MSI system is based on a CCD camera, a rotating wheel bearing a set of seven interference filters, a light source and a computer. The resulting device has been elaborated for in vivo imaging of skin lesions. It provides

Romuald Jolivot; Pierre Vabres; Franck Marzani

2011-01-01

229

Synchronizing a multicellular system by external input: an artificial control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Although there are significant advances on elucidating the collective behaviors on biological organisms in recent years, theessentialmechanismsbywhich thecollectiverhythms ariseremain to be fully understood, and further how to synchronize multicellular networks by artificial control strategy has not yet been well explored. Results:Acontrolstrategyisdevelopedtosynchronizegeneregulatory networks in a multicellular system when spontaneous synchronization cannot be achieved. We first construct an impulsive control system

Ruiqi Wang; Luonan Chen; Kazuyuki Aihara

2006-01-01

230

Life Support Systems for Lunar Landers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers designing life support systems for NASA s next Lunar Landers face unique challenges. As with any vehicle that enables human spaceflight, the needs of the crew drive most of the lander requirements. The lander is also a key element of the architecture NASA will implement in the Constellation program. Many requirements, constraints, or optimization goals will be driven by interfaces with other projects, like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Lunar Surface Systems, and the Extravehicular Activity project. Other challenges in the life support system will be driven by the unique location of the vehicle in the environments encountered throughout the mission. This paper examines several topics that may be major design drivers for the lunar lander life support system. There are several functional requirements for the lander that may be different from previous vehicles or programs and recent experience. Some of the requirements or design drivers will change depending on the overall Lander configuration. While the configuration for a lander design is not fixed, designers can examine how these issues would impact their design and be prepared for the quick design iterations required to optimize a spacecraft.

Anderson, Molly

2008-01-01

231

Fluid ring damper for artificial gravity rotating system used for manned spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term human space missions require artificial gravity during some phases of the space flight. In this paper we propose a dual spin system to generate artificial gravity based on a classical rotorcraft configuration where the rotating blade-like module provides a 1g-gravity at the tips. The rotating module is eventually stopped by a fluid ring damper. The dynamics and effectiveness of the damper is analyzed; in particular stability is ensured since a Lyapunov function of the system is found. Optimal damper parameters such as fluid viscosity and ring geometry are determined in order to reduce the despinning time.

Gasbarri, Paolo; Teofilatto, Paolo

2009-06-01

232

Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

1987-01-01

233

A multiuser detector based on artificial bee colony algorithm for DS-UWB systems.  

PubMed

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity. PMID:23983638

Yin, Zhendong; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

2013-01-01

234

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...motion. (d) Each system must be designed so...airplane by a quick release (emergency) control...check of the complete system must be established...includes an autopilot system: (1) A quick release (emergency)...

2012-01-01

235

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...motion. (d) Each system must be designed so...airplane by a quick release (emergency) control...check of the complete system must be established...includes an autopilot system: (1) A quick release (emergency)...

2013-01-01

236

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

...motion. (d) Each system must be designed so...airplane by a quick release (emergency) control...check of the complete system must be established...includes an autopilot system: (1) A quick release (emergency)...

2014-01-01

237

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...motion. (d) Each system must be designed so...airplane by a quick release (emergency) control...check of the complete system must be established...includes an autopilot system: (1) A quick release (emergency)...

2011-01-01

238

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...motion. (d) Each system must be designed so...airplane by a quick release (emergency) control...check of the complete system must be established...includes an autopilot system: (1) A quick release (emergency)...

2010-01-01

239

Regenerative life support system research and concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

1988-01-01

240

Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

1997-12-01

241

A Worm Model Based on Artificial Life for Automatic Segmentation of Medical Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent deformable model called worm model is constructed. The worm has a central nervous system, vision, perception\\u000a and motor systems. It is able to memorize, recognize objects and control the motion of its body. The new model overcomes the\\u000a defects of existing methods since it is able to process the segmentation of the image intelligently using more information\\u000a available

Jian Feng; Xueyan Wang; Shuqian Luo

2007-01-01

242

Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

1988-01-01

243

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 301 Mark S. Fox Intelligent Systems Laboratory and future applicationsof Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufactur- ing is taking a systemic view of manufacturing. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing, Knowl- edge

Fox, Mark S.

244

Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

2011-10-01

245

in press In Bentley & Kumar (eds). Artificial Life Models of Neural Development  

E-print Network

Drake Circus, PL4 8AA, Plymouth UK 2 Institute of Cognitive Science and Technologies, CNR 15 Viale Marx in the nucleus of their cells (genotype). The nervous system is part of the phenotype which is derived from code (genotype) and the corresponding organism (phenotype). What is inherited from the parents

Cangelosi, Angelo

246

Real Time Implementation of an Artificial Immune System Based Controller for a DSTATCOM in an Electric Ship Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new adaptive control strategy based on artificial immune system (AIS) for a DSTATCOM in an electric ship power system is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM is a shunt compensation device, which can be used to improve the power quality during the pulse power requirements in a naval shipboard system. The role of DSTATCOM controller is very important to meet

Pinaki Mitra; Ganesh K. Venayagamoorthy

2008-01-01

247

Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (editor)

1993-01-01

248

Thermal control extravehicular life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

1975-01-01

249

Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

1976-01-01

250

Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)  

SciTech Connect

Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

1992-03-01

251

Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)  

SciTech Connect

Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

1992-01-01

252

Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

Leon, V. Jorge

1996-01-01

253

Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline), (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS), and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

1988-01-01

254

Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, and risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline); (2) standalone expert systems; (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS); and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

1988-01-01

255

An Artificial Intelligence System to Help the Player of Real-Time Strategy Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real Time Strategy (RTS) games pose a series of challenges to players and AI Agents due to its dynamical, distributed and multi-objective fashion. In this paper, we propose and develop an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system that helps the player during the game, giving him tactical and strategical tips about the best actions to be taken according to the current game

Renato L. de Freitas Cunha; Luiz Chaimowicz

2010-01-01

256

Using artificial intelligence to design and implement a morphological assessment system in beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a methodology is developed to improve the design and implementation of a linear morphological system in beef cattle using artificial intelligence. The proposed process involves an iterative mechanism where type traits are successively defined and computationally represented using knowledge engineering methodologies, scored by a set of trained human experts and finally, analysed by means of four reputed

F. Goyache; J. J. del Coz; J. R. Quevedo; S. López; J. Alonso; J. Ranilla; O. Luaces; I. Alvarez; A. Bahamonde

2001-01-01

257

Electrostatic-field effect on the evolution of artificial aerosol systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of artificial aerosol systems under the effect of external electrostatic fields of different strengths was investigated experimentally. The disaggregation effect of coarse aerosol particles in an electric field was observed. An analysis is made of the effect of the electrostatic field strength on the size of aerosol particles formed during the disaggregation. The results are of interest in

S. S. Vlasenko

1989-01-01

258

Evaluating artificial intelligence heuristics for a flexible Kanban system: simultaneous Kanban controlling and scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates several artificial intelligence heuristics for a simultaneous Kanban controlling and scheduling on a flexible Kanban system. The objective of the problem is to minimise a total production cost that includes due date penalty, inventory, and machining costs. We show that the simultaneous Kanban controlling and scheduling is critical in minimising the total production cost (approximately 30% cost

I. Lee

2007-01-01

259

Intellimedia Systems: Research and Applications at the Intersection of Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions to challenging applications often emerge from a fruitful combination of knowledge, methods, and techniques from different disci- plines. This talk introduces Intellimedia, a promising research field located at the intersection of research on Multimedia Systems and Artificial Intelligence. In essence, Intellimedia research aims at the innovative and intelligent usage of multiple media to improve human-machine interfaces as well as

Thomas Rist

2002-01-01

260

Face Recognition System Based on Different Artificial Neural Networks Models and Training Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Face recognition is one of the biometric methods that is used to identify any given face image using the main features of this face. In this research, a face recognition system was suggested based on four Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models separately: feed forward backpropagation neural network (FFBPNN), cascade forward backpropagation neural network (CFBPNN), function fitting neural network (FitNet) and

2013-01-01

261

An artificial intelligence system for a complex electromagnetic field problem. II. Method implementation and performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt. I see ibid., vol. 35, no. 1, p. 516-22 (1999). An artificial intelligence system has been developed to determine the electromagnetic field in the complex problem of a faulty overhead transmission line above earth and a buried pipeline. The amplitude and phase of the magnetic vector potential (MVP) in the earth around the pipeline neighborhood, including the pipeline

Kostas J. Satsios; Dimitris P. Labridis; Petros S. Dokopoulos

1999-01-01

262

Increasing the efficiency of radiolocation systems with application of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specialized radiolocation complexes working with spread receivers provide high obscurity, noise protection and reliability. These demands can be fulfilled with complex signals emitted from the source, radioholographic approaches in processing and a decision making method for identification. In the paper the application of artificial intelligence for increasing the efficiency of radiolocation systems (RLS) is introduced.

V. Djurov; M. Kostova; V. Vasilev; A. C. Tsakoumis

2004-01-01

263

Nonlinear System Of Equations For Multicomponent Analysis Of Artificial Food Coloring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In multicomponent analysis of artificial food coloring (AFC), nonlinear relation of the absorbance and the concentration forms a nonlinear system of equations. The Newton's method based algorithm has been used to calculate individual AFC concentration in the mixture of two AFCs. The absorbance was measured using a spectrophotometer at two different wavelengths.

Santosa, I. E.; Budiasih, L. K.

2010-12-01

264

Adaptive Eye Gaze Patterns in Interactions with Human and Artificial Agents ACM Trans. Interactive Intelligent System  

E-print Network

in such interaction and collaboration. In light of this, we used a novel experimental paradigm to systematically are highly sensitive to momentary multimodal behaviors generated by the social partner (either another human] - Multimedia Information Systems - Evaluation/methodology; I 2.9 [Artificial Intelligence] - Robotics; J.4

Yu, Chen

265

History of Artificial Propagation of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in the Mid-Columbia River System  

E-print Network

History of Artificial Propagation of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in the Mid-Columbia River propagation of coho salmon, Oncorhyn- chus kisutch, in the mid-Columbia River region began in 1899 System ROY J. WAHLE and ROGER E. PEARSON Figure I. - Middle and upper portion of the Columbia River Basin

266

Medical decision making systems in pulmonology: a creative environment based on artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powerful formation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for implementing a medical decision making system (MDMS) in the field of the entire spectrum of pulmonary diseases (PDs), is the topic treated in this article. These ANNs were taught by means of real-world medical data patterns given by a team of PDs medical experts. Preliminary and more elaborate experiments showed an

G.-P. K. Economou; C. Spiropoulos; N. M. Economopoulos; N. Charokopos; D. Lymberopoulos; M. Spiliopoulou; E. Haralambopulu; C. E. Goutis

1994-01-01

267

Implantable Control, Telemetry, and Solar Energy System in the MovingActuator Type Total Artificial Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moving actuator type total artificial heart (TAH) developed in the Seoul National University has numerous design improvements based upon the digital sig- nal processor (DSP). These improvements include the im- plantability of all electronics, an automatic control algo- rithm, and extension of the battery run-time in connection with an amorphous silicon solar system (SS). The implant- able electronics consist

Jae Mok Ahn; Jung Hoon Lee; Sung Wook Choi; Wook Eun Kim; Kyong Sik Omn; Seong Keun Park; Won Gon Kim; Joon Ryang Roh; Byoung Goo Min

1998-01-01

268

A DNA based artificial immune system for self-nonself discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial immune systems attempt to distinguish self from nonself through string matching operations. A detector set of strings is selected by eliminating random strings that match the self strings. DNA based computers have been proposed to solve complex problems that defy solution on conventional computers. They are based on (hydrogen bonding based) matchings (called hybridizations) between Watson-Crick complementary pairs, Adenine-Thymine

R. Deaton; M. Garzon; J. A. Rose; R. C. Murphy; D. R. Francheschetti

1997-01-01

269

SEVEN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES FOR ARTIFICIAL LEARNING SYSTEMS Christophe GiraudCarrier and Tony Martinez  

E-print Network

and show how their (combined) use can improve learning and reasoning, as well as potentially widen property in turn and show how their use can improve learning and reasoning, and potentially widen the range machine, such an assumption seems to go against the long term goal of building artificial systems capable

Martinez, Tony R.

270

Re-visiting the Foundations of Artificial Immune Systems for Data Mining  

E-print Network

Re-visiting the Foundations of Artificial Immune Systems for Data Mining Alex A. Freitas Jon Timmis) for data mining. By problem-oriented approach we mean that, in real-world data mining applications, the design of an AIS should take into account the characteristics of the data to be mined together

Timmis, Jon

271

A voting and predictive Neural Network system for use in a new artificial Larynx  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new artificial Larynx is currently under development at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. This device uses dynamic tongue movement from a palatometer system to infer what the user is trying to say. Feature selection algorithms extract information from the palatometer data and are then used as input to a Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network. This paper deals with improving

M. J. Russell; D. M. Rubin; T. Marwala; B. Wigdorowitz

2009-01-01

272

Interaction Studies: Social Behavior and Communication in Artificial Systems 7 (2006), 43-78  

E-print Network

under the term `viscosity'. Here we offer some simple simulations that dramatize the importance established under the term `viscosity.' Classical game-theoretic models for cooperation are non- spatialInteraction Studies: Social Behavior and Communication in Artificial Systems 7 (2006), 43

Grim, Patrick

273

Environmental Impact Assessment of Artificial Aggregate Systems Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregates are food for construction industry and hydraulic and hydropower engineering, account for 80% of concrete. Now the number of artificial aggregate systems of being used and preparing to put into use is considerable, which calls for an efficient method to assess the environment impact. In this paper eight factors are taken into consideration to set up a factor set,

Qin Hongling; Meng Suimin; Zhou Xincong

2010-01-01

274

Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system  

PubMed Central

The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting. PMID:23511467

Andrea Rozzi, Carlo; Maria Falke, Sarah; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

2013-01-01

275

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 257-277 The Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS): An  

E-print Network

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 257-277 257 The Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS): An Intelligent Embedded Tutoring System for Tactical Team Training W (AETS) applies intelligent tutoring systems technology to improving tactical training quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

277

Design and Development of an LED-Artificial Sunlight Source System Prototype Capable of Controlling Relative Spectral Power Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial sunlight source system that is able to produce a spectral power distribution (SPD) approximating ground level sunlight (GLS) as well as arbitrarily modified SPDs would facilitate the investigation of living-organism responses in various light environments. A prototype of a light emitting diode (LED)-artificial sunlight source system was designed as a first step towards the development of such a

Kazuhiro Fujiwara; Toshinari Sawada

2006-01-01

278

Comparison of the Transcription and Replication Strategies of Marburg Virus and Ebola Virus by Using Artificial Replication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The members of the family Filoviridae, Marburg virus (MBGV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), are very similar in terms of morphology, genome organization, and protein composition. To compare the replication and tran- scription strategies of both viruses, an artificial replication system based on the vaccinia virus T7 expression system was established for EBOV. Specific transcription and replication of an artificial monocistronic

ELKE MUHLBERGER; MICHAEL WEIK; VIKTOR E. VOLCHKOV; HANS-DIETER KLENK; STEPHAN BECKER

1999-01-01

279

Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots Pedro U. Lima, Luis M. M. Custdio1  

E-print Network

cooperative reinforcement learning in cooperative and adversarial environments, and behaviorArtificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots Pedro U. Lima, Luis M. M of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

280

Experimental Implementation of an Artificial Immune System on a Robotic Manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial immune system (AIS) has been used to realize robust control of a robotic manipulator. The AIS recognizes “self” and “non-self” operation of a closed-loop system, where self is defined as a condition where controller gains are appropriate for a given manipulator configuration. As configuration changes occur, the changing performance of the system indicates a transition to non-self. When

Keith A. Williams; Flavio Garbanzo; Charles L. Karr

2010-01-01

281

Development of artificial-intelligent power quality diagnosis equipment for single-phase power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DSP process-based equipment to diagnose the power quality of a single-phase power system is developed. The artificial-intelligent equipment diagnoses the transient, the voltage sag, the voltage swell and the THD among the power quality index of a power system. The 256 data sampled in a period of the single-phase voltage of the power system are used for the real-time

Sun-Geun Kwack; Gyo-Bum Chung; Jaeho Choi; Ginkyu Choi

2008-01-01

282

Artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy assessments for ground-coupled heat pump system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article present a comparison of artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) applied for modelling a ground-coupled heat pump system (GCHP). The aim of this study is predicting system performance related to ground and air (condenser inlet and outlet) temperatures by using desired models. Performance forecasting is the precondition for the optimal design and energy-saving operation

Hikmet Esen; Mustafa Inalli; Abdulkadir Sengur; Mehmet Esen

2008-01-01

283

Video Communications Systems 2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide  

E-print Network

LifeSize® Video Communications Systems User Guide #12;2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User-9301 #12;LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide 3 Welcome to LifeSize Video Communications Systems LifeSize high definition video communications systems enable anyone with dispersed colleagues

284

Evolution of immune systems from self\\/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self\\/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal

Edwin L. Cooper

2010-01-01

285

A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data  

PubMed Central

The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems.

Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

2014-01-01

286

Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

287

Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann  

E-print Network

and will continue to replicate, spreading its damaged genes to its daughters. Eventually the surrounding healthy-monitoring systems have the desired property of surviving damages. Many biological systems are self attempt to repair any damage that has occurred to other genes. There are also apoptosis genes that enable

Siegelmann , Hava T

288

Artificial neural net approach for capacitor placement in power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new methodology for controlling multitap capacitors in a power system using a three layer feedforward neural network. The neural network, in the proposed scheme is separately trained with two algorithms namely backpropagation and a combined backpropagation-Cauchy's learning algorithm. Studies on 30 bus IEEE test system are carried out and quite satisfactory results are obtained. The inputs

P. K. Dash; S. Saha; P. K. Nanda

1991-01-01

289

SMART VEHICLE SCREENING SYSTEM USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of

V. Turchenko; V. Kochan; V. Koval; A. Sachenko; G. Markowsky

290

The Influence of Latino Ethnocultural Factors on Decision Making at the End of Life: Withholding and Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author reviews the legal precedents that underpin the policies and practices found in most medical settings in relation to artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as the context for exploring the end-of-life (EOL) care decision-making process of Latinos. The literature related to Latino beliefs and practices is reviewed. Specifically examined are the ways in which the values

Norma del Río

2010-01-01

291

Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems  

SciTech Connect

Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

1995-02-01

292

Artificial activation of toxinantitoxin systems as an antibacterial strategy  

E-print Network

in vancomycin-resis- tant enterococci (VRE) [5,6]. Although the role of plasmid-encoded TA systems is clear]. Many such so-called addiction modules stabilize plas- mids that carry drug-resistance determinants

Hergenrother, Paul J.

293

A regional planning system based on artificial intelligence concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper we present a logic-based system that makes possible the comparison of the requirements of particular sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, construction, mining, energy) and social requirements (e.g. living conditions, employment, education, culture) at the level of the territorial system. It is based on a hierarchical model of national, county and district level activities. Every level has its own

Etele Barfith; Iván Futó

1984-01-01

294

Research and Development for the Ackerman Artificial Heart System: A Non-Pulsatile, Non-Occlusive Total Artificial Heart for Human Implantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are proposing a two phase program to design and develop a motor-driven, non-pulsatile, non-occlusive pump system capable of being implanted within the chest cavity as an artificial heart. Phase I will design, fabricate and test in the laboratory, a non...

1987-01-01

295

Detection technique for artificially illuminated objects in the outer solar system and beyond.  

PubMed

Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10(-3). Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope ? ? (d log F/d log D)=-4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit ?=-2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of ? for thousands of KBOs. If objects with ?=-2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. PMID:22490065

Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L

2012-04-01

296

Human-Computer Interaction System with Artificial Neural Network Using Motion Tracker and Data Glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) system has been developed with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using a motion tracker\\u000a and a data glove. The HCI system is able to recognize American Sign Language letter and number gestures. The finger joint\\u000a angle data obtained from the strain gauges in the sensory glove define the hand shape while the data from the motion

Oz Cemil; Ming C. Leu

2005-01-01

297

Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing\\u000auncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing\\u000aresources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine\\u000aproblems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for\\u000aagent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model\\u000aproposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in

Khaled M. Khalil; M. Abdel-Aziz; Taymour T. Nazmy; Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem

2010-01-01

298

Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

Zabrodina, L. V.

1974-01-01

299

Combining Artificial Neural Networks and Heuristic Rules in a Hybrid Intelligent Load Forecast System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is combined to Heuristic Rules producing a powerful hybrid intelligent system\\u000a for short and mid-term electric load forecasting. The Heuristic Rules are used to adjust the ANN output to improve the system\\u000a performance. The study was based on load demand data of Energy Company of Pernambuco (CELPE), which contain the hourly load

Ronaldo R. B. De Aquino; Aida A. Ferreira; Manoel A. Carvalho Jr; Milde M. S. Lira; Geane B. Silva; Otoni Nóbrega Neto

2006-01-01

300

Preemptive Performance Monitoring of a Large Network of Wi-Fi Hotspots: An Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper addresses the problem of network monitoring by proposing an Artificial Immune System (AIS) system to achieve situation\\u000a recognition and monitoring in a large network of Wi-Fi hotspots as part of a highly scalable preemptive monitoring tool for\\u000a wireless networks. Using a set of data extracted from a live network of Wi-Fi hotspots managed by an ISP, we integrated

Pheeha Machaka; Antoine Bagula

301

METEOR - an artificial intelligence system for convective storm forecasting  

SciTech Connect

An AI system called METEOR, which uses the meteorologist's heuristics, strategies, and statistical tools to forecast severe hailstorms in Alberta, is described, emphasizing the information and knowledge that METEOR uses to mimic the forecasting procedure of an expert meteorologist. METEOR is then discussed as an AI system, emphasizing the ways in which it is qualitatively different from algorithmic or statistical approaches to prediction. Some features of METEOR's design and the AI techniques for representing meteorological knowledge and for reasoning and inference are presented. Finally, some observations on designing and implementing intelligent consultants for meteorological applications are made. 7 references.

Elio, R.; De haan, J.; Strong, G.S.

1987-03-01

302

Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

Jones, Harry W.

2014-01-01

303

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

304

Concise review: Spermatogenesis in an artificial three-dimensional system.  

PubMed

Culture of spermatogonial stem cells has been performed under a variety of conditions. Most featured two-dimensional systems, with different types of sera, conditioned media, feeder layers, and growth factors. Some have used three-dimensional (3D) matrices produced from gelatin, collagen, or other material. In spite of their increasingly sophisticated composition, however, complete spermatogenesis in vitro has not yet been achieved. In the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis occurs in an environment where cells are embedded in a 3D structure with specific niches regulating each stage of germ cell maturation mediated by hormones and paracrine/autocrine factors. We have recently reported achievement of complete in vitro spermatogenesis of mouse testicular germ cells in a 3D culture system featuring a soft agar matrix. This review discusses the advantages of the 3D culture system for studying the spermatogenic process in its entirety. Also discussed are the steps necessary to expand the applicability of the 3D culture system to human germ cell development and determine the functionality of culture-produced spermatozoa for generating offspring. PMID:22997006

Mahmoud, Huleihel

2012-11-01

305

Artificial intelligence methods in deregulated power systems operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of the power systems deregulation, many classical power transmission and distribution optimization tools became inadequate. Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment are common computer programs used in the regulated power industry. This work is addressing the Optimal Power Flow and Unit Commitment in the new deregulated environment. Optimal Power Flow is a high dimensional, non-linear, and non-convex

Jovan Ilic

2001-01-01

306

A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Laboratory University of Kent at Canterbury and MPI Software Technology, Inc. abw5@ukc.ac.uk Lois Boggess Intelligent Systems Laboratory Department of Computer Science Mississippi State University lboggess been applied to a wide variety of tasks, including recognition tasks, such as intrusion detection [1

Kent, University of

307

Tutorial: Recommender Systems International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

configuration systems Web mining Operations research #12;- 4 - © Dietmar Jannach, Markus Zanker and Gerhard ­ No holistic evaluation scenario exists Retrieval perspective ­ Reduce search costs ­ Provide "correct from the Long Tail ­ Users did not know about existence #12;- 8 - © Dietmar Jannach, Markus Zanker

Jannach, Dietmar

308

Expert systems as design aids for artificial vision systems: a survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of software that would be to computer vision what expert system shells are to expert systems has been the subject of considerable inquiry over the last ten years; this paper reviews the pertinent publications and tries to present a coherent view of the field. We start by outlining two major differences between would be `vision shells' and conventional expert system shells. The first is the need for an intermediate level of symbolic representation between image pixels and the knowledge base. The second is that the mental operations that people perform to interpret images lie almost totally below the threshold of consciousness. Vision system designers therefore cannot, as domain experts normally do, examine their own mental processes and cast them into rules to extract information from images. The vision shell should thus contain, in addition to the usual knowledge engineering toolbox, knowledge on the pertinence of specific imaging operations towards various goals. After a review of the role of explicit knowledge in artificial vision, we examine the architecture a vision shell should have, and look at ways of facilitating the entry of domain-pertinent knowledge into it. Final remarks are made on knowledge representation and acquisition aspects particular to industrial applications.

Crevier, Daniel

1993-08-01

309

Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned envelope types. Energy consumption data, along with various other details, such as building floor area, areas of walls, columns, beams etc. and their material types were imported into Life-Cycle Assessment software called ATHENA impact estimator for buildings. Using this four-stepped LCA methodology, the results showed that the Steel Stud envelope performed the best and less environmental impact compared to other envelope types. This research methodology can be applied to other building typologies.

Ramachandran, Sriranjani

310

Development of a Through Tubing (Microhole) Artificial Lift System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a small diameter pump system capable of being deployed through existing production tubing strings in oil/gas wells. The pump system would then pump water up an inner tubing string (likely coil tubing) and allow gas to flow in the annulus between the coil tubing and production tubing. Accomplishing this would allow wells that are currently loaded up (unable to flow at high enough rates to lift the fluid out of the wellbore) to continue to produce additional gas/oil reserves. The project was unable to complete a working test system due to unforeseen complexities in coupling the system components together in part due to the small diameter. Although several of the individual components were sourced and secured, coupling them together and getting electricity to the motor proved technically more difficult than expected. Thus, the project is no longer active due primarily to the complications realized in coupling the components and the difficulties in getting electricity to the submersible motor in a slimhole system. The other problem in finishing this project was the lack of financial resources. When the grant was first applied for it was expected that it would be awarded in early 2004. Since the grant was not actually awarded until the end of August 2004, GPS had basically run out of $$$ and the principle developer (Steve Bodden) had to find a full time job which began in late July 2004. When the grant was finally awarded in late August, it was still hoped that the project could proceed as a part time development but with less financial exposure to the partners in GPS. This became very problematic as it still had many technical obstacles to overcome to get it to the stage of prototype testing.

Steve Bodden

2006-09-30

311

Life Stress and Illness: A Systems Approach  

PubMed Central

The link between stress and illness has been forged by researchers like Holmes and Rahe whose Social Readjustment Rating Scale can be used by family physicians to assess their patients' stress. The concept of stress has been clarified by the systems approach to illness. Stress and illness are embedded in a biopsychosocial matrix of several systems levels, each of which may be a source of stress as well as a support system. Stress is not the end result of a linear chain of causes and effects, but part of a feedback system in a community or family. The family is the major source of lifestyle and personality, the health belief system and modes of problem solving and coping, as well as of stress and support. The family physician can have a major role in educating the individual and family about stress and illness, and in altering the meaning of stress from catastrophe to challenge and source of growth. Anticipatory guidance for the normal crises of the life cycle and the crises of illness, loss and death can help prevent further family dysfunction and illness. Imagesp537-a PMID:21283349

Christie-Seely, Janet

1983-01-01

312

Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life  

E-print Network

] are associated with a variety of work in the late 1950s and early 1960s, some of which presages the later research questions in this field. 1 #12;2 Overview of Genetic Algorithms In the 1950s and 1960s several, and some, like many GAs, had binary strings as abstrac- tions of biological chromosomes. In the later 1960s

Mitchell, Melanie

313

Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life  

E-print Network

], Bledsoe [18], and Bremermann [22] are associated with a variety of work in the late 1950s and early 1960s strategies, see [9]. Also in the 1960s Fogel, Owens, and Walsh developed ``evolutionary programming'' [36 Algorithms In the 1950s and 1960s several computer scientists independently studied evolutionary sys­ tems

Forrest, Stephanie

314

Creating a two-layered augmented artificial immune system for application to computer network intrusion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer network security has become a very serious concern of commercial, industrial, and military organizations due to the increasing number of network threats such as outsider intrusions and insider covert activities. An important security element of course is network intrusion detection which is a difficult real world problem that has been addressed through many different solution attempts. Using an artificial immune system has been shown to be one of the most promising results. By enhancing jREMISA, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm inspired artificial immune system, with a secondary defense layer; we produce improved accuracy of intrusion classification and a flexibility in responsiveness. This responsiveness can be leveraged to provide a much more powerful and accurate system, through the use of increased processing time and dedicated hardware which has the flexibility of being located out of band.

Judge, Matthew G.; Lamont, Gary B.

2009-05-01

315

Precise Selenodetic Coordinate System on Artificial Light Refers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically a coordinate system for the Moon was established on the base of telescopic observations from the Earth. As the angular resolution of Earth-to-Space telescopic observations is limited by Earth atmosphere, and is ordinary worse then 1 ang. second, the mean accuracy of selenodetic coordinates is some angular minutes, which corresponds to errors about 900 meters for positions of lunar objects near center of visible lunar disk, and at least twice more when objects are near lunar poles. As there are no Global Positioning System nor any astronomical observation instruments on the Moon, we proposed to use an autonomous light beacon on the Luna-Globe landing module to fix its position on the surface of the moon ant to use it as refer point for fixation of spherical coordinates system for the Moon. The light beacon is designed to be surely visible by orbiting probe TV-camera. As any space probe has its own stars-orientation system, there is not a problem to calculate a set of directions to the beacon and to the referent stars in probe-centered coordinate system during flight over the beacon. Large number of measured angular positions and time of each observation will be enough to calculate both orbital parameters of the probe and selenodetic coordinates of the beacon by methods of geodesy. All this will allow fixing angular coordinates of any feature of lunar surface in one global coordinate system, referred to the beacon. The satellite’s orbit plane contains ever the center mass of main body, so if the beacon will be placed closely to a lunar pole, we shall determine pole point position of the Moon with accuracy tens times better then it is known now. When angular accuracy of self-orientation by stars of the orbital module of Luna-Glob mission will be 6 angular seconds, then being in circular orbit with height of 200 km the on-board TV-camera will allow calculation of the beacon position as well as 6" corresponding to spatial resolution of the camera. It mean that coordinates of the beacon will be determined with accuracy not worse then 6 meters on the lunar surface. Much more accuracy can be achieved if orbital probe will use as precise angular measurer as optical interferometer. The limiting accuracy of proposed method is far above any reasonable level, because it may be sub-millimeter one. Theoretical analysis shows that for achievement of 1-meter accuracy of coordinate measuring over lunar globe it will be enough to disperse over it surface some 60 light beacons. Designed by Lavochkin Association light beacon is autonomous one, and it will work at least 10 years, so coordinate frame of any other lunar mission could use established selenodetic coordinates during this period. The same approach may be used for establishing Martial coordinates system.

Bagrov, Alexander; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Sysoev, Valentin

316

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 98-129 Authoring Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Analysis of the  

E-print Network

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 98-129 98 Authoring-14Dec2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Analysis of the State of the Art Tom Murray Computer Science Dept

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1998), 9, 256-274 A Framework System for Intelligent Support in Open  

E-print Network

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1998), 9, 256-274 256 A Framework2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education System for Intelligent Support in Open Distributed Learning Environments M. Mühlenbrock, F. Tewissen, H

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Fatigue criterion to system design, life and reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized methodology to structural life prediction, design, and reliability based upon a fatigue criterion is advanced. The life prediction methodology is based in part on work of Weibull and Lundberg and Palmgren. The approach incorporates the computed life of elemental stress volumes of a complex machine element to predict system life. The results of coupon fatigue testing can be incorporated into the analysis allowing for life prediction and component or structural renewal rates with reasonable statistical certainty.

Zaretsky, E. V.

1985-01-01

319

Fatigue criterion to system design, life and reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized methodology to structural life prediction, design, and reliability based upon a fatigue criterion is advanced. The life prediction methodology is based in part on work of W. Weibull and G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren. The approach incorporates the computed life of elemental stress volumes of a complex machine element to predict system life. The results of coupon fatigue testing can be incorporated into the analysis allowing for life prediction and component or structural renewal rates with reasonable statistical certainty.

Zaretsky, E. V.

1985-01-01

320

Expanded life-cycle analysis to optimize spacecraft life support system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-cycle of a human space mission begins with the conceptual design and ends with the return or disposal of the spacecraft. A major component of the spacecraft is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) that supports the crew. Historically, conceptual designs of ECLSS focused on launch costs; however, current missions with longer timelines have meaningful life cycle

James F. Russell

2005-01-01

321

Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of the fluorescence emitted by three photosynthetic organisms (chlorella, tribonema, and anacystis) and the fluorescence of some model systems selected for study by criteria described below are reported. Light emission has been studied as a function of excitation wavelength and of temperature. Low temperature fluorescence studies on photosynthetic organisms and chloroplast preparations provide the chief experimental support for the existence of a PSII in green plants, and fluorescence at low temperatures has been used as the principal source of information on energy flow between the photosynthetic pigments. The nature and functional aspects of PSII and the course of energy transfer in the photosynthetic apparatus are highly pertinent to the oxygen evolution in green plant photosynthesis.

Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.; Hindman, J.C.

1984-01-01

322

Artificial Lymphatic Drainage Systems for Vascularized Microfluidic Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

The formation of a stably perfused microvasculature continues to be a major challenge in tissue engineering. Previous work has suggested the importance of a sufficiently large transmural pressure in maintaining vascular stability and perfusion. Here we show that a system of empty channels that provides a drainage function analogous to that of lymphatic microvasculature in vivo can stabilize vascular adhesion and maintain perfusion rate in dense, hydraulically resistive fibrin scaffolds in vitro. In the absence of drainage, endothelial delamination increased as scaffold density increased from 6 mg/mL to 30 mg/mL and scaffold hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor of twenty. Single drainage channels exerted only localized vascular stabilization, the extent of which depended on the distance between vessel and drainage as well as scaffold density. Computational modeling of these experiments yielded an estimate of 0.40–1.36 cm H2O for the minimum transmural pressure required for vascular stability. We further designed and constructed fibrin patches (0.8 by 0.9 cm2) that were perfused by a parallel array of vessels and drained by an orthogonal array of drainage channels; only with the drainage did the vessels display long-term stability and perfusion. This work underscores the importance of drainage in vascularization, especially when a dense, hydraulically resistive scaffold is used. PMID:23281125

Wong, Keith H. K.; Truslow, James G.; Khankhel, Aimal H.; Chan, Kelvin L. S.; Tien, Joe

2012-01-01

323

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 237250 Hierarchical decision making for proactive quality control: system  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 237­250 Hierarchical decision making by resorting to artificial intelligence and engineering fundamentals. The approach is developed for solving control; Intelligent decision support; Artificial intelligence; Fuzzy logic; Automotive coating 1

Huang, Yinlun

324

Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

1971-01-01

325

Antisense Gene Therapy of Brain Cancer with an Artificial Virus Gene Delivery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic genes are delivered to the nuclear compartment of cancer cells following intravenous administration with a non-immunogenic “artificial virus” gene delivery system that uses receptor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to navigate the biological barriers between the blood and the nucleus of the cancer cell. Mice implanted with intracranial U87 human glial brain tumors are treated with a nonviral expression plasmid encoding

Yun Zhang; Chunni Zhu; William M. Pardridge

2002-01-01

326

Multi-label Hierarchical Classification of Protein Functions with Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes two versions of an Artificial Immune System (AIS) - a relatively recent computational intelligence paradigm\\u000a – for predicting protein functions described in the Gene Ontology (GO). The GO has functional classes (GO terms) specified\\u000a in the form of a directed acyclic graph, which leads to a very challenging multi-label hierarchical classification problem\\u000a where a protein can be

Roberto Teixeira Alves; Myriam Regattieri Delgado; Alex Alves Freitas

2008-01-01

327

A Novel Multi-threshold Segmentation Approach Based on Artificial Immune System Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold selection is a critical step in computer vision. Immune systems, has inspired optimization algorithms known as Artificial\\u000a Immune Optimization (AIO). AIO have been successfully applied to solve optimization problems. The Clonal Selection algorithm\\u000a (CSA) is the most applied AIO method. It generates a response after an antigenic pattern is identified by an antibody. This\\u000a works presents an image multi-threshold

Erik Cuevas; Valentín Osuna-Enciso; Daniel Zaldívar; Marco Pérez-Cisneros

328

A Novel Multi-objective Optimization Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional evolutionary algorithm (EA) for solving the multi-objective optimization problem (MOP) is difficult to accelerate convergence and keep the diversity of the achieved Pareto optimal solutions. A novel EA, i.e., immune multi-objective optimization algorithm (IMOA), is proposed to solve the MOP in this paper. The special evolutional mechanism of the artificial immune system (AIS) prevents the prematurity and quickens

Chun-hua Li; Xin-jan Zhu; Wan-qi Hu; Guang-yi Cao

2009-01-01

329

The Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.

Macelroy, Robert D.

1990-01-01

330

[Distribution, migration and purifying effect of cadmium in artificial Avicennia marina wetland system].  

PubMed

An artificial mangrove Avicennia marina wetland was set up in a greenhouse, and an irrigation experiment with synthetic wastewater was performed to research the behavior of cadmium in the artificial wetland system. The synthetic wastewater C1 had the characteristics and strength similar to normal municipal sewage, while C5 and C10 had the nutrients and heavy metals as five and ten times as those in C1, respectively. The control was of 15 per thousand salinity. All the test wastewater was quantitatively irrigated weakly for a year. The results showed that the cadmium in the synthetic wastewater discharged into the system was mainly stagnated in soil subsystem (87.67%-96.74%), and only a small portion (0.43%-3.23%) migrated into plants and litters. After a year trial, the Cd content in roots was more than that in stems and leaves. The artificial Avicennia marina wetland system did have a significant effect on purifying cadmium in synthetic wastewater, and the purification rate for C1, C5 and C10 was 90.43%, 97.17% and 97.06%, respectively. PMID:15943375

Chen, Guikui; Chen, Guizhu

2005-03-01

331

Artificial and Bioartificial Liver Support  

PubMed Central

The fact that liver failure constitutes a life-threatening condition and can, in most cases, only be overcome by orthotopic liver transplantation, lead to the development of various artificial and bioartificial liver support devices. While artificial systems are based on the principles of adsorption and filtration, the more complex concept of bioartificial devices includes the provision of liver cells. Instead of solely focussing on detoxification, these concepts also support the failing organ concerning synthetic and regulative functions. The systems were evaluated in a variety of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and investigating the impact on the patient's clinical condition. This review gives an overview over the most common artificial and bioartificial liver support devices and summarizes the results of the clinical studies. PMID:19279696

2007-01-01

332

Artificial groundwater recharge in ephemeral river systems - a modelling system for assessment and prognosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving groundwater recharge is of high importance for a sustainable water resources management in many dryland regions. Ephemeral rivers, which are quite common for those regions, contribute to groundwater recharge due to infiltration through permeable river beds. In numerous countries, this infiltration is artificially increased by means of dams in order to promote groundwater recharge of local aquifers. Such dams retain flood flow and support a decelerated release of water, which leads to higher infiltration opportunity times in the downstream river sections. Therefore, flow dynamics are significantly influenced by dam operation, i.e., process dynamics can get weak and standing/receding wave effects may occur. For the adequate portrayal of such flow processes, we develop a modeling system for flow routing in ephemeral rivers with groundwater recharge dams. The system is based on a process-oriented description of flow, infiltration, and evaporation under dam operation and allows for a robust application under limited data situations. It consists of three sub-models: a kinematic wave model for flood routing in the upstream reaches, a model for simulating the nonlinear flood retention in a groundwater recharge dam inclusive evaporation, and a combined zero-inertia/kinematic wave model for dam release flow. The routing models are each coupled with an infiltration model for the quantification of potential groundwater recharge rates. The proposed system is applied for Wadi Ma'awil, Northern Sultanate of Oman, where flow is controlled by a large groundwater recharge dam. The application results show that the modeling system can serve as a valuable and robust tool for the quantification of realistic groundwater recharge rates, which is of high importance for a sound water resources assessment and prognosis in the study area.

Grundmann, Jens; Philipp, Andy

2013-04-01

333

Investigating Artificial Immune Systems For Job Shop Rescheduling In Changing Environments  

E-print Network

Artificial immune system can be used to generate schedules in changing environments and it has been proven to be more robust than schedules developed using a genetic algorithm. Good schedules can be produced especially when the number of the antigens is increased. However, an increase in the range of the antigens had somehow affected the fitness of the immune system. In this research, we are trying to improve the result of the system by rescheduling the same problem using the same method while at the same time maintaining the robustness of the schedules.

Uwe, Aickelin; Aniza, Din

2008-01-01

334

Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10-10(7) Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

2010-12-01

335

Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system*  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10–107 Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

2010-01-01

336

SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

1989-05-01

337

Melissa: The European project of closed life support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a

Ch. Lasseur; C. Paillé; B. Lamaze; P. Rebeyre; A. Rodriguez; L. Ordonez; F. Marty

2006-01-01

338

An Artificial Intelligence system to help the player of Real-Time Strategy games Renato L. de Freitas Cunha Luiz Chaimowicz  

E-print Network

An Artificial Intelligence system to help the player of Real-Time Strategy games Renato L. de propose and develop an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system that helps the player during the game, giving. Keywords:: Real-time Strategy, Artificial Intelligence Author's Contact: renato@renatocunha.com chaimo

Chaimowicz, Luiz

339

Self-Assembly Strategies for Integrating Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems  

SciTech Connect

In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor?acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular 'wires' that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition properties to facilitate self-assembly of complete, functional artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we explore how self-assembly strategies involving ?-stacking can be used to integrate light harvesting with charge separation and transport.

Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

2011-09-28

340

Natural and artificial intelligence. Processor systems compared to the human brain  

SciTech Connect

This comparison of artificial intelligence systems to the human brain has implications for a variety of disciplines. Original views are specified and compared with traditional models. Main Features: 1. Integration of logic programming in the brain functions. 2. New computer parallel architecture (for hardware engineers). 3. Main principles of symbolic manipulation by logic programming (for software engineers in Al, expert systems and logic programming). 4. Logical models of brain connections and functions (for neuroscientists). 5. Definition of memory types and functions (for psychologists). 6. Parallel between Al applied to robots and theory of knowledge (for philosophers).

de Callatay, A.M.

1986-01-01

341

Artificial Immune Systems Metaphor for Agent Based Modeling of Crisis Response Operations  

E-print Network

Crisis response requires information intensive efforts utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. This paper presents an Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) metaphor for agent based modeling of crisis response operations. The presented model proposes integration of hybrid set of aspects (multi-agent systems, built-in defensive model of AIS, situation management, and intensity-based learning) for crisis response operations. In addition, the proposed response model is applied on the spread of pandemic influenza in Egypt as a case study.

Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

2010-01-01

342

An Improved Artificial Immune System (AIS) by Considering Different Affinities among Th Cells and Antigens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new artificial immune system (AIS) model to pattern recognition. Inspired by natural immune system, we propose the AIS model, by considering not only the B cells' T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigen recognition, but also the different affinities among Th cells and antigens, and apply the model to pattern recognition. We present noisy binary patterns to test its recognition performance. Simulation results indicate that the proposed AIS model has more stable memory capabilities and stronger noise tolerance ability.

Dai, Hongwei; Tang, Zheng; Yang, Yu

343

Chaotic dynamics of the Hunt model, an artificially constructed flow system with a hyperbolic attractor  

E-print Network

We study numerically chaotic behavior associated with a hyperbolic strange attractor of Plykin type in the model of Hunt, an artificially constructed dynamical system with continuous time. There are presented portraits of the attractor, plots of realizations for chaotic signal generated by the system, illustrations of the sensitive dependence on initial conditions for the trajectories on the attractor. Quantitative characteristics of the attractor are estimated, including the Lyapunov exponents and the attractor dimension. We discuss symbolic dynamics on the attractor, find out and analyze some unstable periodic orbit belonging to the attractor.

Yu. S. Aidarova; S. P. Kuznetsov

2009-01-18

344

Selectivity Control of CO2 Reduction in an Inorganic Artificial Photosynthesis System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated that the selectivity of photo electrochemical CO2 reduction can be controlled in an inorganic artificial photosynthesis system using an AlGaN/GaN photo electrode. By increasing input light intensity and the use of a gold cathode, the Faradaic efficiency of CO dramatically increases from 30% to over 80% while that of H2 decreases. We observed that the cathode potential resulting from illumination determines the ratio of CO and H2. With this system, it is possible to switch the main reaction product from CO to HCOOH, which is also effective even under intense illumination.

Hashiba, Hiroshi; Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Deguchi, Masahiro; Yamada, Yuka; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

2013-09-01

345

Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults  

SciTech Connect

Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Applequist, C. A. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Chasensky, T.M. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-03-01

346

Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical InformaticsInformatics  

E-print Network

ICS 313 1 Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical Informatics Systems Outline and Objectives Describe basic concepts in artificial intelligence Understand is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Goals of AI systems fall into four categories: Thinking humanly Thinking

Reed, Nancy E.

347

Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

1970-01-01

348

Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

Slenski, George

1995-01-01

349

Source tracking of microbial intrusion in water systems using artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

A "what-if" scenario where biological agents are accidentally or deliberately introduced into a water system was generated, and artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to identify the pathogenic release location to isolate the contaminated area and minimize its hazards. The spatiotemporal distribution of Escherichia coli 15597 along the water system was employed to locate pollutants by inversely interpreting transport patterns of E. coli using ANNs. Results showed that dispersion patterns of E. coli were positively correlated to pH, turbidity, and conductivity (R2=0.90-0.96), and the ANN models successfully identified the source location of E. coli introduced into a given system with 75% accuracy based on the pre-programmed relationships between E. coli transport patterns and release locations. The findings in this study will enable us to assess the vulnerability of essential water systems, establish the early warning system and protect humans and the environment. PMID:17988708

Kim, Minyoung; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

2008-02-01

350

Recognizing animal-caused faults in power distribution systems using artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Faults are likely to occur in most power distribution systems. If the causes of the faults are known, specific action can be taken to eliminate the fault sources as soon as possible to avoid unnecessary costs, such as power system down-time cost, that are caused by failing to identify the fault sources. However, experts that can accurately recognize the causes of distribution faults are scarce and the knowledge about the nature of these faults is easily transferable from person to person. Therefore, artificial neural networks are used in this paper to recognize the causes of faults in power distribution systems, based on fault currents information collected for each outage. Actual field data collected by Duke Power Company are used in this paper. The methodology and implementation of artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic for the identification of animal-caused distribution faults will be presented. Satisfactory results have been obtained, and the developed methodology can be easily generalized and used to identify other causes of faults in power distribution systems.

Chow, Mo Yuen; Yee, S.O. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Taylor, L.S. (Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States). Distribution Engineering)

1993-07-01

351

Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment.

Gaurav Misra

2010-01-01

352

Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system  

DOEpatents

A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

Shelnutt, John A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

353

Supervised pixel classification using a feature space derived from an artificial visual system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image segmentation involves labelling pixels according to their membership in image regions. This requires the understanding of what a region is. Using supervised pixel classification, the paper investigates how groups of pixels labelled manually according to perceived image semantics map onto the feature space created by an Artificial Visual System. Multiscale structure of regions are investigated and it is shown that pixels form clusters based on their geometric roles in the image intensity function, not by image semantics. A tentative abstract definition of a 'region' is proposed based on this behavior.

Baxter, Lisa C.; Coggins, James M.

1991-01-01

354

Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

Shelnutt, J.A.

1984-11-29

355

Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults  

DOEpatents

Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

Tilly, Jonathan L. (Windham, NH); Kolesnick, Richard N. (New York, NY)

2010-12-14

356

A survey of life support system automation and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

Finn, Cory K.

1993-01-01

357

Microsoft kinect-based artificial perception system for control of functional electrical stimulation assisted grasping.  

PubMed

We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES. PMID:25202707

Strbac, Matija; Ko?ovi?, Slobodan; Markovi?, Marko; Popovi?, Dejan B

2014-01-01

358

Risk assessment and life prediction of complex engineering systems  

SciTech Connect

Many complex engineering systems will exceed their design life expectancy within the next 10 to 15 years. It is also expected that these systems must be maintained and operated beyond their design life. This paper presents a integrated approach for managing the risks associated with aging effects and predicting the residually expectancy these systems, The approach unifies risk assessment, enhanced surveillance and testing, and robust computational models to assess the risk, predict age, and develop a life-extension management procedure. It also relies on the state of the art in life-extension and risk assessment methods from the nuclear power industry. Borrowing from the developments in decision analysis, this approach should systematically identify the options available for managing the existing aging systems beyond their intended design life.

Garcia, M.D.; Varma, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heger, A.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

1996-03-01

359

Lifetime Learning as a Factor in Life History Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial life approach is taken to explore the effect that lifetime learning can have on the evolution of certain life history traits, in particular the periods of protection that parents offer their young, and the age at first reproduction of those young. The study begins by simulating the evolution of simple artificial neural network systems that must learn quickly

John A. Bullinaria

2009-01-01

360

Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command  

SciTech Connect

This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

Pennock, K A

1991-07-01

361

Bias correction of temperature produced by the Community Climate System Model using Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to predict circulation and energy transfers between the atmosphere and the land. It is known that these models produce biased results that will have impact on their uses. This work proposes a new method for bias correction: the equidistant cumulative distribution function-artificial neural network (EDCDFANN) procedure. The method uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a surrogate model to estimate bias-corrected temperature, given an identification of the system derived from GCM models output variables. A two-layer feed forward neural network is trained with observations during a historical period and then the adjusted network can be used to predict bias-corrected temperature for future periods. To capture the extreme values this method is combined with the equidistant CDF matching method (EDCDF, Li et al. 2010). The proposed method is tested with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) outputs using air and skin temperature, specific humidity, shortwave and longwave radiation as inputs to the ANN. This method decreases the mean square error and increases the spatial correlation between the modeled temperature and the observed one. The results indicate the EDCDFANN has potential to remove the biases of the model outputs.

Moghim, S.; Hsu, K.; Bras, R. L.

2013-12-01

362

System and method of gamification of real-life events  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

There is a system and method for gamification of real-life events over a computerized network. The system includes an observer module configured to generate real-life data in response to observation of a real-life event. The system includes an interface engine module configured to operate an ongoing computerized game that includes game objects. The system includes an implementation module configured to receive an implementation instruction and automatically effect a real-world occurrence associated with the implementation instruction. The system includes a control module, including a processor, configured to convert real-life data from the observer module into a game object, provide the created game object to the interface engine module for injection into an ongoing computer game, and convert a player interaction into an implementation instruction and provide the same to the implementation module. The system includes a player module configured to permit a player to play the ongoing game.

2014-09-02

363

Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

Ewert, Michael K.

2007-01-01

364

Existence of Natural Frequencies of Systems with Artificial Restraints and Their Convergence in Asymptotic Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major limitation of the Rayleigh-Ritz method for determining the natural frequencies of a system is the need to choose admissible functions that do not violate the geometric constraints of that system (Courant 1943 Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society49, 1-23). Several researchers have attempted to overcome this problem by asymptotically modelling the rigid constraints with artificial (imaginary) restraints of very large stiffness (Courant 1943 Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society49 , 1-23; Warburton and Edney 1984 Journal of Sound and Vibration95, 537-552; Gorman 1989 Journal of Applied Mechanics56, 893-899; Kim et al. 1990 Journal of Sound and Vibration143, 379-394; Yuan and Dickinson 1992 Journal of Sound and Vibration153, 203-216; Yuan and Dickinson 1992 Journal of Sound and Vibration159, 39-55; Cheng and Nicolas 1992 Journal of Sound and Vibration155, 231-247; Yuan and Dickinson 1994 Computers and Structures53 , 327-334; Lee and Ng 1994 Applied Acoustics42, 151-163; Amabili and Garziera 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration224, 519-539; Amabili and Garziera 2000 Journal of Fluids and Structures14, 669-690). While the numerical results thus obtained for the systems considered in the literature were in close agreement with exact values for the natural frequencies corresponding to the first few modes, sample calculations show that the error introduced by the asymptotic modelling increases with mode number and therefore to obtain accurate results for higher modes the magnitude of stiffness should also be increased. In any event, the error due to the asymptotic modelling would remain uncertain, except when the correct frequency values are known. However, the use of artificial restraints with negative stiffness, a new concept which was introduced in a recent publication (Ilanko and Dickinson 1999 Journal of Sound and Vibration219, 370-378) paves the way for estimating the error due to asymptotic modelling. This is possible since in this work, the Rayleigh-Ritz frequencies of the constrained system were found to be bracketed by the frequencies of the asymptotic models with positive and negative restraints. However, the use of artificial restraints with negative stiffness has raised some important questions: would a system with a large negative restraint become unstable, and if so what is the guarantee that the frequencies of the asymptotic model would converge to that of the constrained system? This paper is the result of the author's attempt to answer these questions and gives a proof of existence of natural frequencies for systems with artificial restraints (springs) having positive or negative stiffness coefficients, and their convergence towards constrained systems. Based on Rayleigh's theorem of separation, it has been shown that a vibratory system obtained by the addition of h restraints to an n -degree-of-freedom (d.o.f.) system, where h< n, will have at least ( n÷ h) natural frequencies and modes and that as the magnitude of the stiffness of the added restraints becomes very large, these ( n÷ h) natural frequencies will converge to the ( n÷ h) natural frequencies of a constrained system in which the displacements restrained by the springs are effectively constrained.

Ilanko, S.

2002-08-01

365

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

366

Robot System to Search for Signs of Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This describes a robot system that can be used to look for the tell-tale signs of life on Mars. Currently, NASA has satellites in orbit that can identify broad regions to explore in its search for life. NASA also has instruments that can examine samples of Martian soil to see if they contain any indications of biological activity. This leaves

Gary T. Anderson; Edward W. Tunstel; Edmond W. Wilson

2007-01-01

367

Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

1989-01-01

368

Search for Life Beyond the Solar System. Exoplanets, Biosignatures & Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the rapidly increasing number of known Earth-sized planets, the increasing range of extreme conditions in which life on Earth can persist, and the progress toward a technology that will ultimately enable the search for life on exoplanets, the Vatican Observatory and the Steward Observatory announce a major conference entitled The Search for Life Beyond the Solar System: Exoplanets, Biosignatures & Instruments. The goal of the conference is to bring together the interdisciplinary community required to address this multi-faceted challenge: experts on exoplanet observations, early and extreme life on Earth, atmospheric biosignatures, and planet-finding telescopes.

Apai, Daniel; Gabor, Pavel

2014-03-01

369

Use of artificial neural networks for analysis of complex physical systems  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical models of physical systems are used, among other purposes, to improve our understanding of the behavior of physical systems, predict physical system response, and control the responses of systems. Phenomenological models are frequently used to simulate system behavior, but an alternative is available - the artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is an inductive, or data-based model for the simulation of input/output mappings. The ANN can be used in numerous frameworks to simulate physical system behavior. ANNs require training data to learn patterns of input/output behavior, and once trained, they can be used to simulate system behavior within the space where they were trained.They do this by interpolating specified inputs among the training inputs to yield outputs that are interpolations of =Ming outputs. The reason for using ANNs for the simulation of system response is that they provide accurate approximations of system behavior and are typically much more efficient than phenomenological models. This efficiency is very important in situations where multiple response computations are required, as in, for example, Monte Carlo analysis of probabilistic system response. This paper describes two frameworks in which we have used ANNs to good advantage in the approximate simulation of the behavior of physical system response. These frameworks are the non-recurrent and recurrent frameworks. It is assumed in these applications that physical experiments have been performed to obtain data characterizing the behavior of a system, or that an accurate finite element model has been run to establish system response. The paper provides brief discussions on the operation of ANNs, the operation of two different types of mechanical systems, and approaches to the solution of some special problems that occur in connection with ANN simulation of physical system response. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate system simulation with ANNs.

Benjamin, A.; Altman, B.; O`Gorman, C.; Rodeman, R.; Paez, T.L.

1996-12-31

370

Rapid prototyping facility for flight research in artificial-intelligence-based flight systems concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.

1986-01-01

371

Analysis of motor control and behavior in multi agent systems by means of artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

This article gives a short introduction to Self-Organizing Maps, a particular form of Artificial Neural Networks and shows by some examples, how these approaches can be used in order to analyze and visualize time series data originating from complex systems. The methods shown in this article have originally been developed for the analysis of RoboCup robot soccer games, a special kind of so-called Multi Agent Systems. Although this application has no direct connection to biomechanics, the examples shown here may give an impression of the abilities of Neural Networks in the field of Time Series Analysis in general. Because of the abstractness of the methods, it appears to be very likely that they can easily be adapted to Time Series Analysis problems within the biomechanics context. PMID:15621314

Uthmann, Thomas; Dauscher, Peter

2005-02-01

372

Portable electronic nose system with gas sensor array and artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable electronic nose system has been fabricated and characterized using an oxide semiconductor gas sensor array and artificial neural network. The sensor array consists of such thick-film oxide semiconductor sensing materials as Pd-doped WO3, Pt-doped SnO2, TiO2–Sb2O5–Pd-doped SnO2, TiO2–Sb2O5–Pd-doped SnO2+Pd-coated layer, Al2O3-doped ZnO and PdCl2-doped SnO2. The portable electronic nose system consists of an Intel 80c196kc as CPU, an

Hyung-Ki Hong; Chul Han Kwon; Seung-Ryeol Kim; Dong Hyun Yun; Kyuchung Lee; Yung Kwon Sung

2000-01-01

373

Fluorescent artificial enzyme-linked immunoassay system based on Pd/C nanocatalyst and fluorescent chemodosimeter.  

PubMed

Artificial enzyme mimics have recently attracted considerable interest because they possess many advantages compared with natural enzymes, such as low cost of preparation and high stability. Herein, we present a novel fluorescent artificial enzyme-linked immunoassay strategy by utilizing Pd/C nanocatalyst as the enzyme mimic and bis-allyloxycarbonyl rhodamine 110 (BI-Rho 110) as the substrate, and the amplification procedure is based on the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost reaction. Pd/C nanocatalyst with the average size of 150 nm was prepared by the impregnation-reduction method, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses reveal that Pd clusters with an average size of about 1 nm are dispersed uniformly on each carbon nanosphere's surface. Kinetic studies show that this reaction follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of Pd/C nanocatalyst under certain conditions. The turnover number of Pd/C nanocatalyst reaches up to 3.3 × 10(7) (h(-1)). The analytical performance of this system in detecting hCG shows that after a 24 h incubation the sensitivity limit can reach 0.1 ng/mL and the dynamic linear working range is 1-10 ng/mL. Our findings pave the way to use Pd-catalyzed reaction for design and development of novel analytical methods. PMID:24160777

Wang, Zhifei; Zheng, Shuang; Cai, Jin; Wang, Peng; Feng, Jie; Yang, Xia; Zhang, Liming; Ji, Min; Wu, Fugen; He, Nongyue; Wan, Neng

2013-12-01

374

The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These plants were grown under artificial light conditions from 5 to 7 months. All crops were cut periodically in every month. On the base of our investigations it is possible to recommend for using in CELSS the next crops: marjoram, sweet-Mary and common thyme. The micronutrients containing in barley and above mentioned volatile crops will be useful for good appetite and health of the crew.

Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

375

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

376

NeuReal: an interactive simulation system for implementing artificial dendrites and large hybrid networks.  

PubMed

The dynamic clamp is a technique which allows the introduction of artificial conductances into living cells. Up to now, this technique has been mainly used to add small numbers of 'virtual' ion channels to real cells or to construct small hybrid neuronal circuits. In this paper we describe a prototype computer system, NeuReal, that extends the dynamic clamp technique to include (i) the attachment of artificial dendritic structures consisting of multiple compartments and (ii) the construction of large hybrid networks comprising several hundred biophysically realistic modelled neurons. NeuReal is a fully interactive system that runs on Windows XP, is written in a combination of C++ and assembler, and uses the Microsoft DirectX application programming interface (API) to achieve high-performance graphics. By using the sampling hardware-based representation of membrane potential at all stages of computation and by employing simple look-up tables, NeuReal can simulate over 1000 independent Hodgkin and Huxley type conductances in real-time on a modern personal computer (PC). In addition, whilst not being a hard real-time system, NeuReal still offers reliable performance and tolerable jitter levels up to an update rate of 50kHz. A key feature of NeuReal is that rather than being a simple dedicated dynamic clamp, it operates as a fast simulation system within which neurons can be specified as either real or simulated. We demonstrate the power of NeuReal with several example experiments and argue that it provides an effective tool for examining various aspects of neuronal function. PMID:18067972

Hughes, Stuart W; Lorincz, Magor; Cope, David W; Crunelli, Vincenzo

2008-04-30

377

Ethical challenges with deactivation of durable mechanical circulatory support at the end of life: left ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts.  

PubMed

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and total artificial hearts (TAHs) are surgically implanted as permanent treatment of unrecoverable heart failure. Both LVADs and TAHs are durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices that can prolong patient survival but also alter end-of-life trajectory. The permissibility of discontinuing assisted circulation is controversial because device deactivation is a life-ending intervention. Durable MCS is intended to successfully replace native physiological functions in heart disease. We posit that the presence of new lethal pathophysiology (ie, a self-perpetuating cascade of abnormal physiological processes causing death) is a central element in evaluating the permissibility of deactivating an LVAD or a TAH. Consensual discontinuation of durable MCS is equivalent with allowing natural death when there is an onset of new lethal pathophysiology that is unrelated to the physiological functions replaced by an LVAD or a TAH. Examples of such lethal conditions include irreversible coma, circulatory shock, overwhelming infections, multiple organ failure, refractory hypoxia, or catastrophic device failure. In all other situations, deactivating the LVAD/TAH is itself the lethal pathophysiology and the proximate cause of death. We postulate that the onset of new lethal pathophysiology is the determinant factor in judging the permissibility of the life-ending discontinuation of a durable MCS. PMID:22398630

Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

2014-01-01

378

Biological life-support systems for Mars mission.  

PubMed

Mars mission like the Lunar base is the first venture to maintain human life beyond earth biosphere. So far, all manned space missions including the longest ones used stocked reserves and can not be considered egress from biosphere. Conventional path proposed by technology for Martian mission LSS is to use physical-chemical approaches proved by the experience of astronautics. But the problem of man living beyond the limits of the earth biosphere can be fundamentally solved by making a closed ecosystem for him. The choice optimum for a Mars mission LSS can be substantiated by comparing the merits and demerits of physical-chemical and biological principles without ruling out possible compromise between them. The work gives comparative analysis of ecological and physical-chemical principles for LSS. Taking into consideration universal significance of ecological problems with artificial LSS as a particular case of their solution, complexity and high cost of large-scale experiments with manned LSS, it would be expedient for these works to have the status of an International Program open to be joined. A program of making artificial biospheres based on preceding experience and analysis of current situation is proposed. PMID:11537063

Gitelson, J I

1992-01-01

379

Predictive control of an integrated PV-diesel water and power supply system using an artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a predictive artificial neural network (ANN)-based prototype controller for the optimum operation of an integrated hybrid renewable energy-based water and power supply system (IRWPSS). The integrated system, which has been assembled, consists of photovoltaic modules, diesel generator, battery bank for energy storage and a reverse osmosis desalination unit. The electrical load consists of typical

Ali Al-Alawi; Saleh M Al-Alawi; Syed M Islam

2007-01-01

380

Artificial Vision System for Movement Determination of an Autonomous Planetary Exploration Rover based on Discrete Optical Flow and Stereo Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an artificial vision system that allows an auton omous rover to deter- mine its motion using two stereo cameras is presented. The vision system is based on stereo geometry and discrete optical flow. A tracking algo rithm is applied to a couple of images taken from the same camera at different instants of time to find a

Mauro Massari; Giovanni Giardini; Franco Bernelli-Zazzera

381

Towards an artificial immune system for network intrusion detection: an investigation of clonal selection with a negative selection operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes research towards the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. Specifically, we focus on one significant component of a complete AIS, static clonal selection with a negative selection operator, describing this system in detail. Three different data sets from the UCI repository for machine learning are used in the experiments. Two important factors,

Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

2001-01-01

382

An artificial intelligence system for a complex electromagnetic field problem. I. Finite element calculations and fuzzy logic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used to determine the electromagnetic field in the complex problem of a faulty overhead transmission line above earth and a buried pipeline. A suitable AI system for scaling finite element electromagnetic field calculations has been developed. This system was trained by using finite element calculations for configurations, i.e., cases having different distances between the overhead

Kostas J. Satsios; Dimitris P. Labridis; Petros S. Dokopoulos

1999-01-01

383

Burrow systems made by Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophora chlorotica in artificial cores: morphological differences and effects of interspecific interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burrow systems of earthworms contained in artificial cores were analysed through X-ray computed tomography and 3D skeleton reconstructions. Gas diffusion experiments were carried out on these cores to characterize soil transfer properties associated with the different burrow systems. Three types of cores were studied: cores in which Aporrectodea nocturna, an anecic earthworm was introduced (treatment 1), cores in which Allolobophora

Y Capowiez; P Monestiez; L Belzunces

2001-01-01

384

Optimization of perfluorocarbon emulsion properties for enhancing oxygen mass transfer in a bio-artificial liver support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen carrying performance of a perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion is considered. The intended purpose is to enhance hepatocyte growth and function in a bio-artificial liver support system (BALSS). Such oxygen carrying emulsions have previously been used in biological systems (e.g. cell culturing). However, optimum emulsion characteristics for enhanced oxygen mass transfer have not been established nor was consideration given

F. S. Moolman; H. Rolfes; S. W. van der Merwe; W. W. Focke

2004-01-01

385

An integrated approach to system modeling using a synthesis of artificial intelligence, software engineering and simulation methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional computer simulation terminology includes taxonomic divisions withterms such as "discrete event," "continuous," and "process oriented." Even thoughsuch terms have become familiar to simulation researchers, the terminology is distinctfrom other disciplines ---such as artificial intelligence and software engineering--- whichhave similar goals relating specifically to modelling dynamic systems. There is a needto unify terminology among these disciplines so that system modelling

Paul A. Fishwick

1992-01-01

386

An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats  

E-print Network

The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

Shaw, Margaret Miller

2014-01-01

387

Self-assembly strategies for integrating light harvesting and charge separation in artificial photosynthetic systems.  

PubMed

In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor-acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular "wires" that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition properties to facilitate self-assembly of complete, functional artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we explore how self-assembly strategies involving pi-stacking can be used to integrate light harvesting with charge separation and transport. Our current strategy uses covalent building blocks based on chemically robust arylene imide and diimide dyes, biomimetic porphyrins, and chlorophylls. We take advantage of the shapes, sizes, and intermolecular interactions--such as pi-pi and/or metal-ligand interactions--of these molecules to direct the formation of supramolecular structures having enhanced energy capture and charge-transport properties. We use small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) from a synchrotron source to elucidate the solution phase structures of these monodisperse noncovalent aggregates. We expect that a greater understanding of self-assembly using pi-stacking and molecular designs that combine those features with hydrogen bonding and metal-ligand bonding could simplify the structure of the building blocks for artificial photosynthetic complexes, while retaining their ability to assemble complex, photofunctional structures. PMID:19803479

Wasielewski, Michael R

2009-12-21

388

Development of an artificial compound eye system for three-dimensional object detection.  

PubMed

A compound eye has the advantages of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and compact structure, showing that it can be applicable for 3D object detection. In this work, an artificial compound eye system is developed for 3D object detection, consisting of a layer of lenslets and a prism-like beam-steering lens. A calibration method is developed for this system, with which the correspondences between incident light rays and the relevant image points can be obtained precisely using an active calibration pattern at multiple positions. Theoretically, calibration patterns at two positions are sufficient for system calibration, although more positions will increase the accuracy of the result. 3D positions of point objects are calculated to evaluate the system, which are obtained by the intersection of multiple incident light rays in the least-squares sense. Experimental results show that the system can detect an object with angular accuracy of better than 1 mrad, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed compound eye system. With a 2D scanning device, the system can be extended for general object detection in 3D space. PMID:24663317

Ma, Mengchao; Guo, Fang; Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi

2014-02-20

389

In vivo testing of a completely implanted total artificial heart system.  

PubMed

The authors performed 14 implants of a completely implanted total artificial heart (TAH) system in calves. The system consisted of a dual pusher plate rollerscrew energy converter, two sac type blood pumps, an implanted electronic control and battery package, and a transcutaneous energy transmission system. Ten of the implants included a percutaneous lead for monitoring of the implant; the remainder made use of wireless two way telemetry between the implant and the outside. Three animals survived the perioperative period. These calves survived for 98 to 118 days, and one was still alive at 150 days. Causes for termination of the 98 and 118 day cases were abdominal pocket sepsis originating at a monitoring line, and systemic sepsis acquired perioperatively. Death or termination in the shorter cases was mainly due to respiratory complications or bleeding. The TAH system proved capable of providing adequate cardiac outputs at modest atrial pressures. Wireless monitoring and wireless intervention for weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass were readily achieved. All organ systems functioned normally in the presence of the device. Once recovery from implantation in these very young animals was achieved, the system proved its ability to reliably support these animals until body mass exceeded its cardiac output capabilities. PMID:8268524

Snyder, A J; Rosenberg, G; Weiss, W J; Ford, S K; Nazarian, R A; Hicks, D L; Marlotte, J A; Kawaguchi, O; Prophet, G A; Sapirstein, J S

1993-01-01

390

Fundamental requirements of life cycle costing: projecting life cycle costs for electronic system modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances in electronics technology with resultant obsolescence and nonavailability of currently used electronics components and devices force systems managers to continuously upgrade and modernize existing systems in order to ensure equipment supportability. This paper examines the requisite attributes of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methods needed to effectively and flexibly project long term cost requirements, perform LCC versus performance

S. S. Chafee

1996-01-01

391

Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

Roman, Monserrate

2009-01-01

392

Similarities of artificial photosystems by ruthenium oxo complexes and native water splitting systems  

PubMed Central

The nature of chemical bonds of ruthenium(Ru)–quinine(Q) complexes, mononuclear [Ru(trpy)(3,5-t-Bu2Q)(OH2)](ClO4)2 (trpy = 2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone) (1), and binuclear [Ru2(btpyan)(3,6-di-Bu2Q)2(OH2)]2+ (btpyan = 1,8-bis(2,2?:6?,2??-terpyrid-4?-yl)anthracene, 3,6-t-Bu2Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone) (2), has been investigated by broken-symmetry (BS) hybrid density functional (DFT) methods. BS DFT computations for the Ru complexes have elucidated that the closed-shell structure (2b) Ru(II)–Q complex is less stable than the open-shell structure (2bb) consisting of Ru(III) and semiquinone (SQ) radical fragments. These computations have also elucidated eight different electronic and spin structures of tetraradical intermediates that may be generated in the course of water splitting reaction. The Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian model for these species has been derived to elucidate six different effective exchange interactions (J) for four spin systems. Six J values have been determined using total energies of the eight (or seven) BS solutions for different spin configurations. The natural orbital analyses of these BS DFT solutions have also been performed in order to obtain natural orbitals and their occupation numbers, which are useful for the lucid understanding of the nature of chemical bonds of the Ru complexes. Implications of the computational results are discussed in relation to the proposed reaction mechanisms of water splitting reaction in artificial photosynthesis systems and the similarity between artificial and native water splitting systems. PMID:22761310

Tanaka, Koji; Isobe, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

2012-01-01

393

Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Averner, M. M. (editor); Tibbits, T. W. (editor); Bugbee, B. B. (editor); Horneck, G. (editor); Dunlop, E. H. (editor)

1992-01-01

394

Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

2007-01-01

395

Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems  

PubMed Central

Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

Sincak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vircikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

2014-01-01

396

Systematically in silico comparison of unihormonal and bihormonal artificial pancreas systems.  

PubMed

Automated closed-loop control of blood glucose concentration is a daily challenge for type 1 diabetes mellitus, where insulin and glucagon are two critical hormones for glucose regulation. According to whether glucagon is included, all artificial pancreas (AP) systems can be divided into two types: unihormonal AP (infuse only insulin) and bihormonal AP (infuse both insulin and glucagon). Even though the bihormonal AP is widely considered a promising direction, related studies are very scarce due to this system's short research history. More importantly, there are few studies to compare these two kinds of AP systems fairly and systematically. In this paper, two switching rules, P-type and PD-type, were proposed to design the logic of orchestrates switching between insulin and glucagon subsystems, where the delivery rates of both insulin and glucagon were designed by using IMC-PID method. These proposed algorithms have been compared with an optimal unihormonal system on virtual type 1 diabetic subjects. The in silico results demonstrate that the proposed bihormonal AP systems have outstanding superiorities in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia, smoothing the glucose level, and robustness with respect to insulin/glucagon sensitivity variations, compared with the optimal unihormonal AP system. PMID:24260042

Gao, Xiaoteng; Ning, Huangjiang; Wang, Youqing

2013-01-01

397

On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders Proceedings RASC -2004, The 5th International Conference on: Recent Advances in Soft Computing, Nottingham, UK, 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) technology with Collaborative Filtering (CF) and use it to build a movie recommendation system. We already know that Artificial Immune Systems work well as movie recommenders from previous work by Cayzer and Aickelin ((3), (4), (5)). Here our aim is to investigate the effect of different affinity measure algorithms for the AIS. Two different

Uwe Aickelin; Qi Chen

398

An artificial intelligence system for assisting nuclear power plant operators in the diagnosis of and response to plant faults and transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the Artificial Intelligence (AI) system being developed using the Conceptual Structures and Representation Language (CSRL) developed at the Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). This system combines three sub-systems which have been independently developed to perform the tasks of: detecting changes in the state of the plant that may lead to conditions requiring operator

B. K. Hajek; J. E. Stasenko; R. Bhatnagar; S. Hashemi

1987-01-01

399

A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

2007-01-01

400

Static analysis of an artificial muscle system based on PZT strain amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the design and static analysis of a novel artificial muscle system are presented. The proposed design is based on exponential strain amplification applied to PZT stack actuators. Exponential strain amplification is achieved by means of a nested cellular architecture. The primary limitation of the nested strain amplification mechanisms is the loss of blocking force due to structural compliance. Therefore, to quantify and improve the performance of the design, analytical expressions are obtained for the blocking force and free displacement of two separate amplification mechanisms using Castigliano's strain energy and displacement theorem. Measured values for blocking force and free displacement validate the static behavior predicted by the solid mechanics. Design implications for the amplification mechanisms are then enumerated based on the theoretical modeling.

Secord, Thomas W.; Ueda, Jun; Asada, H. Harry

2008-03-01

401

A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie

1989-01-01

402

Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond

2007-01-01

403

Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity (AG) as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system, and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of Epstein barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 106 PBMCs. Overall, these data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P.

2007-01-01

404

(in press) in Jessica Riskin (ed.) The Sistine Gap: Essays on the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life.  

E-print Network

Edinburgh classroom. The lesson consists of watching intently the conversational skills of a life's mouth. I, on the other hand, come from a tradition that sees language as a genre of social practice-determined by social, personal, historical, and moment- to-moment linguistic contexts, and I am as likely to see

Cassell, Justine

405

A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical protein production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy.  

PubMed

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a means to introduce large payloads of genetic information into the cell in an autonomously replicating, non-integrating format. Unique among MACs, the mammalian satellite DNA-based Artificial Chromosome Expression (ACE) can be reproducibly generated de novo in cell lines of different species and readily purified from the host cells' chromosomes. Purified mammalian ACEs can then be re-introduced into a variety of recipient cell lines where they have been stably maintained for extended periods in the absence of selective pressure. In order to extend the utility of ACEs, we have established the ACE System, a versatile and flexible platform for the reliable engineering of ACEs. The ACE System includes a Platform ACE, containing >50 recombination acceptor sites, that can carry single or multiple copies of genes of interest using specially designed targeting vectors (ATV) and a site-specific integrase (ACE Integrase). Using this approach, specific loading of one or two gene targets has been achieved in LMTK(-) and CHO cells. The use of the ACE System for biological engineering of eukaryotic cells, including mammalian cells, with applications in biopharmaceutical production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy is discussed. PMID:15585659

Lindenbaum, Michael; Perkins, Ed; Csonka, Erika; Fleming, Elena; Garcia, Lisa; Greene, Amy; Gung, Lindsay; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Lee, Edmond; Leung, Josephine; MacDonald, Neil; Maxwell, Alexisann; Mills, Kathleen; Monteith, Diane; Perez, Carl F; Shellard, Joan; Stewart, Sandy; Stodola, Tom; Vandenborre, Dana; Vanderbyl, Sandy; Ledebur, Harry C

2004-01-01

406

A mammalian artificial chromosome engineering system (ACE System) applicable to biopharmaceutical protein production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy  

PubMed Central

Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs) provide a means to introduce large payloads of genetic information into the cell in an autonomously replicating, non-integrating format. Unique among MACs, the mammalian satellite DNA-based Artificial Chromosome Expression (ACE) can be reproducibly generated de novo in cell lines of different species and readily purified from the host cells' chromosomes. Purified mammalian ACEs can then be re-introduced into a variety of recipient cell lines where they have been stably maintained for extended periods in the absence of selective pressure. In order to extend the utility of ACEs, we have established the ACE System, a versatile and flexible platform for the reliable engineering of ACEs. The ACE System includes a Platform ACE, containing >50 recombination acceptor sites, that can carry single or multiple copies of genes of interest using specially designed targeting vectors (ATV) and a site-specific integrase (ACE Integrase). Using this approach, specific loading of one or two gene targets has been achieved in LMTK? and CHO cells. The use of the ACE System for biological engineering of eukaryotic cells, including mammalian cells, with applications in biopharmaceutical production, transgenesis and gene-based cell therapy is discussed. PMID:15585659

Lindenbaum, Michael; Perkins, Ed; Csonka, Erika; Fleming, Elena; Garcia, Lisa; Greene, Amy; Gung, Lindsay; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Lee, Edmond; Leung, Josephine; MacDonald, Neil; Maxwell, Alexisann; Mills, Kathleen; Monteith, Diane; Perez, Carl F.; Shellard, Joan; Stewart, Sandy; Stodola, Tom; Vandenborre, Dana; Vanderbyl, Sandy; Ledebur, Harry C.

2004-01-01

407

Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

Hart, Maxwell M.

1991-01-01

408

Drug release control and system understanding of sucrose esters matrix tablets by artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied for system understanding and prediction of drug release properties from direct compacted matrix tablets using sucrose esters (SEs) as matrix-forming agents for controlled release of a highly water soluble drug, metoprolol tartrate. Complexity of the system was presented through the effects of SE concentration and tablet porosity at various hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of SEs ranging from 0 to 16. Both effects contributed to release behaviors especially in the system containing hydrophilic SEs where swelling phenomena occurred. A self-organizing map neural network (SOM) was applied for visualizing interrelation among the variables and multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPs) were employed to generalize the system and predict the drug release properties based on HLB value and concentration of SEs and tablet properties, i.e., tablet porosity, volume and tensile strength. Accurate prediction was obtained after systematically optimizing network performance based on learning algorithm of MLP. Drug release was mainly attributed to the effects of SEs, tablet volume and tensile strength in multi-dimensional interrelation whereas tablet porosity gave a small impact. Ability of system generalization and accurate prediction of the drug release properties proves the validity of SOM and MLPs for the formulation modeling of direct compacted matrix tablets containing controlled release agents of different material properties. PMID:21878388

Chansanroj, Krisanin; Petrovi?, Jelena; Ibri?, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele

2011-10-01

409

A Visual Artificially Intelligent Surveillance System to protect against the insider threat  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Visual Artificially Intelligent Surveillance (VAIS) System is to test the feasibility of using image processing technology to monitor the movement of personnel and special nuclear materials (SNM) inside production facilities. To fulfill this purpose the VAIS System must to be able detect and track moving objects; detect non-moving objects; classify objects as a type of special nuclear material; and evaluate a set of rules governing the interactions between objects and personnel. The VAIS System will be used as an aid to secure against insider threats by monitoring the area in a camera's field of view and highlighting conditions that may require further evaluation by security personnel. The primary areas it will be used are sheltered, secured areas where movement of personnel and SNMs is common. The advantage of using image processing is that it can use a video system currently installed in the controlled area and it is generally non-intrusive; it does not require sensors to be attached to the objects or personnel it is tracking. This paper will discuss the goals of the VAIS project, list some major requirements of the system, discuss its design, and give the project status.

Kurtz, V.I.

1990-01-01

410

[Research and analysis of failure data of contemporary artificial joint registration system].  

PubMed

This paper is aimed to focus on the joint prosthesis failure event, to collect the statistic data about the failure of artificial joints issued by authoritative organizations at home and aboard, and to compare the functions of different types of the artificial joints. We generalized and compared current study analyzing the failure reason and type of joint prosthesis, and categorized the failure events according to the failure occurring time, i. e. short-term, medium-term and long-term. This paper could be helpful for improving and summarizing of artificial joint replacement surgery, and could put forward the requirements for the future artificial joints. PMID:23858766

Zhou, Hai; Wang, Liao; Yao, Tianping; Wang, Chengtao

2013-04-01

411

Light and Life: Exotic Photosynthesis in Binary Star Systems  

E-print Network

The potential for hosting photosynthetic life on Earth-like planets within binary/multiple stellar systems was evaluated by modelling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in: (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems and (iii) three-star systems were investigated and a range of stable radiation environments found to be possible. These environmental conditions allow for the possibility of familiar, but also more exotic forms of photosynthetic life, such as infrared photosynthesisers and organisms specialised for specific spectral niches.

O'Malley-James, J T; Cockell, C S; Greaves, J S

2011-01-01

412

Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an Autonomous System)  

PubMed Central

The Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health presented a public workshop to facilitate medical device innovation in the development of the artificial pancreas (or autonomous system) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus on November 10, 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss four aspects of artificial pancreas research and development, including: (1) the current state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus; (2) challenges in developing this expert device system using existing technology; (3) clinical expectations for these systems; and (4) development plans for the transition of this device system toward an outpatient setting. The patients discussed how clinical science, system components, and regulatory policies will all need to harmonize in order to achieve the goal of seeing an AP product brought forward to the marketplace for patients to use. PMID:21722597

Klonoff, David C; Zimliki, Charles L; Stevens, LCDR Alan; Beaston, Patricia; Pinkos, Arleen; Choe, Sally Y; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Heetderks, William

2011-01-01

413

Commonality analysis for exploration life support systems  

E-print Network

Commonality, defined practically as the use of similar technologies to deliver similar functions across a range of different complex systems, offers opportunities to improve the lifecycle costs of portfolios of complex ...

Cunio, Phillip M

2008-01-01

414

A comparative study of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems using an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are highly productive ocean regions. Yet, substantial differences in net primary production (NPP) exist within and between these systems for reasons that are still not fully understood. Here, we explore the leading physical processes and environmental factors controlling NPP in EBUS through a comparative study of the California, Canary, Benguela, and Humboldt Current systems. The identification of NPP drivers is done with the aid of an artificial neural network analysis based on self-organizing-maps (SOMs). We show that in addition to the expected NPP enhancing effect of stronger alongshore wind, three factors have an inhibiting effect: (1) strong eddy activity, (2) narrow continental shelf, and (3) deep mixed layer. The co-variability of these 4 drivers defines in the context of the SOM a continuum of 100 patterns of NPP regimes in EBUS. These are grouped into 4 distinct classes using a Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. Our objective classification of EBUS reveals important variations of NPP regimes within each of the four EBUS, particularly in the Canary and Benguela Current systems. Our results show that the Atlantic EBUS are generally more productive and more sensitive to upwelling favorable winds because of a weaker factors inhibiting NPP. Perturbations of alongshore winds associated with climate change may therefore lead to contrasting biological responses in the Atlantic and the Pacific EBUS.

Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

2011-10-01

415

A comparative study of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems using an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are highly productive ocean regions. Yet, substantial differences in net primary production (NPP) exist within and between these systems for reasons that are still not fully understood. Here, we explore the leading physical processes and environmental factors controlling NPP in EBUS through a comparative study of the California, Canary, Benguela, and Humboldt Current systems. The NPP drivers are identified with the aid of an artificial neural network analysis based on self-organizing-maps (SOM). Our results suggest that in addition to the expected NPP enhancing effect of stronger equatorward alongshore wind, three factors have an inhibiting effect: (1) strong eddy activity, (2) narrow continental shelf, and (3) deep mixed layer. The co-variability of these 4 drivers defines in the context of the SOM a continuum of 100 patterns of NPP regimes in EBUS. These are grouped into 4 distinct classes using a Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC) method. Our objective classification of EBUS reveals important variations of NPP regimes within each of the four EBUS, particularly in the Canary and Benguela Current systems. Our results show that the Atlantic EBUS are generally more productive and more sensitive to upwelling favorable winds because of weaker factors inhibiting NPP. Perturbations of alongshore winds associated with climate change may therefore lead to contrasting biological responses in the Atlantic and the Pacific EBUS.

Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

2012-01-01

416

Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

2014-09-01

417

Development of Efficient Artificial Neural Network and Statistical Models for Forecasting Shelf Life of Cow Milk Khoa – A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Khoa is very popular milk product used to make variety of sweets in India. Khoa is made by milk thickening and heating it in an open iron pan. In this study, feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network\\u000a (BPNN), Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models have been developed to predict\\u000a shelf life of cow milk khoa stored

Sumit Goyal; A. K. Sharma; R. K. Sharma

418

Artificial intelligence: Recent developments  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

Not Available

1987-01-01

419

Nonlinear estimation-based dipole source localization for artificial lateral line systems.  

PubMed

As a flow-sensing organ, the lateral line system plays an important role in various behaviors of fish. An engineering equivalent of a biological lateral line is of great interest to the navigation and control of underwater robots and vehicles. A vibrating sphere, also known as a dipole source, can emulate the rhythmic movement of fins and body appendages, and has been widely used as a stimulus in the study of biological lateral lines. Dipole source localization has also become a benchmark problem in the development of artificial lateral lines. In this paper we present two novel iterative schemes, referred to as Gauss-Newton (GN) and Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithms, for simultaneously localizing a dipole source and estimating its vibration amplitude and orientation, based on the analytical model for a dipole-generated flow field. The performance of the GN and NR methods is first confirmed with simulation results and the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) analysis. Experiments are further conducted on an artificial lateral line prototype, consisting of six millimeter-scale ionic polymer-metal composite sensors with intra-sensor spacing optimized with CRB analysis. Consistent with simulation results, the experimental results show that both GN and NR schemes are able to simultaneously estimate the source location, vibration amplitude and orientation with comparable precision. Specifically, the maximum localization error is less than 5% of the body length (BL) when the source is within the distance of one BL. Experimental results have also shown that the proposed schemes are superior to the beamforming method, one of the most competitive approaches reported in literature, in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. PMID:23538856

Abdulsadda, Ahmad T; Tan, Xiaobo

2013-06-01

420

Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m^2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1996-01-01

421

System strategies in the management of transit systems towards the end of their life cycle  

E-print Network

This thesis explores and evaluates essential strategies needed for the transit authority/operator to deal with end of life cycle challenges of Rapid Transit Systems (RTS) systems. RTS systems are elaborate systems consisting ...

Kairon, Ajmer Singh

2007-01-01

422

Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

2014-01-01

423

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing for every possible contingency seems daunting, but with teamwork and some help from the government, it's almost do-able. There is a great system out there that will help business professionals and educators develop a strong, effective emergency preparedness plan. If they haven't done a good job of implementing a solid emergency response…

Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

2011-01-01

424

An approach to unfold the response of a multi-element system using an artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unfolding procedure is proposed which aims at obtaining spectral information of a neutron radiation field by the analysis of the response of a multi-element system consisting of converter type semiconductors. For the unfolding procedure an artificial neural network (feed forward network), trained by the back-propagation method, was used. The response functions of the single elements to neutron radiation were

E. Cordes; G. Fehrenbacher; R. Schutz; M. Sprunck; K. Hahn; R. Hofmann; J. P. Biersack; W. Wahl

1997-01-01

425

An approach to unfold the response of a multi-element system using an artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unfolding procedure is proposed which aims at obtaining spectral information of a neutron radiation field by the analysis of the response of a multi-element system consisting of converter type semiconductors. For the unfolding procedure an artificial neural network (feed forward network), trained by the back-propagation method, was used. The response functions of the single elements to neutron radiation were

E. Cordes; G. Fehrenbacher; R. Schuetz; M. Sprunck; K. Hahn; R. Hofmann; J. P. Biersack; W. Wahl

1998-01-01

426

The Dendritic Cell Algorithm for Intrusion Detection As one of the solutions to intrusion detection problems, Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

and their implications are discussed, including previous work done on an online analysis component with segmentation to be promising for online anomaly-based intrusion detection. Introduction Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) (de intrusion detection. Recent AIS use more rigourous and up-to-date immunology and are developed

Aickelin, Uwe

427

AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR TURKEY: THE FORECASTING OF ECONOMIC CRISIS BY USING THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic crisis is typically a rare kind of an event but it impedes monetary stability, fiscal stability, financial stability, price stability, and sustainable economic development when it appears. Economic crises have huge adverse effects on economic and social system. This study uses an artificial neural network learning paradigm to predict economic crisis events for early warning aims. This paradigm

Fuat Sekmen; Murat Kurkcu

2014-01-01

428

Virgin olive oil sensory evaluation by an artificial olfactory system, based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of an artificial olfactory system, constituted by an array of five Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors, to discriminate virgin olive oil samples based on their aromatic profiles was researched. Five gas chromatographic stationary phases (OV-17, OV-275, PEG, Span 80 and Vaseline) were employed as sensing films of QCM sensors. The steady state sensor responses measured by a statistical

María E. Escuderos; Sebastián Sánchez; Antonio Jiménez

2010-01-01

429

First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first results are reported of an adaptive optics system operating on-line at the telescope with the wavefront aberration sensed by a trained artificial neural network. Star images were formed at 2.2 microns by two coherently phased apertures of the Multiple Mirror Telescope and analyzed by the neural net. The net derives wavefront parameters in a few milliseconds, and the

M. Lloyd-Hart; P. Wizinowich; B. McLeod; D. Wittman; D. Colucci; R. Dekany; D. McCarthy; J. R. P. Anel; D. Sandler

1992-01-01

430

An Intelligent Clustering Forecasting System based on Change-Point Detection and Artificial Neural Networks: Application to Financial Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests a new clustering forecasting system to integrate change-point detection and artificial neural networks. The basic concept of proposed model is to obtain intervals divided by change point, to identify them as change-point groups, and to involve them in the forecasting model. The proposed models consist of two stages. The first stage, the clustering neural network modeling stage,

Kyong Joo Oh; Ingoo Han

2001-01-01

431

Biogeochemical pathways of cadmium through an artificially contaminated intertidal mud flat system — a medium-scale enclosure experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two “Bremerhaven caissons” were used to investigate the interactions of cadmium (Cd) with sea water, particulate matter, sediments, suspended particular matter (SPM), and organisms in enclosed sea water-sediment systems, on the tidal mud flats of Jade Bay (FRG). One caisson was artificially contaminated by continuously injecting cadmium (as a chloride) so as to maintain a Cd concentration of 100 µg\\/l

F. Prosi; D. H. Loring; H. Back

1992-01-01

432

Complex influences of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in a Colorado River tributary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-head dams in arid regions restrict fish movement and create novel habitats that have complex effects on fish assemblages. The influence of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in Muddy Creek, a tributary of the Colorado River system in the USA was examined. Upstream, fish assemblages were dominated by native species including two species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker,

R. J. BEATTY; F. J. RAHEL

433

Using a genetic algorithm to study properties of minimum energy states and geometrical frustration in artificial “spin ice” systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a study on the base state of artificially frustrated “spin ice” systems. We have studied the states of minimum energy reported by experimental studies on nanoscale ferromagnetic islands and the protocols employed to reach those states. The main technique employed in this study is a genetic algorithm that has been contrasted with two Montecarlo

A. León; J. Pozo

2008-01-01

434

Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to…

Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

2007-01-01

435

Application of genetic algorithm to the development of artificial intelligence module system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial intelligence is an extremely important aspect of modern technological progress. It represents humanity's long-time dream of elevating computers beyond the realm of simple machines for the calculation and processing of data. With the incorporation of artificial intelligence, computers are able to engage in behavior similar to human thought, helping humans perform necessary tasks of cognition, theorizing, and even judgment.

Hsien-tang Wu; Wen-ta Hsiao; Chih-tsang Lin; Tao-ming Cheng

2011-01-01

436

Artificial intelligence as a discursive practice: the case of embodied software agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore some of the ways in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) is mediated discursively. I assume that AI is informed by an “ancestral dream” to reproduce nature by artificial means. This dream drives the production of “cyborg discourse”, which hinges on the belief that human nature (especially intelligence) can be reduced to symbol manipulation and hence replicated

Sean Zdenek

2003-01-01

437

Imaging dipole flow sources using an artificial lateral-line system made of biomimetic hair flow sensors  

PubMed Central

In Nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc., using the lateral-line organ. Artificial hair flow sensors arranged in a linear array shape (inspired by the lateral-line system (LSS) in fish) have been applied to measure airflow patterns at the sensor positions. Here, we take advantage of both biomimetic artificial hair-based flow sensors arranged as LSS and beamforming techniques to demonstrate dipole-source localization in air. Modelling and measurement results show the artificial lateral-line ability to image the position of dipole sources accurately with estimation error of less than 0.14 times the array length. This opens up possibilities for flow-based, near-field environment mapping that can be beneficial to, for example, biologists and robot guidance applications. PMID:23594816

Dagamseh, Ahmad; Wiegerink, Remco; Lammerink, Theo; Krijnen, Gijs

2013-01-01

438

Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

2006-01-01

439

Simulating advanced life support systems to test integrated control approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations allow for testing of life support control approaches before hardware is designed and built. Simulations also allow for the safe exploration of alternative control strategies during life support operation. As such, they are an important component of any life support research program and testbed. This paper describes a specific advanced life support simulation being created at NASA Johnson Space Center. It is a discrete-event simulation that is dynamic and stochastic. It simulates all major components of an advanced life support system, including crew (with variable ages, weights and genders), biomass production (with scalable plantings of ten different crops), water recovery, air revitalization, food processing, solid waste recycling and energy production. Each component is modeled as a producer of certain resources and a consumer of certain resources. The control system must monitor (via sensors) and control (via actuators) the flow of resources throughout the system to provide life support functionality. The simulation is written in an object-oriented paradigm that makes it portable, extensible and reconfigurable.

Kortenkamp, D.; Bell, S.

440

Final Draft Published in Engineering Intelligent Systems, Special issue: Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations 2010, vol. 18, no. 3/4, 2010.  

E-print Network

Final Draft ­ Published in Engineering Intelligent Systems, Special issue: Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Intelligent Systems, Special issue: Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations 2010, vol of the thyroid is to regulate the body's metabolism. Due to the thyroid's location, ultrasonography has become

Athens, University of

441

An artificial intelligence system for assisting nuclear power plant operators in the diagnosis of the response to plant faults and transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial intelligence system is being developed using the Conceptual Structures and Representation Language (CSRL) developed at The Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). This system combines three subsystems, which have been independently developed to perform the following tasks: (1) detecting changes in the state of the plant that may lead to conditions requiring operator response and

B. K. Hajek; J. E. Stasenko; R. Bhatnagar; S. Hashemi

1987-01-01

442

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and costs of an energy storage system are two very important parameters for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other battery applications. The increasing of battery life and the prediction of battery failure are therefore two important features of a battery management system (BMS). A couple of other helpful features can be implemented in a BMS. In the case of

J. Garche; A. Jossen

2000-01-01

443

Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting

Martin C Heller; Gregory A Keoleian; Timothy A Volk

2003-01-01

444

Long life high reliability thermal control systems study data handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of thermal control systems with high reliability and long service life is discussed. Various passive and semi-active thermal control systems which have been installed on space vehicles are described. The properties of the various coatings are presented in tabular form.

Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Carpitella, M. J.

1971-01-01

445

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells by using a mammalian artificial chromosome expression system.  

PubMed

Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) was achieved recently by overexpression of four transcription factors encoded by retroviral vectors. Most of the virus vectors, however, may cause insertional mutagenesis in the host genome and may also induce tumor formation. Therefore, it is very important to discover novel and safer, non-viral reprogramming methods. Here we describe the reprogramming of somatic cells into iPS cells by a novel protein-based technique. Engineered Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 transcription factors carrying an N-terminal Flag-tag and a C-terminal polyarginine tail were synthesized by a recently described mammalian artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs). This system is suitable for the high-level production of recombinant proteins in mammalian tissue culture cells. Recombinant proteins produced in this system contain all the post-translational modifications essential for the stability and the authentic function of the proteins. The engineered Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 proteins efficiently induced the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by means of protein transduction. This novel method allows for the generation of iPS cells, which may be suitable for therapeutic applications in the future. PMID:25194736

Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Blazsó, P; Cserpán, I; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, V; Udvardy, A; Hadlaczky, Gy; Katona, R L

2014-09-01

446

Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning  

SciTech Connect

Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

447

Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

1992-01-01

448

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

1989-01-01

449

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

1989-01-01

450

Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

451

Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if the expected scenario is different from the originally planned one. This approach postulates that even a primitive living species possesses additional, non-Newtonian properties that are not included in the laws of Newtonian or statistical mechanics. These properties follow from a privileged ability of living systems to possess a self-image (a concept introduced in psychology) and to interact with it. The proposed mathematical system is based on the coupling of the classical dynamical system representing the motor dynamics with the corresponding Liouville equation describing the evolution of initial uncertainties in terms of the probability density and representing the mental dynamics. The coupling is implemented by the information-based supervising forces that can be associated with self-awareness. These forces fundamentally change the pattern of the probability evolution, and therefore, lead to a major departure of the behavior of living systems from the patterns of both Newtonian and statistical mechanics. This innovation is meant to capture the signature of life based only on observable behavior, not on any biochemistry. This will not prevent the use of this model for developing artificial living systems, as well as for studying some general properties of behavior of natural, living systems.

Zak, Michail

2010-01-01

452

Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

1978-01-01

453

Regenerative life support systems-Why do we need them?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1994-11-01

454

Regenerative life support systems - why do we need them?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As missions durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1994-01-01

455

Regenerative life support systems--why do we need them?  

PubMed

Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars. PMID:11540213

Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

1994-11-01

456

Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space.  

PubMed

Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space. PMID:22992434

Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

2013-01-01

457

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

458

A prototype system for perinatal knowledge engineering using an artificial intelligence tool.  

PubMed

Though several perinatal expert systems are extant, the use of artificial intelligence has, as yet, had minimal impact in medical computing. In this evaluation of the potential of AI techniques in the development of a computer based "Perinatal Consultant," a "top down" approach to the development of a perinatal knowledge base was taken, using as a source for such a knowledge base a 30-page manuscript of a chapter concerning high risk pregnancy. The UNIX utility "style" was used to parse sentences and obtain key words and phrases, both as part of a natural language interface and to identify key perinatal concepts. Compared with the "gold standard" of sentences containing key facts as chosen by the experts, a semiautomated method using a nonmedical speller to identify key words and phrases in context functioned with a sensitivity of 79%, i.e., approximately 8 in 10 key sentences were detected as the basis for PROLOG, rules and facts for the knowledge base. These encouraging results suggest that functional perinatal expert systems may well be expedited by using programming utilities in conjunction with AI tools and published literature. PMID:3221284

Sokol, R J; Chik, L

1988-01-01

459

Performance evaluation of an Artificial Neural Network automatic spindle detection system.  

PubMed

Sleep spindles are transient waveforms found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Sleep spindles are used for the classification of sleep stages and have been studied in the context of various psychiatric and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the so-called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is considered to be a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. The visual processing of whole-night sleep EEG recordings is tedious. Therefore, various techniques have been proposed for automatically detecting sleep spindles. In the present work an automatic sleep spindle detection system, that has been previously proposed, using a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Artificial Neural Network (ANN), is evaluated in detecting spindles of both healthy controls, as well as MCI and AD patients. An investigation is carried also concerning the visual detection process, taking into consideration the feedback information provided by the automatic detection system. Results indicate that the sensitivity of the detector was 81.4%, 62.2%, and 83.3% and the false positive rate was 34%, 11.5%, and 33.3%, for the control, MCI, and AD groups, respectively. The visual detection process had a sensitivity rate ranging from 46.5% to 60% and a false positive rate ranging from 4.8% to 19.2%. PMID:23366885

Ventouras, Errikos M; Economou, Nicholas-Tiberio; Kritikou, Ilia; Tsekou, Hara; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas J; Ktonas, Periklis Y

2012-01-01

460

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

Waltz, David L.

1982-01-01