Sample records for artificial life system

  1. Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Langton

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

  2. Artificial life and living systems: Insight into artificial life and its implications in life science research

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, Sarvothaman; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2006-01-01

    Advanced technology has made it possible to build machines and systems like robots, which are capable of making intelligent decisions. Robots capable of self-replication and perform human functions are also available. The current challenge is to design evolutionary systems with high complexity comparable to that of biological networks. This is proposed to be achieved by ALife (Artificial Life). Here, we describe the promises provided by ALife for life sciences. PMID:17597875

  3. Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Ken

    -state phase space systems thatCannot (?) pre-state phase space systems that include life?include life? HowAgents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life Thumbing its Nose atThumbing its NoseMassey University #12;Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife QuestionsQuestions Philosophy and Life - what is it

  4. From Artificial Evolution to Artificial Life 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Timothy J

    This work addresses the question: What are the basic design considerations for creating a synthetic model of the evolution of living systems (i.e. an `artificial life' system)? It can also be viewed as an attempt to ...

  5. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (editor); Thompson, Brad G. (editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (editor); Volk, Tyler (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  6. Published in Artificial Life V: Proc. Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Nara, Japan, May, 1996. Perception and Learning in Artificial Animals

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    is carried out using computer vision algo- rithms. We equip our artificial animals withdirectable, virtualPublished in Artificial Life V: Proc. Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Nara, Japan, May, 1996. Perception and Learning in Artificial Animals Demetri Terzopoulos, Tamer

  7. Published in Artificial Life V: Proc. Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Nara, Japan, May, 1996. Perception and Learning in Artificial Animals

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    equip our artificial animals with directable, virtual eyes capable of foveal vision. This aspect of ourPublished in Artificial Life V: Proc. Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Nara, Japan, May, 1996. Perception and Learning in Artificial Animals Demetri Terzopoulos, Tamer

  8. Artificial Life Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

    This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

  9. The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Steels; R. Brooks

    1994-01-01

    Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

  10. Artificial Life in Computer Graphics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

  11. Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

  12. Artificial life: The coming evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d'A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  13. The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

  14. Effects of artificial lighting on the detection of plant stress with spectral reflectance remote sensing in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2006-09-01

    Plant-based life support systems that utilize bioregenerative technologies have been proposed for long-term human missions to both the Moon and Mars. Bioregenerative life support systems will utilize higher plants to regenerate oxygen, water, and edible biomass for crews, and are likely to significantly lower the ‘equivalent system mass’ of crewed vehicles. As part of an ongoing effort to begin the development of an automatic remote sensing system to monitor plant health in bioregenerative life support modules, we tested the efficacy of seven artificial illumination sources on the remote detection of plant stresses. A cohort of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown 42 days at 25 °C, 70% relative humidity, and 300 ?mol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; from 400 to 700 nm). Plants were grown under nutritional stresses induced by irrigating subsets of the plants with 100, 50, 25, or 10% of a standard nutrient solution. Reflectance spectra of the healthy and stressed plants were collected under seven artificial lamps including two tungsten halogen lamps, plus high pressure sodium, metal halide, fluorescent, microwave, and red/blue light emitting diode (LED) sources. Results indicated that several common algorithms used to estimate biomass and leaf chlorophyll content were effective in predicting plant stress under all seven illumination sources. However, the two types of tungsten halogen lamps and the microwave illumination source yielded linear models with the highest residuals and thus the highest predictive capabilities of all lamps tested. The illumination sources with the least predictive capabilities were the red/blue LEDs and fluorescent lamps. Although the red/blue LEDs yielded the lowest residuals for linear models derived from the remote sensing data, the LED arrays used in these experiments were optimized for plant productivity and not the collection of remote sensing data. Thus, we propose that if adjusted to optimize the collectio n of remote sensing information from plants, LEDs remain the best candidates for illumination sources for monitoring plant stresses in bioregenerative life support systems.

  15. Artificial Life p1 RJM 08/01/14 SE4SI12 Artificial Life Part A

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Richard

    on an equivalent of Earth Life (or necessary components) travelled through space Seeded life then flourishedArtificial Life p1 RJM 08/01/14 SE4SI12 Artificial Life ­ Part A © Dr Richard Mitchell 2014 Dr and Applications #12;p2 RJM 08/01/14 SE4SI12 Artificial Life ­ Part A © Dr Richard Mitchell 2014 Aims of Module

  16. Twenty years of artificial life art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Penny

    2010-01-01

    This essay begins with discussion of four relatively recent works which are representative of major themes and preoccupations in Artificial Life Art: ‘Propagaciones’ by Leo Nuñez; ‘Sniff’ by Karolina Sobecka and Jim George; ‘Universal Whistling Machine’ by Marc Boehlen; and ‘Performative Ecologies’ by Ruari Glynn. This essay is an attempt to contextualise these works by providing an overview of the

  17. Advances in Artificial Life - Impacts on Human Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krasnogor; N. Krasnogor

    This paper documents a series of interdisciplinary exchanges between the authors - one a psychologist and philosopher, the other a computer scientist- as they pondered some of the scientific and cultural challenges of the new millennium. The paper briefly reviews the closer-than-ever possibility of creating artificial life, intelligence and cultures brought about by recent developments in the fields of biology,

  18. Robot football, artificial life, and complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Autonomous football-playing robots provide a stimulating research challenge in the sciences of complexity and artificial life.\\u000a Currently, the game is dominated by problems of making the robots move sufficiently accurately. Even so, the dynamics of robot\\u000a football are clearly chaotic, requiring some higher level control strategy. A mathematics of therelations between the robots, the ball, and the pitch is introduced.

  19. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  20. Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan

    E-print Network

    Shapiro, Stuart C.

    Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan of Stuart C. Shapiro, ``Artificial Intelligence.'' In A. Ralston, E. D. Reilly and D. Hemmendinger, Eds is a revised version of Shapiro, S. C. ``Artificial Intelligence,'' in S. C. Shapiro, Ed. Encyclopedia

  1. An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations

    E-print Network

    Güngör, Tunga

    . They use vision, smell and sound as input to their artificial neural network brains, which utilize HebbianAn Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations¨C2D!EF4¦GH¤G¦H¦I!46PRQSUTVXW Abstract. In this paper, an artificially created world is defined

  2. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    E-print Network

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  3. An intelligent remote monitoring system for artificial heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaesoon Choi; J. W. Park; Jinhan Chung; B. G. Min

    2005-01-01

    A web-based database system for intelligent remote monitoring of an artificial heart has been developed. It is important for patients with an artificial heart implant to be discharged from the hospital after an appropriate stabilization period for better recovery and quality of life. Reliable continuous remote monitoring systems for these patients with life support devices are gaining practical meaning. The

  4. A comprehensive overview of the applications of artificial life.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2006-01-01

    We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers to study, simulate, and understand living systems. The definition and features of ALife are shown by application studies. ALife application fields treated include robot control, robot manufacturing, practical robots, computer graphics, natural phenomenon modeling, entertainment, games, music, economics, Internet, information processing, industrial design, simulation software, electronics, security, data mining, and telecommunications. In order to show the status of ALife application research, this review primarily features a survey of about 180 ALife application articles rather than a selected representation of a few articles. Evolutionary computation is the most popular method for designing such applications, but recently swarm intelligence, artificial immune network, and agent-based modeling have also produced results. Applications were initially restricted to the robotics and computer graphics, but presently, many different applications in engineering areas are of interest. PMID:16393455

  5. esearchers in artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial life (Alife) are interested

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Rodney

    R esearchers in artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial life (Alife) are interested feature The relationship between matter and life Rodney Brooks Moore's law states that computational the world chess champion is a good example. The essential ideas were in place in Greenblatt's 1965 program

  6. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Parrilla, Juan M; Nicholson, Arwen; Yanev, Kliment; Stoy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results in a state change (e.g., division). Coupling inexpensive open source hardware with sensing and feedback allows for replicable real-time manipulation and monitoring of nonequilibrium systems that would be otherwise tedious, expensive, and error-prone. This system is a first step towards the practical confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life. PMID:25514433

  7. Creative Agency: A Clearer Goal for Artificial Life in the Arts

    E-print Network

    McCormack, Jon

    Creative Agency: A Clearer Goal for Artificial Life in the Arts Oliver Bown and Jon Mc the success of artificial creative systems. We argue that an attempt to understand creative agency as a common a better understanding of computational creativity. We de- fine creative agency with respect to existing

  8. Making Right(s) Decision: Artificial life and Rights Reconsidered

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juyun Kim

    2005-01-01

    With the proliferation of robotics in industry, education and entertainment, artificial intelligent robots challenge the way we think about relationships between humans and machines. This study examines critical issues in artificial life and rights, which are an emergent but, as yet, little understood area of educational inquiry through one of the most popular video game, The Sims. Since The Sims

  9. A Model of Protozoan Movement for Artificial Life.

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    ABSTRACT A Model of Protozoan Movement for Artificial Life. Alan Dorin, Justin Martin Department of of a Protozoan and a fluid with the density and viscosity of water have e_xtrernely small Reynolds numbers

  10. [Evaluation of the quality of life in artificial nutrition].

    PubMed

    Zarazaga Monzón, A; Culebras, J M; Gómez Candela, C; Cos, A I

    1998-01-01

    If we define quality of life as being the social, physiological, mental intellectual, and general well being of people, we realize that there is no known health care system that is able to guarantee that well being in all its possible aspects. When we as clinicians assess the positive effects of a treatment applied to a patient, we are not only assessing the offered quality of life, but also the quantity of life, so what we are really assessing is the usefulness. We could say, therefore, that while the quality of life is subjective, not exact, and cannot be quantified, the usefulness on the other hand, can and should be measured and quantified, even though, as this is a subjective assessment, it is somewhat difficult to quantify. The object of our publication is to find an appropriate method for assessing this parameter in the area that concerns us: artificial nutrition. Artificial nutrition is indicated when the patient cannot does not want to, or does not know how to eat in the natural manner. Therefore, in principle it could seem inhuman and even unethical to deny a vital support measure that is practically without any risks in a patient who cannot feed him-or herself. However, in a situation of limited resources, if the treatment were inappropriate we should consider that possibility. Under these circumstances we could consider that even a concept as essential as nutrition (in this case artificial) would lose its inalienable character. In order to assess usefulness, one must include parameters that can be quantified in percentages and whose results can be set out in units of time (years, months, or days). We use the concept of the individual usefulness, whose unit of time is the QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Years). In 1996 we made a personal modification of Rosser's Index, which was specific for evaluating the quality of life obtained by means of artificial nutrition. This consisted of substituting the assessment parameters of intensity of pain, by other that are specific in function of the limitation of the ingestion capacity presented by the patient who was subjected to AN. The third factor that corresponds to the concept of usefulness would be the index of beneficial applicability percentage of patients who benefit from the support. The combination of these three factors, applicability, life expectancy, and quality of life, would yield the usefulness of the procedure. In order to assess usefulness in all its aspects, one must also define intention, as this can be applied with three goals: essential or curative, complementary or adjuvant, and maintenance or merely palliative. We can say that the economical limitations and the cost of the therapeutic resources leads to rationing by the administration. In the face of this action, we would recommend a rational and reasonable restriction of the available resources, which lead to the so-called rationalization, a term that is more correct ethically and esthetically, than rationing. As a final conclusion we could state that ethics and economics help us to use the resources appropriately, without any contradictions, as the economy attempts to give the society the greatest possible degree of well being based on the available resources, and that is an ethical objective, The quantification of the benefits obtained by applying a treatment using measureable units, involves socio-economic concepts such as usefulness, cost/benefit, quality of life, etc. should not elicit rejection as though we were dealing with a merchandising of our ethical values. We clinicians are capable of assessing this together, both with regard to the obtained costs and benefits, and with regard to the final results, both intra- and extra-hospital, and using the appropriate tools, we can reach conclusions that can guide us objectively in making decisions, with the aim of optimizing our therapeutic actions. PMID:9578681

  11. Learning Evolution and the Nature of Science Using Evolutionary Computing and Artificial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennock, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Because evolution in natural systems happens so slowly, it is difficult to design inquiry-based labs where students can experiment and observe evolution in the way they can when studying other phenomena. New research in evolutionary computation and artificial life provides a solution to this problem. This paper describes a new A-Life software…

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  13. An artificial life approach for the animation of cognitive characters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fábio Roberto Miranda; João Eduardo Kögler Jr.; Em??lio Del Moral Hernandez; Márcio Lobo Netto

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cognitive character animation. We propose the use of finite state machines for the behavioral control of characters. Our approach lays on the idea that the cognitive character arises from the evolutionary computation embedded in the artificial life simulation, which in our case is implemented by the finite state machine. We present some of the

  14. Artificial Nutrition and Hydration at the End of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roschelle A. Heuberger

    2010-01-01

    Considerable controversy surrounds the issue of care at the end of life (EOL) for older adults. Technological advances and the legal, ethical, clinical, religious, cultural, personal, and fiscal considerations in the provision of artificial hydration and nutrition support to older adults near death are presented in this comprehensive review.

  15. Formal Models of Reproduction: from Computer Viruses to Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    Formal Models of Reproduction: from Computer Viruses to Artificial Life Thesis submitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 Motivations of Computer Virus Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 A Short History of Computer Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.3 Academic Study of Computer Viruses

  16. Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Eugene H. Spafford

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Eugene H. Spafford Department of Computer Sciences Purdue in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about

  17. Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Kenton Kirkpatrick Jim May Jr. John Networks 2 Artificial Neural Networks ANNSID Conclusions and Open Challenges #12;Motivation 3 #12;Motivating Questions Is it possible to use artificial neural networks to determine a linear model

  18. Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

  19. Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems Jamie Twycross and Uwe Aickelin School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK jpt@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AISs immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure

  20. A role for Computer Science in Artificial Life Richard K. Belew

    E-print Network

    Belew, Richard K.

    A role for Computer Science in Artificial Life Richard K. Belew Published as ``Un ruolo per la. 1 Introduction It's now been five years since the first ``Artificial Life'' (ALife) meeting occurs regularly in Europe as well. There is a new journal entitled ``Artificial Life,'' and several

  1. Molecular Computation and Evolutionary Wetware: A Cutting-Edge Technology for Artificial Life and Nanobiotechnologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-qin Liu; Katsunori Shimohara

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the new frontiers opened by the integration of artificial life and nanobiotechnologies, this paper reviews mainstream biomolecular computation from the viewpoint of an information processing mechanism, computing methods, and problem-solving algorithms. We also discuss evolutionary wetware as a tool for unconventional computing, inspired by biomolecular systems in nature. Biomolecular computation uses a different paradigm of computing than that

  2. Artificial-life researchers try to create social reality.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1994-08-12

    Some scientists, among them cosmologist Stephen Hawking, argue that computer viruses are alive. A better case might be made for many of the self-replicating silicon-based creatures featured at the fourth Conference on Artificial Life, held on 5 to 8 July in Boston. Researchers from computer science, biology, and other disciplines presented computer programs that, among other things, evolved cooperative strategies in a selfish world and recreated themselves in ever more complex forms. PMID:17782127

  3. Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Sato, Fumihiro; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi; Maruyama, Shigenao; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Luo, Yun; Okamoto, Eiji; Kubo, Yutaka; Osaka, Motohisa; Nanka, Shunsuke; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Mibiki, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Tasuku; Shibata, Mune-ichi; Nitta, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of "the artificial myocardium" has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The cooling speed problem was solved by the application of the Peltier element. A drive at a speed equal to that of a heartbeat was realized by the application of this system. At present, a ventricular assist device is used for patients waiting for a heart transplant in Japan. An air driven type system disturbs a patient's QOL remarkably because it is connected to the drive device. With our concept, energy is provided by using the electromagnetic force from outside of the body by the use of transcutaneous energy transmission system. Magnetic shielding by amorphous fibers was used at Tohoku University to improve the total efficiency. A natural heart can alter the cardiac output corresponding to the demand. Artificial internal organs must participate in the system of the living body, too. Tohoku University has developed a resistance based artificial heart control algorithm, which simulated a baroreflex system to cope with every demand. Nano level sensing equipment is now under development at Tohoku University. At present, development is being conducted aiming at an "intelligent artificial myocardium". PMID:14572688

  4. Artificial Homeostatic System: A Novel Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Renan C. Moioli; Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; Fernando J. Von Zuben

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers are developing frameworks inspired by natural, es- pecially biological, systems to solve complex real-world problems. This work extends previous work in the field of biologically inspired computing, propos- ing an artificial endocrine system for autonomous robot navigation. Having in- trinsic self-organizing behaviour, the novel artificial endocrine system can be applied to a wide range of problems, particularly those

  5. A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Albert Horst

    2002-01-01

    We define native intelligence as the specified complexity inherent in the information content of an artificial system. The artificial system is defined as a system that can be encoded in some general purpose language, expressed minimally as some finite length bit string, and decoded by a finite set of rules defined a priori. Using this definition of native intelligence, we

  6. Pre-print: Dorin, A., "Enriching Aesthetics with Artificial Life", in Artificial Life Models In Software, Komosinski and Adamatzky (eds), Springer-Verlag, 2005, pp323-335, ISBN 1-85233-945-4

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    cleared some new space for themselves. Now that Artificial Life is also unfashionable, perhaps a seriousPre-print: Dorin, A., "Enriching Aesthetics with Artificial Life", in Artificial Life Models Aesthetics with Artificial Life Alan Dorin Center for Electronic Media Art, School of Computer Science

  7. Intelligent agents for an artificial market system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos I. Karacapilidis; Pavlos Moraïtis

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an agent- based artificial market system whose underlying interaction protocols provide advanced features. Using the system, actors (i. e., customers and merchants) can delegate a variety of tasks to personal intelligent agents that act as their artificial employees. Contrary to other approaches, where a new agent is launched when their associated actors intend to perform a buying

  8. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  9. Learning in Artificial Neural Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

  10. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control

    E-print Network

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  11. An interdisciplinary perspective on artificial immune systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Timmis; Paul S. Andrews; Nick D. L. Owens; Edward Clark

    2008-01-01

    This review paper attempts to position the area of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) in a broader context of interdisciplinary research. We review AIS based on an established conceptual framework that encapsulates math- ematical and computational modelling of immunology, abstraction and then development of engineered systems. We argue that AIS are much more than engineered systems inspired by the immune system

  12. Image segmentation algorithm research for sport graphics based on artificial life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Wei-ke; Li Zhan-ping; Shi Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, linking with the basic principle of artificial life for image segmentation, on the basis of theory research, The segmented partitions emerge when the state of the lives reaches an equilibrium. The artificial life approach is promising in image processing because it is inherently parallel and coincides with the self-governing biological process. The final segmentation result is achieved

  13. Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-007 A Framework and Simulation Engine for Studying Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Ken

    }, institution = {Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University}, keywords = {artificial life0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-007 A Framework and Simulation Engine for Studying Artificial Life H. A. James and C. J. Scogings and K. A. Hawick 2004 The area of computer

  14. Learning using an artificial immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Hunt; Denise E. Cooke

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based upon models of the natural immune system. This natural system is an example of an evolutionary learning mechanism which possesses a content addressable memory and the ability to «forget» little-used information. It is also an example of an adaptive non-linear network in which control is decentralized and

  15. Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    We describe an artificial immune system (AIS)that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse andadaptive. It captures many features of the vertebrateimmune system and places them in thecontext of the problem of protecting a networkof computers from illegal intrusions.1 INTRODUCTIONThe immune system is highly complicated and appears tobe precisely tuned to the problem of detecting and eliminatinginfections. We believe that it also

  16. Architecture for an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie Forrest

    2000-01-01

    An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security, in the form of a

  17. Applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 papers. Some of the titles are: operating systems for CD/ROM; the impact of optical storage technology on education; the future of expert systems in the financial services industry; the future of compact disk/DC-1 explosive ordinance disposal rendered safe information system; and will artificial intelligence improve computer based training (CBT) development process.

  18. Counseling, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems in counseling. Limitations are explored; candidates for counseling versus those for expert systems are discussed; programming considerations are reviewed; and techniques for dealing with rational, nonrational, and irrational thoughts and feelings are described. (Contains 46…

  19. An artificial immune system for data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; John Hunt

    2000-01-01

    We present a simplified view of those parts of the human immune system which can be used to provide the basis for a data analysis tool. The motivation for and reasoning behind such a model is given and the desire for a ‘transparent’ model and meaningful visualization and interpretation techniques is noted. A minimalist formulation of an artificial immune system

  20. Artificial intelligence and expert systems for avionics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee H. Harrison; Pamela J. Saunders; Peter J. Saraceni

    1993-01-01

    This paper is based upon a technical report prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center's Directorate for Aircraft Safety, Flight Safety Research Branch. It includes an overview of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, avionic related applications of AT-based systems, and certification issues relating to AT

  1. A stroll through the worlds of robots and animals: Applying Jakob von Uexkülls theory of meaning to adaptive robots and artificial life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Ziemke; Noel E. Sharkey

    2001-01-01

    Despite the relevance of much o f Jakob von Uexküll's work to artificial intelligence a nd the c ognitive sciences, it was largely ignored un til the mid- 1980s. Since then, much research has been devoted to the study of embodied autonomous agents (robots) and artificial life. Such systems are typically said to 'learn', 'develop' and 'evolve' in interaction with

  2. On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders Proceedings RASC-2004, The 5th}@cs.nott.ac.uk, Abstract. We combine Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) technology with Collaborative Filtering (CF) and use it to build a movie recommendation system. We already know that Artificial Immune Systems work well as movie

  3. A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS)

    E-print Network

    Putten, Peter van der

    A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) Lingjun Menga , Peter@liacs.nl Abstract: Artificial Immune Systems are a new class of algorithms inspired by how the immune system in the interest in Artificial Immune Systems for applications in data mining and computational intelligence [4

  4. A completely implantable total artificial heart system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A; Rosenberg, G; Weiss, W; Pierce, W; Pae, W; Marlotte, J; Nazarian, R; Ford, S

    1991-01-01

    The authors developed, built, and tested in vivo a completely implanted total artificial heart (TAH) system. The system used a reduced size version of a roller screw energy converter and mating sac blood pumps. The motor drive, pumps, and a compliance chamber were implanted intrathoracically. A canister containing controlling electronics and an emergency battery was implanted in the abdomen. The secondary coil of an inductive energy transmission and telemetry system was placed over the ribs. The system was implanted in three calves, that survived 0.5-13 days with the system. The system maintained safe left atrial pressures and adequate cardiac outputs during each animal's entire course. PMID:1751126

  5. Identifying Necessary Conditions for Open-Ended Evolution through the Artificial Life World of Chromaria

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Identifying Necessary Conditions for Open-Ended Evolution through the Artificial Life World likely is not the sole ingredient missing from artificial worlds so far) could ignite the fire of an open-ended@cs.ucf.edu, kstanley@cs.ucf.edu Abstract A full understanding of open-ended evolutionary dynamics remains elusive

  6. Architecture for an artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, S A; Forrest, S

    2000-01-01

    An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation, and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security in the form of a network intrusion detection system called LISYS. LISYS is described and shown to be effective at detecting intrusions, while maintaining low false positive rates. Finally, similarities and differences between ARTIS and Holland's classifier systems are discussed. PMID:11130924

  7. Missileborne Artificial Vision System (MAVIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Several years ago when INTEL and China Lake designed the ETANN chip, analog VLSI appeared to be the only way to do high density neural computing. In the last five years, however, digital parallel processing chips capable of performing neural computation functions have evolved to the point of rough equality with analog chips in system level computational density. The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera, and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

  8. Tunable Detectors for Artificial Immune Systems: From Model to Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Tunable Detectors for Artificial Immune Systems: From Model to Algorithm Paul S. Andrews1 and Jon, University of York, UK {psa,jtimmis}@cs.york.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AIS) are often for pattern classification that shows promising results. 1 Introduction Artificial immune systems (AIS

  9. The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems Uwe Aickelin1 , Steve Cayzer.aickelin@bradford.ac.uk, Steve_Cayzer@hp.com artificial immune systems, danger theory Over the last decade, a new idea in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing

  10. in Artificial Life VIII, Standish, Abbass, Bedau (eds)(MIT Press) 2002. pp 8992 1 Generating Biomorphs with an Aesthetic Immune System

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Biomorphs with an Aesthetic Immune System Dennis L. Chao and Stephanie Forrest Department of Computer describe an interactive search algorithm inspired by the immune system. The algorithm learns what parts In this paper we illustrate how an immune system- inspired filtering algorithm described in (Chao & For- rest

  11. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  12. To appear in the Proceedings of Artificial Life IV, R. Brooks and P. Maes (eds.), MIT Press: Cambridge, July 1994. Evolving Multi-cellular Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Ray, Thomas S.

    of the program code in the memory of each processor. This provides a very simple mod- el of multi-cellularity: Cambridge, July 1994. Evolving Multi-cellular Artificial Life Kurt Thearling Thomas S. Ray Thinking Machines a number of experiments in which the ideas of multi-cellular evolution are applied to digital organisms

  13. Photoinduced Energy Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imahori, H.; Umeyama, T.

    Artificial photosynthesis is a current topic of intensive investigations, both in order to understand the reactions that play a central role in natural photosynthesis as well as to develop highly efficient solar energy conversion systems and molecular optoelectronic devices [1-34]. Artificial photosynthesis is defined as a research field that attempts to mimic the natural process of photosynthesis. Therefore, the outline of natural photosynthesis is described briefly for the better understanding of artificial photosynthesis . Natural photosynthetic system is regarded as one of the most elaborate nanobiological machines [35,36]. It converts solar energy into electrochemical potential or chemical energy, which is prerequisite for the living organisms on the earth. The core function of photosynthesis is a cascade of photoinduced energy and electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the antenna complexes and the reaction center. For instance, in purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) there are two different types of antenna complexes: a core light-harvesting antenna (LH1) and peripheral light-harvesting antenna (LH2) [37-39]. LH1 surrounds the reaction center where charge separation takes place.

  14. Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

  15. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  16. Artificial Life Models in Hardware Andrew Adamatzky Maciej Komosinski

    E-print Network

    Conrad, James M.

    , including wall climbing, are amongst many intriguing features of the chapter. Chapter Self of Congress Control Number: 2009926294 #12;#12;vi Preface Hardware designs of swimming and walking robots- phibious Robot that Swims and Walks. The robot is controlled by onboard artificial neural network, which

  17. Development of an ultrasound thrombolysis system for artificial hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsujimura; Y. Sankai

    2009-01-01

    Thrombus formation in artificial hearts remains a key risk factor in the death of patients. Anticoagulant therapy is essential in patients with artificial hearts. However, thrombogenesis can also occur under anticoagulant therapy. Once thrombogenesis has begun, anticoagulant therapy cannot recover the thrombus-free state. Therefore, in order to prevent thrombogenesis in the artificial heart, we developed a prototype ultrasound thrombolysis system.

  18. INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO PROCESS ANOMALY DETECTION Jamie January 2007 #12;Abstract This thesis explores the design and application of artificial immune systems (AISs), problem-solving systems inspired by the human and other immune systems. AISs to date have

  19. A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems Andrew Watkins Computing Immune Systems. A supervised learning system, it is self-regulatory, efficient, and stable under a wide, and the rock/metal classification problem for mine detection. I. INTRODUCTION Artificial Immune Systems

  20. Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann

    E-print Network

    Siegelmann , Hava T

    Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann Department of Computer to an artificial creature made of multiple agents in which local death prevents the unhealthy agents from destroying the system. We call this system HADES (Healing and Agent Death Encouraging Stability). The main

  1. A resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Timmis; Mark Neal

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis. The work presented here builds upon previous work on artificial immune systems for data analysis. A population control mechanism, inspired by the natural immune system, has been introduced to control population growth and allow termination of the learning algorithm. The new algorithm is presented, along with the immunological

  2. A Study of Artificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Fabio

    A Study of Artificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection A Dissertation Presented. A Study of Ar- tificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection. Major Professor: Dipankar Dasgupta of artificial immune systems, specifically the negative selection algorithm and other self/non-self recognition

  3. Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition L. N. de Castro and J. Timmis to perform pattern recognition, named Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). AIS take inspiration from the immune. The basic immune theories used to explain how the immune system perform pattern recognition are described

  4. Artificial immune systems as a novel soft computing paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis

    2003-01-01

    Artificial immune systems (AIS) can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. Their develop- ment and application domains follow those of soft computing paradigms such as artificial neural networks (ANN), evolutionary algorithms (EA) and fuzzy systems (FS). Despite some isolated efforts, the field of AIS still lacks

  5. Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems Paul S. Andrews1 and Jon Timmis2 1 consider the state of artificial immune system (AIS) design today, and the nature of the immune the- ories of self­non-self discrimina- tions in the immune system, and go on describe on such model that removes

  6. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart. PMID:20352915

  7. Artificial Life, unlike artifical intelligence, had humble beginnings. In the case of the latter, when the word itself was born, the first breathtaking results were

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    Preface Artificial Life, unlike artifical intelligence, had humble beginnings. In the case intelligence comes up again. Artificial intelligence was conceptually based on "machine functionalism intelligence, and artificial intelligence was a computerized approach to the mind that was designed to capture

  8. Artificial Emotion Generation based on Personality, Mood, and Emotion for Life-like Facial Expressions of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Artificial Emotion Generation based on Personality, Mood, and Emotion for Life-like Facial}@rrlab.kaist.ac.kr, 4 mjchung@ee.kaist.ac.kr Abstract. We can't overemphasize the importance of robot's emotional expressions as robots step into human's daily lives. So, the believable and socially acceptable emotional

  9. Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates Joanna J. Bryson1 and Jessica C. Flack2 1Harvard Primate Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Cambridge, MA USA 2Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA jbryson

  10. Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates Joanna J. Bryson and Jessica C. Flack Harvard Primate Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Cambridge, MA USA, and Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA jbryson

  11. Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Following papers by Eugene H. Spafford \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Ruppin, Eytan

    Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Following papers by Eugene H. Spafford \\Lambda A computer virus and the virus spreads further. Computer viruses flourish in the weaker security environment of the personal access, and this allows computer viruses to spread and flourish on those machines. Viruses have two major

  12. Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket. Submitted to Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Clark, Andy

    Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket². Submitted to Artificial Life Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket*. Andy Clark Cognitive Science Program Indiana University, Bloomington: Embodiment, Symbols, Situated Reason, Surrogate Situations, Mole Cricket, Singing Burrows, Language

  13. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  14. Optimum selection of an implantable secondary battery for an artificial heart by examination of the cycle life test.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Watanabe, Kazuya; Hashiba, Kunihiro; Inoue, Taku; Iwazawa, Eichi; Momoi, Masato; Hashimoto, Takuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    An implantable secondary battery is one of the key components in a total artificial heart system. Because a 2 year cycle life is required, the cycle life of the secondary battery as well as its charge and discharge properties are important parameters for selection of an appropriate battery. We carried out cycle life tests on four kinds of rechargeable batteries (a Ni-MH secondary battery, a Ni-Cd secondary battery, a Li-ion battery with a graphite anode, and a Li-ion battery with a nongraphitizable carbon electrode) to determine their suitability as implanted back-up batteries. Each of the batteries was charge/discharge cycled at 37 degrees C to 39 degrees C using a charge current of 1 C ampere, and they were each fully discharged under either pulsatile discharge loads, which mimicked pulsatile operation, or a nonpulsatile load equivalent to the average of the pulsatile loads. The two Li-ion batteries made by different manufacturers both met the minimum requirement of cycle life of more than 1,500 cycles, considering safety coefficient regardless of the discharge pattern. In addition, the temperature increase of these Li-ion batteries (3 degrees C) was lower than that of Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries (15-25 degrees C). Out of these four batteries, the two Li-ion batteries are the most suitable for use in a totally implantable artificial heart system. PMID:12296569

  15. A toxicity test in artificial soil based on the life-history strategy of the nematode Plectus acuminatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kammenga, J.E.; Van Koert, P.H.G.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Korthals, G.W.; Bakker, J. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands)

    1996-05-01

    The ecological risk assessment of toxicants in soil requires reproducible and relevant test systems using a wide range of species. To supplement present test methods from the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in artificial soil with earthworms and springtails, a toxicity test in OECD artificial soil has been developed using the bacterivorous nematode Plectus acuminatus (Bastian, 1865) (Nematoda; Plectidae). The juvenile to adult ratio was used as a test parameter since previous life-cycle studies pointed out that fitness of P. acuminatus was strongly determined by changes in both reproduction and juvenile survival. Optimal conditions for the performance of nematodes in OECD artificial soil were determined (pH{sub KCl} = 5.5, temperature = 20C, and a moisture content of 70% dry wt. artificial soil), and tests were conducted with cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol. After an exposure period of 3 weeks the EC50 for cadmium was 321.0 {+-} 1.7 mg/kg dry wt., and the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 32 mg/kg dry wt. The EC50 for pentachlorophenol was 47.9 {+-} 1.2 mg/kg dry wt., and the NOEC was <10 mg/kg dry wt. For copper the EC50 was 162 {+-} 0.2 mg/kg dry wt., and the NOEC was 32 mg/kg dry wt. It is concluded that the nematode test may well supplement current coil test systems using earthworms and springtails.

  16. Earth life support for aquatic organisms, system and technical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. König; M. Dünne; K. Slenzka

    2001-01-01

    The importance of the research on Bioregenerative Life Support has increased dramatically in the last decade not only with regard to possible space flight application but also as a way to obtain a better understanding of our Earth's ecology. A major goal was to reach long-term stability of artificial model systems. Preliminary data are presented on the development of an

  17. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

  18. A stroll through the worlds of robots and animals: Applying Jakob von Uexk¨1ll's theory of meaning to adaptive robots and artificial life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Ziemke; Noel E. Sharkey

    2000-01-01

    Despite the relevance of much of Jakob von Uexkll's work to artificialintelligence and the cognitive sciences, it was largely ignored until the mid1980s.Since then, much research has been devoted to the study of embodiedautonomous agents (robots) and artificial life. Such systems are typically saidto `learn\\

  19. The Artificial Life of Plants Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, Mark Hammel, Radomir

    E-print Network

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    theory of L-systems [70, 27, 66] was followed by the application of the theory to the modeling of plants amplification [71], that 1 #12;parent children production occurrence mapping production application p -1 interpretation. A parent module is replaced by child modules in a sequence of transformations ',1p

  20. Artificial Life as an Aid to Astrobiology: Testing Life Seeking Techniques

    E-print Network

    Dittrich, Peter

    .S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration outlined a program to detect signs of fossile or present life not necessarily be mimicked by other examples of life elsewhere in the cosmos. On the other hand, basic principles of life forms based on other materials. At the time, biologists may have dismissed the need for a context

  1. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  2. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  3. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  4. Development of a miniaturised hydraulic actuation system for artificial hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kargov; T. Werner; C. Pylatiuk; S. Schulz

    2008-01-01

    This article will present a powerful miniaturised hydraulic system of compact design that is used for the actuation of artificial hands. This system was developed as an alternative to today's commonly used electromechanical prosthetic actuation systems. System components and hand prototypes reflect many years of experience of our laboratory in rehabilitation medicine, CAD design and prototyping, mechanical engineering, electronic construction,

  5. DAISY: An Object-Oriented System for Distributed Artificial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agostino Poggi

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented distributed system, called DAISY, for the development and experimentation of Distributed Artificial Intelligence systems and algorithms. This system is based on two programming levels: object level and agent level. Both the levels allow to define, implement and experiment systems. While the object level offers a large set of low level programming means (a large set

  6. Artificial photosynthesis with algal and reconstituted systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Reeves, M.E.; Woodward, J.

    1984-01-01

    A general review of artificial or hydrogenic photosynthesis for the direct production of molecular oxygen and hydrogen is presented. A summary of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's experimental research program on photosynthetic water splitting using algae is included. The rates of hydrogen and oxygen production in continuous-wave light must be improved significantly before practical developments can proceed. More fundamental research in the chemistry and physics of the process is recommended. 42 references, 5 figures.

  7. Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development for Biological &

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development Processing (see Phytochemicals, Advanced Artificial Intelligence) Canning Technology ­ Ted Labuza Cheese-Paul Schirle-Keller Food Additives ­ Artificial Sweeteners ­ Ted Labuza Food Analysis Chromatographic

  8. Optimal approximation of linear systems by artificial immune response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maoguo Gong; Haifeng Du; Licheng Jiao

    2006-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel artificial immune response algorithm for optimal approximation of linear systems. A quaternion\\u000a model of artificial immune response is proposed for engineering computing. The model abstracts four elements, namely, antigen,\\u000a antibody, reaction rules among antibodies, and driving algorithm describing how the rules are applied to antibodies, to simulate\\u000a the process of immune response. Some reaction

  9. A study on a sensing system for artificial arm's control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Myung Yool; Yong-Myung Ahn

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a sensing system for artificial arm's control is studied. The sensing system is consisted of 3 main parts. First part is a sensor system. It can measure how flexed the muscle is. So we use flex sensor. To get flexion signal, first sensor is attached the biceps brachii muscle. And other sensor is attached the triceps brachii

  10. An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems J. Timmis1*

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems J. Timmis1* , T. Knight1 , L.N. de Castro2 and E. Hart3 1, Napier University. Edinburgh. Scotland. UK. e.hart@napier.ac.uk ABSTRACT The immune system is highly the ability to continually learn about new encounters. From a computational point of view, the immune system

  11. Artificial Immune Systems Julie Greensmith, Amanda Whitbrook and Uwe Aickelin

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Artificial Immune Systems Julie Greensmith, Amanda Whitbrook and Uwe Aickelin Abstract The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro U. Lima; Luis M. M. Custodio

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior Tecnico (ISR\\/IST) in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro U. Lima; Luís M. M. Custódio

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior Técnico (ISR\\/IST) in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands

  14. Tuberculosis Disease Diagnosis Using Artificial Immune Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Hessam, Somayeh; Javidnia, Hossein; Amiribesheli, Mohsen; Vahdat, Shaghayegh; Petkovi?, Dalibor; Gani, Abdullah; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis among conventional methods. Objectives:This study is aimed at diagnosing TB using hybrid machine learning approaches. Materials and Methods: Patient epicrisis reports obtained from the Pasteur Laboratory in the north of Iran were used. All 175 samples have twenty features. The features are classified based on incorporating a fuzzy logic controller and artificial immune recognition system. The features are normalized through a fuzzy rule based on a labeling system. The labeled features are categorized into normal and tuberculosis classes using the Artificial Immune Recognition Algorithm. Results:Overall, the highest classification accuracy reached was for the 0.8 learning rate (?) values. The artificial immune recognition system (AIRS) classification approaches using fuzzy logic also yielded better diagnosis results in terms of detection accuracy compared to other empirical methods. Classification accuracy was 99.14%, sensitivity 87.00%, and specificity 86.12%. PMID:24688316

  15. Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System

    E-print Network

    Sanyal, Sugata

    Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System@rediffmail.com Abstract The analogy between Immune Systems and Intrusion Detection Systems encourage the use of Artificial Immune Systems for anomaly detection in computer networks. This paper describes a technique of applying

  16. Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

  17. Artificial intelligence approaches in model management systems: A survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang-Kyo Suh; Eui-Ho Suh; Dong-Man Lee

    1995-01-01

    A model management system (MMS) is one component of a generalized decision support system (DSS) architecture which provides for the creation, storage, manipulation and access of models. Several significant research opportunities exist concerning artificial intelligence application for MMS to enhance its major functions. Thus, here the existing literature is surveyed and categorized based its treatment of model representation and model

  18. Multivariable adaptive identification and control for artificial pancreas systems.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Quinn, Laurie; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2014-03-01

    A constrained weighted recursive least squares method is proposed to provide recursive models with guaranteed stability and better performance than models based on regular identification methods in predicting the variations of blood glucose concentration in patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Use of physiological information from a sports armband improves glucose concentration prediction and enables earlier recognition of the effects of physical activity on glucose concentration. Generalized predictive controllers (GPC) based on these recursive models are developed. The performance of GPC for artificial pancreas systems is illustrated by simulations with UVa-Padova simulator and clinical studies. The controllers developed are good candidates for artificial pancreas systems with no announcements from patients. PMID:24557689

  19. Transcutaneous Energy and Information Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    In Totally-Implantable Artificial Heart(TAH) system, Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System(TOITS) and Externally Coupled Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System(ECTETS) are effective for driving, controlling and monitoring the TAH. Using these systems, a patient needs to wear an optical coupler and a transcutaneous transformer separately, and then the patient's QOL (Quality of Life) will be deteriorated. In this paper, for improving the QOL, the energy and information transmission using an unified transcutaneous transformer was investigated, and their information transmission characteristics were evaluated.

  20. Transcutaneous Energy and Information Transmission System for a Totally-Implantable Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Takahiko; Aoki, Hirooki; Koshiji, Kohji; Homma, Akihiko; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    In Totally-Implantable Artificial Heart (TAH) system, Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System (TOITS) and Externally Coupled Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System (ECTETS) are effective for driving, controlling and monitoring the TAH. Using these systems, a patient needs to wear an optical coupler and a transcutaneous transformer separately, and then the patient's QOL (Quality of Life) will be deteriorated. Therefore, we research the energy and information transmission by wearing an unified transcutaneous transformer. In this paper, the unified transcutaneous transformer for the energy and information transmission was investigated. As a result, the unified transformer, by which the coupling between the energy and information transmission was reduced, was developed.

  1. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  2. Colors and Odors: Porphyrinoids Based Artificial Olfaction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolesse, Roberto; Nardis, Sara; Martinelli, Eugenio; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-09-01

    The increasing sophistication of consumer electronic devices has facilitated the implementation of analytical determinations with devices originally conceived for different purposes, such as for example scanners. We recently demonstrated, using three colors excitation (a computer screen) and three colors detection (a digital camera), how optical fingerprints of the interaction between metalloporphyrins and volatile molecules can be used to identify and quantify various analytes. The CSPT platform could open the way to a more sophisticated artificial olfaction systems, allowing the mimic of other fundamental olfaction properties, with the inclusion of an artificial epithelium.

  3. An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabiyev, Vasif; Karal, Hasan; Arslan, Selahattin; Erumit, Ali Kursat; Cebi, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed…

  4. Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

  5. Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems. PMID:24452193

  6. Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems.

  7. Knowledge Based Systems and Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Pizurica, Aleksandra

    Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationally #12;· The Turing test (Alan Turing, 1950 - total Turing test includes video to test perceptual abilities Acting humanly: The Turing test 6 #12

  8. An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

  9. Artificial-intelligence methods in decision and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lirov, Y.V.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence methods were applied to the design and implementation of some decision and control systems. A so-called semantic approach to control and decisions was developed and artificial-intelligence methods were used to provide a realizable implementation. These concepts were tested using applications from robust identification and control of time-varying systems, intelligent navigation, and intelligent simulation of differential games. An aspect of a generalized traveling-salesman problem was solved, and intelligent simulation of differential games was implemented in Prolog using an example system for automated learning by tactical decision systems in air combat. These implementations were successful and provide several advantages over traditional approaches. The limitations of these concepts were identified and suggestions for future work are made.

  10. Artificial intelligence-methods in decision and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lirov, Y.V.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial intelligence methods were applied to the design and implementation of some decision and control systems. A so-called semantic approach to control and decisions was developed and artificial intelligence methods were used to provide a realizable implementation. These concepts were tested using applications from robust identification and control of time-varying systems, intelligent navigation, and intelligent simulation of differential games. An aspect of a generalized travelling-salesman problem was solved and intelligent simulation of differential games was implemented in Prolog using an example system for automated learning by tactical decision systems in air combat. These implementations were successful and provide several advantages over traditional approaches. The limitations of these concepts were identified and suggestions for future work are made.

  11. Artificial Immune System for Multi-Area Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Shankha Suvra; Hazra, Abhik; Basu, Mousumi

    2013-09-01

    This article presents artificial immune system for solving multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints considering transmission losses, multiple fuels, valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones. Artificial immune system is based on the clonal selection principle which implements adaptive cloning, hyper mutation, aging operator and tournament selection. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on three different test systems, both small and large, involving varying degree of complexity. Compared with differential evolution, evolutionary programming and real-coded genetic algorithm, considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising alternative approach for solving the MAED problems in practical power system.

  12. An integrated artificial photosynthesis system based on peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bin; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems.A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00295d

  13. Adaptive Computer Game System Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kok Wai Wong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for designing an adaptive computer game system. This\\u000a adaptive computer game system will enhance the game play experience of a player by adopting the concept of player centred\\u000a game design. In this paper, the ANN is used to handle the dynamic difficulty level adjustment for each individual player.

  14. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    PubMed

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6?°C for ??14?days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. PMID:23692154

  15. Life history and cost analysis for continuous rearing of Perillus bioculatus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on a zoophytogenous artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Coudron, T A; Kim, Y

    2004-06-01

    The impact of a zoophytogenous, insect-free artificial diet on the developmental rate, life history parameters, and fertility was examined over 11 consecutive generations for domesticated Perillus biocullatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that when fed an insect-free artificial diet during both the nymphal and adult stages, developmental times were prolonged, and the net reproductive rates (R0) and the intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)) were significantly lower than when fed larval Trichoplusia ni at both nymphal and adult stages. Moreover, the cost to rear P. bioculatus on the artificial diet approached 1.1 times the cost of rearing P. bioculatus on natural prey. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and potential cost-savings of the zoophytogenous artificial diet for rearing a beneficial pentatomid. PMID:15279257

  16. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.

    1996-04-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  17. Control system for an artificial heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Inexpensive industrial pneumatic components are combined to produce control system to drive sac-type heart-assistance blood pump with controlled pulsatile pressure that makes pump rate of flow sensitive to venous /atrial/ pressure, while stroke is centered about set operating point and pump is synchronized with natural heart.

  18. Artificial Neural Networks in Medical Imaging Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Pattichis; C. Christodoulou; E. Kyriacou; M. S. Pattichis

    The aim of this paper is to provide a snapshot of the application of neural network systems in medical imaging. A few selected case studies are presented, covering the application of neural networks in microscopy imaging in the analysis of cervicovaginal smears and breast cancer histopathology, in ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery, in the analysis of physiological data for

  19. Comparison of a Multi-Layered Artificial Immune System with a Kohonen Network

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Comparison of a Multi-Layered Artificial Immune System with a Kohonen Network T. Knight and J Networks on some clustering tasks. I. INTRODUCTION Many artificial immune systems (AIS) have been devel is organised as follows. Section II presents a novel multi-layered artificial immune system inspired

  20. Hybrid destination registration elevator group control system with artificial immune optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuge Xu; Fei Luo; Xiaolan Lin

    2010-01-01

    Novel elevator group control system would collect more information from the passengers, and make the system perform better. In this paper, a novel hybrid destination registration elevator group control system is proposed, on which artificial immune optimization(AIO) algorithm is applied. Artificial immune optimization uses high cytometaplasia in optimization can avoid local minima and accelerate the optimization. The application of artificial

  1. Dorin, A., "Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic Art", Proceedings of 3rd European Workshop on Evolutionary Music and Art, Applications of Evo-

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    Dorin, A., "Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic Art-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, pp448-457 Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic to a genetic algorithm but stops short of exploring different reasons for death in the population [2] (for

  2. Funes, P. and Pollack, J. (1997) Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects. Fourth European Conference on Artificial Life. P. Husbands and I. Harvey, eds., MIT Press. pp 358367.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Conference on Artificial Life. P. Husbands and I. Harvey, eds., MIT Press. pp 358­367. knowledge had a surprisingly alien look: they are not based in common knowledge on how to build with brick toys­9110 {pablo,pollack}@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Creating artificial life forms through evolutionary robotics

  3. 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms 279 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms 279 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Immune Systems (AIS) is a diverse area of research that attempts to bridge the divide between immunology and engineering that uses immune system metaphors for the creation of novel solutions to problems (de Castro

  4. An Improved System for Artificial Creatures Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Miconi; Alastair Channon

    We present our complete reimplementation of Karl Sims' system for evolving and coevolving autonomous creatures in a physically realistic three-dimensional (3D) environment. Creatures are articulated structures composed of rigid blocks and controlled by embedded neural networks. The main dif- ferences with Sims are, first, the use of standard McCulloch- Pitts neurons (instead of a set of ad hoc, complex func-

  5. LIFE HISTORY AND COST ANALYSIS FOR CONTINUOUS REARING OF PERILLUS BIOCULATUS (F.) (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) ON A ZOOPHYTOGENOUS ARTIFICIAL DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of a zoophytophagous, insect-free artificial diet on the developmental rate, life table parameters, and fertility table parameters was examined over eleven consecutive generations for domesticated Perillus bioculatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that when fed an i...

  6. Emotions and Action Selection in an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    Emotions and Action Selection in an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates MA 02139, USA joanna@ai.mit.edu The Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center 202 Psychology Building behaviors dis- played by colonies of non-human primates. We hope to use this ALife model to support work

  7. Artificial nerve system for structural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William N., Jr.; Ghoshal, Anindya; Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Lebby, Gary L.; Schulz, Mark J.; Pratap, Promod R.

    2002-06-01

    Recent structural health monitoring techniques have focused on developing global sensor systems that can detect damage on large structures. The approach presented here uses a piezoelectric sensor array system that mimics the biological nervous system architecture to measure acoustic emissions and dynamic strains in structures. The advantage of this approach is that the number of channels of data acquisition used for an N-by-N sensor array can be reduced from N2 to 2N. For large arrays the number of data acquisition channels is tremendously reduced. When transient damage events occur on the structure, the array output time histories can be recorded and the location of the excitation can be accurately determined using combinatorial logic. A trade-off is the difficulty of extracting individual sensor time histories from the array outputs without a neural network or a regressive technique. Only the sums of the sensor strains of each row and column can be exactly calculated using the voltage outputs of the array. The array approach allows efficient use of data acquisition instrumentation for structural health monitoring. Applications for the sensor array include crack and delamination detection, dynamic strain measurement, impact detection, and localization of damage on large complex structures.

  8. Life in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  9. Information Processing in Cognition Process and New Artificial Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru

    In this chapter, we discuss, in depth, visual information processing and a new artificial intelligent (AI) system that is based upon cognitive mechanisms. The relationship between a general model of intelligent systems and cognitive mechanisms is described, and in particular we explore visual information processing with selective attention. We also discuss a methodology for studying the new AI system and propose some important basic research issues that have emerged in the intersecting fields of cognitive science and information science. To this end, a new scheme for associative memory and a new architecture for an AI system with attractors of chaos are addressed.

  10. The Research on Artificial Olfaction System-Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. W.; Wang, G. D.

    2006-10-01

    This paper has presented an artificial olfactory system, based on the structure and mechanism of biological olfactory system. The main goal of our study was to expound the principle of olfaction system of human body. It has complex structure model and of which structure and mechanism still under exploration. We built the model of sensory system mechanism, depicted the olfactory mechanism of the olfactory, and compared the different methods of pattern recognition. The result will show that the SOM method of pattern recognition accord by and large with human mode, and is better than the BP neural network.

  11. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N.; Kirkham, Harold

    1994-01-01

    This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems, and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of artificial neural networks to improve the stability of the power system. The networks are considered as adjuncts and as replacements for existing controllers. The optimal kind of network to use as an adjunct to a generator exciter is discussed.

  12. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  13. A Bio-Inspired Electromechanical System: Artificial Hair Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang-Hun Ahn

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by recent biophysical study on the auditory sensory organs, we study electromechanical system which functions similar\\u000a to the hair cell of the ear. One of the important mechanisms of hair cells, adaptation, is mimicked by an electromechanical feedback loop. The proposed artificial hair cell functions similar to a living sensory\\u000a organ in the sense that it senses input force

  14. Evolving an Ensemble of Neural Networks Using Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno H. G. Barbosa; Lam Thu Bui; Hussein A. Abbass; Luis A. Aguirre; Antônio P. Braga

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel ensemble construction approach based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) to solve regression problems.\\u000a Over the last few years AIS have increasingly attracted interest from researchers due to their ability to balance the exploration\\u000a and exploitation of the search space. Nevertheless, there have been just a few applications of those algorithms in the construction\\u000a of committee

  15. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-06-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  16. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth

    PubMed Central

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  17. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    PubMed Central

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  18. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  19. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  20. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  1. for ISMIS91 The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems

    E-print Network

    Wiederhold, Gio

    1 for ISMIS­91 The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems Gio Wiederhold Stanford are suitable for artificial intelligence approaches we outline an architectural structure for large systems. In that structure processing modules become specialized. We argue that artificial intelligence programs should

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project*

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    5 Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence The research has been developed under the SocRob project, jointly carried out by the Intelligent Control and Artificial

  3. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Smernoff, D. T. (editor); Klein, H. P. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  4. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Heyderman, L J; Stamps, R L

    2013-09-11

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 ?m elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss artificial multiferroics (or multiferroic composites), which hold promise for new applications that involve electric field control of magnetism, or electric and magnetic field responsive devices for high frequency integrated circuit design in microwave and terahertz signal processing. We close with comments on how enhanced functionality can be realised through engineering of nanostructures with interacting ferroic components, creating opportunities for novel spin electronic devices that, for example, make use of the transport of magnetic charges, thermally activated elements, and reprogrammable nanomagnet systems. PMID:23948652

  5. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  6. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels. PMID:24805216

  7. Natural and artificial systems for rechrage and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, B.; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S.; Pekdeger, A.

    2003-04-01

    The inhabitants of Berlin, just about 3.4 million, are supplied with drinking water by its own groundwater resources exclusively. In order to conserve the natural available groundwater, it is enriched intensively by bank filtration from surface waters and artificial recharge. Hence, the volume of the groundwater storage, its quality and the proportion of artificially recharged or bank filtered water are of significant importance for a sustainable water management in Berlin. This was an obvious reason to initiate a larger cooperation project on the topic "bank filtration" named NASRI (Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). The interdisciplinary project will concentrate on microorganisms and trace organic substances of surface waters. It will focus, for example on questions of the emergence and removal of pharmaceutical residues during bank filtration. The fate and the destination of other specific trace substances as well as of bacteria and viruses are other objectives of the research programme. Several different field sites, semi-technical facilities and laboratory experiments are used for a comprehensive understanding of the different mechanisms.

  8. Active Vision in Artificial Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

    We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision re- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the prevailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artificial animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as autonomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems. To be opera- tive in

  9. An artificial compound eye system for large field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Lifang; Shi, Ruiying; Dong, Xiaochun; Deng, Qiling; Du, Chunlei

    2012-11-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, optical imaging system has been widely used, and the performance requirements are getting higher and higher such as lighter weight, smaller size, larger field of view and more sensitive to the moving targets. With the advantages of large field of view, high agility and multi-channels, compound eye is more and more concerned by academia and industry. In this work, an artificial spherical compound eye imaging system is proposed, which is formed by several mini cameras to get a large field of view. By analyzing the relationship of the view field between every single camera and the whole system, the geometric arrangement of cameras is studied and the compound eye structure is designed. By using the precision machining technology, the system can be manufactured. To verify the performance of this system, experiments were carried out, where the compound eye was formed by seven mini cameras which were placed centripetally along a spherical surface so that each camera points in a different direction. Pictures taken by these cameras were mosaiced into a complete image with large field of view. The results of the experiments prove the validity of the design method and the fabrication technology. By increasing the number of the cameras, larger view field even panoramic imaging can be realized by using this artificial compound eye.

  10. Techniques of Acceleration for Association Rule Induction with Pseudo Artificial Life Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakubo, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Frequent patterns mining is one of the important problems in data mining. Generally, the number of potential rules grows rapidly as the size of database increases. It is therefore hard for a user to extract the association rules. To avoid such a difficulty, we propose a new method for association rule induction with pseudo artificial life approach. The proposed method is to decide whether there exists an item set which contains N or more items in two transactions. If it exists, a series of item sets which are contained in the part of transactions will be recorded. The iteration of this step contributes to the extraction of association rules. It is not necessary to calculate the huge number of candidate rules. In the evaluation test, we compared the extracted association rules using our method with the rules using other algorithms like Apriori algorithm. As a result of the evaluation using huge retail market basket data, our method is approximately 10 and 20 times faster than the Apriori algorithm and many its variants.

  11. An artificial neural network based adaptive power system stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Chen, G.P.; Malik, O.P.; Hope, G.S. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) based power system stabilizer (PSS) and its application to power system are presented in this paper. The ANN based PSS combines the advantages of self-optimizing pole shifting adaptive control strategy and the quick response of ANN to introduce a new generation PSS. A popular type of ANN, the multi-layer perceptron with error back-propagation training method, is employed in this PSS. The ANN was trained by the training data group generated by the adaptive power system stabilizer (APSS). During the training, the ANN was required to memorize and simulate the control strategy of APSS until the differences are within the specified criteria. Results show that the proposed ANN based PSS can provide good damping to the power system over a wide operating range and significantly improve the dynamic performance of the system.

  12. A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Networks

    E-print Network

    Cayzer, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a complex biological system with a highly distributed, adaptive and self-organising nature. This paper presents an Artificial Immune System (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film recommendation by Collaborative Filtering (CF). Natural evolution and in particular the immune system have not been designed for classical optimisation. However, for this problem, we are not interested in finding a single optimum. Rather we intend to identify a sub-set of good matches on which recommendations can be based. It is our hypothesis that an AIS built on two central aspects of the biological immune system will be an ideal candidate to achieve this: Antigen-antibody interaction for matching and idiotypic antibody-antibody interaction for diversity. Computational results are presented in support of this conjecture and compared to those found by other CF techniques.

  13. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators. PMID:25286349

  14. Early life-history dynamics of Caribbean coral species on artificial substratum: the importance of competition, growth and variation in life-history strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. A. Vermeij

    2006-01-01

    The development of a coral community was monitored for 6 years (1998-2004) on 46 m2 of artificial settlement substrate in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Growth and survival of recruits ( n=1385) belonging to 16 different species were quantified in relation to characteristics of the benthic community developing around them. The early life history dynamics (i.e. growth rate, growth strategy and survival)

  15. Early life-history dynamics of Caribbean coral species on artificial substratum: the importance of competition, growth and variation in life-history strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. A. Vermeij

    2006-01-01

    The development of a coral community was monitored for 6 years (1998–2004) on 46 m2 of artificial settlement substrate in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Growth and survival of recruits (n=1385) belonging to 16 different species were quantified in relation to characteristics of the benthic community developing around them. The early life history dynamics (i.e. growth rate, growth strategy and survival) of corals differed

  16. The role of artificial intelligence techniques in scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoffroy, Amy L.; Britt, Daniel L.; Gohring, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques provide good solutions for many of the problems which are characteristic of scheduling applications. However, scheduling is a large, complex heterogeneous problem. Different applications will require different solutions. Any individual application will require the use of a variety of techniques, including both AI and conventional software methods. The operational context of the scheduling system will also play a large role in design considerations. The key is to identify those places where a specific AI technique is in fact the preferable solution, and to integrate that technique into the overall architecture.

  17. Water oxidation reaction in natural and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Understanding the structure and mechanism of water oxidation catalysts is an essential component for developing artificial photosynthetic devices. In the natural water oxidation catalyst, the geometric and electronic structure of its inorganic core, the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5} cluster, has been studied by spectroscopic and diffraction measurements. In inorganic systems, metal oxides seem to be good candidates for water oxidation catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanism in both natural and oxide-based catalysts will helpin further developing efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts.

  18. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  1. Bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C A

    1994-11-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem. PMID:7942592

  2. ANUBIS: artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin J H; Saaj, Chakravarthini M; Allouis, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Gain tuning is a crucial part of controller design and depends not only on an accurate understanding of the system in question, but also on the designer's ability to predict what disturbances and other perturbations the system will encounter throughout its operation. This letter presents ANUBIS (artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system), a novel biologically inspired technique for automatically tuning controller parameters in real time. ANUBIS is based on the Bayesian brain concept and modifies it by incorporating a model of the neuromodulatory system comprising four artificial neuromodulators. It has been applied to the controller of EchinoBot, a prototype walking rover for Martian exploration. ANUBIS has been implemented at three levels of the controller; gait generation, foot trajectory planning using Bézier curves, and foot trajectory tracking using a terminal sliding mode controller. We compare the results to a similar system that has been tuned using a multilayer perceptron. The use of Bayesian inference means that the system retains mathematical interpretability, unlike other intelligent tuning techniques, which use neural networks, fuzzy logic, or evolutionary algorithms. The simulation results show that ANUBIS provides significant improvements in efficiency and adaptability of the three controller components; it allows the robot to react to obstacles and uncertainties faster than the system tuned with the MLP, while maintaining stability and accuracy. As well as advancing rover autonomy, ANUBIS could also be applied to other situations where operating conditions are likely to change or cannot be accurately modeled in advance, such as process control. In addition, it demonstrates one way in which neuromodulation could fit into the Bayesian brain framework. PMID:22970879

  3. A Dorin and K B Korb: Network measures of ecosystem complexity, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems (Artificial Life XII), 19 August 2010 to 23 August 2010, The MIT Press,

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    A Dorin and K B Korb: Network measures of ecosystem complexity, Proceedings of the Twelfth to 23 August 2010, The MIT Press, Cambridge MA USA, pp. 323-328 Network Measures of Ecosystem Complexity be constructed to represent ecosystems may inform us about the open-endedness of the evolutionary systems

  4. The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

  5. An Artificial Hormone System for Self-organization of Networked Nodes

    E-print Network

    Ungerer, Theo

    An Artificial Hormone System for Self-organization of Networked Nodes Wolfgang Trumler, Tobias-managing in the sense of Autonomic and Organic Computing. In this paper we propose the Arti- ficial Hormone System (AHS) as a general approach to build self-organizing systems based on networked nodes. The Artificial Hormone System

  6. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) ­ A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making OR46 (2004) AIS technique inspired by immunology has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). This immune system will very briefly describe the immune system metaphors that are relevant to AIS. We will then give some

  7. Development of an Electrohydraulic Total Artificial Heart System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Akihiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Shioya, Kyoko; Lee, Hwan Sung; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Kakuta, Yukihide; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Nishinaka, Tomohiro; Koshiji, Kohji

    An electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) system has been developed. The EHTAH system consists of diaphragm-type blood pumps, an electrohydraulic actuator, an internal control unit, a transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS), a transcutaneous optical telemetry system (TOTS), and an internal battery. The reciprocating rotation of the impeller generates oil pressure which drives the blood pumps at alternating intervals. The blood pumps and the actuator were successfully integrated into the pump unit without oil conduits. As a result of miniaturizing the blood pumps and the actuator, the displacement volume and weight of the EHTAH system decreased to 872 ml and 2492g, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum flow rate and efficiency increased up to 12 L/min and 15.4%. The pump units and the EHTAH systems were successfully implanted in 36 calves weighing from 55 to 87kg. In the longest case, the ca1f with the pump unit survived for 87 days and the calf with the EHTAH system survived for 70 days. The EHTAH system was powered by the TETS, and was powered everyday by the internal battery for 40 minutes. These results indicate that the EHTAH system has the potential to become a fully implantable cardiac replacement system.

  8. Life prediction systems for critical rotating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of advanced materials in rotating gas turbine engine components, the methodologies for life prediction of these parts must also increase in sophistication and capability. Pratt & Whitney's view of generic requirements for composite component life prediction systems are presented, efforts underway to develop these systems are discussed, and industry participation in key areas requiring development is solicited.

  9. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early space flights no significant changes were found (Heidelbaugh et al. 1968;Watt et al. 1985). However, data from a recent head-down bed rest study showed significant decrease in smell sensation (Enck et al. unpublished data) suggesting that fluid shifts might have an impact. If this holds true and which has to be validated in further studies, this seems to play an important role for lowered food intake causing insufficient energy intake and subsequently insufficient supply of most of the macro- and micronutrients. Other nutrients are taken in excess, for example sodium. As it is very well known from daily food consumption especially premanufactured food with high salt content seems to be more palatable than that with low salt content. Salt also functions as preservation which is very important taking into account the space food system limitations (i.e., lack of refrigerators and freezers). The preference for food with high salt intake by astronauts might therefore very likely be caused by altered smell and taste sensations in microgravity.

  10. A model for a knowledge-based system's life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has initiated a Committee on Standards for Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are the initial efforts of one of the working groups of that committee. The purpose here is to present a candidate model for the development life cycle of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The intent is for the model to be used by the Aerospace Community and eventually be evolved into a standard. The model is rooted in the evolutionary model, borrows from the spiral model, and is embedded in the standard Waterfall model for software development. Its intent is to satisfy the development of both stand-alone and embedded KBSs. The phases of the life cycle are detailed as are and the review points that constitute the key milestones throughout the development process. The applicability and strengths of the model are discussed along with areas needing further development and refinement by the aerospace community.

  11. A machine learning evaluation of an artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Matthew; Balthrop, Justin; Forrest, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    ARTIS is an artificial immune system framework which contains several adaptive mechanisms. LISYS is a version of ARTIS specialized for the problem of network intrusion detection. The adaptive mechanisms of LISYS are characterized in terms of their machine-learning counterparts, and a series of experiments is described, each of which isolates a different mechanism of LISYS and studies its contribution to the system's overall performance. The experiments were conducted on a new data set, which is more recent and realistic than earlier data sets. The network intrusion detection problem is challenging because it requires one-class learning in an on-line setting with concept drift. The experiments confirm earlier experimental results with LISYS, and they study in detail how LISYS achieves success on the new data set. PMID:15969900

  12. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

  13. A survey of artificial immune system based intrusion detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

  14. Hybrid Heuristic-Based Artificial Immune System for Task Scheduling

    E-print Network

    sanei, Masoomeh

    2011-01-01

    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid heuristic-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for solving the scheduling problem. In this regard, AIS with some heuristics and Single Neighbourhood Search (SNS) technique are hybridized. Clonning and immune-remove operators of AIS provide diversity, while heuristics and SNS provide convergence of algorithm into good solutions, that is balancing between exploration and exploitation. We have compared our method with some state-of-the art algorithms. The results of the experiments...

  15. Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

  16. A Bio-Inspired Electromechanical System: Artificial Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kang-Hun

    Inspired by recent biophysical study on the auditory sensory organs, we study electromechanical system which functions similar to the hair cell of the ear. One of the important mechanisms of hair cells, adaptation, is mimicked by an electromechanical feedback loop. The proposed artificial hair cell functions similar to a living sensory organ in the sense that it senses input force signal in spite of the relatively strong noise. Numerical simulation of the proposed system shows otoacoustic sound emission, which was observed in the experiments on the hair cells of the bullfrog. This spontaneous motion is noise-induced periodic motion which is controlled by the time scale of adaptation process and the mechanical damping.

  17. Life extension module for machinery diagnostic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Giuntini

    2000-01-01

    Machinery diagnostic systems detect and monitor faults but are unable to predict remaining life. The RiskMANTM process developed as one of the modules of the Neural Network System Health Usage and Monitoring System (NNS\\/HUMS), developed under JAHUMS contract administered by NSWC\\/CD, provides the means for converting the outputs of a diagnostic system into parameters usable in a set of life

  18. Towards Design of a Stumble Detection System for Artificial Legs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; D’Andrea, Susan E.; Nunnery, Michael J.; Kay, Steven M.; Huang, He

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in design of powered artificial legs have led to increased potential to allow lower limb amputees to actively recover stumbles. To achieve this goal, promptly and accurately identifying stumbles is essential. This study aimed to (1) select potential stumble detection data sources that react reliably and quickly to stumbles and can be measured from a prosthesis, and (2) investigate two different approaches based on selected data sources to detect stumbles and classify stumble types in patients with transfemoral (TF) amputations during ambulation. In the experiments, the normal gait of TF amputees was perturbed by a controllable treadmill or when they walked on an obstacle course. The results showed that the acceleration of prosthetic foot can accurately detect the tested stumbling events 140–240 ms before the critical timing of falling and precisely classify the stumble type. However, the detector based on foot acceleration produced high false alarm rates, which challenged its real application. Combining electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from residual limb with the foot acceleration significantly reduced the false alarm rate but sacrificed the detection response time. The results of this study may lead to design of a stumble detection system for instrumented, powered artificial legs; however, continued engineering efforts are required to improve the detection performance and resolve the challenges that remain for implementing the stumble detector on prosthetic legs. PMID:21859635

  19. 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications (AIMSA 2006)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications Representation MAS Conclusion Plan 2 / 17 #12; Need of Intelligent Systems Conclusion Need of Intelligent Systems in an Emergency Situation ? Crisis Management Support System

  20. A Hybrid Artificial Immune System and Self Organising Map for Network Intrusion

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    A Hybrid Artificial Immune System and Self Organising Map for Network Intrusion Detection Simon T://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020025507005531.] Key words: Artificial immune system; Self Organizing Map; Intrusion detection; Genetic algorithm be performed. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is designed to detect unauthorised use of, or access to

  1. Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System Steven A. Hofmeyr and Stephanie Forrest

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System Steven A. Hofmeyr and Stephanie Forrest Dept We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context

  2. John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr,forrestg@cs.unm.edu Abstract We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver­ tebrate immune system and places them in the context

  3. An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use detectors, not the generation of competent detectors. 1 INTRODUCTION The biological immune system has been

  4. John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr.unm.edu Abstract We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context

  5. Artificial ion channels regulating light-induced ionic currents in photoelectrical conversion systems.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zheyi; Bao, Han; Wang, Jingtao; Jiang, Chendi; Zhang, Minghui; Zhai, Jin; Jiang, Lei

    2014-04-16

    Artificial ion channels are introduced into a photosystem II photoelectrical conversion system to mimic the photocurrent regulating of the natural PSII energy system on the thylakoid membrane. In the composite system, PSII complexes act as pumps to convert light into currents and artificial ion channels act as valves to regulate light-induced ionic currents. PMID:24347524

  6. K. M. Passino and P. J. Antsaklis, "A System and Control Theoretic Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

    E-print Network

    Antsaklis, Panos

    on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept. of Electrical Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept

  7. MOVIE RECOMENDATION SYSTEMS USING AN ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Q Chen, U Aickelin,

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    (CF) CF is the technology offering users recommendations by getting recommendations from the people systems are implemented using the collaborative filtering technology and AIS, one uses the Weighted KappaMOVIE RECOMENDATION SYSTEMS USING AN ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Q Chen, U Aickelin, qxc

  8. Optimization of solar systems using artificial neural-networks and genetic algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use artificial intelligence methods, like artificial neural-networks and genetic algorithms, to optimize a solar-energy system in order to maximize its economic benefits. The system is modeled using a TRNSYS computer program and the climatic conditions of Cyprus, included in a typical meteorological year (TMY) file. An artificial neural-network is trained using the results

  9. Artificial or variable gravity attained by tether systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    The simplest orbiting tethered system demands for stability that the mass centers of two end bodies be displaced above and below the position of zero acceleration. Therefore, the contents of the end bodies are subjected necessarily to acceleration fields or artificial gravity whose magnitudes depend on the dimensions and masses of the system. If the length of the tether changes, so do the fields. Even for a fixed tether length, the acceleration field at a location in the system may be somewhat variable unless special means are employed to maintain a constant value. These fundamental properties of a tethered system can be used to advantage if small or variable acceleration fields are desired for experimental or operational reasons. This potential use involves a few expressions from a formulation of tether system dynamics. Some of these formulae were collected for convenient use. Two and three body tethered equilibrium equations are explained. A special application of acceleration field control using a tether system is attainment of near-zero gravity. In this applicaition, even small variations about zero become a critical matter.

  10. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  11. Artificial Neural Network for Location Estimation in Wireless Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments. PMID:22736978

  12. Model systems for life processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    In the evolution of life forms nonphotosynthetic mechanisms are developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and analyzed. In the UV search for alternate mechanisms, several different areas may be identified. These involve activated inorganic compounds in the atmosphere, such as the products of photodissociation of carbon dioxide and the organic material which may be created by natural phenomena. In addition, a life system based on the pressure of the atmospheric constituents, such as carbon dioxide, is a possibility. These considerations may be important for the understanding of evolutionary processes of life on another planet. Model systems which depend on these alternative mechanisms are defined and related to presently planned and future planetary missions.

  13. Evolution process of vision system of artificial life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tamura; K. Okazaki; Nian Wen

    1999-01-01

    The vision function is easy to visualize and therefore is the most easy to understand among various human mental activities. We use a genetic algorithm to verify the proposition in a natural manner that it is necessary to have consciousness and abstract consideration ability to carry out higher functions of human activities. It may give partly a solution to the

  14. Hydrothermal systems and the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews current thought about life originating in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Hyperthermophiles obtain food from chemosynthesis of sulfur and have an RNA nucleotide sequence different from bacteria and eucarya. It is postulated that a hyperthermophile may be the common ancestor of all life. Current research efforts focus on the synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems.

  15. A color image watermarking scheme based on artificial immune recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oguz Findik; Ismail Babaoglu; Erkan Ülker

    2011-01-01

    This study suggests a novel watermarking technique that uses artificial immune recognition system to protect color image’s intellectual property rights. The watermark is embedded in the blue channel of a color image. m-bit binary sequence embedded into the color image is used to train artificial immune recognition system. With this composed technique, extracting the watermark which is embedded into the

  16. RESEARCH PAPER Real-world transfer of evolved artificial immune system

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    to seed an idiotypic, artificial immune system (AIS) on the Pioneers. Despite numerous hardware behaviours transfer very well to the larger robot when the idiotypic AIS technique is used. In contrast architecture. Keywords Artificial immune systems (AIS) Á Idiotypic networks Á Evolutionary robotics Á Cross

  17. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  18. The development of core-type Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System for artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Watada, Masaya; Iwawaki, Kenji; Tamada, Tomoyuki; Ouchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo; Um, Yong-Su

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Artificial Heart (AH) is recognized as the alternate method of the heart graft. Though there are many problems and defect on AH, long term durability, miniaturization and weight saving interfaced with flow rate performance, efficiency of device. Considering rehabilitation into the society and advancement of QOL (Quality of Life), the construction of power source which supplies electric power to the device is important and has many problems. Especially, the electric feeder line restricts behavior of the transplant recipient and disturbs rehabilitation into the society. For solving these problems, Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System (TETS) is noticed and studied. This study proposes core-type TETS. It achieves high magnetic coupling compared with air-core-type TETS which is carried out on clinical study. Because core-type TETS has high magnetic coupling, it is possible to reduce the input current and to miniaturize transformer size. This paper mentions the characteristic of core-type TETS. PMID:17281070

  19. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomaryov, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge representation, industrial expert systems, knowledge bases, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, mathematical logic, robots, flexible manufacturing systems, decision-making in computer-aided planning, computerized control systems, artificial intelligence applied systems, computerized simulation, and natural language.

  20. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

  1. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  2. Validation of the Revised Stressful Life Event Questionnaire Using a Hybrid Model of Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sali, Rasoul; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Andalib, Elham; Shavandi, Hassan; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Stressors have a serious role in precipitating mental and somatic disorders and are an interesting subject for many clinical and community-based studies. Hence, the proper and accurate measurement of them is very important. We revised the stressful life event (SLE) questionnaire by adding weights to the events in order to measure and determine a cut point. Methods. A total of 4569 adults aged between 18 and 85 years completed the SLE questionnaire and the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). A hybrid model of genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) was applied to extract the relation between the stressful life events (evaluated by a 6-point Likert scale) and the GHQ score as a response variable. In this model, GA is used in order to set some parameter of ANN for achieving more accurate results. Results. For each stressful life event, the number is defined as weight. Among all stressful life events, death of parents, spouse, or siblings is the most important and impactful stressor in the studied population. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 81% were obtained for the cut point 100. Conclusion. The SLE-revised (SLE-R) questionnaire despite simplicity is a high-performance screening tool for investigating the stress level of life events and its management in both community and primary care settings. The SLE-R questionnaire is user-friendly and easy to be self-administered. This questionnaire allows the individuals to be aware of their own health status. PMID:23476715

  3. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Rami J; Abdulhay, Enas W; Khayal, Amer; Awad, Areen

    2014-09-01

    Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques. PMID:25179722

  4. Life Table and Laboratory Rearing of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on two Artificial Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus), is a rather destructive pest and has been reported responsible for an estimated $ 6.5 millions dollars in costs associated with crop loss and insecticide costs across the US. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for using artifici...

  5. An Artificial Immune System as a Recommender for Web Sites Proceedings of the 1st Internal Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 161-169, Canterbury, UK, 2002.

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    An Artificial Immune System as a Recommender for Web Sites Proceedings of the 1st Internal Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 161-169, Canterbury, UK, 2002. Tom Morrison of Computer Science University of Nottingham NG8 1BB UK uxa@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract Artificial Immune Systems

  6. A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Thomas M., III

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

  7. Promising synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories

    SciTech Connect

    Oren, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    Simulation is viewed within the model management paradigm. Major components of simulation systems as well as elements of model management are outlined. Possible synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories are systematized. 21 references.

  8. Influence of adjustments to amputation and artificial limb on quality of life in patients following lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Richa; van den Heuvel, Wim J A; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between adjustments to amputation and artificial limb, and quality of life (QoL), and to analyse the influence of sociodemographic, medical and amputation-related factors on this relationship. Patients with unilateral and noncongenital lower limb amputation who were using artificial limb were interviewed (n=368) using structured questionnaires. The Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) were used to assess adjustments to amputation and artificial limb and the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary of QoL. Absence of comorbidity and residual stump pain, being employed, young age, less functional restriction, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and less restriction in athletic activity were related to better PCS scores. Absence of comorbidity and phantom limb pain, nonuse of assistive device, being more adjusted to limitation, increased social adjustment and being less functionally restricted were related to higher MCS scores. Comorbidity had a modifying effect on both PCS and MCS scores. In addition, age, being employed and residual stump pain had a modifying influence on PCS, whereas assistive device use and phantom limb pain had a modifying influence on MCS. Our findings show that TAPES subscales have a modifying effect on the associations between several background (sociodemographic and amputation characteristics) and QoL (PCS and MCS). This indicates that adjustments to amputation and artificial limb are the key determinants of QoL in individuals following lower limb amputation. PMID:24157864

  9. Development of an implantable high-energy and compact battery system for artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, E; Inoue, T; Watanabe, K; Hashimoto, T; Iwazawa, E; Abe, Y; Chinzei, T; Isoyama, T; Kobayashi, S; Saito, I; Sato, F; Matsuki, H; Imachi, K; Mitamura, Y

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of the use of an implantable, high-energy, and compact battery system for an undulation pump total artificial heart (UPTAH). The implantable battery system tested consists of six lithium-ion batteries in series, a charge unit, and a charge/discharge control unit. A lithium-ion battery is currently the best energy-storage device because it has more energy density, a better life cycle, and a smaller temperature rise than those of other secondary batteries. The performance of the implantable battery system was evaluated in an in vitro experiment using an electric load that simulated the UPTAH. Also, sufficiently reliable operation of a system for supplying energy to a UPTAH consisting of a transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) and an implantable battery system was confirmed in three experiments using goats. The results of the in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the implantable battery system supplied sufficient current to the UPTAH for maintenance of physiological conditions in the goat with maximum rise in temperature to less than 43 degrees C. PMID:12580777

  10. Artificial photosynthesis: Progress toward molecular systems for photoconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in identifying the criteria necessary to design molecular systems for the efficient photochemical separation of charge over extended periods of time. Our own research in this area has focused on preparing supramolecular assemblies of electron donors and acceptors which fulfill the biomimetic criteria dictated by photosynthetic charge separation in Nature. First, it is important that the electron donors and acceptors occupy structurally well-defined spatial relationships relative to one another. A key consequence of studying well-defined structures is the simplification of mechanistic arguments that are used to describe electron transfer events in these systems. Second, the electronic coupling between the donors and acceptors must be controlled by the structure to insure that strong coupling results in rapid charge separation from the initial donor-acceptor state, and that weak coupling in the product ion pair state slows charge recombination. Considerations of electronic structure and orbital symmetry are necessary to achieve this goal. Third, the surrounding medium plays a critical role in determining the rates of electron transfer reactions. This is especially true when charges are created or annihilated in electron transfer reactions. Once again, Nature provides a high standard to be achieved. Photosynthetic reaction centers are fully competent in the solid state, even at very low temperatures, undergoing charge separation with unity quantum yield at temperatures < 4.2K. In order for our artificial photosynthetic systems to have general applicability as photocatalysts, it is highly desirable to have systems that are fully functional in the solid state.

  11. Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.

    2013-04-01

    Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

  12. Implications of Human Pattern Processing for the Design of Artificial Knowledge Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    This paper presents evidence that four design principles commonly embodied in artificial knowledge systems are inconsistent with human cognitive capabilities. Because these principles are widely accepted as characteristics of human knowledge processing, common theoretical properties related to cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence which…

  13. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Lima; Luis Custódio

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence The research has been developed under the SocRob project, jointly carried out by the Intelligent Control and Artificial Intelligence Laboratories at ISR\\/IST. The acronym of the project stands both for \\

  14. Numerical simulation of the system artificial satellites motion by parallel computing. (Russian Title: ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Avdyushev, V. A.; Chuvashov, I. N.; Aleksandrova, A. G.; Tomilova, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper features of numerical simulation of the large-scale system artificial satellites motion by parallel computing is discussed per example instantiation program complex "Numerical model of the system artificial satellites motion" in cluster "Skiff Cyberia". It is shown that using of parallel computing allows to implement simultaneously high-precision numerical simulation of the motion of large-scale system artificial satellites. It opens comprehensive facilities in solve direct and regressive problems of dynamics such satellite system as GLONASS and objects of space debris.

  15. Multi-Agent Artificial Immune Systems (MAAIS) for Intrusion Detection: Abstraction from Danger Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-ming Ou; Chung-ren Ou

    2009-01-01

    Danger theory-inspired Multi-agent artificial immune system (MAAIS) is applied to intrusion detection systems (IDS). Antigens\\u000a are profiles of system calls while corresponding behaviors are regarded as signals. The intelligence behind such system is\\u000a based on the danger theory while dentricit cells agents (DC agent) are emulated for innate immune subsystem and artificial\\u000a T-cell agents (TC agent) are for adaptive immune

  16. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for advanced life support.

  17. Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

  18. A neural network based artificial vision system for licence plate recognition Sorin Draghici, Dept. of Computer Science, Wayne State University,

    E-print Network

    Draghici, Sorin

    A neural network based artificial vision system for licence plate recognition Sorin Draghici, Dept based artificial vision system able to analyse the image of a car given by a camera, locate plate, real-world application #12;A neural network based artificial vision system for licence plate

  19. Honey characterization using computer vision system and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid; Moghaddam-Charkari, Nasrollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports the development of a computer vision system (CVS) for non-destructive characterization of honey based on colour and its correlated chemical attributes including ash content (AC), antioxidant activity (AA), and total phenolic content (TPC). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to transform RGB values of images to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric measurements and to predict AC, TPC and AA from colour features of images. The developed ANN models were able to convert RGB values to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric parameters with low generalization error of 1.01±0.99. In addition, the developed models for prediction of AC, TPC and AA showed high performance based on colour parameters of honey images, as the R(2) values for prediction were 0.99, 0.98, and 0.87, for AC, AA and TPC, respectively. The experimental results show the effectiveness and possibility of applying CVS for non-destructive honey characterization by the industry. PMID:24767037

  20. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  1. Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

  2. Battery Life Estimation of Mobile Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debashis Panigrahi; Sujit Dey; Ramesh R. Rao; Kanishka Lahiri; Carla-fabiana Chiasserini; Anand Raghunathan

    2001-01-01

    Since battery life directly impacts the extent and duration of mobility, one of the key considerations in the design of a mo- bile embedded system should be to maximize the energy de- livered by the battery, and hence the battery lifetime. To facil- itate exploration of alternative implementations for a mobile embedded system, in this paper we address the issue

  3. Animat Vision - Active Vision in Artificial Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamer F. Rabie

    1999-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision research which draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the prevailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artificial animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as autonomous virtual robots with active perception systems. To be operative in its world,

  4. Life without a Systems Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Terence K.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, it's possible to look to the open Web for subscription-based services that allow one to sidestep slow-moving institutions in order to serve one's users. More often than not, systems offices will not interfere, as they're heavily involved in triaging their workload. Happily, taking an active stance in learning a new technology before it…

  5. An artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults

    SciTech Connect

    Illi, O.J. Jr. [Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Knowledge Engineering Group (KEG); Greitzer, F.L.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Reeve, T. [Expert Solutions, Stratford, CT (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tank`s AGT-1500 gas turbine engine. This paper describes the design and prototype development of the ANN component of the diagnostic system, which we refer to as ``TEDANN`` for Turbine Engine Diagnostic Artificial Neural Networks.

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

  7. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  8. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  9. Long life reliability thermal control systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Killen, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a program undertaken to conceptually design and evaluate a passive, high reliability, long life thermal control system for space station application are presented. The program consisted of four steps: (1) investigate and select potential thermal system elements; (2) conceive, evaluate and select a thermal control system using these elements; (3) conduct a verification test of a prototype segment of the selected system; and (4) evaluate the utilization of waste heat from the power supply. The result of this project is a conceptual thermal control system design which employs heat pipes as primary components, both for heat transport and temperature control. The system, its evaluation, and the test results are described.

  10. Explosives and landmine detection using an artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Kauer, John S.

    2004-09-01

    We are developing a portable, artificial olfactory system based on multiple attributes of the sense of smell to identify air-borne odors, including those associated with buried landmines. Brief (1-2 sec) air samples are drawn over an array of optically-interrogated, cross-reactive chemical sensors. These consist of polymers with high sensitivity and relatively narrow specificity for nitroaromatics (Timothy Swager, MIT), as well as those with broader responses, thus permitting discrimination among substances that may be confused for nitroaromatics. Biologically-based pattern matching algorithms automatically identify odors as one of several to which the device has been trained. In discrimination tests, after training to one concentration of 6 odors, the device gave 95% correct identification when tested at the original plus three different concentrations. Thus, as required in real world applications, the device can identify odors at multiple concentrations without explicitly training on each. In sensitivity tests, the device showed 100% detection and no false alarms for the landmine-related compound DNT at concentrations as low as 500 pp-trillion (quantified by GC/MS) - 10 times lower than average canine behavioral thresholds. To investigate landmine detection capabilities, field studies were conducted at Ft. Leonard Wood, MO. In calibration tests, signals from buried PMA1A anti-personnel landmines were clearly discriminated from background. In a limited 9 site "blind" test, PMA1A detection was 100% with false alarms of 40%. Although requiring further development, these data indicate that a device with appropriate sensors and exploiting olfactory principles can detect and discriminate low concentration vapor signatures, including those of buried landmines.

  11. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  12. Study on The Intelligence Control System of Artificial Cooling Source in Architecture

    E-print Network

    Yang, Z.; Xu, X.

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the shortcoming of constant temperature and humidity in artificial cooling source control system, a dynamic indoor temperature control strategy was put forward under health and thermal comfortable principles. With a lump human model...

  13. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  14. Life systems for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mark; Hawes, Philip B.; Augustine, Margret

    1992-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 project is pioneering work on life systems that can serve as a prototype for long-term habitation on the Moon. This project will also facilitate the understanding of the smaller systems that will be needed for initial lunar base life-support functions. In its recommendation for a policy for the next 50 years in space, the National Commission on Space urged, 'To explore and settle the inner Solar System, we must develop biospheres of smaller size, and learn how to build and maintain them' (National Commission on Space, 1986). The Biosphere 2 project, along with its Biospheric Research and Development Center, is a materially closed and informationally and energetically open system capable of supporting a human crew of eight, undertaking work to meet this need. This paper gives an overview of the Space Biospheres Ventures' endeavor and its lunar applications.

  15. Applications of artificial neural networks in energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A Kalogirou

    1999-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems and, once trained, can perform prediction and generalisation at high speed. They have

  16. Applications of artificial neural-networks for energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    2000-01-01

    Artificial neural networks offer an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems, and once trained can perform predictions and generalisations at high speed. They have been used in diverse applications in

  17. Decision theory in expert systems and artificial intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Horvitz; John S. Breese; Max Henrion

    1988-01-01

    Despite their different perspectives, artificial intelligence (AI) and the disciplines of decision science have common roots and strive for similar goals. This paper surveys the potential for addressing problems in representation, inference, knowledge engineering, and explanation within the decision-theoretic framework. Recent analyses of the restrictions of several traditional AI reasoning techniques, coupled with the development of more tractable and expressive

  18. A Taxonomy of the Evolution of Artificial Neural Systems

    E-print Network

    Mayer, Helmut A.

    , and in recent history machines, extend the physical capabilities of humans. With the advent of computers, where not only the neural (physical) structures are evolved, but also other aspects of an artificial capabilities of living organisms. Especially, the form of intelligence attributed to humans has inspired

  19. Artificial neural networks in renewable energy systems applications: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems and, once trained, can perform prediction and generalisation at high speed. They have

  20. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer. Water from the Infiltration pond, the unsaturated zone and groundwater have been sampled and analyzed in order to elucidate the effect of the reactive layer. First results of micropollutants under natural conditions show significant removal rates of atenolol and Ibuprofen as well as the recalcitrant behaviour of carbamazepine. Once the layer was installed, carbamazepine concentration in groundwater samples was lower than the concentration in the infiltration water. These preliminary results are promising but, however, they need to be confirmed by further analysis, which will be conducted during the next weeks.

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  2. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  3. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  4. Funes, P. and Pollack, J. (1997) Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects. Fourth European Conference on Artificial Life. P. Husbands and I. Harvey, eds., MIT Press. pp 358-367.

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    Conference on Artificial Life. P. Husbands and I. Harvey, eds., MIT Press. pp 358-367. knowledge had a surprisingly alien look: they are not based in common knowledge on how to build with brick toys-9110 {pablo,pollack}@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Creating artificial life forms through evolutionary robotics

  5. Preliminary study of a new type of energy transmission system for artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Toshinaga; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Abe, Yusuke; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Ono, Toshiya; Kouno, Akimasa; Ishimaru, Mitsuhiko; Mochizuki, Shuuichi; Takiura, Koki; Baba, Atsushi; Toyama, Takahiro; Imachi, Kou

    2003-01-01

    A transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system is the most common way to power artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices. However, an external battery used with a TET system poses several problems, such as its heavy mass, small charge capacity, and long recharging time. The battery is indispensable when patients want to be ambulatory. This article proposes a new type of TET system that does not require an external battery because electrical energy is supplied remotely by using electromagnetic waves. For this system to operate, multiple transmitting antennas have to be mounted in a room or facility that has been shielded from electromagnetic waves, and a receiving antenna is attached to the patient. Electromagnetic waves transmit electrical power from the transmitting antennas to the receiving antenna. The received electrical power is sent to an implanted device through the TET system. The total power efficiency was plotted against the transmitter-receiver distance by measuring the power that was input to the transmitting antennas, and the final direct current (DC) power that was received by the receiving antenna. A 430-MHz frequency was applied in the experiments. The obtained efficiency was around 10% within a transmitter-receiver distance of 1 m when Yagi-Uda antennas were used for the transmitting antennas and two other types of antenna were used for the receiving antennas: a folded dipole with a reflector and a single loop with a reflector. The results suggested that the proposed system is worth considering. The proposed system would go a long way toward enhancing the patient's quality of life compared with the currently used conventional TET system. PMID:14598119

  6. The origins of intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Steels, Luc

    The origins of intelligence. Luc Steels Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Vrije Universiteit using an artificial life perspective. 1 Introduction Where does intelligence come from? How can we Erba Foundation Meeting on Artificial Life. Fondazione Carlo Erba. Milano 1996.) March 12, 1996

  7. 1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  8. in: German Workshop on Artificial Life (GWAL'2000), Bayreuth, 5.7. April, 2000 (in print) Towards a Theory of Organizations

    E-print Network

    Dittrich, Peter

    in: German Workshop on Artificial Life (GWAL'2000), Bayreuth, 5.­7. April, 2000 (in print) Towards a Theory of Organizations Pietro Speroni di Fenizio, Peter Dittrich, Wolfgang Banzhaf, and Jens Ziegler an algebra to describe organizations. Its application is demon­ strated with five examples. We start from

  9. Benefits and Limitations of factitious prey and artificial diets on life parameters of predatory beetles, bugs, and lacewings: A mini-review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary, peer-reviewed literature, published from 1998-2007, pertaining to rearing of predatory beetles, true bugs and lacewings was reviewed and synthesized. Advances in rearing were revealed in relation to the influence of factitious prey and artificial diets on predator life parameters. Egg...

  10. A Hybrid Approach Towards Intrusion Detection Based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing

    E-print Network

    Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    A number of works in the field of intrusion detection have been based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing. Artificial Immune System based approaches attempt to leverage the adaptability, error tolerance, self- monitoring and distributed nature of Human Immune Systems. Whereas Soft Computing based approaches are instrumental in developing fuzzy rule based systems for detecting intrusions. They are computationally intensive and apply machine learning (both supervised and unsupervised) techniques to detect intrusions in a given system. A combination of these two approaches could provide significant advantages for intrusion detection. In this paper we attempt to leverage the adaptability of Artificial Immune System and the computation intensive nature of Soft Computing to develop a system that can effectively detect intrusions in a given network.

  11. Early life-history dynamics of Caribbean coral species on artificial substratum: the importance of competition, growth and variation in life-history strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeij, M. J. A.

    2006-03-01

    The development of a coral community was monitored for 6 years (1998-2004) on 46 m2 of artificial settlement substrate in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Growth and survival of recruits ( n=1385) belonging to 16 different species were quantified in relation to characteristics of the benthic community developing around them. The early life history dynamics (i.e. growth rate, growth strategy and survival) of corals differed among species although these differences were small for species occupying similar habitats (i.e. underside versus topside of substratum). In contrast to recruit survival, juvenile growth rates were highly variable and unrelated to benthic community structure, at least at the scale of this study. Competing benthic organisms affected coral recruitment success through space preemption (mainly by macroalgae) or recruit overgrowth (mainly by sponges). The results highlight the small spatial scale (mm-cm) at which the processes responsible for recruitment success or failure occur and emphasize the need to include such small-scale observations in studies of coral early life-phase dynamics.

  12. Towards the evolution of an artificial homeostatic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renan C. Moioli; Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Fernando J. Von Zuben; Phil Husbands

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial homeostatic sys- tem (AHS) devoted to the autonomous navigation of mobile robots, with emphasis on neuro-endocrine interactions. The AHS is composed of two modules, each one associated with a particular reactive task and both implemented using an extended version of the GasNet neural model, denoted spatially unconstrained GasNet model or simply non-spatial GasNet (NS- GasNet).

  13. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    SciTech Connect

    Shitara, Shingo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Masaharu [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Tomizuka, Kazuma [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan)], E-mail: ktomizuka@kirin.co.jp

    2008-05-09

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

  14. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  15. A new condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system of induction motors using artificial intelligence algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian Han; Bo-Suk Yang; Jong Moon Lee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system for induction motors is proposed by integrating artificial intelligence algorithms: principal component analysis (PCA), genetic algorithm (GA) and an artificial neural network (ANN). As main diagnosis media of fault motor, three-direction vibration signals and three-phase stator current signals are selected to measure. Multi-sensor measurement results in lots of data transfer

  16. A Game-Engine-Based Platform for Modeling and Computing Artificial Transportation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinghai Miao; Fenghua Zhu; Yisheng Lv; Changjian Cheng; Cheng Chen; Xiaogang Qiu

    2011-01-01

    A game-engine-based modeling and computing plat- form for artificial transportation systems (ATSs) is introduced. As an important feature, the artificial-population module (APM) is described in both its macroscopic and microcosmic aspects. In this module, each person is designed similarly to the actors in games. The traffic-simulation module (TSM) is another im- portant module, which takes advantage of Delta3D to construct

  17. Selected Life-History Traits of Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Reared on Three Artificial Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

    2002-01-01

    Hermetia illucens (L.) was reared on three larval diets to determine their effects on preimaginal development and selected adult life-history traits. Prepupal and adult characteristics were examined for individuals reared on each diet and compared with Þeld-collected prepupae and corresponding emergent adults. Diet did not signiÞcantly inßuence development or survivorship to the prepupal stage. However, adult emergence for all diets

  18. Design of an Artificial Immune System as a Novel Anomaly Detector Combating Financial Fraud in the Retail Sector

    E-print Network

    Overill, Richard E.

    Design of an Artificial Immune System as a Novel Anomaly Detector for Combating Financial Fraud of the human immune system. This novel artificial immune system, called CIFD (Computer Immune system for Fraud implementing analogies of various salient features of the human immune system (HIS). The negative selection

  19. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an overview of the field of artificial intelligence. The work emphasizes natural language comprehension and knowledge-based reasoning by computers and analyzes the main difficulties involved in making intelligent programs. Representations of knowledge and reasoning mechanisms are provided and applications of artificial intelligence techniques in the development of expert systems are explored.

  20. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  1. The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Proceedings of the 1st Internat Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 141-148, Canterbury, UK, 2002.

    E-print Network

    Francalanza, Adrian

    The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems Proceedings of the 1st Internat Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 141-148, Canterbury, UK, 2002. Uwe Aickelin School in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing

  2. Collaborative Software Engineering of the Life-Critical Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENISS KUMLANDER

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative software engineering approach for the life-critical systems is proposed in this paper. Life- critical systems are systems, where any fault can produce a danger for humans or can be extremely expensive. The life- critical systems' development is well known as expensive and slow one. Mostly it is because of its nature - fault-free development. The approach to be

  3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR INTELLIGENT REAL TIME POWER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajith Abraham; Baikunth Nath

    Most of the modern industrial power quality monitoring systems are used for the pre-fault alarming and load flow analysis. In this paper, we present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for intelligent utilization of power and for monitoring the power quality. The proposed ANN system will assist the conventional monitoring systems with added intelligence. For on-line monitoring, voltage and current

  4. ARTIFICIAL INTELIGENCE TECHNIQUES IN AN EVALUATION AND DECISION SYSTEM FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolae Morariu

    The paper presents the integration of some artificial inteligence techniques within an evaluation and decision taking system in economic activity. The proposed intelligent system incorporates an expert system and a learning machine. As learning machine, a software product realised by the author in Visual Basic for Application in Excel is presented. The product was designed to classify and recognize patterns

  5. AISEC: an Artificial Immune System for E-mail Classification Andrew Secker

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    AISEC: an Artificial Immune System for E-mail Classification Andrew Secker Computing Laboratory-interesting material is increasing. Drawing analogies from the biological immune system, this paper presents an immune an immune-inspired approach we believe the final system will have the ability to dynamically determine

  6. COMPARISON BETWEEN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND NEURO- FUZZY SYSTEMS IN MODELING AND CONTROL: A CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José António Barros Vieira; Fernando Morgado Dias; Alexandre Manuel Mot

    This article presents a comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro- Fuzzy Systems applied for modeling and controlling a real system. The main objective is to control the temperature inside of a ceramics kiln. The details of all system components are described. The steps taken to arrive at the direct and inverse models using the two architectures: Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy

  7. Real time road sign recognition system using artificial neural networks for bengali textual information box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Osiur Rahman; Fouzia Asharf Mousumi; Edgar Scavino; Aini Hussain; Hassan Basri

    2008-01-01

    An Automated Road Sign Recognition system using Artificial Neural Network for the Textual Information box inscribing in Bengali is presented in this paper. The system captures real time images every two seconds and saves them as JPG format files. The system processes the images to find out whether they contain images of road signs or not. The textual information of

  8. Real Time Road Sign Recognition System Using Artificial Neural Networks for Bengali Textual Information Box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Osiur Rahman; Fouzia Asharf Mousumi; Edgar Scavino

    2009-01-01

    An Automated Road Sign Recognition system using Artificial Neural Network for the Textual Information box inscribing in Bengali is presented in this paper. The system captures real time images every two seconds and saves them as JPG format files. The system processes the images to find out whether they contain images of road signs or not. The textual information of

  9. Robot Vision System and Artificial Neural Network for Model Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zi Ma; Huipu Xu; Ying Hu; Jin Huang; Hu Dong

    2006-01-01

    A novel vision system and model reconstruction scheme is addressed in this article. The main contribution contains two aspects: first, robot with laser scanning head is used for establishing a vision system, this system can measure 3D surface data for complex freeform surface on line at manufacturing site. Then, using artificial neural network (ANN), a model reconstruction algorithm is developed.

  10. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  11. Knowledge Based Systems and Artificial Intelligence Introduction to Rational Decisions

    E-print Network

    Pizurica, Aleksandra

    a logical agent can only make binary distinction between good and bad (i.e., goal and non-goal) states for Russian roulette, paying to reduce product risks, etc. QALY: quality-adjusted life years useful

  12. Video Communications Systems 2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide

    E-print Network

    LifeSize® Video Communications Systems User Guide #12;2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User-9301 #12;LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide 3 Welcome to LifeSize Video Communications Systems LifeSize high definition video communications systems enable anyone with dispersed colleagues

  13. Hybrid Intelligent Packing System (HIPS) through integration of Artificial Neural Networks, Artificial Intelligence, and mathematical programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Bahrami; Cihan H. Dagli

    1994-01-01

    A successful solution to the packing problem is a major step toward material savings on the scrap that could be avoided in the cutting process and therefore money savings. Although the problem is of great interest, no satisfactory algorithm has been found that can be applied to all the possible situations. This paper models a Hybrid Intelligent Packing System (HIPS)

  14. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  15. Design and performance of heart assist or artificial heart control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Gebben, V. D.

    1978-01-01

    The factors leading to the design of a controlled driving system for either a heart assist pump or artificial heart are discussed. The system provides square pressure waveform to drive a pneumatic-type blood pump. For assist usage the system uses an R-wave detector circuit that can detect the R-wave of the electrocardiogram in the presence of electrical disturbances. This circuit provides a signal useful for synchronizing an assist pump with the natural heart. It synchronizes a square wave circuit, the output of which is converted into square waveforms of pneumatic pressure suitable for driving both assist device and artificial heart. The pressure levels of the driving waveforms are controlled by means of feedback channels to maintain physiological regulation of the artificial heart's output flow. A more compact system that could achieve similar regulatory characteristics is also discussed.

  16. [Strength of the In-Ceram system under mechanical loads and thermocycling in artificial saliva].

    PubMed

    Kappert, H F; Knode, H; Schultheiss, R

    1991-02-01

    The mechanical strength of the new oxide ceramic system In-Ceram introduced by Vita (Bad Säckingen, Germany) was investigated by an in-vitro study for its mechanical strength and suitabilities for use as posterior three-unit bridges. The transverse strength value measured by a three-point bending test (DIN 13,927) is 320 MPa and the maximum vertical load on three-unit bridges until brittle failure occurs is in the range of 1000 to 1350 N. This is up to four times higher than corresponding values of other ceramics, e.g. Dicor (Dentsply) or Optec (Jeneric). The dental bridges were luted to metallic pontics, and a layer of silicon rubber simulating the periodontal membrane, separated the pontic from a resin base in the testing machine. Life value tests were performed before and after 10 days of thermocycling at temperatures alternating between 5 and 55 degrees C in artificial saliva. Although the pontics had a much higher mobility than normal teeth, the fatigue limit was found to be above 600 N which is much higher than the average biting forces acting on the first and second molars. PMID:1814705

  17. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems facing researchers in the design of a life support system is to construct it so that it will be capable of regulating waste materials and gases, while at the same time supporting the inhabitants with adequate food and oxygen. The basis of any gaseous life supporting cycle is autotrophs (plants that photosynthesize). The major problem is to get the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the animals to be equivalent to the assimilatory quotient (AQ) of the plants. A technique is being developed to control the gas exchange. The goal is to determine the feasibility of manipulating the plant's AQ by altering the plants environment in order to eliminate the mismatch between the plant's AQ and the animal's RQ.

  18. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed F.; Elarini, Mahdi M.; Othman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt. PMID:25685507

  19. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed F; Elarini, Mahdi M; Othman, Ahmed M

    2014-05-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt. PMID:25685507

  20. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  1. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  2. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  3. Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, V. Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

  4. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the photocatalytic mechanisms of H2/O2 evolution and CO2 reduction at the molecular level and to bridge natural and artificial photosynthesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid photocatalyst, biomimetic molecular cocatalysts, and semiconductor light harvester for artificial photosynthesis and therefore provide a promising approach for rational design and construction of highly efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. PMID:23730891

  5. An approach for catalyst design in artificial photosynthetic systems: focus on nanosized inorganic cores within proteins.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-11-01

    Some enzymes can be considered as a catalyst having a nanosized inorganic core in a protein matrix. In some cases, the metal oxide or sulfide clusters, which can be considered as cofactors in enzymes, may be recruited for use in other related reactions in artificial photosynthetic systems. In other words, one approach to design efficient and environmentally friendly catalysts in artificial photosynthetic systems for the purpose of utilizing sunlight to generate high energy intermediates or useful material is to select and utilize inorganic cores of enzymes. For example, one of the most important goals in developing artificial photosynthesis is hydrogen production. However, first, it is necessary to find a "super catalyst" for water oxidation, which is the most challenging half reaction of water splitting. There is an efficient system for water oxidation in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Published data on the Mn-Ca cluster have provided details on the mechanism and structure of the water oxidizing complex as a Mn-Ca nanosized inorganic core in photosystem II. Progress has been made in introducing Mn-Ca oxides as efficient catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthetic systems. Here, in the interest of designing efficient catalysts for other important reactions in artificial photosynthesis, a few examples of our knowledge of inorganic cores of proteins, and how Nature used them for important reactions, are discussed. PMID:23377954

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  7. Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

  8. Security Observance throughout the Life-Cycle of Embedded Systems

    E-print Network

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    Security Observance throughout the Life-Cycle of Embedded Systems S. Hasan Mirjalili, Arjen K. Lenstra IV, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract - Embedded systems are an established part of life is considered from the beginning of the design of embedded systems throughout their entire life-cycle. In our

  9. A comparison of artificial diet and hybrid sweet corn for the rearing of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on life table characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna K; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li- Cheng

    2012-02-01

    The demographic characteristics of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) reared on hybrid sweet corn (Zea mays L. variety saccharata) (hybrid super sweet corn KY bright jean) and on an artificial diet were compared by using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Because the hatch rate of eggs varies with maternal age, age-specific fecundity was calculated based on the numbers of hatched eggs to reveal the biological characteristics of H. armigera accurately. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (?) and mean generation time (T) of H. armigera were 0.0853 d(-1), 1.0890 d(-1), and 46.6 d, respectively, on Z. mays and 0.1015 d(-1), 1.1068 d(-1), and 46.3 d, respectively, on the artificial diet. There were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate between two treatments. The age-stage life expectancy and reproductive value also were calculated. The relationships among the net reproductive rate, the mean female fecundity, the number of emerged females, and the total number of individuals used in the life table study are consistent with theoretical expectations. We recommend the age-stage, two-sex life table for use in insect demographic studies to incorporate both sexes and the variation in developmental rate among individuals and to obtain accurate population parameters. The artificial diet is more suitable for the mass rearing of H. armigera. PMID:22525057

  10. An intelligent system for the spectral classification of stars - artificial neural networks vs. statistical clustering techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra Rodríguez; Carlos Dafonte; Bernardino Arcay Varela; Iciar Carricajo; Minia Manteiga

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent system for the classification of low-resolution optical spectra of the stars in the current standard MK system. We propose a comparative analysis of two techniques, artificial neural networks and statistical clustering algorithms, applied to the spectral classification of a sample of approximately 258 optical spectra from public catalogues. We do not only intend to analyze

  11. An Improved System for Artificial Creatures Evolution Thomas Miconi1 and Alastair Channon1

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    An Improved System for Artificial Creatures Evolution Thomas Miconi1 and Alastair Channon1 1 complete reimplementation of Karl Sims' system for evolving and coevolving autonomous creatures in a physically realistic three-dimensional (3D) environment. Creatures are articulated structures composed

  12. Source tracking of microbial intrusion in water systems using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minyoung Kim; Christopher Y. Choi; Charles P. Gerba

    2008-01-01

    A “what-if” scenario where biological agents are accidentally or deliberately introduced into a water system was generated, and artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to identify the pathogenic release location to isolate the contaminated area and minimize its hazards. The spatiotemporal distribution of Escherichia coli 15597 along the water system was employed to locate pollutants by inversely interpreting transport

  13. Biologically motivated active vision system using artificial retina chip and shape memory alloy actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Cheol Kim; Jung-Hwan Kim; Minho Lee; Jang-Kyoo Shin; Hiroo Yonezu

    2002-01-01

    We developed a new active vision system using an artificial retina chip and the shape memory alloy actuator. A foveated COMS retina chip for edge detection has been fabricated for an image sensor of the developed system, and the shape memory alloy actuator is used for tracking a desired target as ocular muscles. Also, we proposed a new computational model

  14. Text-Based Systems and Information Management: Artificial Intelligence Confronts Matters of Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Jacobs

    1994-01-01

    Many of the more ambitious goals of artificial intelligence have proved unattainable because of the failure of the many small, successful systems to scale up. The general use of technologies such as natural language interfaces and expert systems has done little to alleviate the basic difficulties and overwhelming cost of knowledge engineering. At the same time, emerging text processing techniques,

  15. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  16. Development and Application of a Three-Dimensional Artificial Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, James M.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; Fay, Frederic S.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional artificial visual system has been developed to aid in the analysis of three-dimensional fluorescence images of smooth muscle cells. The artificial visual system consists of three sets of three-dimensional spatial filters that locate the discrete bodies of protein concentration in a cell, classify the concentration bodies as globular or oval, and determine the three-dimensional orientation of the oval bodies. A graphic model of the protein distribution is then created. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

  17. A Paradigmatic Example of an Artificially Intelligent Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely; Burton, Richard R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the philosophy of intelligent instructional systems and presents an example of such a system, BLOCKS. The notion of BLOCKS as a paradigmatic system is explicated from both the system development and educational points of view. (Author/VT)

  18. Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Fox, Mark S.

    Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 301 Mark S. Fox Intelligent Systems Laboratory and future applicationsof Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufactur- ing is taking a systemic view of manufacturing. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing, Knowl- edge

  19. Integrative Systems View of Life: Perspectives from General Systems Thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yasha Kresh

    The application of systems thinking and the principles of general systems science to problems in the life sciences is not\\u000a a new endeavor. In the 1960s systems theory and biology attracted the interest of many notable biologists, cyberneticists,\\u000a mathematicians, and engineers. The avalanche of new quantitative data (genome, proteome, physiome) incited by the boundless\\u000a advances in molecular and cellular biology

  20. Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

  1. Detection Technique for Artificially Illuminated Objects in the Outer Solar System and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10?3. Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope ? ? (d log F/d log D)=?4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit ?=?2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of ? for thousands of KBOs. If objects with ?=?2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. Key Words: Astrobiology—SETI—Kuiper belt objects—Artificial illumination. Astrobiology 12, 290–294. PMID:22490065

  2. A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity. PMID:23983638

  3. How to build an information gathering and processing system: lessons from naturally and artificially intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Jackie; Demery, Zoe P; Arriola-Rios, Veronica; Sloman, Aaron

    2012-02-01

    Imagine a situation in which you had to design a physical agent that could collect information from its environment, then store and process that information to help it respond appropriately to novel situations. What kinds of information should it attend to? How should the information be represented so as to allow efficient use and re-use? What kinds of constraints and trade-offs would there be? There are no unique answers. In this paper, we discuss some of the ways in which the need to be able to address problems of varying kinds and complexity can be met by different information processing systems. We also discuss different ways in which relevant information can be obtained, and how different kinds of information can be processed and used, by both biological organisms and artificial agents. We analyse several constraints and design features, and show how they relate both to biological organisms, and to lessons that can be learned from building artificial systems. Our standpoint overlaps with Karmiloff-Smith (1992) in that we assume that a collection of mechanisms geared to learning and developing in biological environments are available in forms that constrain, but do not determine, what can or will be learnt by individuals. PMID:22008634

  4. Application of mobile autonomous robots to artificial intelligence and information systems curricula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Fendrich; Christos Nikolopoulos

    1998-01-01

    Applies pedagogical ideas of teaching curricula by using strategies of themes and breadth-first coverage, together with the technology of intelligent agents (e.g. mobile autonomous robots), to a system of courses in computer science (artificial intelligence) and information systems (systems engineering). The project brings the issues and constraints of real-time systems, especially the programming component, to students in computer science and

  5. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned envelope types. Energy consumption data, along with various other details, such as building floor area, areas of walls, columns, beams etc. and their material types were imported into Life-Cycle Assessment software called ATHENA impact estimator for buildings. Using this four-stepped LCA methodology, the results showed that the Steel Stud envelope performed the best and less environmental impact compared to other envelope types. This research methodology can be applied to other building typologies.

  7. Reliability in the whole life cycle of building systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaomin Wu; Derek Clements-Croome; Vic Fairey; Bob Albany; Jogi Sidhu; Duncan Desmond; Keith Neale

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to show that reliability analysis and its implementation will lead to an improved whole life performance of the building systems, and hence their life cycle costs (LCC). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper analyses reliability impacts on the whole life cycle of building systems, and reviews the up-to-date approaches adopted in UK construction, based

  8. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  9. Life Stress and Illness: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Christie-Seely, Janet

    1983-01-01

    The link between stress and illness has been forged by researchers like Holmes and Rahe whose Social Readjustment Rating Scale can be used by family physicians to assess their patients' stress. The concept of stress has been clarified by the systems approach to illness. Stress and illness are embedded in a biopsychosocial matrix of several systems levels, each of which may be a source of stress as well as a support system. Stress is not the end result of a linear chain of causes and effects, but part of a feedback system in a community or family. The family is the major source of lifestyle and personality, the health belief system and modes of problem solving and coping, as well as of stress and support. The family physician can have a major role in educating the individual and family about stress and illness, and in altering the meaning of stress from catastrophe to challenge and source of growth. Anticipatory guidance for the normal crises of the life cycle and the crises of illness, loss and death can help prevent further family dysfunction and illness. Imagesp537-a PMID:21283349

  10. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 257-277 The Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS): An

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 257-277 257 The Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS): An Intelligent Embedded Tutoring System for Tactical Team Training W (AETS) applies intelligent tutoring systems technology to improving tactical training quality

  11. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots Pedro U. Lima, Luis M. M. Custdio1

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots Pedro U. Lima, Luis M. M of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence) and dynamic (moving robots) obstacles. Furthermore, they must cooperate to defeat an opposing team. Our past

  12. Permanent scatterer InSAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater pumping and artificial

    E-print Network

    Amelung, Falk

    SAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater pumping and artificial rechargePermanent scatterer InSAR reveals seasonal and long-term aquifer-system response to groundwater pumping and artificial recharge John W. Bell,1 Falk Amelung,2 Alessandro Ferretti,3 Marco Bianchi,3

  13. Comparison of the Transcription and Replication Strategies of Marburg Virus and Ebola Virus by Using Artificial Replication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELKE MUHLBERGER; MICHAEL WEIK; VIKTOR E. VOLCHKOV; HANS-DIETER KLENK; STEPHAN BECKER

    1999-01-01

    The members of the family Filoviridae, Marburg virus (MBGV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), are very similar in terms of morphology, genome organization, and protein composition. To compare the replication and tran- scription strategies of both viruses, an artificial replication system based on the vaccinia virus T7 expression system was established for EBOV. Specific transcription and replication of an artificial monocistronic

  14. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    SciTech Connect

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a method for improving product yield in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method consists of: forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and a metalloporphyrin or metallochlo-irradiating the aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst.

  15. Automatic Keyword Identification by Artificial Neural Networks Compared to Manual Identification by Users of Filtering Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Zvi; Kuflik, Tsvi; Shoval, Peretz; Shapira, Bracha

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information filtering (IF) and information retrieval focuses on the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as an alternative method for both IF and term selection and compares its effectiveness to that of traditional methods. Results show that the ANN relevance prediction out-performs the prediction of an IF system. (Author/LRW)

  16. Towards artificial cell array system: Encapsulation and hydration technologies integrated in liposome array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihisa Osaki; Koki Kamiya; Ryuji Kawano; Hirotaka Sasaki; Shoji Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    This work presents two important technologies integrated in our uniform-size liposome array platform (Fig. 1a) to realize an artificial cell array system. One is the effective encapsulation of small objects in the arrayed liposomes (Fig. 1b top), making use of the electrospray deposition technique also used for the lipid patterning. The target nanobeads were selectively patterned on the lipid and

  17. 9 . Related Work This chapter traces the system's roots in computer science and artificial

    E-print Network

    Bruckman, Amy

    ­ 72 ­ 9 . Related Work This chapter traces the system's roots in computer science and artificial process. 9.2 Text­Based Story Generation 9.2.1 Manipulating a Limited Vocabulary The essential problem. This is similar to work that has been done in text­based story generation, which begins with a limited vocabulary

  18. Medical decision making systems in pulmonology: a creative environment based on artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G.-P. K. Economou; C. Spiropoulos; N. M. Economopoulos; N. Charokopos; D. Lymberopoulos; M. Spiliopoulou; E. Haralambopulu; C. E. Goutis

    1994-01-01

    A powerful formation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for implementing a medical decision making system (MDMS) in the field of the entire spectrum of pulmonary diseases (PDs), is the topic treated in this article. These ANNs were taught by means of real-world medical data patterns given by a team of PDs medical experts. Preliminary and more elaborate experiments showed an

  19. Artificial Sand Pictures -A Complex Systems Simulation Brad Pearce and Ken Hawick

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Ken

    Artificial Sand Pictures - A Complex Systems Simulation Brad Pearce and Ken Hawick Computer Science, Massey University, Albany, North Shore 102-904, Auckland, New Zealand http://complexity.massey.ac.nz Sand Pictures Sand pictures are made from a mix of coloured sands and water or oil sandwiched between two sheets

  20. A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiaoching Gong; Chen Zheng; Martin L. Doughty; Kasia Losos; Nicholas Didkovsky; Uta B. Schambra; Norma J. Nowak; Alexandra Joyner; Gabrielle Leblanc; Mary E. Hatten; Nathaniel Heintz

    2003-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic

  1. An Artificial Immune System for Evolving Amino Acid Clusters Tailored to Protein Function Prediction

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    An Artificial Immune System for Evolving Amino Acid Clusters Tailored to Protein Function sequence of amino acids, and predicting the function of a protein, based on information derived from its sequence of amino acids, remains an important problem in bioinformatics. The main contribution

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment of Artificial Aggregate Systems Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qin Hongling; Meng Suimin; Zhou Xincong

    2010-01-01

    Aggregates are food for construction industry and hydraulic and hydropower engineering, account for 80% of concrete. Now the number of artificial aggregate systems of being used and preparing to put into use is considerable, which calls for an efficient method to assess the environment impact. In this paper eight factors are taken into consideration to set up a factor set,

  3. Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess +

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess 78712 ~Received 7 April 1997! We develop a genetic algorithm that produces neural network feedback a robust method of train­ ing neural networks to control chaos. The method makes no assumptions about

  4. Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess 78712 Received 7 April 1997 We develop a genetic algorithm that produces neural network feedback of unstable fixed points. This is the first dimension- independent algorithm that produces neural network

  5. Artificial emotional creature for human-robot interaction-a new direction for intelligent systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shibata; R. Irie

    1997-01-01

    Summary form only given. Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the Artificial Emotional Creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent on such objective measures.

  6. Effective Temperature in an Interacting Vertex System: Theory and Experiment on Artificial Spin Ice

    E-print Network

    for a range of field step sizes (Hs) and for two lattice geometries, square ice and hexagonal ice,Effective Temperature in an Interacting Vertex System: Theory and Experiment on Artificial Spin Ice [10], and from experiments of Brownian motion in vibrofluidized grains, in which it increases

  7. An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of negative selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use of negative selection as a network traffic anomaly detector. The results of the negative selection algorithm experiments show a severe scaling problem for handling real network traffic data. The paper concludes by suggesting that the most

  8. Design of an Anthropomorphic Robotic Finger System with Biomimetic Artificial Joints

    E-print Network

    Matsuoka, Yoky

    Design of an Anthropomorphic Robotic Finger System with Biomimetic Artificial Joints Zhe Xu, Vikash@cs.washington.edu, todorov@cs.washington.edu Fig. 1. Anthropomorphic robotic finger with biomimetic finger joints Kumar, Yoky Matsuoka and Emanuel Todorov Abstract--We describe a new robotic finger that is composed

  9. A voting and predictive Neural Network system for use in a new artificial Larynx

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Russell; D. M. Rubin; T. Marwala; B. Wigdorowitz

    2009-01-01

    A new artificial Larynx is currently under development at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. This device uses dynamic tongue movement from a palatometer system to infer what the user is trying to say. Feature selection algorithms extract information from the palatometer data and are then used as input to a Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network. This paper deals with improving

  10. Tactical Language and Culture Training Systems: Using Artificial Intelligence to Teach Foreign Languages and Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lewis Johnson; André Valente

    2008-01-01

    The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) helps people quickly acquire communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. More than 20,00 0 learn- ers worldwide have used TLCTS courses. TLCTS utilizes artificial intelligence technologies in multiple wa ys: during the authoring process, and at run time to process l earner speech, interpret learner actions, control the resp onse of

  11. Adaptive Nonlinear Model Inversion Control of a Twin Rotor System Using Artificial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akbar Rahideh; M. Hasan Shaheed; Abdulrahman H. Bajodah

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the development of an adaptive dynamic nonlinear model inversion control law for a twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) utilizing artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. The TRMS is an aerodynamic test rig representing the control challenges of modern air vehicles. A highly nonlinear 1DOF mathematical model of the TRMS is considered in this study and a nonlinear

  12. On the Effects of Idiotypic Interactions for Recommendation Communities in Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    On the Effects of Idiotypic Interactions for Recommendation Communities in Artificial Immune It has previously been shown that a recommender based on immune system idiotypic principles can of this recommender is due partly to the different neighbourhoods, and partly to the way that the idiotypic effect

  13. The Transfer of Evolved Artificial Immune System Behaviours between Small and Large

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    ] simulation (LTL) followed by the use of an idiotypic artificial immune system (AIS) for selecting appropriate evidence that the idiotypic AIS architecture has advantages over a reinforcement learning scheme when applied to mobile robot navigation problems [15] and have shown that the idiotypic LTL-STL architecture

  14. Implantable Control, Telemetry, and Solar Energy System in the MovingActuator Type Total Artificial Heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Mok Ahn; Jung Hoon Lee; Sung Wook Choi; Wook Eun Kim; Kyong Sik Omn; Seong Keun Park; Won Gon Kim; Joon Ryang Roh; Byoung Goo Min

    1998-01-01

    The moving actuator type total artificial heart (TAH) developed in the Seoul National University has numerous design improvements based upon the digital sig- nal processor (DSP). These improvements include the im- plantability of all electronics, an automatic control algo- rithm, and extension of the battery run-time in connection with an amorphous silicon solar system (SS). The implant- able electronics consist

  15. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Swarm Systems Using Artificial Potential Functions: Analytical Design Guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Hun Kim; Hua Wang; Seiichi Shin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for decentralized control of self-organizing swarm systems based on the artificial potential functions (APFs). In this scheme, multiple agents in a swarm self-organize to flock and achieve formation control through attractive and repulsive forces among themselves using APFs. In particular, this paper presents a set of analytical guidelines for designing potential functions to avoid local

  16. Decentralized control of autonomous swarm systems using artificial potential functions: analytical design guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong H. Kim; Hua O. Wang; Guohua Ye; Seiichi Shin

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for decentralized control of self-organizing swarm systems based on the artificial potential functions (APFs). In this scheme, multiple agents in a swarm self-organize to flock and achieve formation control through attractive and repulsive forces among themselves using APFs. In particular, this paper presents a set of analytical guidelines for designing potential functions to avoiding local

  17. Development of Eddy Current Sensor systems in artificial heart for noncontact gap sensing.

    PubMed

    Ahn, C; Kim, K; Moon, K; Jeong, K; Kim, H; Lee, J; Hwang, C; Sun, K

    2005-01-01

    The axial flow pump has been developed in Korea Artificial Organ Center. It consists of an impeller, a motor and a magnetic bearing. The magnetic bearing fully levitates the impeller not to contact with other parts of pump. However, in order to control the gap between the impeller and other parts, continuous gap sensing is necessary. The conventional gap sensors are relatively large to implant in artificial heart. Thus, the compact eddy current sensor system proper for artificial heart was developed and the performances were evaluated. It showed good results and has small size. However, the dependency of the sensor upon temperature and target material was shown also. Moreover, the output of sensor had nonlinear responses. These must be calibrated in further study. PMID:17281087

  18. A review of machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence process models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Vicente Abellan-Nebot; Fernando Romero Subirón

    2010-01-01

    Many machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence (AI) process models have been successfully developed in\\u000a the past for optimising, predicting or controlling machining processes. In general, these monitoring systems present important\\u000a differences among them, and there are no clear guidelines for their implementation. In order to present a generic view of\\u000a machining monitoring systems and facilitate their implementation, this

  19. A Type2 Fuzzy Set Recognition Algorithm for Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Visconti; Hooman Tahayori

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a flexible type-2 fuzzy set algorithm for analysing anomalous behavior trends of some system parameters.\\u000a This algorithm can be implemented in a performance-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) and used as anomalous behavior recognition\\u000a engine for a biological-inspired Intrusion Detection System (IDS). The suggested algorithm is based on the idea that real-world\\u000a applications have the necessity

  20. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  1. Studies of zeolite-based artificial photosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haoyu

    Two ruthenium polypyridyl compounds of structural formula [(bpy) 2RuL]2+ (RuL) and [(bpy)2RuLDQ]4+ (RuLDQ) (where bpy = bipyridine, L = trans-1,2-bis-4-(4'-methyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl) ethane, LDQ = 1-[4-(4'-methyl)-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-2-[4-(4'-N,N'-tetramethylene-2,2'-bipyridinium)] ethene) were synthesized and purified. From pH titrations, it was found that the Ru complex was a stronger base (pKa* = 6) in the excited state than in the ground state (pKa = 4). Photolysis of the RuL complex in solutions at pH 7 and 12 led to formation of species with increased emission quantum yields, ˜55 nm blue-shift of the emission maximum to 625 nm and disappearance of the absorption band at 330 nm, the latter arising from the olefinic bond of the L ligand. Photoproducts formed at neutral pH have been analyzed. It was found that the major product was a dimer of RuL, dimerizing around the double bond. Photoreactions did not occur in the dark or in the aprotic solvent acetonitrile. We proposed that a Ru(III) radical intermediate was formed by photoinduced excited-state electron and proton transfer, which initiated the dimerization. The radical intermediate also underwent photochemical degradative reductions. Below pH 4, the emission quenching was proposed to arise via protonation of the monoprotonated RuLH + followed by electron transfer to the viologen-type moiety created by protonation. The products of photodegradation at pH > 12 were different from those of pH 7, but the mechanism of the degradation at pH > 12 was not elucidated. RuLDQ was stable under visible irradiation. We examined nanocrystalline zeolite as a host for light absorbing sensitizers (electron donors) and electron acceptors. Nanocrystalline zeolite Y (NanoY) with uniform particle size, pure phase was prepared. NanoY was obtained by periodically removing nanocrystals from the mother liquor and recycling the unused reagents. The nanoparicles were characterized by XRD and TEM. Optically clear colloidal solutions of NanoY were obtained. The Ru complexes were anchored on the surface of zeolites via ion-exchange or "ship-in-bottle" synthesis. The spectroscopic properties of the NanoY-entrapped species including methyl viologen (MV2+), RuL were measured via transmission techniques. The zeolite-encapsulated species were found to have red-shift absorption and emission bands and longer MLCT life times. By incorporating both donors Ru complexes and acceptors MV2+ in NanoY, electron transfer kinetics was examined. LFP study showed a slower back-electron-transfer rate as compared to forward electron transfer. Photochemically generated long-lived charge separation is the key step in processes that aim for conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. We incorporated RuL complex on the surface of a pinhole-free zeolite membrane by quaternization of L and surrounded with intrazeolitic bipyridinium ions (N,N'-trimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium ion, 3DQ2+). Visible-light irradiation of the Ru complex side of the membrane in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor led to formation of PVS-· on the other side. Pore-blocking disilazane-based chemistry allows for Na+ to migrate through the membrane to maintain charge balance, while keeping the 3DQ2+ entrapped in the zeolite. These results provided encouragement that the zeolite membrane based architecture has the necessary features for not only incorporating molecular assemblies with long-lived charge separation but also for ready exploitation of the spatially separated charges to store visible light energy in chemical species. The pore-narrowing strategy applied under mild conditions can be used in control-release of active substances such as drug, pesticides, and herbicides. Methyl viologen (MV2+) was chosen as the guest molecule, since it is widely used as an herbicide and its release is of interest in agricultural applications. To explore the controlled-release capability of the surface-modified zeolite, MV2+-encapsulated zeolite Y particles were used as a model system. A MV2+-loaded zeolite was treated with disilazane reag

  2. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  3. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-03-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  4. E-Learning Systems with Artificial Intelligence in Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Kacalak; Maciej Majewski

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents a new concept of intelligent e-learning systems with intelligent two-way speech communication between\\u000a an e-learning system and the user. The system uses intelligent methods for analysis, evaluation and assessment of user knowledge\\u000a and skills as well as e-learning process control, supervision and optimization. Developed as a prototype for mobile technologies,\\u000a the communication system by speech and a

  5. Cognitive Technical Systems - What Is the Role of Artificial Intelligence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Beetz; Martin Buss; Dirk Wollherr

    2007-01-01

    The newly established cluster of excellence COTESYS 1 investigates the realization of cognitive capabilities such as perception, learning, reasoning, planning, and execution for technical systems including humanoid robots, flexi- ble manufacturing systems, and autonomous vehicles. In this paper we describe cognitive technical systems using a sensor-equipped kitchen with a robotic assis- tant as an example. We will particularly consider the

  6. Identifying online credit card fraud using Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Brabazon; Jane Cahill; Peter Keenan; Daniel Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Significant payment flows now take place on-line, giving rise to a requirement for efficient and effective systems for the detection of credit card fraud. A particular aspect of this problem is that it is highly dynamic, as fraudsters continually adapt their strategies in response to the increasing sophistication of detection systems. Hence, system training by exposure to examples of previous

  7. Solitary Confinement: Using Artificial Cells to Protect Computer Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Gilchrist

    2005-01-01

    A security framework called Solitary Confinement (SC), using virtual machines to divide a computer system into small disposable units is described. A mixture of traditional computer security with ideas inspired by biology and the immune system are used for the design of the framework, which reduces the amount of damage malicious and buggy software can inflict on a computer system.

  8. A Red-Light Running Prevention System Based on Artificial Neural Network and Vehicle Trajectory Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems. PMID:25435870

  9. A red-light running prevention system based on artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory data.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems. PMID:25435870

  10. Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

  11. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  12. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook

    1988-01-01

    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  13. An Artificially Evolved Vision System for Segmenting Skin Lesion Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Roberts; Ela Claridge

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel technique where a medical image seg- mentation system is evolved using genetic programming. The evolved system was trained on just 8 images outlined by a clinical expert and generalised well, achieving high performance rates on over 90 unseen test images (average sensitivity 97% , average specificity 81%). This method learns by example and produces fully automatic

  14. Personalized web based English learning system using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiqiang Wang; Yuhang He; Zheng Liu; Huimin Wu

    2009-01-01

    Traditional educational systems are usually presented in a course based and static way, without taking into account the learner's interests and learning progress. Language learning by that means could be accompanied by boredom and lack of real experiences, which is a great barrier to improving language skills. This paper presents an English learning system that is based on Web browsing.

  15. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...pilot's attention, must be provided for faults that would prevent the system from providing...downward pitching of the airplane by a quick release (emergency) control that meets the requirements...an autopilot system: (1) A quick release (emergency) control installed in...

  16. 14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and minus airspeeds at which downward pitching control will be provided must be established...selected for the activation of the downward pitching control that provides a safe margin...the system from providing the required pitching motion. (d) Each system must...

  17. Lessons from Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Merelo

    There is usually an special agent, the world, which is also autonomous and adaptive, but which acts as container for the rest of the agents. The situation can be much more complex, since there can be a whole hierarchy of agents, from the most simple, which are, in a sense, atomic, to the most complex, which can include swarms of

  18. Hybrid Intelligent Perception System: Intelligent perception through combining Artificial Neural Networks and an Expert System

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, C.W.; Spelt, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a report of work-in-progress on a project to combine Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Expert Systems (ESs) into a hybrid, self-improving pattern recognition system. The purpose of this project is to explore methods of combining multiple classifiers into a Hybrid Intelligent Perception (HIP) System. The central research issue to be addressed for a multiclassifier hybrid system is whether such a system can perform better than the two classifiers taken by themselves. ANNs and ESs have different strengths and weaknesses, which are being exploited in this project in such a way that they are complementary to each other: Strengths in one system make up for weaknesses in the other, and vice versa. There is presently considerable interest in the AI community in ways to exploit the strengths of these methodologies to produce an intelligent system which is more robust and flexible than one using either technology alone. Perception, which involves both data-driven (bottom-up) and concept-driven (top-down) processing, is a process which seems especially well-suited to displaying the capabilities of such a hybrid system. This work has been funded for the past six months by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory seed grant, and most of the system components are operating in both the PC and the hypercube computer environments. Here we report on the efforts to develop the low-level ANNs and a graphic representation of their knowledge, and discuss ways of using an ES to integrate and supervise the entire system. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Detection technique for artificially illuminated objects in the outer solar system and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-04-01

    Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10(-3). Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope ? ? (d log F/d log D)=-4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit ?=-2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of ? for thousands of KBOs. If objects with ?=-2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. PMID:22490065

  20. Groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo-Ferreira, Joao-Paulo; Oliveira, Luís.; Diamantino, Catarina

    2010-05-01

    The paper addresses groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios. The conceptual idea of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is considered as one of the scientific based solutions towards scientific based mitigation measures to climate variability and change in many parts of the world. In Portugal two European Union sponsored 6th Framework Programme for Research Projects have been addressing this topic, namely GABARDINE Project on "Groundwater artificial recharge based on alternative sources of water: Advanced integrated technologies and management" and the Coordinated Action ASEMWATERNet, a "Multi-Stakeholder Platform for ASEM S&T Cooperation on Sustainable Water Use". An application of Aquifer Storage and Recovery methodologies aiming drought mitigation and Integrated Water Resource Management of the Algarve (Portugal). The technique of artificial recharge of groundwater is used in many parts of the world with several aims, e.g. water storing in appropriate aquifers for the mitigation of future water needs during droughts or as protection against pollution or even for the recovery of groundwater quality. Artificial recharge of the aquifer systems of Campina de Faro and Silves-Querença is addressed in this paper, proposed to be an alternative to decrease the vulnerability of the Algarve to a future drought. Integrated management of water resources in the Algarve is not a clear issue since the last decade, when groundwater resources that supplied almost all water needs, have been drastically replaced by surface water stored in new reservoirs.

  1. Preliminary study of a new type of energy transmission system for artificial hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinaga Ozeki; Tsuneo Chinzei; Yusuke Abe; Itsuro Saito; Takashi Isoyama; Toshiya Ono; A. Kouno; M. Ishimaru; S. Mochizuki; K. Takiura; A. Baba; T. Toyama; K. Imachi

    2003-01-01

    A transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system is the most common way to power artificial hearts and ventricular assist\\u000a devices. However, an external battery used with a TET system poses several problems, such as its heavy mass, small charge\\u000a capacity, and long recharging time. The battery is indispensable when patients want to be ambulatory. This article proposes\\u000a a new type of

  2. Project: Virtual motion planning system. Combines ideas from graphics, artificial intelligence, and algorithms. Integrates theoretical ideas on shortest-path

    E-print Network

    Musicant, Dave

    programming. Project: Dialogue system to query a course registration database via voice commands. Combines recognition with software integration and database programming. Project: Web search engine. Combines ideas from database systems, artificial intelligence, and networking. Integrates theoretical ideas from graph

  3. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  4. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 98-129 Authoring Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Analysis of the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1999-01-01

    International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 98-129 98 Authoring-14Dec2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Analysis of the State of the Art Tom Murray Computer Science Dept

  5. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1998), 9, 256-274 A Framework System for Intelligent Support in Open

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1998), 9, 256-274 256 A Framework2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education System for Intelligent Support in Open Distributed Learning Environments M. Mühlenbrock, F. Tewissen, H

  6. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms. PMID:22408487

  7. Construction of an artificial heart pump performance test system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjie; Allaire, Paul; Wu, Yi; Wood, Houston; Olsen, Don

    2006-12-01

    A hydraulic loop, which simulates pressure/flow response of the human circulatory system, is needed to bench test the various versions of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). This article describes the design of such a loop and the simulated response of different physiological states, such as a healthy person in sleep, rest, and mild physical activity, and in different pathological states. The loop consists of: (1) pulsatile left and right cardiac simulators; (2) air/water tanks to model the venous and arterial compliances; (3) tygon tubes to model the venous, arterial, and other system flow resistances; and (4) a tuning clamp to model the variation in system resistance characteristics under different cardiac pressure/flow conditions. The simulated responses were compared to the data found in the literature to validate the loop performance prior to LVAD testing. PMID:17136597

  8. Guidance for human interface with artificial intelligence systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Scott S.; Woods, David D.

    1991-01-01

    The beginning of a research effort to collect and integrate existing research findings about how to combine computer power and people is discussed, including problems and pitfalls as well as desirable features. The goal of the research is to develop guidance for the design of human interfaces with intelligent systems. Fault management tasks in NASA domains are the focus of the investigation. Research is being conducted to support the development of guidance for designers that will enable them to make human interface considerations into account during the creation of intelligent systems.

  9. METEOR - an artificial intelligence system for convective storm forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Elio, R.; De haan, J.; Strong, G.S.

    1987-03-01

    An AI system called METEOR, which uses the meteorologist's heuristics, strategies, and statistical tools to forecast severe hailstorms in Alberta, is described, emphasizing the information and knowledge that METEOR uses to mimic the forecasting procedure of an expert meteorologist. METEOR is then discussed as an AI system, emphasizing the ways in which it is qualitatively different from algorithmic or statistical approaches to prediction. Some features of METEOR's design and the AI techniques for representing meteorological knowledge and for reasoning and inference are presented. Finally, some observations on designing and implementing intelligent consultants for meteorological applications are made. 7 references.

  10. A selective AQS system with artificial neural network in automobile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Young Chung; Seung-Chul Lee

    2008-01-01

    An air quality sensor (AQS) is one of very useful sensors among various sensor devices in automobile. An AQS, located near a fresh air inlet, serves to reduce the amount of pollution entering a vehicle cabin through the HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) system by sending a signal to close the fresh air inlet door\\/ventilation flap when the vehicle

  11. An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

    2002-01-01

    With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

  12. The Operation and Performance of an Artificially Intelligent Keywording System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a new text analysis approach to automate the indexing process, i.e., an automated keywording system designed to behave as a human expert indexer, and explains the rule base of the approach, which consists of lists of insertion and deletion rules generated by subject matter experts. (32 references) (Author/SD)

  13. Credit Card Fraud Detection with Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoel Fernando Alonso Gadi; Xidi Wang; Alair Pereira Do Lago

    2008-01-01

    We apply Articial Immune Systems(AIS) (4) for credit card fraud detection and we compare it to other methods such as Neural Nets(NN) (8) and Bayesian Nets(BN) (2), Naive Bayes(NB) and Deci- sion Trees(DT) (13). Exhaustive search and Genetic Algorithm(GA) (7) are used to select optimized parameters sets, which minimizes the fraud cost for a credit card database provided by a

  14. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Controlled Drug Delivery Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Rafienia; Mahmood Amiri; Mohsen Janmaleki; Alireza Sadeghian

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of release profiles of drugs normally requires time-consuming trial-and-error experiments. Feed-forward neural networks including multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function network (RBFN), and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are used to predict the release profile of betamethasone (BTM) and betamethasone acetate (BTMA) where in situ forming systems consist of poly (lactide-co-glycolide), N-methyl-1-2-pyrolidon, and ethyl heptanoat as a polymer, solvent,

  15. Quality of Life in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Panopalis, Pantelis; Clarke, Ann E.

    2006-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a pervasive disease with wide-ranging effects on physical, psychological and social well-being. As such, a comprehensive assessment of SLE should include several different outcomes, such as quality of life (QoL) and economic costs, in addition to measures of disease activity and damage. In fact, disease effects on QoL are often considered of greater overall importance to patients. Two approaches have been used in the measurement of QoL: generic questionnaires and disease-specific questionnaires. Generic questionnaires are designed to be used across various conditions and populations, whereas disease-specific questionnaires are designed to measure outcomes in one specific disease or condition. The most commonly used measure of QoL is the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), which is a generic measure that is applicable in a variety of conditions, including SLE. Recently, SLE-specific measures have been developed that may prove to be more responsive than generic measures. The hope is that improved outcome measures will allow for better assessment of SLE and eventually facilitate drug development and improve patient care. PMID:17162373

  16. Precise Selenodetic Coordinate System on Artificial Light Refers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Sysoev, Valentin

    Historically a coordinate system for the Moon was established on the base of telescopic observations from the Earth. As the angular resolution of Earth-to-Space telescopic observations is limited by Earth atmosphere, and is ordinary worse then 1 ang. second, the mean accuracy of selenodetic coordinates is some angular minutes, which corresponds to errors about 900 meters for positions of lunar objects near center of visible lunar disk, and at least twice more when objects are near lunar poles. As there are no Global Positioning System nor any astronomical observation instruments on the Moon, we proposed to use an autonomous light beacon on the Luna-Globe landing module to fix its position on the surface of the moon ant to use it as refer point for fixation of spherical coordinates system for the Moon. The light beacon is designed to be surely visible by orbiting probe TV-camera. As any space probe has its own stars-orientation system, there is not a problem to calculate a set of directions to the beacon and to the referent stars in probe-centered coordinate system during flight over the beacon. Large number of measured angular positions and time of each observation will be enough to calculate both orbital parameters of the probe and selenodetic coordinates of the beacon by methods of geodesy. All this will allow fixing angular coordinates of any feature of lunar surface in one global coordinate system, referred to the beacon. The satellite’s orbit plane contains ever the center mass of main body, so if the beacon will be placed closely to a lunar pole, we shall determine pole point position of the Moon with accuracy tens times better then it is known now. When angular accuracy of self-orientation by stars of the orbital module of Luna-Glob mission will be 6 angular seconds, then being in circular orbit with height of 200 km the on-board TV-camera will allow calculation of the beacon position as well as 6" corresponding to spatial resolution of the camera. It mean that coordinates of the beacon will be determined with accuracy not worse then 6 meters on the lunar surface. Much more accuracy can be achieved if orbital probe will use as precise angular measurer as optical interferometer. The limiting accuracy of proposed method is far above any reasonable level, because it may be sub-millimeter one. Theoretical analysis shows that for achievement of 1-meter accuracy of coordinate measuring over lunar globe it will be enough to disperse over it surface some 60 light beacons. Designed by Lavochkin Association light beacon is autonomous one, and it will work at least 10 years, so coordinate frame of any other lunar mission could use established selenodetic coordinates during this period. The same approach may be used for establishing Martial coordinates system.

  17. Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

  18. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  19. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. PMID:21157661

  20. Development of a control system for artificially rehabilitated limbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S H; Choudhury, I A; Dahari, M

    2015-04-01

    Development of an advanced control system for prostheses (artificial limbs) is necessary to provide functionality, effectiveness, and preferably the feeling of a sound living limb. The development of the control system has introduced varieties of control strategies depending on the application. This paper reviews some control systems used for prosthetics, orthotics, and exoskeletons. The advantages and limitations of different control systems for particular applications have been discussed and presented in a comparative manner to help in deciding the appropriate method for pertinent application. PMID:25491411

  1. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  2. Soil shear strength prediction using intelligent systems: artificial neural networks and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Besalatpour; M. A. Hajabbasi; S. Ayoubi; M. Afyuni; A. Jalalian; R. Schulin

    2012-01-01

    Surface soil shear strength can be a useful dynamic index for soil erodibility and thus a measure of soil resistance to water erosion. In this study, we evaluated the predictive capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in estimating soil shear strength from measured particle size distribution (clay and fine sand), calcium carbonate equivalent

  3. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 237250 Hierarchical decision making for proactive quality control: system

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yinlun

    Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 237­250 Hierarchical decision making by resorting to artificial intelligence and engineering fundamentals. The approach is developed for solving control; Intelligent decision support; Artificial intelligence; Fuzzy logic; Automotive coating 1

  4. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.; Hindman, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of the fluorescence emitted by three photosynthetic organisms (chlorella, tribonema, and anacystis) and the fluorescence of some model systems selected for study by criteria described below are reported. Light emission has been studied as a function of excitation wavelength and of temperature. Low temperature fluorescence studies on photosynthetic organisms and chloroplast preparations provide the chief experimental support for the existence of a PSII in green plants, and fluorescence at low temperatures has been used as the principal source of information on energy flow between the photosynthetic pigments. The nature and functional aspects of PSII and the course of energy transfer in the photosynthetic apparatus are highly pertinent to the oxygen evolution in green plant photosynthesis.

  5. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  6. Apsis:. AN Artificial Planetary System in Space to Probe Extra-Dimensional Gravity and MOND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varun Sahni; Yuri Shtanov

    2008-01-01

    A proposal is made to test Newton's inverse-square law using the perihelion shift of test masses (planets) in free fall within a spacecraft located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Such an artificial planetary system in space (APSIS) will operate in a drag-free environment with controlled experimental conditions and minimal interference from terrestrial sources of contamination. We demonstrate that such a

  7. MULTIOBJECTIVE RISK\\/COST ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL MARINE SYSTEMS USING DECISION TREES AND FUZZY EXPERTESTIMATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. LEVNER; J. GANOULIS; I. LINKOV; Y. BENAYAHU

    This study is devoted to the analysis of Artificial Marine Systems (AMS) and their optimisation with emphasis on their role\\u000a of mitigating anthropogenic and technological threats to the environment. Historically, AMS were created and used to enhance\\u000a fishing catches, protect coastal zones and maintain biodiversity. In recent years, great strides have been made in the understanding\\u000a of AMS as multifunctional

  8. The use of coevolution and the artificial immune system for ensemble learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno H. G. BarbosaLam; Lam T. Bui; Hussein A. AbbassLuis; Luis A. Aguirre; Antônio P. Braga

    This paper presents two new approaches for constructing an ensemble of neural networks (NN) using coevolution and the artificial\\u000a immune system (AIS). These approaches are extensions of the CLONal Selection Algorithm for building ENSembles (CLONENS) algorithm.\\u000a An explicit diversity promotion technique was added to CLONENS and a novel coevolutionary approach to build neural ensembles\\u000a is introduced, whereby two populations representing

  9. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaurav Misra

    2010-01-01

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment.

  10. Telemetry system of daily life motion and arrhythmia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kobayashi; R. Hayashi; A. Sugawara; H. Matsumoto

    1997-01-01

    An ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) recording system have been used to record cardiac arrhythmia in daily life. The system can continuously record the ECG waveform so that physicians could diagnose the cardiac disease, together with event recordings which can also provide the recording of activity of daily life (ADL), such as standing, walking, or eating. Patients, however, often forget to record

  11. Power flow control of TET system for a novel artificial anal sphincter system.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Li, Xiyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) integrated with a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) for treating severe faecal incontinence (FI). The ES-AASS is based on a novel executive mechanism that uses a spring scalable structure to clamp the rectum. To deliver the correct amount of power (i.e. to match the load demand under variable coupling conditions or different operation stages of the implanted device) for internal battery charging and ensure safety for the human body, theoretical analysis was conducted as a control rule with respect to the relationship between the phase of driver signals and output voltage. An easy regulating procedure to stabilize output voltage with a phase shift controller is also presented. To validate the phase control rules, a prototype of the TETS was constructed and its performance was validated across the whole coupling coefficient range (0.09???0.29) as well as load resistance (50???120??). The results show that the output voltage of the secondary side can be maintained at a constant 7?V with a phase regulation range of 78.7-178.2° and the proposed controller has reached a maximal end-to-end power efficiency of 74.2% at 1?W. PMID:25350041

  12. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  13. Electrocutaneous code pairs for artificial sensory communication systems.

    PubMed

    Szeto, A Y

    1982-01-01

    Pairs of electrocutaneous codes suitable for dual-channel sensory communication systems were compared using a dual-channel electrocutaneous tracking task. The tracking task required the test subject to dynamically respond to changes in the tactile sensation being modulated by two independent pseudorandom signals, one for each channel. The rule (or method) by which the signals changed the tactile sensations was called an electrocutaneous code. Four frequency variation codes and two intensity variation codes were paired in different combinations and then checked as to their effectiveness for sensory communications. The experimental protocol used a balanced incomplete block design which involved 24 subjects testing 3 of 8 code pairs each. Although the variance in the tracking performances between subjects was larger than the differences between the code pairs, learning rates for the various pairs were significantly different. The easiest one to learn was the Low Pulse Rate Modulation Code paired with itself. other findings included the general superiority of monophasic stimulation code pairs over biphasic stimulation code pairs, the need for placement of the two electrodes on different dermatomes in order to achieve satisfactory dual-channel communications, and the greater sensitivity to electrocutaneous stimulation of the ventral side of the forearm versus its dorsal side. PMID:7171152

  14. A novel artificial anal sphincter system in an in vitro and in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guo-Zheng; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Ping-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yong-Bing; Ding, Zai-Xian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents some of the latest progress in the development of a novel artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) to treat severe fecal incontinence. We have redesigned and integrated an intelligent, remote-controlled artificial anal sphincter based on biological signal feedback mechanisms. The device consists of an external telemetry unit, an internal artificial anal sphincter (IAAS), and a transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS). The mechanical medical micropump of the IAAS can realize bidirectional flow with a maximum flow rate of 8.5 ml/min and can build backpressure up to 170 kPa. The design of the prosthesis reduces occlusion pressure and allows for low inflation volumes (9 mL-10.5 mL); operating pressures between 4.05 kPa and 7.16 kPa indicate that the risk of ischemic injury to the bowel is minimal. Furthermore, the rechargeable battery based on TETS puts the operation time at an estimated 2 days. The performance characteristics of the AASS and its efficiency in achieving continence and sensing the stool inside the anorectum were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a pig model. Experimental results confirm that the system can maintain continence and build the sense of defecation successfully. Moreover, this innovation can be integrated into not only severe fecal incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and therapy-resistant reflux disease, but also morbid adiposity therapeutic AASS applications. PMID:24744170

  15. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  16. An Artificial Intelligence system to help the player of Real-Time Strategy games Renato L. de Freitas Cunha Luiz Chaimowicz

    E-print Network

    Chaimowicz, Luiz

    An Artificial Intelligence system to help the player of Real-Time Strategy games Renato L. de propose and develop an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system that helps the player during the game, giving. Keywords:: Real-time Strategy, Artificial Intelligence Author's Contact: renato@renatocunha.com chaimo

  17. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 2 (1994) 132 Submitted 4/94; published 8/94 A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees

    E-print Network

    Salzberg, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 2 (1994) 1­32 Submitted 4/94; published 8/94 A System and artificial data, that analyze OC1's ability to construct oblique trees that are smaller and more accurate

  18. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System - Duration: 5:12.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  19. The Search for Life in the Solar System*

    PubMed Central

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I give an overview of the long struggle to answer the age old question, does life exist anywhere else? The focus will be specifically on the search for life in the solar system, since this is the only region currently accessible to direct investigation. A hundred years ago many people believed that life, possibly even intelligent life, existed at the nearby planets Venus and Mars, and possibly elsewhere. The space age exploration of the planets has radically altered that view. We now know that Venus is a very hostile place, with no possibility for life, and that Mars is almost completely barren and very cold, with little prospect for life. The only remaining possibility appears to be in the interior of some of the moons of the outer planets where, due to an unlikely combination of factors, the conditions may be suitable for life. PMID:19768185

  20. In: Perceptual Organization for Artificial Vision Systems, K. Boyer and S. Sarkar, Eds., Kluwer Academic, Boston, 2000

    E-print Network

    August, Jonas

    In: Perceptual Organization for Artificial Vision Systems, K. Boyer and S. Sarkar, Eds., Kluwer in computer vision began to formalize this in the 1970's, with models of orientation good continuation based

  1. SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  2. An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Polese, Davide; Dini, Francesca; Paolesse, Roberto; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time. PMID:22194721

  3. A special purpose embedded system for neural machine interface for artificial legs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design and implementation of a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial legs that can decode amputee's intended movement in real time. The newly designed NMI integrates an FPGA chip for fast processing and a microcontroller unit (MCU) with multiple on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for real-time data sampling. The resulting embedded system is able to sample in real time 12 EMG signals and 6 mechanical signals and execute a special complex phase-dependent classifier for accurate recognition of the user's intended locomotion modes. The implementation and evaluation are based on Altera's Stratix III 3S150 FPGA device coupled with Freescale's MPC5566 MCU. The experimental results for classifying three locomotion modes (level-ground walking, stairs ascent, and stairs descent) based on data collected from an able-bodied human subject have shown acceptable performance for real-time controlling of artificial legs. PMID:22255511

  4. Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical InformaticsInformatics

    E-print Network

    Reed, Nancy E.

    ICS 313 1 Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical Informatics Systems Outline and Objectives Describe basic concepts in artificial intelligence Understand is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Goals of AI systems fall into four categories: Thinking humanly Thinking

  5. NASA Johnson Space Center Life Sciences Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan; Cardenas, Jeffery

    1994-01-01

    The Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) at JSC, which manages human life sciences flight experiments for the NASA Life Sciences Division, augmented its Life Sciences Data System (LSDS) in support of the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission, October 1993. The LSDS is a portable ground system supporting Shuttle, Spacelab, and Mir based life sciences experiments. The LSDS supports acquisition, processing, display, and storage of real-time experiment telemetry in a workstation environment. The system may acquire digital or analog data, storing the data in experiment packet format. Data packets from any acquisition source are archived and meta-parameters are derived through the application of mathematical and logical operators. Parameters may be displayed in text and/or graphical form, or output to analog devices. Experiment data packets may be retransmitted through the network interface and database applications may be developed to support virtually any data packet format. The user interface provides menu- and icon-driven program control and the LSDS system can be integrated with other workstations to perform a variety of functions. The generic capabilities, adaptability, and ease of use make the LSDS a cost-effective solution to many experiment data processing requirements. The same system is used for experiment systems functional and integration tests, flight crew training sessions and mission simulations. In addition, the system has provided the infrastructure for the development of the JSC Life Sciences Data Archive System scheduled for completion in December 1994.

  6. The Pace of Life under Artificial Selection: Personality, Energy Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs.

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs. Author(s): Vincent Careau, Denis Réale, Murray M. Humphries, Donald W. Thomas Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs Vincent Careau,1,* Denis Re´ale,2 Murray M 12, 2010 Online enhancement: appendix. abstract: The domestic dog has undergone extensive artificial

  7. Pulsed laser validation of recovery mechanisms of critical SEE`s in an artificial neural network system

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S. [SFA Inc/NRL, Washington, DC (United States)] [SFA Inc/NRL, Washington, DC (United States); Olmos, M.; Cheynet, P.; Velazco, R. [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France)] [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France); McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Ecoffet, R. [CNES-CT/AQ/CB, Toulouse (France)] [CNES-CT/AQ/CB, Toulouse (France); Muller, J.D. [CEA-DAM/FRIF/DCRE/SEIM, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)] [CEA-DAM/FRIF/DCRE/SEIM, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1998-06-01

    A pulsed laser was used to inject errors into an electronic system consisting of a number of different integrated circuits functioning as a digital version of an artificial neutral network. The results confirm that the system as a whole can operate autonomously in the radiation environment of space. Additional work was done to characterize the effects of the upsets on the output of the artificial neural network.

  8. Self-Assembly Strategies for Integrating Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)

    2011-09-28

    In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor?acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular 'wires' that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition properties to facilitate self-assembly of complete, functional artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we explore how self-assembly strategies involving ?-stacking can be used to integrate light harvesting with charge separation and transport.

  9. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  10. Selectivity Control of CO2 Reduction in an Inorganic Artificial Photosynthesis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Hiroshi; Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Deguchi, Masahiro; Yamada, Yuka; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrated that the selectivity of photo electrochemical CO2 reduction can be controlled in an inorganic artificial photosynthesis system using an AlGaN/GaN photo electrode. By increasing input light intensity and the use of a gold cathode, the Faradaic efficiency of CO dramatically increases from 30% to over 80% while that of H2 decreases. We observed that the cathode potential resulting from illumination determines the ratio of CO and H2. With this system, it is possible to switch the main reaction product from CO to HCOOH, which is also effective even under intense illumination.

  11. Natural and artificial intelligence. Processor systems compared to the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    de Callatay, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    This comparison of artificial intelligence systems to the human brain has implications for a variety of disciplines. Original views are specified and compared with traditional models. Main Features: 1. Integration of logic programming in the brain functions. 2. New computer parallel architecture (for hardware engineers). 3. Main principles of symbolic manipulation by logic programming (for software engineers in Al, expert systems and logic programming). 4. Logical models of brain connections and functions (for neuroscientists). 5. Definition of memory types and functions (for psychologists). 6. Parallel between Al applied to robots and theory of knowledge (for philosophers).

  12. Chaotic dynamics of the Hunt model, an artificially constructed flow system with a hyperbolic attractor

    E-print Network

    Yu. S. Aidarova; S. P. Kuznetsov

    2010-01-19

    We study numerically chaotic behavior associated with a hyperbolic strange attractor of Plykin type in the model of Hunt, an artificially constructed dynamical system with continuous time. There are presented portraits of the attractor, plots of realizations for chaotic signal generated by the system, illustrations of the sensitive dependence on initial conditions for the trajectories on the attractor. Quantitative characteristics of the attractor are estimated, including the Lyapunov exponents and the attractor dimension. We discuss symbolic dynamics on the attractor, find out and analyze some unstable periodic orbit belonging to the attractor.

  13. The "Living" Room A Case Study in Artificial Intelligence, Collaborative Systems, and Language Understanding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephanie E. August

    2008-01-01

    This case study analyzes the reasoning processes and types of information that we need to embed in collaborative software systems in order for these systems to demonstrate intelligent behavior and allow us to interact with them in a natural way. The central character of the case, Kate, is a college student who lives in an “intelligent” dorm room that converses with her as a friend would. Developed to introduce the ideas of collaboration and natural language understanding in an upper-division course in artificial intelligence, the case can be adapted for non-technical audiences for use in developing critical thinking skills.

  14. Animat Vision: Active Vision in Artificial Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

    1995-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision r e- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artific ial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the pr evailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artifici al animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as aut onomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems.

  15. Artificial Vision LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

    E-print Network

    Artificial Vision LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision State of the art (2) Second Systems Generation (1990 PAGE 3 #12;2011 Prof. Micheloni Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision State

  16. Application of artificial rain in experimental systems: Methods, results of case studies, and future needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Research have employed artificial rain systems ranging in complexity from simple dippers or hoses for irrigation purposes to complex machines capable of simulating the physical features of rainfall for many years. Variable water supplies leading to drought, flooding, and associated soil erosion were concerns that prompted the designs of these early attempts to simulate rainfall. With the recognition that precipitation was a source of contaminants which might impact the status of plant, soil, and water based systems. Further interest was generated in the creation of techniques for producing artificial rain that more appropriately simulated the physical and chemical interactions between rainfall and plant/soil systems. The objectives of this paper are to outline key features of existing rain simulation systems and to provide examples of these systems from the literature. In addition, we will summarize key results of recent research showing the impact of rain chemistry on foliar ion balance and physiology to give the reader an appreciation of the direct effects rainfall can have on foliar processes. 56 refs. 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Artificial intelligence: expert systems for corps tactical planning and other applications. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Back, J.F.; Barbone, A.F.; Crocker, G.K.; Johnson, L.M.; Jones, L.D.

    1987-03-23

    Systems such as those that play games, diagnose engine problems, or organize cargo loads in ships are all examples of artificial intelligence. The sub-discipline of expert systems deals with computerized imitation of the reasoning of judgment process of human experts. CECOM's expert system for tactical planning draws its tactical expertise from the US Army War College students that comprise study group. Computer scientists who have a long-term commitment to the CECOM project work with the study group experts to extract and understand what rules, guidelines, or thought processes the group uses to generate a tactical plan for a Corps operation. The computer scientist takes these lists of information and converts them into computer knowledge which eventually becomes rules that will govern program output. In the heuristic environment of tactical planning, it would not be unreasonable to expect the finished expert system to contain between 20 and 50,000 such rules. The multi-year approach to the project is driven home by the recognition that a hand-crafted expert system might have 20 rules after the first year of effort. By working with CECOM's knowledge engineers, participating in numerous group sessions, going on TDY trips, and reading extensively, study group members developed an appreciation for some of the difficulties and opportunities associated with the use of artificial intelligence in its various military applications.

  18. Microbial Ecology of Isolated Life Support Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia A. Somova; Nickolay S. Pechurkin; Mark Nelson; Lawrence K. Wang

    \\u000a Microorganisms are the most widely spread form of living matter – occurring in every climatic region and in every zone of\\u000a water and soil strata. They have a profound role in biogeochemical processes and are crucial for the completion of all biologically\\u000a important material cycles, which support all life on Earth. Microorganisms can enter into varying interactions with human\\u000a population

  19. Artificial intelligence and the law: will expert systems replace expert lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. The commercial availability of expert systems utilizing specially developed knowledge bases raises significant questions about their potential utility in the practice of law. These systems, built with the aid of recent developments in artificial intelligence research, may only prove useful in certain areas of legal practice. Counselling and interviewing are areas where expert systems are likely to effect marked changes in the practice of law. In contract, computerized legal research using a knowledge-based system is more difficult to envision. This is due to complexities presented by the multiplicity of sources of the law, and by conflicting opinions and interpretations in the common law. In the coming decade, use of expert systems in science and medicine will grow rapidly, and attempts will continue to be made to automate the legal reasoning process. As past research efforts have demonstrated, this will not be an easy task.

  20. Promise of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system in artificial leg control.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses. PMID:23367113

  1. An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Margaret Miller

    2014-01-01

    The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

  2. Dynamic correction of aberrations in microscopic imaging systems using an artificial point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reicherter, Marcus; Gorski, Witold; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    In biological micromanipulation image aberrations are introduced not only by the optical system, but also by the immersion liquid. Whereas optical system aberrations are constant and it is relatively easy to measure and correct for them, the immersion caused aberrations are variable in time and space. In this paper a method using a spherical microparticle as an artificial point source for aberration control is presented. The particle is positioned by optical tweezers at the location of the biological sample. In the experiment holographic tweezers are used. They are based on computer generated holograms, written into spatial light modulators, which create light traps for the microparticle in the object plane. The light traps can be moved without any mechanically moving parts, just by changing the hologram. The particle strongly focuses the light, therefore an artificial point source in the object space is created. The illumination light is filtered, so that only the signal corresponding to a spherical wave is analyzed by the wavefront detection system. The information about the wavefront distortion is used to dynamically correct for it. This can be done by using spatial light modulators. The method is suitable for biophotonic imaging systems, where refractive index variations in the sample plane are significant. The integration with holographic tweezers is advantageous since it offers flexibility in positioning and imaging the particles.

  3. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These plants were grown under artificial light conditions from 5 to 7 months. All crops were cut periodically in every month. On the base of our investigations it is possible to recommend for using in CELSS the next crops: marjoram, sweet-Mary and common thyme. The micronutrients containing in barley and above mentioned volatile crops will be useful for good appetite and health of the crew.

  4. Overview of NASA's 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Seshan, P. K.; Lin, Chin; Bilardo, Vincent; Crabb, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the first NASA Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop conducted by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology on June 24-27, 1991, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin are reviewed. Attention is also given to a brief review of the second workshop held on May 12-14, 1992. It is noted that the workshops defined the key issues and characterized the status of current developments in life support systems analysis.

  5. Artificially expanded genetic information system: a new base pair with an alternative hydrogen bonding pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zunyi Yang; Daniel Hutter; Pinpin Sheng; A. Michael Sismour; Steven A. Benner

    2006-01-01

    To support efforts to develop a 'synthetic biology' based on an artificially expanded genetic informa- tion system (AEGIS), we have developed a route to two components of a non-standard nucleobase pair, the pyrimidine analog 6-amino-5-nitro-3- (10-b-D-20-deoxyribofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyridone (dZ) and its Watson-Crick complement, the purine analog 2-amino-8-(10-b-D-20-deoxyribofuranosyl)- imidazo(1,2-a)-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one (dP). These implement the pyDDA:puAAD hydrogen bonding pattern (where 'py' indicates a pyrimidine analog

  6. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

  7. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  8. The effect of artificial saliva on the rheological properties of tooth whitening systems.

    PubMed

    Castellon, R G; Combe, E C; Pesun, I J

    2004-12-01

    This work was undertaken to explore the effect of saliva addition on the rheological properties of two contrasting tooth bleaching systems, one of which was a paste (Colgate Platinum) and the other a gel (Zaris, 3M ESPE). Using a dynamic stress rheometer with cone and plate geometry, it was shown that addition of artificial saliva reduced the apparent viscosity of each material. However, in some cases this was accompanied by an increase in elasticity. It is suggested that saliva may not have a deleterious effect on the ability of the materials to remain in the bleaching tray. PMID:15544649

  9. A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, B.W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Coordinated Science Lab.); Li, G.J. (Institute of Computing Technology, Academia Sinica, Bejing (CN))

    1989-07-01

    Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (A1) processing are discussed. The issues discussed are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and scheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representation. Solutions in each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems.

  10. Transcutaneous Optical Information Transmission System for a Totally Implantable Artificial Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji

    A transcutaneous optical information transmission system (TOITS) offers the most promising method for noninvasively transmitting the information to control a total artificial heart (TAH). We had used light-emitting diode (LED) and photo diode (PD) with different wavelengths for full-duplex bidirectional communication in the TOITS. In this study, reduction of optical crosstalk in full-duplex bidirectional communication was investigated by using a combination of two orthogonal polarizers with the same wavelength. As a result, we confirmed that optical crosstalk could be prevented for communication through a cow's skin (3.5 mm thick) and that the signal waveform could be transmitted satisfactorily.

  11. Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults

    DOEpatents

    Tilly, Jonathan L. (Windham, NH); Kolesnick, Richard N. (New York, NY)

    2010-12-14

    Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

  12. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  13. Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

  14. Biological life-support systems for Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I

    1992-01-01

    Mars mission like the Lunar base is the first venture to maintain human life beyond earth biosphere. So far, all manned space missions including the longest ones used stocked reserves and can not be considered egress from biosphere. Conventional path proposed by technology for Martian mission LSS is to use physical-chemical approaches proved by the experience of astronautics. But the problem of man living beyond the limits of the earth biosphere can be fundamentally solved by making a closed ecosystem for him. The choice optimum for a Mars mission LSS can be substantiated by comparing the merits and demerits of physical-chemical and biological principles without ruling out possible compromise between them. The work gives comparative analysis of ecological and physical-chemical principles for LSS. Taking into consideration universal significance of ecological problems with artificial LSS as a particular case of their solution, complexity and high cost of large-scale experiments with manned LSS, it would be expedient for these works to have the status of an International Program open to be joined. A program of making artificial biospheres based on preceding experience and analysis of current situation is proposed. PMID:11537063

  15. Demonstrating artificial intelligence for space systems - Integration and project management issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Edmund C.; Difilippo, Denise M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of its Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP), NASA has recently demonstrated the Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS). Advanced real-time expert system and human interface technology was successfully developed and integrated with conventional controllers of prototype space hardware to provide intelligent fault detection, isolation, and recovery capability. Many specialized skills were required, and responsibility for the various phases of the project therefore spanned multiple NASA centers, internal departments and contractor organizations. The test environment required communication among many types of hardware and software as well as between many people. The integration, testing, and configuration management tools and methodologies which were applied to the TEXSYS project to assure its safe and successful completion are detailed. The project demonstrated that artificial intelligence technology, including model-based reasoning, is capable of the monitoring and control of a large, complex system in real time.

  16. A development framework for artificial intelligence based distributed operations support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced automation is required to reduce costly human operations support requirements for complex space-based and ground control systems. Existing knowledge based technologies have been used successfully to automate individual operations tasks. Considerably less progress has been made in integrating and coordinating multiple operations applications for unified intelligent support systems. To fill this gap, SOCIAL, a tool set for developing Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems is being constructed. SOCIAL consists of three primary language based components defining: models of interprocess communication across heterogeneous platforms; models for interprocess coordination, concurrency control, and fault management; and for accessing heterogeneous information resources. DAI applications subsystems, either new or existing, will access these distributed services non-intrusively, via high-level message-based protocols. SOCIAL will reduce the complexity of distributed communications, control, and integration, enabling developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the target DAI system itself.

  17. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  18. Microsoft Kinect-Based Artificial Perception System for Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation Assisted Grasping

    PubMed Central

    Ko?ovi?, Slobodan; Popovi?, Dejan B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES. PMID:25202707

  19. Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Averner, M. M. (editor); Tibbits, T. W. (editor); Bugbee, B. B. (editor); Horneck, G. (editor); Dunlop, E. H. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

  20. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  1. Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system.

  2. Fault diagnosis of pneumatic systems with artificial neural network algorithms M. Demetgul a,*, I.N. Tansel b

    E-print Network

    Rucci, Michele

    Fault diagnosis of pneumatic systems with artificial neural network algorithms M. Demetgul a,*, I) Back propagation (Bp) Fault diagnosis Pneumatic Modular production system a b s t r a c t Pneumatic the pneumatic system worked perfectly and had some faults including empty magazine, zero vacuum, inappropriate

  3. Design of an artificial immune system as a novel anomaly detector for combating financial fraud in the retail sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungwon Kim; Arlene Ong; Richard E. Overill

    2003-01-01

    The retail sector often does not possess sufficient knowledge about potential or actual frauds. This requires the retail sector to employ an anomaly detection approach to fraud detection. To detect anomalies in retail transactions, the fraud detection system introduced in this work implements various salient features of the human immune system. This novel artificial immune system, called CIFD (Computer Immune

  4. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  5. Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

  6. Ethical challenges with deactivation of durable mechanical circulatory support at the end of life: left ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and total artificial hearts (TAHs) are surgically implanted as permanent treatment of unrecoverable heart failure. Both LVADs and TAHs are durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices that can prolong patient survival but also alter end-of-life trajectory. The permissibility of discontinuing assisted circulation is controversial because device deactivation is a life-ending intervention. Durable MCS is intended to successfully replace native physiological functions in heart disease. We posit that the presence of new lethal pathophysiology (ie, a self-perpetuating cascade of abnormal physiological processes causing death) is a central element in evaluating the permissibility of deactivating an LVAD or a TAH. Consensual discontinuation of durable MCS is equivalent with allowing natural death when there is an onset of new lethal pathophysiology that is unrelated to the physiological functions replaced by an LVAD or a TAH. Examples of such lethal conditions include irreversible coma, circulatory shock, overwhelming infections, multiple organ failure, refractory hypoxia, or catastrophic device failure. In all other situations, deactivating the LVAD/TAH is itself the lethal pathophysiology and the proximate cause of death. We postulate that the onset of new lethal pathophysiology is the determinant factor in judging the permissibility of the life-ending discontinuation of a durable MCS. PMID:22398630

  7. Light and Life: Exotic Photosynthesis in Binary Star Systems

    E-print Network

    O'Malley-James, J T; Cockell, C S; Greaves, J S

    2011-01-01

    The potential for hosting photosynthetic life on Earth-like planets within binary/multiple stellar systems was evaluated by modelling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in: (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems and (iii) three-star systems were investigated and a range of stable radiation environments found to be possible. These environmental conditions allow for the possibility of familiar, but also more exotic forms of photosynthetic life, such as infrared photosynthesisers and organisms specialised for specific spectral niches.

  8. Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy O. Lipman

    2004-01-01

    Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

  9. Identification of artificial gamma-emitting nuclides using a scintillator-based gamma-ray spectral logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The standard spectral gamma ray logging system used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contains a large sodium iodide detector which provides high efficiency but low energy resolution. To enhance the capabilities of this system for identifying artificial gamma-emitting nuclides, I developed and implemented a simple procedure for extracting artificial components from low-resolution gamma-ray spectra. This procedures uses three bias spectra, developed by a consultant using numerical modeling, representing the spectral response of the downhole instrument to naturally occurring potassium, uranium and thorium family gamma rays in a large-diameter air-filled borehole. To extract the artificial spectral components, the three basis spectra are first scaled to the recorded field spectrum using the usual spectral windows for K, U and Th; these windows bracket the photopeaks at 1.46, 1.76 and 2.61 MeV. Since most of the contribution from artificial nuclides will fall below 1.26 MeV (the lower limit of the potassium window) this scaling process should be insensitive to the presence of artificial nuclides. The scaled basis spectra are then subtracted from the field data, leaving a residual spectrum consisting of noise plus the contribution of any artificial gamma-emitting nuclides. This process is repeated for each spectrum in the log, or the spectra can be accumulated over any desired depth range for better statistics. Rather than inspect each spectrum visually, a parameter can be computed which indicates the presence of artificial nuclides; this parameter can be plotted along with the usual K, U and Th concentration estimates as a function of depth. These techniques have been used successfully on field data and provide us with an inexpensive screening tool to detect artificial nuclides along boreholes. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Artificial neural-net based dynamic security assessment for electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.H.

    1989-02-01

    In the post-fault dynamic analysis of interconnected power systems, the critical fault clearing time (CCT) is one of the parameters of paramount importance. It constitutes a complex function of the pre-fault system condition, fault type and location, and protective relaying strategy. The evaluation of CCT involves elaborate computations that often include time-consuming solutions of nonlinear on-fault system equations. This paper describes an adaptive pattern recognition approach based on highly parallel information processing using artificial neural networks (ANN). High adaptation capabilities of these networks make them able to synthesize the complex mappings that carry the input attributes - features into the single valued space of the CCT's. Appropriate input feature selection makes this approach a candidate for successfully handling topologically independent dynamic security assessment process. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate this new approach.

  11. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  12. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Kathryn E.; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots. PMID:24198797

  13. A 2-transistor/1-resistor artificial synapse capable of communication and stochastic learning in neuromorphic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Ambrogio, Stefano; Balatti, Simone; Ielmini, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Resistive (or memristive) switching devices based on metal oxides find applications in memory, logic and neuromorphic computing systems. Their small area, low power operation, and high functionality meet the challenges of brain-inspired computing aiming at achieving a huge density of active connections (synapses) with low operation power. This work presents a new artificial synapse scheme, consisting of a memristive switch connected to 2 transistors responsible for gating the communication and learning operations. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is achieved through appropriate shaping of the pre-synaptic and the post synaptic spikes. Experiments with integrated artificial synapses demonstrate STDP with stochastic behavior due to (i) the natural variability of set/reset processes in the nanoscale switch, and (ii) the different response of the switch to a given stimulus depending on the initial state. Experimental results are confirmed by model-based simulations of the memristive switching. Finally, system-level simulations of a 2-layer neural network and a simplified STDP model show random learning and recognition of patterns. PMID:25642161

  14. Mating systems of diploid and allotetraploid populations of Tragopogon (Asteraceae). II. Artificial populations.

    PubMed

    Cook, L M; Soltis, P S

    2000-04-01

    Polyploidization has long been recognized as an important force in the diversification of plants. Theoretical models predict that polyploids may be expected to exhibit higher rates of self-fertilization than do closely related diploid species. Wild populations of the neopolyploid Tragopogon mirus (4n) exhibited slightly higher rates of outcrossing than did populations of one of its progenitors, T. dubius (2n). In the current study, outcrossing rates in populations of T. dubius and T. mirus were estimated using artificial arrays constructed to maximize the chances of detecting outcrossing events. The artificial diploid population is more highly outcrossing (t=0.727; family-level estimates range from 0.00 to 1. 32) than the tetraploid population (t=0.591; family-level estimates range from 0.00 to 1.14), although the difference between them is not statistically significant. The results of this study, combined with those of the previous work on wild populations, suggest that mating systems in these species vary more among populations than between ploidal levels. This could be because of the relatively recent origins of the tetraploid species; there may have been insufficient time since the formations of the tetraploids for shifts in mating systems to occur. PMID:10849064

  15. A 2-transistor/1-resistor artificial synapse capable of communication and stochastic learning in neuromorphic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Ambrogio, Stefano; Balatti, Simone; Ielmini, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Resistive (or memristive) switching devices based on metal oxides find applications in memory, logic and neuromorphic computing systems. Their small area, low power operation, and high functionality meet the challenges of brain-inspired computing aiming at achieving a huge density of active connections (synapses) with low operation power. This work presents a new artificial synapse scheme, consisting of a memristive switch connected to 2 transistors responsible for gating the communication and learning operations. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is achieved through appropriate shaping of the pre-synaptic and the post synaptic spikes. Experiments with integrated artificial synapses demonstrate STDP with stochastic behavior due to (i) the natural variability of set/reset processes in the nanoscale switch, and (ii) the different response of the switch to a given stimulus depending on the initial state. Experimental results are confirmed by model-based simulations of the memristive switching. Finally, system-level simulations of a 2-layer neural network and a simplified STDP model show random learning and recognition of patterns. PMID:25642161

  16. AITSO: A Tool for Spatial Optimization Based on Artificial Immune Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge facing geocomputation and spatial analysis is spatial optimization, given that it involves various high-dimensional, nonlinear, and complicated relationships. Many efforts have been made with regard to this specific issue, and the strong ability of artificial immune system algorithms has been proven in previous studies. However, user-friendly professional software is still unavailable, which is a great impediment to the popularity of artificial immune systems. This paper describes a free, universal tool, named AITSO, which is capable of solving various optimization problems. It provides a series of standard application programming interfaces (APIs) which can (1) assist researchers in the development of their own problem-specific application plugins to solve practical problems and (2) allow the implementation of some advanced immune operators into the platform to improve the performance of an algorithm. As an integrated, flexible, and convenient tool, AITSO contributes to knowledge sharing and practical problem solving. It is therefore believed that it will advance the development and popularity of spatial optimization in geocomputation and spatial analysis. PMID:25678911

  17. AITSO: A Tool for Spatial Optimization Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Ma, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    A great challenge facing geocomputation and spatial analysis is spatial optimization, given that it involves various high-dimensional, nonlinear, and complicated relationships. Many efforts have been made with regard to this specific issue, and the strong ability of artificial immune system algorithms has been proven in previous studies. However, user-friendly professional software is still unavailable, which is a great impediment to the popularity of artificial immune systems. This paper describes a free, universal tool, named AITSO, which is capable of solving various optimization problems. It provides a series of standard application programming interfaces (APIs) which can (1) assist researchers in the development of their own problem-specific application plugins to solve practical problems and (2) allow the implementation of some advanced immune operators into the platform to improve the performance of an algorithm. As an integrated, flexible, and convenient tool, AITSO contributes to knowledge sharing and practical problem solving. It is therefore believed that it will advance the development and popularity of spatial optimization in geocomputation and spatial analysis. PMID:25678911

  18. Bias correction of temperature produced by the Community Climate System Model using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghim, S.; Hsu, K.; Bras, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to predict circulation and energy transfers between the atmosphere and the land. It is known that these models produce biased results that will have impact on their uses. This work proposes a new method for bias correction: the equidistant cumulative distribution function-artificial neural network (EDCDFANN) procedure. The method uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a surrogate model to estimate bias-corrected temperature, given an identification of the system derived from GCM models output variables. A two-layer feed forward neural network is trained with observations during a historical period and then the adjusted network can be used to predict bias-corrected temperature for future periods. To capture the extreme values this method is combined with the equidistant CDF matching method (EDCDF, Li et al. 2010). The proposed method is tested with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) outputs using air and skin temperature, specific humidity, shortwave and longwave radiation as inputs to the ANN. This method decreases the mean square error and increases the spatial correlation between the modeled temperature and the observed one. The results indicate the EDCDFANN has potential to remove the biases of the model outputs.

  19. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial gravity paradigms may offer effective, efficient, multi-system protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) produced by a horizontal short-radius centrifuge (SRC) has recently been utilized on human test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. This presentation will review preliminary results of a 41 day study conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX bed rest facility. During the first eleven days of the protocol, subjects were ambulatory, but confined to the facility. They began a carefully controlled diet, and participated in multiple baseline tests of bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immunological, and psychological function. On the twelfth day, subjects entered the bed rest phase of the study, during which they were confined to strict 6deg head down tilt bed rest for 21 days. Beginning 24 hrs into this period, treatment subjects received one hour daily exposures to artificial gravity which was produced by spinning the subjects on a 3.0 m radius SRC. They were oriented radially in the supine position so that the centrifugal force was aligned with their long body axis, and while spinning, they "stood" on a force plate, supporting the centrifugal loading (2.5 g at the feet, 1.0 g at the heart). The subject station allowed free translation over approximately 10 cm to ensure full loading of the lower extremities and to allow for anti-orthostatic muscle contractions. Control subjects were positioned on the centrifuge but did not spin. Following the bed rest phase, subjects were allowed to ambulate again, but remained within the facility for an additional 9 days and participated in multiple follow-up tests of physiological function.

  20. SMART AIRCREW INTEGRATED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (SAILSS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Forster; P. Whitley; B. Shender

    of the lower body, as blood from the upper part of the body shifts into these lower vessels. The pooling of blood in the lower extremities translates into reduced cardiac output Cardiovascular system reflexes respond by increasing heart rate to maintain adequate blood flow to the central nervous system in an attempt to preserve normal brain function. The physical symptoms

  1. System strategies in the management of transit systems towards the end of their life cycle

    E-print Network

    Kairon, Ajmer Singh

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores and evaluates essential strategies needed for the transit authority/operator to deal with end of life cycle challenges of Rapid Transit Systems (RTS) systems. RTS systems are elaborate systems consisting ...

  2. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  3. Life cycle assessment of an alkaline fuel cell CHP system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Staffell; A. Ingram

    2010-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of an alkaline fuel cell based domestic combined heat and power (CHP) system is presented. Literature on non-noble, monopolar cell design and stack construction was reviewed, and used to produce a life cycle inventory for the construction of a 1kW stack. Inventories for the ancillary components of other commercial fuel cell products were consulted, and

  4. Artificial Photosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gion Calzaferri

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional channel materials, such as zeolites and mesoporous silicas, are very attractive hosts for the preparation\\u000a and investigation of hierarchically organized structures, presenting a successive ordering from the molecular up to macroscopic\\u000a scale. The focus of this article is on artificial photonic antenna systems and on photocatalytically active layers that have\\u000a been built by incorporating organic dyes, complexes, metal cations

  5. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  6. Use of artificial neural networks for analysis of complex physical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.; Altman, B.; O`Gorman, C.; Rodeman, R.; Paez, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Mathematical models of physical systems are used, among other purposes, to improve our understanding of the behavior of physical systems, predict physical system response, and control the responses of systems. Phenomenological models are frequently used to simulate system behavior, but an alternative is available - the artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is an inductive, or data-based model for the simulation of input/output mappings. The ANN can be used in numerous frameworks to simulate physical system behavior. ANNs require training data to learn patterns of input/output behavior, and once trained, they can be used to simulate system behavior within the space where they were trained.They do this by interpolating specified inputs among the training inputs to yield outputs that are interpolations of =Ming outputs. The reason for using ANNs for the simulation of system response is that they provide accurate approximations of system behavior and are typically much more efficient than phenomenological models. This efficiency is very important in situations where multiple response computations are required, as in, for example, Monte Carlo analysis of probabilistic system response. This paper describes two frameworks in which we have used ANNs to good advantage in the approximate simulation of the behavior of physical system response. These frameworks are the non-recurrent and recurrent frameworks. It is assumed in these applications that physical experiments have been performed to obtain data characterizing the behavior of a system, or that an accurate finite element model has been run to establish system response. The paper provides brief discussions on the operation of ANNs, the operation of two different types of mechanical systems, and approaches to the solution of some special problems that occur in connection with ANN simulation of physical system response. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate system simulation with ANNs.

  7. Commonality analysis for exploration life support systems

    E-print Network

    Cunio, Phillip M

    2008-01-01

    Commonality, defined practically as the use of similar technologies to deliver similar functions across a range of different complex systems, offers opportunities to improve the lifecycle costs of portfolios of complex ...

  8. Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems: physiological input to enhance next-generation devices.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Yogish C; Carter, Rickey E; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda

    2014-05-01

    To provide an understanding of both the preclinical and clinical aspects of closed-loop artificial pancreas systems, we provide a discussion of this topic as part of this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative. Here, the Bench narrative provides an in-depth understanding of insulin-glucose-glucagon physiology in conditions that mimic the free-living situation to the extent possible in type 1 diabetes that will help refine and improve future closed-loop system algorithms. In the Clinic narrative, Doyle and colleagues compare and evaluate technology used in current closed-loop studies to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. PMID:24757225

  9. A transcutaneous optical information transmission system for implantable motor-driven artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Okamoto, E; Mikami, T

    1990-01-01

    Precise regulation of output voltage (motor voltage) and monitoring of the implanted pump were obtained with a transcutaneous energy transmission system. Information on both motor voltage and pump stroke is transmitted through the skin by frequency-modulated infrared pulses using a light emitting diode and a phototransistor. The motor voltage is compared with the nominal value, and the duty cycle of the primary pulse is regulated according to the error signal. Infrared pulses up to 100 KHz were transmitted through porcine muscle up to 1 cm thick. Both the pump stroke and motor voltage signals were transferred across the muscle without interference. The output voltage was kept almost constant for the change in tissue gap of 3-8 mm and of 0-10 mm in radial displacement. The system developed is useful for implantable artificial hearts. PMID:2252677

  10. Fault tolerance of artificial neural networks with applications in critical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Arras, Michael K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the fault tolerance characteristics of time continuous recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN) that can be used to solve optimization problems. The principle of operations and performance of these networks are first illustrated by using well-known model problems like the traveling salesman problem and the assignment problem. The ANNs are then subjected to 13 simultaneous 'stuck at 1' or 'stuck at 0' faults for network sizes of up to 900 'neurons'. The effects of these faults is demonstrated and the cause for the observed fault tolerance is discussed. An application is presented in which a network performs a critical task for a real-time distributed processing system by generating new task allocations during the reconfiguration of the system. The performance degradation of the ANN under the presence of faults is investigated by large-scale simulations, and the potential benefits of delegating a critical task to a fault tolerant network are discussed.

  11. Gas exchange between humans and multibiological life support system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Tong; Dawei Hu; Hong Liu; Ming Li; Yuming Fu; Boyang Jia; Fangzhou Du; Enzhu Hu

    2011-01-01

    To establish a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) in lunar or Mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between humans and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, microalgae and so on must be investigated in order to place

  12. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Liu; Ling Tong; Ming Li; Dawei Hu; Yuming Fu; Wenting He; Enzhu Hu

    2010-01-01

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place

  13. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  14. Life cycle assessment of Ericsson third generation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Weidman; S. Lundberg

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an extensive system level study which is underway for Ericsson third generation telecommunication products and systems. The study builds on the results and experiences gained from earlier life cycle assessment (LCA) work, some of which is described below. The purpose of the present study is to determine the site-specific environmental impacts from cradle to grave of complete

  15. Homeless Young People's Experiences with Information Systems: Life and Work

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Homeless Young People's Experiences with Information Systems: Life and Work in a Community Seattle, WA 98195-2840 {woelfj, dhendry}@u.washington.edu ABSTRACT This paper explores how homeless young (Conformity, Youth-Adult Relationships, and Goals). Any information system for homeless young people must

  16. Long life high reliability thermal control systems study data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Carpitella, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The development of thermal control systems with high reliability and long service life is discussed. Various passive and semi-active thermal control systems which have been installed on space vehicles are described. The properties of the various coatings are presented in tabular form.

  17. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Truchaud, Alain; Ozawa, Kyoichi; Pardue, Harry; Schnipelsky, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI), both as expert systems and as neural networks. This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation, and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system. In the second part of the paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories. It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual propery, and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used in clinical laboratories. PMID:18924784

  18. A Special Purpose Embedded System for Neural Machine Interface for Artificial Legs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a design and implementation of a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial legs that can decode amputee’s intended movement in real time. The newly designed NMI integrates an FPGA chip for fast processing and a microcontroller unit (MCU) with multiple on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for real-time data sampling. The resulting embedded system is able to sample in real time 12 EMG signals and 6 mechanical signals and execute a special complex phase-dependent classifier for accurate recognition of the user’s intended locomotion modes. The implementation and evaluation are based on Altera’s Stratix III 3S150 FPGA device coupled with Freescale’s MPC5566 MCU. The experimental results for classifying three locomotion modes (level-ground walking, stairs ascent, and stairs descent) based on data collected from an able-bodied human subject have shown acceptable performance for real-time controlling of artificial legs. PMID:22255511

  19. Nonlinear static decoupling of six-dimension force sensor for walker dynamometer system based on artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Ming; Xi Zhang; Xiuyun Liu; Baikun Wan; Yong Hu; K. D. K. Luk

    2009-01-01

    The static coupling of six-dimension force sensor for walker dynamometer system is a key factor to limit its measuring precision. A new decoupling method based on artificial neural network is proposed in this paper. Relevant error check results shows that, after the calibration by using the back propagation neural network and radial basis function neural networks, the maximal system precision

  20. Aspects of a Natural Language Based Artificial Intelligence System Report Number Seven: Language and the Structure of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, George A.

    ARIS is an artificial intelligence system which uses the English language to learn, understand, and communicate. The system attempts to simulate the psychoneurological processes which enable man to communicate verbally. It uses a modified stratificational grammar model and is being programed in PL/1 (a programing language) for an IBM 360/67…