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1

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

2

Artificial life and living systems: Insight into artificial life and its implications in life science research  

PubMed Central

Advanced technology has made it possible to build machines and systems like robots, which are capable of making intelligent decisions. Robots capable of self-replication and perform human functions are also available. The current challenge is to design evolutionary systems with high complexity comparable to that of biological networks. This is proposed to be achieved by ALife (Artificial Life). Here, we describe the promises provided by ALife for life sciences. PMID:17597875

Guruprasad, Sarvothaman; Sekar, Kanagaraj

2006-01-01

3

Artificial Life CHRISTOPHER M. BISHOP  

E-print Network

in living systems, the quest to create artificial intelligence, and the emerging field of synthetic biologyArtificial Life CHRISTOPHER M. BISHOP Darwin College, Cambridge, U.K. Christopher organisms are extraordinary. They have capabilities which far exceed any present-day technology

Bishop, Christopher M.

4

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

5

Artificial Life Robotics Tutorials Artificial Life Robotics Tutorials  

E-print Network

Artificial Life ­ Robotics Tutorials #12;Artificial Life ­ Robotics Tutorials 1. Getting Started 2. Programming in Webots 3. Building new worlds and new robots 4. More Programming ­ Sensors and Actuators 5 and testing on the Real EPuck 15. Fixing problems with the real EPuck 16. Proportional control, thrashing, PID

Nehaniv, Chrystopher

6

Artificial Life in Computer Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

7

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

Timmis, Jon

8

Artificial life: The coming evolution  

SciTech Connect

Within fifty to a hundred years a new class of organisms is likely to emerge. These organisms will be artificial in the sense that they will originally be designed by humans. However, they will reproduce, and will evolve into something other than their initial form; they will be alive'' under any reasonable definition of the word. These organisms will evolve in a fundamentally different manner than contemporary biological organisms, since their reproduction will be under at least partial conscious control, giving it a Lamarckian component. The pace of evolutionary change consequently will be extremely rapid. The advent of artificial life will be the most significant historical event since the emergence of human beings. The impact on humanity and the biosphere could be enormous, larger than the industrial revolution, nuclear weapons, or environmental pollution. We must take steps now to shape the emergence of artificial organisms; they have potential to be either the ugliest terrestrial disaster, or the most beautiful creation of humanity. 22 refs., 3 figs.

Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA)); Belin, A.d'A. (Shute, Mihaly, and Weinberger, Santa Fe, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

9

The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

Colombano, Silvano

2000-01-01

10

Effects of artificial lighting on the detection of plant stress with spectral reflectance remote sensing in bioregenerative life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant-based life support systems that utilize bioregenerative technologies have been proposed for long-term human missions to both the Moon and Mars. Bioregenerative life support systems will utilize higher plants to regenerate oxygen, water, and edible biomass for crews, and are likely to significantly lower the equivalent system mass of crewed vehicles. As part of an ongoing effort to begin the development of an automatic remote sensing system to monitor plant health in bioregenerative life support modules, we tested the efficacy of seven artificial illumination sources on the remote detection of plant stresses. A cohort of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown 42 days at 25 C, 70% relative humidity, and 300 ?mol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; from 400 to 700 nm). Plants were grown under nutritional stresses induced by irrigating subsets of the plants with 100, 50, 25, or 10% of a standard nutrient solution. Reflectance spectra of the healthy and stressed plants were collected under seven artificial lamps including two tungsten halogen lamps, plus high pressure sodium, metal halide, fluorescent, microwave, and red/blue light emitting diode (LED) sources. Results indicated that several common algorithms used to estimate biomass and leaf chlorophyll content were effective in predicting plant stress under all seven illumination sources. However, the two types of tungsten halogen lamps and the microwave illumination source yielded linear models with the highest residuals and thus the highest predictive capabilities of all lamps tested. The illumination sources with the least predictive capabilities were the red/blue LEDs and fluorescent lamps. Although the red/blue LEDs yielded the lowest residuals for linear models derived from the remote sensing data, the LED arrays used in these experiments were optimized for plant productivity and not the collection of remote sensing data. Thus, we propose that if adjusted to optimize the collectio n of remote sensing information from plants, LEDs remain the best candidates for illumination sources for monitoring plant stresses in bioregenerative life support systems.

Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

2006-09-01

11

From Artificial Life to In Silico Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomedical research today stands at a crossroads. There is a widening gulf between the extent of knowledge regarding basic mechanistic processes and the ability to integrate that information into explanatory hypotheses of system-level behavior. Techniques from the Artificial Life community can aid in bridging this gulf by providing means for visualizing and instantiating mechanistic hypotheses. This will allow the development of in silico laboratories where conceptual models can be examined, checked, and modified. NetLogo is a low threshold, high ceiling software toolkit that has been used to develop agent-based models (ABMs) in a multiplicity of domains and provides a good platform for the computational instantiation of biomedical knowledge. This chapter presents a brief overview of NetLogo and describes a series of ABMs of acute inflammation at multiple levels of biological organization.

An, Gary; Wilensky, Uri

12

Predicting the service life by Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has a vast area of application. In this research project its application is explored to package existing experience from physical objects, building parts, in order to predict the service life. The focus is to facilitate decision during the early stages of design in order to prevent moisture and mould problems. A prototype is

Veronica Yvers

13

A Comprehensive Overview of the Applications of Artificial Life  

E-print Network

of Technology Artificial Life 12: 153­182 (2006) *Corresponding author. #12;design and creation of artifacts Abstract We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers intelligence, artificial immune network, and agent-based modeling have also produced results. Applications were

Kim, Kyung-Joong

14

Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of artificial life, and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

2013-01-01

15

Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence 1 For articles on related subjects see Artificial Life; Automated Plan of Stuart C. Shapiro, ``Artificial Intelligence.'' In A. Ralston, E. D. Reilly and D. Hemmendinger, Eds is a revised version of Shapiro, S. C. ``Artificial Intelligence,'' in S. C. Shapiro, Ed. Encyclopedia

Shapiro, Stuart C.

16

A comprehensive overview of the applications of artificial life.  

PubMed

We review the applications of artificial life (ALife), the creation of synthetic life on computers to study, simulate, and understand living systems. The definition and features of ALife are shown by application studies. ALife application fields treated include robot control, robot manufacturing, practical robots, computer graphics, natural phenomenon modeling, entertainment, games, music, economics, Internet, information processing, industrial design, simulation software, electronics, security, data mining, and telecommunications. In order to show the status of ALife application research, this review primarily features a survey of about 180 ALife application articles rather than a selected representation of a few articles. Evolutionary computation is the most popular method for designing such applications, but recently swarm intelligence, artificial immune network, and agent-based modeling have also produced results. Applications were initially restricted to the robotics and computer graphics, but presently, many different applications in engineering areas are of interest. PMID:16393455

Kim, Kyung-Joong; Cho, Sung-Bae

2006-01-01

17

Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis.  

PubMed

We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results in a state change (e.g., division). Coupling inexpensive open source hardware with sensing and feedback allows for replicable real-time manipulation and monitoring of nonequilibrium systems that would be otherwise tedious, expensive, and error-prone. This system is a first step towards the practical confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life. PMID:25514433

Hanczyc, Martin M; Parrilla, Juan M; Nicholson, Arwen; Yanev, Kliment; Stoy, Kasper

2015-01-01

18

Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.  

PubMed

Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design. PMID:9814901

Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

1998-10-01

19

Artificial intelligence and intelligent tutoring systems  

SciTech Connect

As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.

Livergood, N.D.

1989-01-01

20

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Eugene H. Spafford  

E-print Network

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Eugene H. Spafford Department of Computer Sciences Purdue in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about

Somayaji, Anil

21

Artificial Nutrition and Hydration at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy surrounds the issue of care at the end of life (EOL) for older adults. Technological advances and the legal, ethical, clinical, religious, cultural, personal, and fiscal considerations in the provision of artificial hydration and nutrition support to older adults near death are presented in this comprehensive review.

Roschelle A. Heuberger

2010-01-01

22

Creative Agency: A Clearer Goal for Artificial Life in the Arts  

E-print Network

domains. 1 Introduction Both artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial life (Alife) have been used on the artificial simulation of human intellectual capacities, whereas Alife takes its inspiration from the creativeCreative Agency: A Clearer Goal for Artificial Life in the Arts Oliver Bown and Jon Mc

McCormack, Jon

23

Embryonics: A Path to Artificial Life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic systems, no matter how clever and intelligent they are, cannot yet demonstrate the reliability that biological systems can. Perhaps we can learn from these processes, which have developed through millions of years of evolution, in our pursuit of highly reliable systems. This article discusses how such systems, inspired by biological principles, might be built using simple embryonic cells. We

Xuegong Zhang; Gabriel Dragffy; Anthony G. Pipe

2006-01-01

24

Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

25

Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model  

E-print Network

0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-050 Energy Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Flow and Conservation in an Artificial Life Agent Model C.J. Scogings and K.A. Hawick Computer Science-based artificial life models are commonly constructed without a strict energy conservation rule. We report

Hawick, Ken

26

Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems Jamie Twycross and Uwe Aickelin School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK jpt@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AISs immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure

Aickelin, Uwe

27

Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Kenton Kirkpatrick , Jim May Jr linear system identification for aircraft using artificial neural net- works. The output of a linear aircraft system consists of linear combinations of state and control inputs. Determining linear models

Valasek, John

28

Indirectly Encoded Sodarace for Artificial Life In: Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL-2013, Taormina, Italy). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press  

E-print Network

Department of EECS, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826-2363 pszerlip@eecs.ucf.edu Abstract with compositional pattern producing networks (CPPNs), which are an established indirect encoding orig- inally for future experiments in artificial life. Introduction An important aim of artificial life is to uncover

Stanley, Kenneth O.

29

Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of the artificial myocardium has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The

Tomoyuki Yambe; Yasuyuki Shiraishi; Makoto Yoshizawa; Akira Tanaka; Ken-ichi Abe; Fumihiro Sato; Hidetoshi Matsuki; Masayoshi Esashi; Yoichi Haga; Shigenao Maruyama; Toshiyuki Takagi; Yun Luo; Eiji Okamoto; Yutaka Kubo; Motohisa Osaka; Shunsuke Nanka; Yoshifumi Saijo; Yoshiaki Mibiki; Tasuku Yamaguchi; Mune-ichi Shibata; Shinichi Nitta

2003-01-01

30

Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

1997-01-01

31

How to Control Artificial Anthropomorphic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes, in a polemical way, the possible ways for synthesis of artificial gait, taking into account its application in the rehabilitation of severely disabled paraplegics. The essential relation between the hierarchical control concept of artificial legged locomotion systems and human beings has been treated. The method of prescribed synergy has been described in detail. This method, in the

Miomir Vukobratovic

1973-01-01

32

Learning in Artificial Neural Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview and analysis of learning in Artificial Neural Systems (ANS's). It begins with a general introduction to neural networks and connectionist approaches to information processing. The basis for learning in ANS's is then described, and compared with classical Machine learning. While similar in some ways, ANS learning deviates from tradition in its dependence on the modification of individual weights to bring about changes in a knowledge representation distributed across connections in a network. This unique form of learning is analyzed from two aspects: the selection of an appropriate network architecture for representing the problem, and the choice of a suitable learning rule capable of reproducing the desired function within the given network. The various network architectures are classified, and then identified with explicit restrictions on the types of functions they are capable of representing. The learning rules, i.e., algorithms that specify how the network weights are modified, are similarly taxonomized, and where possible, the limitations inherent to specific classes of rules are outlined.

Matheus, Christopher J.; Hohensee, William E.

1987-01-01

33

Image segmentation algorithm research for sport graphics based on artificial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, linking with the basic principle of artificial life for image segmentation, on the basis of theory research, The segmented partitions emerge when the state of the lives reaches an equilibrium. The artificial life approach is promising in image processing because it is inherently parallel and coincides with the self-governing biological process. The final segmentation result is achieved

Zhao Wei-ke; Li Zhan-ping; Shi Jin

2011-01-01

34

[Current progress of the artificial accommodation system].  

PubMed

In case of presbyopia or cataract the "artificial accommodation system" represents one future possibility to durably restore the ability to accommodate. The work presented describes recent progress in the development of the artificial accommodation system. Major advances were achieved in the fields of the actuator system for the active optics, the pupil near reflex sensor, the communication system, the power supply system as well as in system integration. Beside the technical advances, first trials were performed to implant the artificial accommodation system into animals. These trials showed that the new lens shaped design and the C-shaped haptics are beneficial for implantation and secure fixation of the implant inside the capsular bag. PMID:25519504

Bretthauer, G; Gengenbach, U; Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Fliedner, J; Koker, L; Krug, M; Martin, T; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

2014-12-01

35

Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Reza Langari Committee Members, Yoonsuck Choe Charles Culp Head of Department, Dennis L. ONeal May 2006 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering iii ABSTRACT Artificial Immune System Based Urban Traffic Control. (May 2006) Pallav Negi, B.E., University of Delhi Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Reza Langari Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune...

Negi, Pallav

2007-09-17

36

Learning using an artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based upon models of the natural immune system. This natural system is an example of an evolutionary learning mechanism which possesses a content addressable memory and the ability to forget little-used information. It is also an example of an adaptive non-linear network in which control is decentralized and

John E. Hunt; Denise E. Cooke

1996-01-01

37

Architecture for an Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security, in the form of a

Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie Forrest

2000-01-01

38

Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an artificial immune system (AIS)that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse andadaptive. It captures many features of the vertebrateimmune system and places them in thecontext of the problem of protecting a networkof computers from illegal intrusions.1 INTRODUCTIONThe immune system is highly complicated and appears tobe precisely tuned to the problem of detecting and eliminatinginfections. We believe that it also

1999-01-01

39

Pre-print: Dorin, A., "Enriching Aesthetics with Artificial Life", in Artificial Life Models In Software, Komosinski and Adamatzky (eds), Springer-Verlag, 2005, pp323-335, ISBN 1-85233-945-4  

E-print Network

Pre-print: Dorin, A., "Enriching Aesthetics with Artificial Life", in Artificial Life Models Aesthetics with Artificial Life Alan Dorin Center for Electronic Media Art, School of Computer Science and our approach to contemporary aesthetics, even as its initial flash of popularity wanes

Dorin, Alan

40

An artificial immune system for data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simplified view of those parts of the human immune system which can be used to provide the basis for a data analysis tool. The motivation for and reasoning behind such a model is given and the desire for a transparent model and meaningful visualization and interpretation techniques is noted. A minimalist formulation of an artificial immune system

Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; John Hunt

2000-01-01

41

Nonuniversality of artificial frustrated spin systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization are investigated using magnetic force microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Experimental and theoretical results are compared to those found for the artificial kagome spin ice in which the nanomagnets have in-plane magnetization. In contrast with what has been recently reported, we demonstrate that long-range (i.e., beyond nearest-neighbor) dipolar interactions between the nanomagnets cannot be neglected when describing the magnetic configurations observed after demagnetizing the arrays using a field protocol. As a consequence, there are clear limits to any universality in the behavior of these two artificial frustrated spin systems. We provide arguments to explain why these two systems show striking similarities at first sight in the development of pairwise spin correlations.

Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Grimm, A.; Fruchart, O.; Wagner, E.; Hehn, M.; Lacour, D.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.

2014-08-01

42

Artificial intelligence and expert systems for avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based upon a technical report prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center's Directorate for Aircraft Safety, Flight Safety Research Branch. It includes an overview of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, avionic related applications of AT-based systems, and certification issues relating to AT

Lee H. Harrison; Pamela J. Saunders; Peter J. Saraceni

1993-01-01

43

Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

Barta, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

44

A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS)  

E-print Network

A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) Lingjun Menga , Peter@liacs.nl Abstract: Artificial Immune Systems are a new class of algorithms inspired by how the immune system in the interest in Artificial Immune Systems for applications in data mining and computational intelligence [4

Putten, Peter van der

45

On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders  

E-print Network

On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders Proceedings RASC-2004, The 5th}@cs.nott.ac.uk, Abstract. We combine Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) technology with Collaborative Filtering (CF) and use it to build a movie recommendation system. We already know that Artificial Immune Systems work well as movie

Aickelin, Uwe

46

in Artificial Life VIII, Standish, Abbass, Bedau (eds)(MIT Press) 2002. pp 8992 1 Generating Biomorphs with an Aesthetic Immune System  

E-print Network

Biomorphs with an Aesthetic Immune System Dennis L. Chao and Stephanie Forrest Department of Computer describe an interactive search algorithm inspired by the immune system. The algorithm learns what parts In this paper we illustrate how an immune system- inspired filtering algorithm described in (Chao & For- rest

Forrest, Stephanie

47

Missileborne artificial vision system (MAVIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a Companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different Corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of Corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

1994-03-01

48

The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems Uwe Aickelin1 , Steve Cayzer.aickelin@bradford.ac.uk, Steve_Cayzer@hp.com artificial immune systems, danger theory Over the last decade, a new idea in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing

Somayaji, Anil

49

Tunable Detectors for Artificial Immune Systems: From Model to Algorithm  

E-print Network

Tunable Detectors for Artificial Immune Systems: From Model to Algorithm Paul S. Andrews1 and Jon, University of York, UK {psa,jtimmis}@cs.york.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AIS) are often for pattern classification that shows promising results. 1 Introduction Artificial immune systems (AIS

Timmis, Jon

50

Missileborne Artificial Vision System (MAVIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several years ago when INTEL and China Lake designed the ETANN chip, analog VLSI appeared to be the only way to do high density neural computing. In the last five years, however, digital parallel processing chips capable of performing neural computation functions have evolved to the point of rough equality with analog chips in system level computational density. The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera, and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

1994-01-01

51

Artificial intelligence and space power systems automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various applications of artificial intelligence to space electrical power systems are discussed. An overview is given of completed, on-going, and planned knowledge-based system activities. These applications include the Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) (the expert system interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the early work with the Space Station Experiment Scheduler (SSES); the three expert systems under development in the space station advanced development effort in the core module power management and distribution system test bed; planned cooperation of expert systems in the Core Module Power Management and Distribution (CM/PMAD) system breadboard with expert systems for the space station at other research centers; and the intelligent data reduction expert system under development.

Weeks, David J.

1987-01-01

52

Life detection systems.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some promising newer approaches for detecting microorganisms are discussed, giving particular attention to the integration of different methods into a single instrument. Life detection methods may be divided into biological, chemical, and cytological methods. Biological methods are based on the biological properties of assimilation, metabolism, and growth. Devices for the detection of organic materials are considered, taking into account an instrument which volatilizes, separates, and analyzes a sample sequentially. Other instrumental systems described make use of a microscope and the cytochemical staining principle.

Mitz, M. A.

1972-01-01

53

Intelligent Agents for an Artificial Market System Nikos Karacapilidis  

E-print Network

Intelligent Agents for an Artificial Market System Nikos Karacapilidis Industrial Management Lab moraitis@ergasya.tuc.gr ABSTRACT This paper describes an agent-based artificial market system whose and merchants) can delegate a variety of tasks to personal intelligent agents that act as their artificial

Moraitis, Pavlos

54

Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks with Affective Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance. PMID:24303015

Schuman, Catherine D.; Birdwell, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

55

Anticipation and the artificial: aesthetics, ethics, and synthetic life  

Microsoft Academic Search

If complexity is a necessary but not sufficient premise for the existence and expression of the living, anticipation is the\\u000a distinguishing characteristic of what is alive. Anticipation is at work even at levels of existence where we cannot refer\\u000a to intelligence. The prospect of artificially generating aesthetic artifacts and ethical constructs of relevance to a world\\u000a in which the natural

Mihai Nadin

2010-01-01

56

A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems Andrew Watkins Computing Immune Systems. A supervised learning system, it is self-regulatory, efficient, and stable under a wide, and the rock/metal classification problem for mine detection. I. INTRODUCTION Artificial Immune Systems

Kent, University of

57

INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO PROCESS ANOMALY DETECTION Jamie January 2007 #12;Abstract This thesis explores the design and application of artificial immune systems (AISs), problem-solving systems inspired by the human and other immune systems. AISs to date have

Aickelin, Uwe

58

Artificial Life, unlike artifical intelligence, had humble beginnings. In the case of the latter, when the word itself was born, the first breathtaking results were  

E-print Network

Preface Artificial Life, unlike artifical intelligence, had humble beginnings. In the case intelligence comes up again. Artificial intelligence was conceptually based on "machine functionalism intelligence, and artificial intelligence was a computerized approach to the mind that was designed to capture

Karsai, Istvan

59

Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition L. N. de Castro and J. Timmis to perform pattern recognition, named Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). AIS take inspiration from the immune. The basic immune theories used to explain how the immune system perform pattern recognition are described

Kent, University of

60

A resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis. The work presented here builds upon previous work on artificial immune systems for data analysis. A population control mechanism, inspired by the natural immune system, has been introduced to control population growth and allow termination of the learning algorithm. The new algorithm is presented, along with the immunological

Jon Timmis; Mark Neal

2001-01-01

61

Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems Paul S. Andrews1 and Jon Timmis2 1 consider the state of artificial immune system (AIS) design today, and the nature of the immune the- ories of self­non-self discrimina- tions in the immune system, and go on describe on such model that removes

Timmis, Jon

62

A Study of Artificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection  

E-print Network

A Study of Artificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection A Dissertation Presented. A Study of Ar- tificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection. Major Professor: Dipankar Dasgupta of artificial immune systems, specifically the negative selection algorithm and other self/non-self recognition

Gonzalez, Fabio

63

Artificial immune systems as a novel soft computing paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial immune systems (AIS) can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. Their develop- ment and application domains follow those of soft computing paradigms such as artificial neural networks (ANN), evolutionary algorithms (EA) and fuzzy systems (FS). Despite some isolated efforts, the field of AIS still lacks

Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis

2003-01-01

64

Artificial Societies for Integrated and Sustainable Development of Metropolitan Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfortunately, we can't solve transportation problems by focusing on transportation systems alone. Rather, we must consider the combined effects with other metropolitan systems. Artificial systems, based on artificial societies and agent-modeling technology, are effective tools for this purpose. Metropolitan transportation, logistics, and ecosystems are intrinsically open, dynamic, unpredictable, and complex in their behaviors and effects. We must adopt a management

Fei-yue Wang; Shunning Tang

2004-01-01

65

Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann  

E-print Network

Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann Department of Computer to an artificial creature made of multiple agents in which local death prevents the unhealthy agents from destroying the system. We call this system HADES (Healing and Agent Death Encouraging Stability). The main

Siegelmann , Hava T

66

Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates  

E-print Network

Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates Joanna J. Bryson and Jessica C. Flack Harvard Primate Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Cambridge, MA USA, and Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA jbryson

Bryson, Joanna J.

67

Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates  

E-print Network

Action Selection for an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates Joanna J- sion behaviors for damping or terminating conflict in a colony, and the social structure of that colony to Groom Avoiding Jostling Figure 1: Re- sults showing the impact of adding the simple social behavior

Bryson, Joanna J.

68

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Following papers by Eugene H. Spafford \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life Following papers by Eugene H. Spafford \\Lambda A computer virus and the virus spreads further. Computer viruses flourish in the weaker security environment of the personal access, and this allows computer viruses to spread and flourish on those machines. Viruses have two major

Ruppin, Eytan

69

Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

Huntsberger, Terrance

2005-01-01

70

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

Roman, Monserrate C.

2009-01-01

71

Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicen del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrent, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domnech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

72

[Remote surveillance system of artificial ventricular assist device].  

PubMed

Performances of reliability and portability are important for artificial ventricular assist devices. This paper presents a remote surveillance system that can observe the condition of the patients and the driving condition of artificial heart online. The system is mainly based on the embedded Compact RIO platform and Ethernet technology. Combined with the driver module of the assist device, this remote system has been tested. PMID:21553527

Li, Jingjing; Yang, Ming; Lv, Xuefeng

2011-01-01

73

Unified Mars life detection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars life detection system described is based on the use of a central mass spectrometer which is capable to conduct analyses of trace gases from a variety of different experiments. The system, which is intended for potential future missions, represents a marked improvement over the devices used in the Viking experiments. The new system can also be used to obtain important information about the chemical environment of Mars. Tests can be conducted for water and for amino acids. Experiment concepts for the Mars life detection system are discussed along with aspects of instrumentation development.

Martin, J. P.; Johnson, R. D.; Kok, B.; Radmer, R.

1975-01-01

74

Artificial life  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZusammenfassungE-Business-Prozesse zwischen den Versicherern und ihren privaten Kunden (BtC) erlauben im Vergleich zu einer konventionellen\\u000a Prozessabwicklung eine Einsparung von Verwaltungskosten von bis zu 30 Prozent. Die heute angebotenen E-Business Services werden\\u000a als wenig durchschaubar und stereotyp empfunden. Sie erscheinen den Anwendern daher als zu komplex und werden deshalb wenig\\u000a angenommen, weswegen die Kostensenkungspotenziale nicht ausgeschpft werden knnen. Im Verkehr zwischen

Gottfried Koch

2003-01-01

75

Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

2006-01-01

76

VISART: Artificial vision for industrial use. A comprehensive system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough description of a Computer Vision System applied to inspection activities is presented, all of the life-cycle stages of this system being dealt with in detail. It was conceived, designed, and implemented within the scope of an applied research, entitled (VISART) Artificial Vision for Industrial Use: A Comprehensive System. During the effort employed in the development of this work, significant contributions were incorporated to the state-of-the-art in processing of binary images. The VISART system includes resources, concepts, and inovations not yet seen in similar systems. A new terminology with technical terms nearer to those used by engineers and technicians, in industrial environments, is proposed and it might contribute for acceptance and dissemination of Vision Systems in these environments. Concepts of Group Technology have been associated to Vision Systems and they might contribute for a greater integration of the industrial process automation. A special data structure was conceived for image data storage, allowing to reduce the processing time of algorithms of industrial part features-extraction. A library with a considerable number of feature extraction algorithms, used for recognition, acceptance or rejection of industrial products under inspection, was conceived and implemented. New algorithms can be appended to this library by the user, without the necessity of reprogramming the modules of the VISART system. Within this respect lies one of the main comprisement features of VISART. It has a graphic editor which makes possible to use it in activities such as teaching and formation of skilled personnel in the area of vision. At first, this facility exempts the use of sensors, making it more economic for use in these activities. All in all, this research work is a pioneer in Brazil, and its divulgation must contribute significantly for the dissemination and growth of the computer vision area applied to inspection, in the country.

Debritoalves, Sdnei

1992-02-01

77

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development for Biological &  

E-print Network

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development Processing (see Phytochemicals, Advanced Artificial Intelligence) Canning Technology ­ Ted Labuza Cheese-Paul Schirle-Keller Food Additives ­ Artificial Sweeteners ­ Ted Labuza Food Analysis Chromatographic

Amin, S. Massoud

78

Application of artificial intelligence techniques to power system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses the issue of applying artificial intelligence (Al) techniques to four major power system design problems: generation planning, transmission planning, substation design, and auxiliary-system design. Specifically, a review was made of the various Al techniques, what techniques are currently available, and how does one implement these techniques on a computer. In addition, the fundamental structure of power system

1985-01-01

79

Artificial Immune Systems Julie Greensmith, Amanda Whitbrook and Uwe Aickelin  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems Julie Greensmith, Amanda Whitbrook and Uwe Aickelin Abstract The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both

Aickelin, Uwe

80

An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems J. Timmis1*  

E-print Network

An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems J. Timmis1* , T. Knight1 , L.N. de Castro2 and E. Hart3 1, Napier University. Edinburgh. Scotland. UK. e.hart@napier.ac.uk ABSTRACT The immune system is highly the ability to continually learn about new encounters. From a computational point of view, the immune system

Kent, University of

81

Modeling Advance Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

1996-01-01

82

Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System  

E-print Network

Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System@rediffmail.com Abstract The analogy between Immune Systems and Intrusion Detection Systems encourage the use of Artificial Immune Systems for anomaly detection in computer networks. This paper describes a technique of applying

Sanyal, Sugata

83

Systems in Science: Modeling Using Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interdisciplinary course focusing on modeling scientific systems. Investigates elementary education majors' applications of three artificial intelligence concepts used in modeling scientific systems before and after the course. Reveals a great increase in understanding of concepts presented but inconsistent application. (Author/KHR)

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Smith, Coralee; Sunal, Dennis W.

2003-01-01

84

Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source  

DOEpatents

A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)

1985-01-01

85

Assuring Life in Composite Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computational simulation method is presented to assure life in composite systems by using dynamic buckling of smart composite shells as an example. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 9% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load. The uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects and thereby in the assured life of the shell.

Chamis, Christos c.

2008-01-01

86

Artificial intelligence and expert systems in the steel industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article was prepared in an effort to determine the state of the art with respect to the use of artificial intelligence and expert system technologies within the steel industry. A number of important developments have been reported and most of them resulted in significant savings. Mathematical modeling is quite important both for understanding and for controlling a process. However, most steelmaking operations are extremely complex and cannot be described mathematically. They are, however, adequately controlled by human operators on the basis of their knowledge and expertise. Because of this, artificial intelligence is an ideal technology for the automation of many steelmaking-related processes.

Carayannis, Gregory

1993-10-01

87

Power system dynamic load modeling using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic characteristics of power system loads are critical to obtaining quality operating point-prediction and stability calculations. The composition of components at a load bus makes the aggregated behavior too complicated to be expressed by a simple form. Armed with the theorems recently developed on the approximation capability of artificial neural networks, the authors devise a load model to describe

Bih-Yuan Ku; R. J. Thomas; Chiew-Yann Chiou; Chia-Jen Lin

1994-01-01

88

An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed

Nabiyev, Vasif; Karal, Hasan; Arslan, Selahattin; Erumit, Ali Kursat; Cebi, Ayca

2013-01-01

89

How Hierarchical Control Self-organizes in Artificial Adaptive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse, complex, and adaptive animal behaviors are achieved by organizing hierarchically structured controllers in motor systems. The levels of control progress from simple spinal reflexes and central pattern generators through to executive cognitive control in the frontal cortex. Various types of hierarchical control structures have been introduced and shown to be effective in past artificial agent models, but few studies

Rainer W. Paine; Jun Tani

2005-01-01

90

An Artificially Evolved Vision System for Segmenting Skin Lesion Images  

E-print Network

is a deadly cancer which most commonly arises in the skin. Its diagnosis at the primary care levelAn Artificially Evolved Vision System for Segmenting Skin Lesion Images Mark E. Roberts and Ela views of the patient's skin, or produced by an instrument such as x-ray, ultrasound, CT or MRI. However

Fernandez, Thomas

91

Information Processing in Cognition Process and New Artificial Intelligent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we discuss, in depth, visual information processing and a new artificial intelligent (AI) system that is\\u000a based upon cognitive mechanisms. The relationship between a general model of intelligent systems and cognitive mechanisms\\u000a is described, and in particular we explore visual information processing with selective attention. We also discuss a methodology\\u000a for studying the new AI system and

Nanning Zheng; Jianru Xue

2009-01-01

92

Artificial Synesthesia via Sonification: A Wearable Augmented Sensory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design for an implemented, prototype wearable artificial sensory system is presented, which uses data sonification to compensate for normal limitations in the human visual system. The system gives in- sight into the complete visible-light spectra from objects being seen by the user. Long-term wear and con- sequent training might lead to identification of various visually-indistinguishable materials based on the

Leonard N. Foner

1999-01-01

93

Artificial Synesthesia via Sonification: A Wearable Augmented Sensory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A design for an implemented, prototype wearable artificial sensory system is presented, which uses data sonification to compensate for normal limitations in the human,visual system. The system gives insight into the complete visible-light spectra from objects being seen by the user. Long-term wear and consequent training might lead to identification of various visually-indistinguishable materials based on the sounds of

Leonard N. Foner

1997-01-01

94

Life in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

Roberta Johnson

2000-07-01

95

An overview of expert systems. [artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system is defined and its basic structure is discussed. The knowledge base, the inference engine, and uses of expert systems are discussed. Architecture is considered, including choice of solution direction, reasoning in the presence of uncertainty, searching small and large search spaces, handling large search spaces by transforming them and by developing alternative or additional spaces, and dealing with time. Existing expert systems are reviewed. Tools for building such systems, construction, and knowledge acquisition and learning are discussed. Centers of research and funding sources are listed. The state-of-the-art, current problems, required research, and future trends are summarized.

Gevarter, W. B.

1982-01-01

96

An integrated artificial photosynthesis system based on peptide nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems.A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00295d

Xue, Bin; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

2014-06-01

97

LIFE HISTORY AND COST ANALYSIS FOR CONTINUOUS REARING OF PERILLUS BIOCULATUS (F.) (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) ON A ZOOPHYTOGENOUS ARTIFICIAL DIET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of a zoophytophagous, insect-free artificial diet on the developmental rate, life table parameters, and fertility table parameters was examined over eleven consecutive generations for domesticated Perillus bioculatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that when fed an i...

98

Regenerative life support system research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

1988-01-01

99

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence In Control System Analysis And Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, applications of artificial intelligence in control system analysis and design are primarily associated with the design process. These applications take the form of knowledge bases incorporating expertise on a design method, such as multivariable linear controller design, or on a field such as identification. My experience has demonstrated that, while such expert systems are useful, perhaps a greater benefit will come from applications in the maintenance of technical databases, as are found in real-time data acquisition systems, and of modeling and design databases, which represent the status of a computer-aided design process for a human user. This reflects the observation that computers are best at maintaining relations about large sets of objects, whereas humans are best at maintaining knowledge of depth, as occurs when a design option involving a sequence of steps is explored. This paper will discuss some of these issues, and will provide some examples which illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence.

Birdwell, J. D.

1987-10-01

100

Comparison of a Multi-Layered Artificial Immune System with a Kohonen Network  

E-print Network

Comparison of a Multi-Layered Artificial Immune System with a Kohonen Network T. Knight and J Networks on some clustering tasks. I. INTRODUCTION Many artificial immune systems (AIS) have been devel is organised as follows. Section II presents a novel multi-layered artificial immune system inspired

Timmis, Jon

101

Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.  

PubMed

Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

2014-06-01

102

Home care artificial heart monitoring system via internet.  

PubMed

The availability of a remote management system, which provides both physiological-related information about the patient and device-related information about the implanted device, would be helpful during in vivo experiments or clinical trials involving artificial heart implantation. In order to be able to monitor the course of the in vivo experiment continuously regardless of the patient's location, an internet-based remote monitoring system was developed, which can monitor physiological-related information such as pressure (AoP, LAP, RAP, PAP) and flow data, as well as device-related information such as current, direction and pump operating conditions. The home care artificial heart monitoring system which we developed consists of four main components, which are the transcutaneous information transmission system (TITS), local monitoring station (LMS), data server station (DSS), and client monitoring station (CMS). The device-related information and physiological-related information can be transmitted in real time from a patient in a remote non-clinical environment to the specialist situated in a clinic depending on the current capabilities and availability of the internet. The local monitoring station situated at the remote site is composed of a data acquisition and preprocessing unit connected to a computer via its RS-232 port, and which communicate using a Java-based client-server architecture. The remote monitoring system so developed was used during an in vivo experiment of the artificial heart implantation for 2 months and performed successfully according to design specifications. PMID:15560684

Chung, J; Lee, J H; Choi, J; Lee, J; Kim, W G; Sun, K; Min, B G

2004-10-01

103

Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Smernoff, D. T. (editor); Klein, H. P. (editor)

1985-01-01

104

Artificially Intelligent Tsunami Early Warning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami is a series of water waves caused by submarine earthquakes leading to the displacement of a large volume of water. The earliest known tsunami was recorded in 1450 B.C. Existing methods to predict the occurrence of tsunami depend on humans to make the decisions. In this paper we propose an intelligent system for predicting tsunami on a real time

C. M. Cherian; N. Jayaraj; S. G. Vaidyanathan

2010-01-01

105

Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?  

PubMed Central

Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 1020% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

2012-01-01

106

4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms 279 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms  

E-print Network

4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms 279 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Immune Systems (AIS) is a diverse area of research that attempts to bridge the divide between immunology and engineering that uses immune system metaphors for the creation of novel solutions to problems (de Castro

Timmis, Jon

107

Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

Gevarter, W. B.

1984-01-01

108

Artif LifeRobotics(2001)5:142-147 9 ISAROB 2001 Sung-Bae Cho  

E-print Network

researchers have tried to synthesize intelligent systems by using artificial life (A-life) technologies. AArtif LifeRobotics(2001)5:142-147 9 ISAROB 2001 Sung-Bae Cho Applications of artificial life is rich in autonomy and creativity, with the ideas and methodologies of artificial life (A

Cho, Sung-Bae

109

for ISMIS91 The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems  

E-print Network

1 for ISMIS­91 The Roles of Artificial Intelligence in Information Systems Gio Wiederhold Stanford are suitable for artificial intelligence approaches we outline an architectural structure for large systems. In that structure processing modules become specialized. We argue that artificial intelligence programs should

Wiederhold, Gio

110

Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project*  

E-print Network

5 Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence The research has been developed under the SocRob project, jointly carried out by the Intelligent Control and Artificial

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

111

Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

2007-04-01

112

Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

1991-01-01

113

An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms.

Schultz, D.E.; Hurd, J.W.; Brown, S.K.

1987-01-01

114

Natural and artificial systems for rechrage and infiltration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhabitants of Berlin, just about 3.4 million, are supplied with drinking water by its own groundwater resources exclusively. In order to conserve the natural available groundwater, it is enriched intensively by bank filtration from surface waters and artificial recharge. Hence, the volume of the groundwater storage, its quality and the proportion of artificially recharged or bank filtered water are of significant importance for a sustainable water management in Berlin. This was an obvious reason to initiate a larger cooperation project on the topic "bank filtration" named NASRI (Natural and Artificial Systems for Recharge and Infiltration). The interdisciplinary project will concentrate on microorganisms and trace organic substances of surface waters. It will focus, for example on questions of the emergence and removal of pharmaceutical residues during bank filtration. The fate and the destination of other specific trace substances as well as of bacteria and viruses are other objectives of the research programme. Several different field sites, semi-technical facilities and laboratory experiments are used for a comprehensive understanding of the different mechanisms.

Fritz, B.; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S.; Pekdeger, A.

2003-04-01

115

Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.  

PubMed

The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels. PMID:24805216

Sauz, Colin; Neal, Mark

2013-12-01

116

Bioregenerative life-support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

Mitchell, C. A.

1994-01-01

117

Development of auto measuring system for shock absorbing performance test of artificial turf ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the number of artificial turf ground is increasing according to holding of variety international game and change of school play ground to artificial turf from clay. Artificial turf ground is needed to meet standard certification to play international game. This standard certification is given by shock performance test during the specified period. The auto measuring system for shock absorbing

Myung-Jin Chung; Seong-Guk Oh

2008-01-01

118

Life prediction systems for critical rotating components  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of advanced materials in rotating gas turbine engine components, the methodologies for life prediction of these parts must also increase in sophistication and capability. Pratt & Whitney`s view of generic requirements for composite component life prediction systems are presented, efforts underway to develop these systems are discussed, and industry participation in key areas requiring development is solicited.

Cunningham, S.E.

1993-10-01

119

Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.  

PubMed

State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators. PMID:25286349

Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

2014-11-01

120

Water oxidation reaction in natural and artificial photosynthetic systems  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the structure and mechanism of water oxidation catalysts is an essential component for developing artificial photosynthetic devices. In the natural water oxidation catalyst, the geometric and electronic structure of its inorganic core, the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5} cluster, has been studied by spectroscopic and diffraction measurements. In inorganic systems, metal oxides seem to be good candidates for water oxidation catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanism in both natural and oxide-based catalysts will helpin further developing efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-12-10

121

The role of artificial intelligence techniques in scheduling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques provide good solutions for many of the problems which are characteristic of scheduling applications. However, scheduling is a large, complex heterogeneous problem. Different applications will require different solutions. Any individual application will require the use of a variety of techniques, including both AI and conventional software methods. The operational context of the scheduling system will also play a large role in design considerations. The key is to identify those places where a specific AI technique is in fact the preferable solution, and to integrate that technique into the overall architecture.

Geoffroy, Amy L.; Britt, Daniel L.; Gohring, John R.

1990-01-01

122

A Dorin and K B Korb: Network measures of ecosystem complexity, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems (Artificial Life XII), 19 August 2010 to 23 August 2010, The MIT Press,  

E-print Network

A Dorin and K B Korb: Network measures of ecosystem complexity, Proceedings of the Twelfth to 23 August 2010, The MIT Press, Cambridge MA USA, pp. 323-328 Network Measures of Ecosystem Complexity be constructed to represent ecosystems may inform us about the open-endedness of the evolutionary systems

Dorin, Alan

123

Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called self objectives supposed to lead to autonomic computing. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an object oriented paradigm architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

2012-12-01

124

The implementation of artificial intelligence in control systems  

SciTech Connect

Some concepts of artificial intelligence are reviewed, particularly as they apply to control systems of accelerators. Logical representation and formal reasoning are discussed briefly, as well as production systems, which describe various systems based on the idea of condition-action pairs (productions). Procedural knowledge, which deals with routine activities that rarely require change, is described. Frames are defined, which provide a convenient structure for representing knowledge. Frames consist of information about objects. For a given frame there are various slots, and for each slot there are various facets, each containing various data. Direct analogical representation is defined as a class of representation which represents knowledge in a natural analog manner, allowing observation of facts in many cases to be achieved quickly and easily compared to deduction. Architecture of systems applied to accelerator control is then described. (LEW)

Koul, R.; Weygand, D.P.

1987-01-01

125

The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

Fernandez, Thomas

126

Selected Self-Organization And the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems  

E-print Network

Selected Self-Organization And the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems In: Evolutionary Systems-organization, Semantic Closure, Semiotics, Emergence, Evolutionary Strategies, Artificial Life, Artificial Intelligence

Rocha, Luis

127

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) ­ A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making OR46 (2004) AIS technique inspired by immunology has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). This immune system will very briefly describe the immune system metaphors that are relevant to AIS. We will then give some

Aickelin, Uwe

128

Model systems for life processes on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the evolution of life forms nonphotosynthetic mechanisms are developed. The question remains whether a total life system could evolve which is not dependent upon photosynthesis. In trying to visualize life on other planets, the photosynthetic process has problems. On Mars, the high intensity of light at the surface is a concern and alternative mechanisms need to be defined and analyzed. In the UV search for alternate mechanisms, several different areas may be identified. These involve activated inorganic compounds in the atmosphere, such as the products of photodissociation of carbon dioxide and the organic material which may be created by natural phenomena. In addition, a life system based on the pressure of the atmospheric constituents, such as carbon dioxide, is a possibility. These considerations may be important for the understanding of evolutionary processes of life on another planet. Model systems which depend on these alternative mechanisms are defined and related to presently planned and future planetary missions.

Mitz, M. A.

1974-01-01

129

Closed-Loop Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

Fisher, John W.

2003-01-01

130

A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection  

PubMed Central

In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

2014-01-01

131

Hybrid Heuristic-Based Artificial Immune System for Task Scheduling  

E-print Network

Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid heuristic-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for solving the scheduling problem. In this regard, AIS with some heuristics and Single Neighbourhood Search (SNS) technique are hybridized. Clonning and immune-remove operators of AIS provide diversity, while heuristics and SNS provide convergence of algorithm into good solutions, that is balancing between exploration and exploitation. We have compared our method with some state-of-the art algorithms. The results of the experiments...

sanei, Masoomeh

2011-01-01

132

A survey of artificial immune system based intrusion detection.  

PubMed

In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

Yang, Hua; Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

2014-01-01

133

Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

2013-01-01

134

Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation.  

PubMed

Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results. PMID:20936152

Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Abbod, Maysam; Amira, Abbes; Zaidi, Habib

2010-01-01

135

Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation  

PubMed Central

Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results. PMID:20936152

Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Abbod, Maysam; Amira, Abbes; Zaidi, Habib

2010-01-01

136

Towards Design of a Stumble Detection System for Artificial Legs  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in design of powered artificial legs have led to increased potential to allow lower limb amputees to actively recover stumbles. To achieve this goal, promptly and accurately identifying stumbles is essential. This study aimed to (1) select potential stumble detection data sources that react reliably and quickly to stumbles and can be measured from a prosthesis, and (2) investigate two different approaches based on selected data sources to detect stumbles and classify stumble types in patients with transfemoral (TF) amputations during ambulation. In the experiments, the normal gait of TF amputees was perturbed by a controllable treadmill or when they walked on an obstacle course. The results showed that the acceleration of prosthetic foot can accurately detect the tested stumbling events 140240 ms before the critical timing of falling and precisely classify the stumble type. However, the detector based on foot acceleration produced high false alarm rates, which challenged its real application. Combining electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from residual limb with the foot acceleration significantly reduced the false alarm rate but sacrificed the detection response time. The results of this study may lead to design of a stumble detection system for instrumented, powered artificial legs; however, continued engineering efforts are required to improve the detection performance and resolve the challenges that remain for implementing the stumble detector on prosthetic legs. PMID:21859635

Zhang, Fan; DAndrea, Susan E.; Nunnery, Michael J.; Kay, Steven M.; Huang, He

2011-01-01

137

12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications (AIMSA 2006)  

E-print Network

12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications Representation MAS Conclusion Plan 2 / 17 #12; Need of Intelligent Systems Conclusion Need of Intelligent Systems in an Emergency Situation ? Crisis Management Support System

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Artificial intelligence-based systems applied in industrial marketing: An historical overview, current and future insights  

E-print Network

Artificial intelligence-based systems applied in industrial marketing: An historical overview Accepted 22 February 2013 Available online 21 March 2013 Keywords: Intelligent systems Marketing intelligent systems Industrial marketing Literature review Insights Intelligent systems have particular

Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

139

K. M. Passino and P. J. Antsaklis, "A System and Control Theoretic Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering,  

E-print Network

on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept. of Electrical Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept Perspective on Artificial Intelligence Planning Systems," Control Systems Technical Report #63, Dept

Antsaklis, Panos

140

Prediction Models of an Indoor Smart Antenna System using Artificial Neural  

E-print Network

Prediction Models of an Indoor Smart Antenna System using Artificial Neural Networks NektariosAs) of a Smart Antenna System in an indoor environment utilizing Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The proposed, Millimeter band, Smart Antenna Introduction Smart Antenna Systems [1] and especially MISO (Multiple Input

Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

141

Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System Steven A. Hofmeyr and Stephanie Forrest  

E-print Network

Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System Steven A. Hofmeyr and Stephanie Forrest Dept We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context

Forrest, Stephanie

142

An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection  

E-print Network

An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use detectors, not the generation of competent detectors. 1 INTRODUCTION The biological immune system has been

Somayaji, Anil

143

John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr  

E-print Network

John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr.unm.edu Abstract We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context

Forrest, Stephanie

144

John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr  

E-print Network

John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr,forrestg@cs.unm.edu Abstract We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver­ tebrate immune system and places them in the context

Forrest, Stephanie

145

MOVIE RECOMENDATION SYSTEMS USING AN ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Q Chen, U Aickelin,  

E-print Network

MOVIE RECOMENDATION SYSTEMS USING AN ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Q Chen, U Aickelin, qxc) technology when we build the movie recommendation system. Two different affinity measure algorithms of AIS, Kendall tau and Weighted Kappa, are used to calculate the correlation coefficients for this movie

Aickelin, Uwe

146

SSIE 480B/580B: Evolutionary Systems and Artificial Life  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Self - Organization and Cellular Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1 Von Neumann's Self-Reproduction Scheme organisms, being manifested by growth through metabolism, a means of reproduction, and internal regulation

Rocha, Luis

147

Optimization of solar systems using artificial neural-networks and genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to use artificial intelligence methods, like artificial neural-networks and genetic algorithms, to optimize a solar-energy system in order to maximize its economic benefits. The system is modeled using a TRNSYS computer program and the climatic conditions of Cyprus, included in a typical meteorological year (TMY) file. An artificial neural-network is trained using the results

Soteris A. Kalogirou

2004-01-01

148

Design Rules for Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

Jones, Harry

2002-01-01

149

VWPS: A Ventilator Weaning Prediction System with Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to wean patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for medical professionals. In this paper we have described a novel approach to the study of a ventilator weaning prediction system (VWPS). Firstly, we have developed and written three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to predict a weaning successful rate based on the clinical data. Secondly, we have implemented two user-friendly weaning success rate prediction systems; the VWPS system and the BWAP system. Both systems could be used to help doctors objectively and effectively predict whether weaning is appropriate for patients based on the patients' clinical data. Our system utilizes the powerful processing abilities of MatLab. Thirdly, we have calculated the performance through measures such as sensitivity and accuracy for these three algorithms. The results show a very high sensitivity (around 80%) and accuracy (around 70%). To our knowledge, this is the first design approach of its kind to be used in the study of ventilator weaning success rate prediction.

Chen, Austin H.; Chen, Guan-Ting

150

Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems  

SciTech Connect

We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.

2010-01-01

151

Life support systems for Mars transit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

1992-01-01

152

Artificial carrier for oxygen supply in biological systems.  

PubMed

Several poly (dimethylsiloxanes) (PDMS) copolymers of dimethylsiloxane (DMS) with ethylene or propylene oxide were tested as artificial carriers for the delivery of oxygen to biological systems. Copolymers with a DMS content of 33% or lower enhanced glucose oxidation by 200% in contrast to the 25% increase produced by the same concentration of perfluorodecalin. When 0.05% of the copolymer with 18% DMS was included in the growth media of Bacillus thuriginensis, the biomass (growth rate) increased 1.5-fold. With 0.1% of this copolymer, actinorhodin production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) occurred in half the normal time and with an increased yield. In conclusion, these PDMS copolymers are a good alternative to perfluorodecalin as oxygen carriers in biotechnological processes. PMID:14593505

Dey, E S; Norrlw, O; Liu, Y

2004-04-01

153

The LIFE Dynamic Chamber System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry-wall IFE designs such as LIFE utilize Xe fill gas to protect the target chamber first wall from x-ray heating and ionic debris. A key question is how cool, settled and clean the Xe must be to permit beam propagation and target transport, and how to reach this state at a 10+ Hz shot repetition rate. Xe is at low density in the target chamber, and purified Xe is reinjected at higher density and lower temperature into the larger outer chamber. Maintenance of this density difference due to blast waves generated by implosion of the target capsules is being assessed with HYDRA and 3D VTF, and possible validation experiments are being investigated. Detailed gas response near the wall is being studied using 3D Miranda. A laboratory-scale theta pinch experiment will study cooling and beam propagation in Xe.

Rhodes, Mark; Kane, Jave; Latkowski, Jeffery; Cook, Andrew; Divol, Laurent; Loosmore, Gwendolen; Scott, Howard; Scullard, Christian; Tabak, Max; Wilks, Scott; Moses, Gregory; Heltemes, Thad; Sacks, Ryan; Pantano, Carlos; Kramer, Richard

2011-11-01

154

Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

1994-01-01

155

An artificial neural network-based expert system for network topological error identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN)-based expert system for network topological error identification is proposed in this paper. A concept of artificial neural network management system (ANNMS) is also introduced in the paper. Network topological error identification is not only a hard problem but also a key problem in real time state estimation. How to acquire and use human expert's knowledge

Tian Tian; Minzhe Zhu; Boming Zhang

1995-01-01

156

Artificial intelligence and expert systems in accounting databases: survey and extensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to survey and extend the use of Artificial Intelligence and expert systems in accounting databases. The paper elicits a number of concerns often voiced about accounting databases. The use of Artificial Intelligence and expert system is investigated as a basis to mitigate those problems. The literature is surveyed and extended. Demons and objects are

DANIEL E. O'LEARY

1991-01-01

157

Adaptive control of artificial pancreas systems - a review.  

PubMed

Artificial pancreas (AP) systems offer an important improvement in regulating blood glucose concentration for patients with type 1 diabetes, compared to current approaches. AP consists of sensors, control algorithms and an insulin pump. Different AP control algorithms such as proportional-integral-derivative, model-predictive control, adaptive control, and fuzzy logic control have been investigated in simulation and clinical studies in the past three decades. The variability over time and complexity of the dynamics of blood glucose concentration, unsteady disturbances such as meals, time-varying delays on measurements and insulin infusion, and noisy data from sensors create a challenging system to AP. Adaptive control is a powerful control technique that can deal with such challenges. In this paper, a review of adaptive control techniques for blood glucose regulation with an AP system is presented. The investigations and advances in technology produced impressive results, but there is still a need for a reliable AP system that is both commercially viable and appealing to patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24691384

Turksoy, Kamuran; Cinar, Ali

2014-01-01

158

The potential of the skin as a readout system to test artificial turf systems: clinical and immunohistological effects of a sliding on natural grass and artificial turf.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of skin with natural grass and artificial turf at clinical, histological and immunohistochemical level. Therefore, 14 male volunteers performed slidings on dry natural grass, wet natural grass and artificial turf. Directly and 24 h after the slidings, a clinical picture and a 3-mm punch biopsy of the lesion were taken. Paraffin sections (6 m) were hematoxylin-eosin stained. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3, hBD-2, K16, K10, Ki67 and HSP70. Clinically, a sliding performed on artificial turf caused less erythema but more abrasion compared to natural grass. At histological level, artificial turf or dry natural grass damaged the stratum corneum the most. Directly after the sliding, CD3, hBD-2, K16, K10, Ki67 and HSP70 expression was normal. 24 h after a sliding on artificial turf or dry natural grass, an increase of K16, hBD-2 and HSP70 expression was observed. In this pilot study it was not possible to clearly distinguish between skin damage induced by a sliding on artificial turf and natural grass. However, small differences at clinical and histological level seem to exist. This demonstrates the potential of the skin as readout system to evaluate artificial turf systems and mechanical skin damage. PMID:23444089

Peppelman, M; van den Eijnde, W A J; Langewouters, A M G; Weghuis, M O; van Erp, P E J

2013-09-01

159

Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... to patients who are at the end of life? When someone with a serious, life-limiting illness is no longer able to eat ... ensure a persons comfort at the end of life by treating dry lips and mouth. Hospice and ...

160

Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for advanced life support.

Subramanian, Devika

2004-01-01

161

Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'tre. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

Cooper, Edwin L.

2010-03-01

162

On Three Challenges of Artificial Living Systems and Embodied Evolution  

E-print Network

Creating autonomous, self-supporting, self-replicating, sustainable systems is a great challenge. To some extent, understanding life means not only being able to create it from scratch, but also improving, supporting, saving it, or even making it even more advanced. This can be thought of as a long-term goal of living technologies and embodied evolution. Current research agenda targets several short- and middle-term steps towards achieving such a vision: connection of ICT and bio-/chemo- developments, advances in "soft" and "wet" robotics, integration of material science into developmental robotics, and potentially, addressing the self-replication in autonomous systems.

Kernbach, Serge

2011-01-01

163

1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

1992-01-01

164

Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

165

Design of an artificial gravity generating tethered satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prolonged exposure in humans to a microgravity environment can lead to significant loss of bone and muscle mass; this presents a formidable obstacle to human exploration of space, particularly for missions requiring travel times of several months or more, such as on a trip to Mars. One possible remedy for this situation is to use a spent booster as a ``counter-weight'' and tether it to the crew cabin for the purpose of spinning up the counter-weight/cabin system about its common center of mass like a dumbbell, hence generating artificial gravity for the crew during long duration missions. However, much needs to be learned about the dynamics and stability of such tethered systems before they can become flight possibilities. The investigation of spin-up dynamics, along with other aspects of tethered systems, is the focus of the ASTOR (Advanced Safety Tether Operation and Reliability) Satellite project, which will be discussed in this paper. After the 65-kg ASTOR satellite is delivered into orbit, the payload will automatically separate into two equal halves and the Emergency Tether Deployment (ETD) system will commence the deployment of the tether. After the deployment process is complete, a spin-up experiment will commence. This will be accomplished by reeling onto a take-up reel in the deployer a portion of the tether. As the tether is reeled back in, a rapid increase in the rotational motion in the system will occur; due to the presence of gravity-gradient torques, however, angular momentum will not be conserved, so equations of motion must be generated and integrated numerically to determine the behavior of the system. Preliminary results of this investigation are presented in this paper. .

Hoffman, John H.; Mazzoleni, Andre; Santangelo, Andrew

2001-02-01

166

An Artificial Immune System as a Recommender for Web Sites Proceedings of the 1st Internal Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 161-169, Canterbury, UK, 2002.  

E-print Network

An Artificial Immune System as a Recommender for Web Sites Proceedings of the 1st Internal Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 161-169, Canterbury, UK, 2002. Tom Morrison of Computer Science University of Nottingham NG8 1BB UK uxa@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract Artificial Immune Systems

Aickelin, Uwe

167

An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques. PMID:25179722

Oweis, Rami J; Abdulhay, Enas W; Khayal, Amer; Awad, Areen

2014-09-01

168

A Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) for support of on orbit experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a Modular Artificial Intelligence Inference Engine System (MAIS) support tool that would provide health and status monitoring, cognitive replanning, analysis and support of on-orbit Space Station, Spacelab experiments and systems.

Hancock, Thomas M., III

1994-01-01

169

Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

1982-01-01

170

Artificial voice signal for objective quality evaluation of speech coding systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial voice signal that reflects the average characteristics of the human voice is described. This signal is intended for use as a test signal in the objective evaluation of speech coding system quality. To obtain the average characteristics, a multilingual set of speech samples is analyzed. An artificial voice generation method that reflects the extracted average characteristics of a

Nobuhiko KITAWAKI; Kenzo ITOH; H. Irii; H. Nagabuchi

1989-01-01

171

Effective Temperature in an Interacting Vertex System: Theory and Experiment on Artificial Spin Ice  

E-print Network

Effective Temperature in an Interacting Vertex System: Theory and Experiment on Artificial Spin Ice temperature [1­3] (often in the context of glassy transitions, jamming, and rheology [4­7]) on the grounds introduced nanometer-scale metamaterial, ``artificial spin ice'' [12­17], which is controlled by nontrivial

172

Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen  

E-print Network

Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen Department) The origin of light is a unsolved mystery in nature. Recently, it was suggested that light may originate from magnetic/electric dipoles in 2D and 3D lattices. We show that our models contain an artificial light

Wen, Xiao-Gang

173

Numerical simulation of the system artificial satellites motion by parallel computing. (Russian Title: ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper features of numerical simulation of the large-scale system artificial satellites motion by parallel computing is discussed per example instantiation program complex "Numerical model of the system artificial satellites motion" in cluster "Skiff Cyberia". It is shown that using of parallel computing allows to implement simultaneously high-precision numerical simulation of the motion of large-scale system artificial satellites. It opens comprehensive facilities in solve direct and regressive problems of dynamics such satellite system as GLONASS and objects of space debris.

Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Avdyushev, V. A.; Chuvashov, I. N.; Aleksandrova, A. G.; Tomilova, I. V.

2009-11-01

174

Long life reliability thermal control systems study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program undertaken to conceptually design and evaluate a passive, high reliability, long life thermal control system for space station application are presented. The program consisted of four steps: (1) investigate and select potential thermal system elements; (2) conceive, evaluate and select a thermal control system using these elements; (3) conduct a verification test of a prototype segment of the selected system; and (4) evaluate the utilization of waste heat from the power supply. The result of this project is a conceptual thermal control system design which employs heat pipes as primary components, both for heat transport and temperature control. The system, its evaluation, and the test results are described.

Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Killen, R. E.

1972-01-01

175

Dorin, A. & Korb, K.B., "Building Virtual Ecosystems from Artificial Chemistry", in Proceed-ings of the 9th European Conference on Artificial Life, Almeida e Costa (ed.), Springer-Verlag,  

E-print Network

or where the phenomenon under study emerges through the het- erogeneity of a population. #12;The different of the 9th European Conference on Artificial Life, Almeida e Costa (ed.), Springer-Verlag, 2007 pp103 environments. Ecology commonly produces models of specific habitats and organism populations unsuited

Dorin, Alan

176

Energy conversion at liquid/liquid interfaces: artificial photosynthetic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter focuses on multielectron reactions in organized assemblies of molecules at the liquid/liquid interface. We describe the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of such reactions, including the structure of the reaction centers, charge movement along the electron transfer pathways, and the role of electric double layers in artificial photosynthesis. Some examples of artificial photosynthesis at the oil/water interface are considered, including water photooxidation to the molecular oxygen, oxygen photoreduction, photosynthesis of amphiphilic compounds and proton evolution by photochemical processes.

Volkov, A. G.; Gugeshashvili, M. I.; Deamer, D. W.

1995-01-01

177

Rapid evolution in crop-weed hybrids under artificial selection for divergent life histories  

PubMed Central

When species hybridize, offspring typically exhibit reduced fitness and maladapted phenotypes. This situation has biosafety implications regarding the unintended spread of novel transgenes, and risk assessments of crop-wild hybrids often assume that poorly adapted hybrid progeny will not evolve adaptive phenotypes. We explored the evolutionary potential of early generation hybrids using nontransgenic wild and cultivated radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, Raphanus sativus) as a model system. We imposed four generations of selection for two weedy traits early flowering or large size and measured responses in a common garden in Michigan, USA. Under selection for early flowering, hybrids evolved to flower as early as wild lineages, which changed little. These early-flowering hybrids also recovered wild-type pollen fertility, suggesting a genetic correlation that could accelerate the loss of crop traits when a short life cycle is advantageous. Under selection for large size at reproduction, hybrids evolved longer leaves faster than wild lineages, a potentially advantageous phenotype under longer growing seasons. Although early generation hybrid offspring have reduced fitness, our findings provide novel support for rapid adaptation in crop-wild hybrid populations. Biosafety risk assessment programs should consider the possibility of rapid evolution of weedy traits from early generations of seemingly unfit crop-wild hybrids. PMID:25567859

Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A; Sweeney, Patricia M; Ketner, Julie M

2009-01-01

178

Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

Roman, Monsi C.

2010-01-01

179

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

180

Artificial intelligence approach for spot application project system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past four years, CNES has been engaged in a major programme focusing on the development of SPOT Operational Application Projects. With a total of sixty projects now complete, we can draw a number of meaningful conclusions and identify a number of objectives to be satisfied by advanced remote sensing methodology. One of the main conclusions points to the importance of human vision in studies on natural complex space imagery. This being so, visual recognition must be one of the main phases of the ``Pilot Project for the Application of Remote Sensing to Agricultural Statistics'': only human experts have the ability to make a meaningful analysis of Spot TM imagery. Non-expert operators will not be able to manage the subsequent rational production phase alone. The first part of this paper describes an approach to the formalization and modelling of expert know-how based on the use of artificial intelligence. The second part puts forward a cooperative operator/computer system based on a cognitive structure. Our proposal comprises 1) a specific knowledge base, 2) an ergonomic interface associated with functional software that is based on automatic image enhancement coupled with perception support functions.

Lefevre, M. J.; Fisse, G.; Martin, E.; de Boissezon, H.; Galaup, M.

1993-11-01

181

Ham Tries Out His Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ham tries out his combination couch and life support system in preparation for his flight in Mercury Redstone-2 (MR-2). The couch is plugged into the circuit that normally would supply the astronaut's full pressure suit. The MR-2 flight was one in a series of flights that led to the manned orbital flights of NASA's Project Mercury program.

1961-01-01

182

Environmental control and life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

Ray, Charles D.

1990-01-01

183

Next Challenges in Bringing Artificial Immune Systems to Production in Network Security  

E-print Network

The human immune system protects the human body against various pathogens like e.g. biological viruses and bacteria. Artificial immune systems reuse the architecture, organization, and workflows of the human immune system for various problems in computer science. In the network security, the artificial immune system is used to secure a network and its nodes against intrusions like viruses, worms, and trojans. However, these approaches are far away from production where they are academic proof-of-concept implementations or use only a small part to protect against a certain intrusion. This article discusses the required steps to bring artificial immune systems into production in the network security domain. It furthermore figures out the challenges and provides the description and results of the prototype of an artificial immune system, which is SANA called.

Hilker, Michael

2008-01-01

184

Life systems for a lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Biosphere 2 project is pioneering work on life systems that can serve as a prototype for long-term habitation on the Moon. This project will also facilitate the understanding of the smaller systems that will be needed for initial lunar base life-support functions. In its recommendation for a policy for the next 50 years in space, the National Commission on Space urged, 'To explore and settle the inner Solar System, we must develop biospheres of smaller size, and learn how to build and maintain them' (National Commission on Space, 1986). The Biosphere 2 project, along with its Biospheric Research and Development Center, is a materially closed and informationally and energetically open system capable of supporting a human crew of eight, undertaking work to meet this need. This paper gives an overview of the Space Biospheres Ventures' endeavor and its lunar applications.

Nelson, Mark; Hawes, Philip B.; Augustine, Margret

1992-01-01

185

Environmental Control and Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

1990-01-01

186

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

187

Tools for Life Support Systems Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the optimum level of closure of a life support system is a complex task involving hundreds, if not thousands, of parameters. In the absence of complete data on candidate technologies and a complete definition of the mission architecture and requirements, many assumptions are necessary. Because of the large number of parameters, it is difficult to fully comprehend and compare studies performed by different analysts. The Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Project Element within NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project has taken measures to improve this situation by issuing documents that define ALS requirements, baseline assumptions, and reference missions. As a further step to capture and retain available knowledge and to facilitate system-level studies, various software tools are being developed. These include a database tool for storing, organizing, and updating technology parameters, modeling tools for evaluating time-average and dynamic system performance, and sizing tools for estimating overall system mass, volume, power, cooling, logistics, and crew time. This presentation describes ongoing work on the development and integration of these tools for life support systems analysis.

Lange, K.; Ewert, M.

188

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

189

1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

1992-01-01

190

Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

S. Levy

2000-08-07

191

An artificial neural-net based technique for power system dynamic stability with the Kohonen model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network-based method for evaluating online power system dynamic stability is presented. Using the matrix transformation of the S-matrix method, the absolute value of the most critical eigenvalue in the z-plane may be regarded as a power system dynamic stability index. The artificial neural net of Kohonen is used to estimate the index so that computational efforts are

Hiroyuki Mori; Yoshihito Tamaru; Senji Tsuzuki

1991-01-01

192

The role of artificial intelligence and expert systems in increasing STS operations productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is discussed. A number of the computer technologies pioneered in the AI world can make significant contributions to increasing STS operations productivity. Application of expert systems, natural language, speech recognition, and other key technologies can reduce manpower while raising productivity. Many aspects of STS support lend themselves to this type of automation. The artificial intelligence section of the mission planning and analysis division has developed a number of functioning prototype systems which demonstrate the potential gains of applying AI technology.

Culbert, C.

1985-01-01

193

Early life-history dynamics of Caribbean coral species on artificial substratum: the importance of competition, growth and variation in life-history strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a coral community was monitored for 6 years (1998-2004) on 46 m2 of artificial settlement substrate in Curaao, Netherlands Antilles. Growth and survival of recruits ( n=1385) belonging to 16 different species were quantified in relation to characteristics of the benthic community developing around them. The early life history dynamics (i.e. growth rate, growth strategy and survival) of corals differed among species although these differences were small for species occupying similar habitats (i.e. underside versus topside of substratum). In contrast to recruit survival, juvenile growth rates were highly variable and unrelated to benthic community structure, at least at the scale of this study. Competing benthic organisms affected coral recruitment success through space preemption (mainly by macroalgae) or recruit overgrowth (mainly by sponges). The results highlight the small spatial scale (mm-cm) at which the processes responsible for recruitment success or failure occur and emphasize the need to include such small-scale observations in studies of coral early life-phase dynamics.

Vermeij, M. J. A.

2006-03-01

194

To appear, Dorin, A., "A Co-Evolutionary Epidemiological Model for Artificial Life and Death", in Pro-ceedings 8th  

E-print Network

is shown to prevent the onset of genetic convergence of the agent population. The epidemiological model", in Pro- ceedings 8th European Conference on Artificial Life, Capcarrere et al (eds), Springer- ease and a population of non-randomly mixed susceptible agents. The presence of the disease elements

Dorin, Alan

195

Artificial neural networks in renewable energy systems applications: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks are widely accepted as a technology offering an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems and, once trained, can perform prediction and generalisation at high speed. They have

Soteris A. Kalogirou

2001-01-01

196

Decision theory in expert systems and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their different perspectives, artificial intelligence (AI) and the disciplines of decision science have common roots and strive for similar goals. This paper surveys the potential for addressing problems in representation, inference, knowledge engineering, and explanation within the decision-theoretic framework. Recent analyses of the restrictions of several traditional AI reasoning techniques, coupled with the development of more tractable and expressive

Eric Horvitz; John S. Breese; Max Henrion

1988-01-01

197

ARTIFICIAL LATERAL LINE SYSTEMS FOR FEEDBACK CONTROL OF UNDERWATER ROBOTS  

E-print Network

and vehicles by exploiting the inherent sensing capability of ionic polymermetal composites (IPMCs). Analogous to its biological counterpart, the IPMC-based lateral line processes #12;the sensor signals through algorithms with an artificial lateral line prototype made of millimeter-scale IPMC sensors, with sensor

Tan, Xiaobo

198

Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicen dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer. Water from the Infiltration pond, the unsaturated zone and groundwater have been sampled and analyzed in order to elucidate the effect of the reactive layer. First results of micropollutants under natural conditions show significant removal rates of atenolol and Ibuprofen as well as the recalcitrant behaviour of carbamazepine. Once the layer was installed, carbamazepine concentration in groundwater samples was lower than the concentration in the infiltration water. These preliminary results are promising but, however, they need to be confirmed by further analysis, which will be conducted during the next weeks.

Valhondo, C.; Ndler, K.; Kck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

2012-04-01

199

The origins of intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory  

E-print Network

The origins of intelligence. Luc Steels Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Vrije Universiteit using an artificial life perspective. 1 Introduction Where does intelligence come from? How can we Erba Foundation Meeting on Artificial Life. Fondazione Carlo Erba. Milano 1996.) March 12, 1996

Steels, Luc

200

Life prediction technologies for aeronautical propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue and fracture problems continue to occur in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Components whose useful life is limited by these failure modes include turbine hot-section blades, vanes, and disks. Safety considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that noncatastrophic failures occur as infrequently as possible. Therefore, the decision in design is making the tradeoff between engine performance and durability. LeRC has contributed to the aeropropulsion industry in the area of life prediction technology for over 30 years, developing creep and fatigue life prediction methodologies for hot-section materials. At the present time, emphasis is being placed on the development of methods capable of handling both thermal and mechanical fatigue under severe environments. Recent accomplishments include the development of more accurate creep-fatigue life prediction methods such as the total strain version of LeRC's strain-range partitioning (SRP) and the HOST-developed cyclic damage accumulation (CDA) model. Other examples include the development of a more accurate cumulative fatigue damage rule - the double damage curve approach (DDCA), which provides greatly improved accuracy in comparison with usual cumulative fatigue design rules. Other accomplishments in the area of high-temperature fatigue crack growth may also be mentioned. Finally, we are looking to the future and are beginning to do research on the advanced methods which will be required for development of advanced materials and propulsion systems over the next 10-20 years.

Mcgaw, Michael A.

1990-01-01

201

Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector  

SciTech Connect

Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

Shitara, Shingo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Masaharu [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Tomizuka, Kazuma [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan)], E-mail: ktomizuka@kirin.co.jp

2008-05-09

202

Regenerative life support system research and concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

1988-01-01

203

Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering  

SciTech Connect

Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

1997-12-01

204

Selected Life-History Traits of Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Reared on Three Artificial Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermetia illucens (L.) was reared on three larval diets to determine their effects on preimaginal development and selected adult life-history traits. Prepupal and adult characteristics were examined for individuals reared on each diet and compared with eld-collected prepupae and corresponding emergent adults. Diet did not signicantly inuence development or survivorship to the prepupal stage. However, adult emergence for all diets

Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

2002-01-01

205

Apollo portable life support system performance report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

Carson, M. A.

1972-01-01

206

ARTIFICIAL GENE-CLUSTERS ENGINEERED INTO PLANTS USING A VECTOR SYSTEM BASED ON INTRON-AND INTEIN-ENCODED ENDONUCLEASES  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL GENE-CLUSTERS ENGINEERED INTO PLANTS USING A VECTOR SYSTEM BASED ON INTRON- AND INTEIN; accepted 13 May 2002; editor K. D'Halluin) Summary The ability to create artificial gene, or with traits which result from the expression of multiple genes. A simple method to assemble artificial gene

Parrott, Wayne

207

A Hybrid Approach Towards Intrusion Detection Based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing  

E-print Network

A number of works in the field of intrusion detection have been based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing. Artificial Immune System based approaches attempt to leverage the adaptability, error tolerance, self- monitoring and distributed nature of Human Immune Systems. Whereas Soft Computing based approaches are instrumental in developing fuzzy rule based systems for detecting intrusions. They are computationally intensive and apply machine learning (both supervised and unsupervised) techniques to detect intrusions in a given system. A combination of these two approaches could provide significant advantages for intrusion detection. In this paper we attempt to leverage the adaptability of Artificial Immune System and the computation intensive nature of Soft Computing to develop a system that can effectively detect intrusions in a given network.

Sanyal, Sugata

2012-01-01

208

Video Communications Systems 2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide  

E-print Network

LifeSize® Video Communications Systems User Guide #12;2 LifeSize Video Communications Systems User-9301 #12;LifeSize Video Communications Systems User Guide 3 Welcome to LifeSize Video Communications Systems LifeSize high definition video communications systems enable anyone with dispersed colleagues

209

Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

210

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

211

Adaptive System of Heterogeneous Multi-agent Investors in an Artificial Evolutionary Double Auction Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, an adaptive system is proposed which attempts to combine together the approaches of studies of historical data\\u000a and researches of multi-agent artificial market by evolving a double auction market model with diversity of different traders.\\u000a The purpose of this research is to construct an artificial market which is more close to realistic one and more practical\\u000a for

Chi Xu; Xiaoyu Zhao; Zheru Chi

2010-01-01

212

Thermal control extravehicular life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

1975-01-01

213

Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (editor)

1993-01-01

214

Design of an Artificial Immune System as a Novel Anomaly Detector Combating Financial Fraud in the Retail Sector  

E-print Network

Design of an Artificial Immune System as a Novel Anomaly Detector for Combating Financial Fraud of the human immune system. This novel artificial immune system, called CIFD (Computer Immune system for Fraud implementing analogies of various salient features of the human immune system (HIS). The negative selection

Overill, Richard E.

215

Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

2001-01-01

216

Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

Leon, V. Jorge

1996-01-01

217

Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

218

The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Proceedings of the 1st Internat Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 141-148, Canterbury, UK, 2002.  

E-print Network

The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems Proceedings of the 1st Internat Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 141-148, Canterbury, UK, 2002. Uwe Aickelin School in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing

Francalanza, Adrian

219

Exploring hyper-cubic energy landscapes in thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional artificial spin-ice systems constructed from arrays of dipolar coupled monodomain magnets offer an experimental route to study the physics of frustration and a corresponding degeneracy that grows exponentially with system size. However, so far, such systems remain mainly frozen below their magnet's Curie temperature, unable to explore their potential-energy landscape through thermal fluctuations. Here we demonstrate the creation of thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems and the observation of magnetic fluctuations in real time and space. We show that the subsequent magnetization dynamics can be entirely understood from the underlying dipolar energy landscape, and demonstrate that both the energy scale and the complexity of the landscape affect the temporal and spatial nature of the observed configurational changes. This work paves the way for the in situ study of thermally induced magnetic relaxation processes and delivers a controlled route to the lowest-energy state in extended two-dimensional artificial spin-ice systems.

Farhan, A.; Derlet, P. M.; Kleibert, A.; Balan, A.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Wyss, M.; Anghinolfi, L.; Nolting, F.; Heyderman, L. J.

2013-06-01

220

Thermodynamic analysis of variable speed refrigeration system using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents thermodynamic performance modeling of an experimental refrigeration system driven by variable speed compressor using artificial neural networks (ANNs) with small data sets. Controlling the rotational speed of compressor with a frequency inverter is one of the best methods to vary the capacity of refrigeration system. For this aim, an experimental refrigeration system was designed with a frequency

nder Kizilkan

2011-01-01

221

AISEC: an Artificial Immune System for E-mail Classification Andrew Secker  

E-print Network

AISEC: an Artificial Immune System for E-mail Classification Andrew Secker Computing Laboratory-interesting material is increasing. Drawing analogies from the biological immune system, this paper presents an immune an immune-inspired approach we believe the final system will have the ability to dynamically determine

Timmis, Jon

222

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems Research and Their Possible Impact on Information Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems; describes library applications utilizing AI to automate creation of document representations, request formulations, and design and modify search strategies for information retrieval systems; discusses expert system development for information services; and reviews impact of these

Borko, Harold

1985-01-01

223

Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Natural Language Interfaces, Knowledge Engineering and the Librarian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by examining concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and discusses various definitions of the concept that have been suggested in the literature. The nesting relationship of expert systems within the broader framework of AI is described, and expert systems are characterized as knowledge-based systems (KBS) which attempt to solve

Davies, Jim

224

Advanced integrated life support system update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

Whitley, Phillip E.

1994-01-01

225

A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system  

PubMed Central

One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt.

Mohamed, Ahmed F.; Elarini, Mahdi M.; Othman, Ahmed M.

2013-01-01

226

Evolutionary artificial neural networks for hydrological systems forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe conventional ways of constructing artificial neural network (ANN) for a problem generally presume a specific architecture and do not automatically discover network modules appropriate for specific training data. Evolutionary algorithms are used to automatically adapt the network architecture and connection weights according to the problem environment without substantial human intervention. To improve on the drawbacks of the conventional optimal process, this study presents a novel evolutionary artificial neural network (EANN) for time series forecasting. The EANN has a hybrid procedure, including the genetic algorithm and the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, where the feedforward ANN architecture and its connection weights of neurons are simultaneously identified and optimized. We first explored the performance of the proposed EANN for the Mackey-Glass chaotic time series. The performance of the different networks was evaluated. The excellent performance in forecasting of the chaotic series shows that the proposed algorithm concurrently possesses efficiency, effectiveness, and robustness. We further explored the applicability and reliability of the EANN in a real hydrological time series. Again, the results indicate the EANN can effectively and efficiently construct a viable forecast module for the 10-day reservoir inflow, and its accuracy is superior to that of the AR and ARMAX models.

Chen, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Fi-John

2009-03-01

227

Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.  

PubMed

Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the photocatalytic mechanisms of H2/O2 evolution and CO2 reduction at the molecular level and to bridge natural and artificial photosynthesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid photocatalyst, biomimetic molecular cocatalysts, and semiconductor light harvester for artificial photosynthesis and therefore provide a promising approach for rational design and construction of highly efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. PMID:23730891

Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

2013-11-19

228

Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

Jones, Harry W.

2014-01-01

229

A portable life support system for use in mines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The portable life support system described in this paper represents a potential increase in the probability of survival for miners who are trapped underground by a fire or explosion. The habitability and life support capability of the prototype shelter have proved excellent. Development of survival chamber life support systems for wide use in coal mines is definitely within the capabilities of current technology.

Zeller, S. S.

1972-01-01

230

RFID Supplement for Mobile-Based Life Log System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel life log system, Life Pod, which collects user's activities by a mobile phone in the real world, and displays them in a blog like style. Engaging sensors installed in mobile phone and information attached to objects, users can easily record their daily activity anytime, anywhere. Implementation of RFID system to Life Pod also

Atsunori Minamikawa; Nobuhide Kotsuka; Masaru Honjo; Daisuke Morikawa; Satoshi Nishiyama; Masayoshi Ohashi

2007-01-01

231

Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned envelope types. Energy consumption data, along with various other details, such as building floor area, areas of walls, columns, beams etc. and their material types were imported into Life-Cycle Assessment software called ATHENA impact estimator for buildings. Using this four-stepped LCA methodology, the results showed that the Steel Stud envelope performed the best and less environmental impact compared to other envelope types. This research methodology can be applied to other building typologies.

Ramachandran, Sriranjani

232

Life Stress and Illness: A Systems Approach  

PubMed Central

The link between stress and illness has been forged by researchers like Holmes and Rahe whose Social Readjustment Rating Scale can be used by family physicians to assess their patients' stress. The concept of stress has been clarified by the systems approach to illness. Stress and illness are embedded in a biopsychosocial matrix of several systems levels, each of which may be a source of stress as well as a support system. Stress is not the end result of a linear chain of causes and effects, but part of a feedback system in a community or family. The family is the major source of lifestyle and personality, the health belief system and modes of problem solving and coping, as well as of stress and support. The family physician can have a major role in educating the individual and family about stress and illness, and in altering the meaning of stress from catastrophe to challenge and source of growth. Anticipatory guidance for the normal crises of the life cycle and the crises of illness, loss and death can help prevent further family dysfunction and illness. Imagesp537-a PMID:21283349

Christie-Seely, Janet

1983-01-01

233

Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Thyroid Malignancy Using an Artificial Immune System Classification Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of thyroid malignancy by fine needle aspiration (FNA) examination has been proven to show wide variations of sensitivity and specificity. This paper proposes the utilization of a computer-aided diagnosis system based on a supervised classification algorithm from the artificial immune systems to assist the task of thyroid malignancy diagnosis. The core of the proposed algorithm is the so-called

Konstantinos K. Delibasis; Pantelis A. Asvestas; George K. Matsopoulos; Emmanouil Zoulias; Sofia Tseleni-Balafouta

2009-01-01

234

Detection of explosives in checked airline baggage using an artificial neural system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural system (ANS) has been applied to the problem of discriminating between suitcases with and without explosives. The input to the ANS was data gathered during the field tests of a prototype explosive detection system. The performance of the ANS is contrasted with the standard statistical technique (discriminant analysis) used, and is shown to exceed the performance of

Patrick M. Shea; Vincent Lin

1989-01-01

235

Development of a microcontroller-based automatic control system for the electrohydraulic total artificial heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic physiological control system for the actively filled, alternately pumped ventricles of the volumetrically coupled, electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) was developed for long-term use. The automatic control system must ensure that the device: (1) maintains a physiological response of cardiac output, (2) compensates for any nonphysiological condition, and (3) is stable, reliable, and operates at a high power

Hee Chan Kim; P. S. Khanwilkar; G. B. Bearnson; D. B. Olsen

1997-01-01

236

Application of artificial neural networks to the design and implementation of electronic olfactory systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in electronic olfactory systems have broaden their range of applications to many industrial fields, such as the chemical, food and cosmetic industries. Mimicking the human olfactory systems, where neural processing enhances the sensibility and selectivity of the chemosensory receptor cells, the new generation of Electronic Noses combine arrays of chemical sensors with powerful artificial neural network processing algorithms.

J. Brezmes; N. Canyellas; E. Llobet; X. Vilanova; X. Correig

237

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 301 Mark S. Fox Intelligent Systems Laboratory and future applicationsof Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufactur- ing is taking a systemic view of manufacturing. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing, Knowl- edge

Fox, Mark S.

238

A comparison of production system life cycle models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Companies today need to keep up with the rapidly changing market conditions to stay competitive. The main issues in this paper are related to a company's market and its competitors. The prediction of market behavior is helpful for a manufacturing enterprise to build efficient production systems. However, these predictions are usually not reliable. A production system is required to adapt to changing markets, but such requirement entails higher cost. Hence, analyzing different life cycle models of the production system is necessary. In this paper, different life cycle models of the production system are compared to evaluate the distinctive features and the limitations of each model. Furthermore, the difference between product life cycle and production life cycle is summarized, and the effect of product life cycle on production life cycle is explained. Finally, a production system life cycle model, along with key activities to be performed in each stage, is proposed specifically for the manufacturing sector.

Attri, Rajesh; Grover, Sandeep

2012-09-01

239

Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

1987-01-01

240

A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems  

PubMed Central

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity. PMID:23983638

Liu, Xiaohui

2013-01-01

241

An integrated life cycle assessment and life cycle analysis model for pavement overlay systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pavement systems have significant impacts on the environment and economy due to large material consumption, energy input, and capital investment. To evaluate the sustainability of rigid pavement overlay designs, an integrated life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis model was developed to calculate the environmental impacts and costs of overlay systems resulting from material production and distribution, overlay construction

H. Zhang; G. A. Keoleian; M. D. Lepech

242

Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

1971-01-01

243

Eating Data Is Good for Your Immune System: An Artificial Metabolism for Data Clustering Using Systemic Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work suggests that innate immunity and represen- tations of tissue can be useful when combined with artificial immune systems. Here we provide a new implementation of tissue for AIS us- ing systemic computation, a new model of computation and correspond- ing computer architecture based on a systemics world-view and supple- mented by the incorporation of natural characteristics. We show

Erwan Le Martelot; Peter J. Bentley; R. Beau Lotto

2008-01-01

244

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 257-277 The Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS): An  

E-print Network

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 257-277 257 The Advanced Embedded Training System (AETS): An Intelligent Embedded Tutoring System for Tactical Team Training W (AETS) applies intelligent tutoring systems technology to improving tactical training quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Comparison of the Transcription and Replication Strategies of Marburg Virus and Ebola Virus by Using Artificial Replication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The members of the family Filoviridae, Marburg virus (MBGV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), are very similar in terms of morphology, genome organization, and protein composition. To compare the replication and tran- scription strategies of both viruses, an artificial replication system based on the vaccinia virus T7 expression system was established for EBOV. Specific transcription and replication of an artificial monocistronic

ELKE MUHLBERGER; MICHAEL WEIK; VIKTOR E. VOLCHKOV; HANS-DIETER KLENK; STEPHAN BECKER

1999-01-01

246

A feed-forward artificial neural network with enhanced feature selection for power system transient stability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach where an artificial neural network is used to predict the stability status of the power system. This efficient and robust approach combines the advantages of the timedomain integration schemes and artificial neural network for on-line transient stability assessment of the power system. The transient stability index has been obtained by the extended equal area criterion

Harinder Sawhney; B. Jeyasurya

2006-01-01

247

Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline), (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS), and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

1988-01-01

248

Automatic point correspondence using an artificial immune system optimization technique for medical image registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an automatic method for determining pairs of corresponding points between medical images is proposed. The method is based on the implementation of an artificial immune system (AIS). AIS is a relatively novel, population based category of algorithms, inspired by theoretical immunologic models. When used as function optimizers, AIS have the attractive property of locating the global optimum

Konstantinos K. Delibasis; Pantelis A. Asvestas; George K. Matsopoulos

2011-01-01

249

An Artificial Immune System for Evolving Amino Acid Clusters Tailored to Protein Function Prediction  

E-print Network

acids into three functional groups (clusters); namely hydrophobic, neutral and polar, based upon sequence of amino acids, and predicting the function of a protein, based on information derived from itsAn Artificial Immune System for Evolving Amino Acid Clusters Tailored to Protein Function

Timmis, Jon

250

Approximations of power system dynamic load characteristics by artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static and dynamic characteristics of power system loads are critical to obtaining quality operating point predictions or stability calculations. The composite behavior of components at load buses are usually too complicated to be expressed in a simple form. Based on the approximation capability of artificial neural networks the authors explore the possibility of using neural networks to emulate load

Robert J. Thomas; Bih-Yuan Ku

1991-01-01

251

Using artificial intelligence to design and implement a morphological assessment system in beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a methodology is developed to improve the design and implementation of a linear morphological system in beef cattle using artificial intelligence. The proposed process involves an iterative mechanism where type traits are successively defined and computationally represented using knowledge engineering methodologies, scored by a set of trained human experts and finally, analysed by means of four reputed

F. Goyache; J. J. del Coz; J. R. Quevedo; S. Lpez; J. Alonso; J. Ranilla; O. Luaces; I. Alvarez; A. Bahamonde

2001-01-01

252

Medical decision making systems in pulmonology: a creative environment based on artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A powerful formation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for implementing a medical decision making system (MDMS) in the field of the entire spectrum of pulmonary diseases (PDs), is the topic treated in this article. These ANNs were taught by means of real-world medical data patterns given by a team of PDs medical experts. Preliminary and more elaborate experiments showed an

G.-P. K. Economou; C. Spiropoulos; N. M. Economopoulos; N. Charokopos; D. Lymberopoulos; M. Spiliopoulou; E. Haralambopulu; C. E. Goutis

1994-01-01

253

Formal systems in Artificial Intelligence: an illustration using semigroup, automata and language theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) matures, methods relying less on ad hoc procedures and more on well defined operations in the context of formal structures are emerging. Evidence for this can be found, for example, in the increasingly sophisticated approaches to inexact reasoning in knowledge-based systems and in the mathematical framework developed for semantic net representation. This tutorial

P. T. Hadingham

1990-01-01

254

Re-visiting the Foundations of Artificial Immune Systems for Data Mining  

E-print Network

Re-visiting the Foundations of Artificial Immune Systems for Data Mining Alex A. Freitas Jon Timmis) for data mining. By problem-oriented approach we mean that, in real-world data mining applications, the design of an AIS should take into account the characteristics of the data to be mined together

Timmis, Jon

255

Artificial neural network and support vector Machine approach for locating faults in radial distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) approach for locating faults in radial distribution systems. Different from the traditional Fault Section Estimation methods, the proposed approach uses measurements available at the substation, circuit breaker and relay statuses. The data is analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and the faults are classified according

D. Thukaram; H. P. Khincha; H. P. Vijaynarasimha

2005-01-01

256

An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of negative selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use of negative selection as a network traffic anomaly detector. The results of the negative selection algorithm experiments show a severe scaling problem for handling real network traffic data. The paper concludes by suggesting that the most

Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

2001-01-01

257

Environmental Impact Assessment of Artificial Aggregate Systems Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregates are food for construction industry and hydraulic and hydropower engineering, account for 80% of concrete. Now the number of artificial aggregate systems of being used and preparing to put into use is considerable, which calls for an efficient method to assess the environment impact. In this paper eight factors are taken into consideration to set up a factor set,

Qin Hongling; Meng Suimin; Zhou Xincong

2010-01-01

258

An Artificial Intelligence System to Help the Player of Real-Time Strategy Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real Time Strategy (RTS) games pose a series of challenges to players and AI Agents due to its dynamical, distributed and multi-objective fashion. In this paper, we propose and develop an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system that helps the player during the game, giving him tactical and strategical tips about the best actions to be taken according to the current game

Renato L. de Freitas Cunha; Luiz Chaimowicz

2010-01-01

259

Artificial immunity-based model for information system security risk evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial immunity principle based model for information system security risk evaluation is proposed. Recognition of harmful antigen by immunocytes is simulated. Immature, mature and memory detectors are defined. Evolution process of the detector is derived with math method. The math model in which the detectors recognize threats is constructed. The intensity of a threat and the vulnerability in the

Caiming Liu; Minhua Guo; Lingxi Peng; Jing Guo; Shu Yang; Jinquan Zeng

2010-01-01

260

Identification of power system load dynamics using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system loads are important in the planning and operation of an electric power system. Load characteristics can significantly influence the results of synchronous stability and voltage stability studies. This paper presents a methodology for the identification of power system load dynamics using neural networks. Input-output data of a power system dynamic load is used to design a neural network

M. Bostanci; J. Koplowitz; C. W. Taylor

1997-01-01

261

Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system  

PubMed Central

The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting. PMID:23511467

Andrea Rozzi, Carlo; Maria Falke, Sarah; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

2013-01-01

262

A review of machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence (AI) process models have been successfully developed in\\u000a the past for optimising, predicting or controlling machining processes. In general, these monitoring systems present important\\u000a differences among them, and there are no clear guidelines for their implementation. In order to present a generic view of\\u000a machining monitoring systems and facilitate their implementation, this

Jose Vicente Abellan-Nebot; Fernando Romero Subirn

2010-01-01

263

Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

2011-10-01

264

Physiological Targets of Artificial Gravity: The Sensory-Motor System. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial orientation. The sensory systems, and in particular the vestibular system, must adapt to weightlessness on entering orbit, and again to normal gravity upon return to Earth. During this period of adaptation, which persists beyond the actual gravity-level transition itself the sensory-motor systems are disturbed. Although artificial gravity may prove to be beneficial for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, it may well have negative side effects for the neurovestibular system, such as spatial disorientation, malcoordination, and nausea.

Paloski, William; Groen, Eric; Clarke, Andrew; Bles, Willem; Wuyts, Floris; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

265

Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)  

SciTech Connect

Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

1992-01-01

266

Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)  

SciTech Connect

Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

1992-03-01

267

Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

1970-01-01

268

Emotions and Action Selection in an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates  

E-print Network

Joanna Bryson and Jessica Flack Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT 545 Technology Square, Cambridge at least somewhat analogous to that #12;of Ca~namero [1997] and Frankel and Ray [2000]. Emotional responses

Bryson, Joanna J.

269

Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

Leong, Harrison Monfook

1988-01-01

270

Groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses groundwater artificial recharge solutions for integrated management of watersheds and aquifer systems under extreme drought scenarios. The conceptual idea of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) is considered as one of the scientific based solutions towards scientific based mitigation measures to climate variability and change in many parts of the world. In Portugal two European Union sponsored 6th Framework Programme for Research Projects have been addressing this topic, namely GABARDINE Project on "Groundwater artificial recharge based on alternative sources of water: Advanced integrated technologies and management" and the Coordinated Action ASEMWATERNet, a "Multi-Stakeholder Platform for ASEM S&T Cooperation on Sustainable Water Use". An application of Aquifer Storage and Recovery methodologies aiming drought mitigation and Integrated Water Resource Management of the Algarve (Portugal). The technique of artificial recharge of groundwater is used in many parts of the world with several aims, e.g. water storing in appropriate aquifers for the mitigation of future water needs during droughts or as protection against pollution or even for the recovery of groundwater quality. Artificial recharge of the aquifer systems of Campina de Faro and Silves-Querena is addressed in this paper, proposed to be an alternative to decrease the vulnerability of the Algarve to a future drought. Integrated management of water resources in the Algarve is not a clear issue since the last decade, when groundwater resources that supplied almost all water needs, have been drastically replaced by surface water stored in new reservoirs.

Lobo-Ferreira, Joao-Paulo; Oliveira, Lus.; Diamantino, Catarina

2010-05-01

271

Personalized web based English learning system using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional educational systems are usually presented in a course based and static way, without taking into account the learner's interests and learning progress. Language learning by that means could be accompanied by boredom and lack of real experiences, which is a great barrier to improving language skills. This paper presents an English learning system that is based on Web browsing.

Shiqiang Wang; Yuhang He; Zheng Liu; Huimin Wu

2009-01-01

272

Robust and Adaptive Tuning of Power System Stabilizers Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS) over a wide range of operating conditions and load models is investigated using an\\u000a artificial neural network (ANN). The neural nettwork is specially trained by an input-output set prepared by a novel approach\\u000a based on genetic algorithms (GA). To enhance power system damping, it is desirable to adapt the PSS parameters in real-time\\u000a based

Farzan Rashidi; Mehran Rashidi

2004-01-01

273

Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

Zabrodina, L. V.

1974-01-01

274

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...without requiring the pilot's attention, must be provided for faults that would prevent the system from providing the required...

2010-01-01

275

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...without requiring the pilot's attention, must be provided for faults that would prevent the system from providing the required...

2013-01-01

276

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...without requiring the pilot's attention, must be provided for faults that would prevent the system from providing the required...

2014-01-01

277

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...without requiring the pilot's attention, must be provided for faults that would prevent the system from providing the required...

2011-01-01

278

14 CFR 23.691 - Artificial stall barrier system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design...without requiring the pilot's attention, must be provided for faults that would prevent the system from providing the required...

2012-01-01

279

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1998), 9, 256-274 A Framework System for Intelligent Support in Open  

E-print Network

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1998), 9, 256-274 256 A Framework2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education System for Intelligent Support in Open Distributed Learning Environments M. Mühlenbrock, F. Tewissen, H

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 98-129 Authoring Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Analysis of the  

E-print Network

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (1999), 10, 98-129 98 Authoring-14Dec2007 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education Intelligent Tutoring Systems: An Analysis of the State of the Art Tom Murray Computer Science Dept

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Life prediction of aging aircraft wiring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goal is to develop a computerized life prediction model capable of identifying present aging progress and predicting end of life for aircraft wiring. A summary is given in viewgraph format of progress made on phase 1 objectives, which were to identify critical aircraft wiring problems; relate most common failures identified to the wire mechanism causing the failure; assess wiring requirments, materials, and stress environment for fighter aircraft; and demonstrate the feasibility of a time-temperature-environment model.

Slenski, George

1995-01-01

282

Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

1997-01-01

283

Combination of artificial intelligence and procedural language programs in a computer application system supporting nuclear reactor operations  

SciTech Connect

A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artificial intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages.

Town, G.G.; Stratton, R.C.

1985-01-01

284

A survey of life support system automation and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

Finn, Cory K.

1993-01-01

285

Artificial noses.  

PubMed

The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

2011-08-15

286

Creating a two-layered augmented artificial immune system for application to computer network intrusion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer network security has become a very serious concern of commercial, industrial, and military organizations due to the increasing number of network threats such as outsider intrusions and insider covert activities. An important security element of course is network intrusion detection which is a difficult real world problem that has been addressed through many different solution attempts. Using an artificial immune system has been shown to be one of the most promising results. By enhancing jREMISA, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm inspired artificial immune system, with a secondary defense layer; we produce improved accuracy of intrusion classification and a flexibility in responsiveness. This responsiveness can be leveraged to provide a much more powerful and accurate system, through the use of increased processing time and dedicated hardware which has the flexibility of being located out of band.

Judge, Matthew G.; Lamont, Gary B.

2009-05-01

287

Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms. PMID:22408487

Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

2009-01-01

288

Construction of an artificial heart pump performance test system.  

PubMed

A hydraulic loop, which simulates pressure/flow response of the human circulatory system, is needed to bench test the various versions of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). This article describes the design of such a loop and the simulated response of different physiological states, such as a healthy person in sleep, rest, and mild physical activity, and in different pathological states. The loop consists of: (1) pulsatile left and right cardiac simulators; (2) air/water tanks to model the venous and arterial compliances; (3) tygon tubes to model the venous, arterial, and other system flow resistances; and (4) a tuning clamp to model the variation in system resistance characteristics under different cardiac pressure/flow conditions. The simulated responses were compared to the data found in the literature to validate the loop performance prior to LVAD testing. PMID:17136597

Liu, Yingjie; Allaire, Paul; Wu, Yi; Wood, Houston; Olsen, Don

2006-12-01

289

METEOR - an artificial intelligence system for convective storm forecasting  

SciTech Connect

An AI system called METEOR, which uses the meteorologist's heuristics, strategies, and statistical tools to forecast severe hailstorms in Alberta, is described, emphasizing the information and knowledge that METEOR uses to mimic the forecasting procedure of an expert meteorologist. METEOR is then discussed as an AI system, emphasizing the ways in which it is qualitatively different from algorithmic or statistical approaches to prediction. Some features of METEOR's design and the AI techniques for representing meteorological knowledge and for reasoning and inference are presented. Finally, some observations on designing and implementing intelligent consultants for meteorological applications are made. 7 references.

Elio, R.; De haan, J.; Strong, G.S.

1987-03-01

290

Guidance for human interface with artificial intelligence systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The beginning of a research effort to collect and integrate existing research findings about how to combine computer power and people is discussed, including problems and pitfalls as well as desirable features. The goal of the research is to develop guidance for the design of human interfaces with intelligent systems. Fault management tasks in NASA domains are the focus of the investigation. Research is being conducted to support the development of guidance for designers that will enable them to make human interface considerations into account during the creation of intelligent systems.

Potter, Scott S.; Woods, David D.

1991-01-01

291

The Search for Life in the Solar System*  

PubMed Central

In this presentation I give an overview of the long struggle to answer the age old question, does life exist anywhere else? The focus will be specifically on the search for life in the solar system, since this is the only region currently accessible to direct investigation. A hundred years ago many people believed that life, possibly even intelligent life, existed at the nearby planets Venus and Mars, and possibly elsewhere. The space age exploration of the planets has radically altered that view. We now know that Venus is a very hostile place, with no possibility for life, and that Mars is almost completely barren and very cold, with little prospect for life. The only remaining possibility appears to be in the interior of some of the moons of the outer planets where, due to an unlikely combination of factors, the conditions may be suitable for life. PMID:19768185

Gurnett, Donald A.

2009-01-01

292

The search for life in the solar system.  

PubMed

In this presentation I give an overview of the long struggle to answer the age old question, does life exist anywhere else? The focus will be specifically on the search for life in the solar system, since this is the only region currently accessible to direct investigation. A hundred years ago many people believed that life, possibly even intelligent life, existed at the nearby planets Venus and Mars, and possibly elsewhere. The space age exploration of the planets has radically altered that view. We now know that Venus is a very hostile place, with no possibility for life, and that Mars is almost completely barren and very cold, with little prospect for life. The only remaining possibility appears to be in the interior of some of the moons of the outer planets where, due to an unlikely combination of factors, the conditions may be suitable for life. PMID:19768185

Gurnett, Donald A

2009-01-01

293

Application of artificial neural networks to an electronic olfactory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human sense of smell is the faculty upon which many industries rely to monitor items such as beverages, food and perfumes. Previous work has been carried out to construct an instrument that mimics the remarkable capabilities of the human olfactory system. The instrument or electronic nose consists of a computer-controlled multi-sensor array which exhibits a differential response to a

J. W. Gardner; E. L. Hines; M. Wilkinson

1990-01-01

294

An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

2002-01-01

295

THE ARTIFICIAL RECOGNITION SYSTEM (ARS): NEW CONCEPTS FOR BUILDING AUTOMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building automation faces a development that leads to more and more sensory information available for processing. Existing approaches are challenged by this abundant amount of data, therefore the authors see a need to introduce new concepts for handling the challenges of the upcoming future. Looking at bionic approaches taken from the field of neurobiology, but also psychoanalysis, a system is

Gerhard Pratl; Brigitte Lorenz; Dietmar Dietrich

296

Artificial activation of toxinantitoxin systems as an antibacterial strategy  

E-print Network

activation of the toxin has been proposed and has considerable potential; however, efforts in this area it more suscepti- ble to proteolytic degradation. The TA functionality capi- talizes on this differential stabilization via toxin-induced post-segregational killing (PSK) [1­3]. If the plasmid encoding the TA system

Hergenrother, Paul J.

297

Wireless Innovations as Enablers for Complex & Dynamic Artificial Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific and technological innovations of the last few decades in the field of wireless telecommunications and networking\\u000a have enabled a wide area of applications and services in healthcare, transportation, environmental protection, infotainment,\\u000a industrial automation, homeland security, smart urban environments and other disparate fields. At the same time the complexity\\u000a and criticality of these systems creates many technical challenges in their

Spyridon Vassilaras; Gregory S. Yovanof

2010-01-01

298

Precise Selenodetic Coordinate System on Artificial Light Refers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically a coordinate system for the Moon was established on the base of telescopic observations from the Earth. As the angular resolution of Earth-to-Space telescopic observations is limited by Earth atmosphere, and is ordinary worse then 1 ang. second, the mean accuracy of selenodetic coordinates is some angular minutes, which corresponds to errors about 900 meters for positions of lunar objects near center of visible lunar disk, and at least twice more when objects are near lunar poles. As there are no Global Positioning System nor any astronomical observation instruments on the Moon, we proposed to use an autonomous light beacon on the Luna-Globe landing module to fix its position on the surface of the moon ant to use it as refer point for fixation of spherical coordinates system for the Moon. The light beacon is designed to be surely visible by orbiting probe TV-camera. As any space probe has its own stars-orientation system, there is not a problem to calculate a set of directions to the beacon and to the referent stars in probe-centered coordinate system during flight over the beacon. Large number of measured angular positions and time of each observation will be enough to calculate both orbital parameters of the probe and selenodetic coordinates of the beacon by methods of geodesy. All this will allow fixing angular coordinates of any feature of lunar surface in one global coordinate system, referred to the beacon. The satellites orbit plane contains ever the center mass of main body, so if the beacon will be placed closely to a lunar pole, we shall determine pole point position of the Moon with accuracy tens times better then it is known now. When angular accuracy of self-orientation by stars of the orbital module of Luna-Glob mission will be 6 angular seconds, then being in circular orbit with height of 200 km the on-board TV-camera will allow calculation of the beacon position as well as 6" corresponding to spatial resolution of the camera. It mean that coordinates of the beacon will be determined with accuracy not worse then 6 meters on the lunar surface. Much more accuracy can be achieved if orbital probe will use as precise angular measurer as optical interferometer. The limiting accuracy of proposed method is far above any reasonable level, because it may be sub-millimeter one. Theoretical analysis shows that for achievement of 1-meter accuracy of coordinate measuring over lunar globe it will be enough to disperse over it surface some 60 light beacons. Designed by Lavochkin Association light beacon is autonomous one, and it will work at least 10 years, so coordinate frame of any other lunar mission could use established selenodetic coordinates during this period. The same approach may be used for establishing Martial coordinates system.

Bagrov, Alexander; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Sysoev, Valentin

299

Power system dynamic security enhancement using artificial neural networks and energy margin  

SciTech Connect

A framework for dynamic security enhancement based on area-wise preventive control is proposed. The power system is partitioned into areas for stability evaluation using the transient energy margin. Area vulnerability is evaluated based on the sensitivity of the energy margin w.r.t. controls in the given areas of the system. The areas of the system which contribute significantly to instability are labeled critical or weak areas and preventive control is applied in those areas of the system. The final control application is achieved by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) to compute the control inputs.

Momoh, J.A.; Effiong, C.B. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

1996-11-01

300

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 237250 Hierarchical decision making for proactive quality control: system  

E-print Network

Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 237­250 Hierarchical decision making by resorting to artificial intelligence and engineering fundamentals. The approach is developed for solving control; Intelligent decision support; Artificial intelligence; Fuzzy logic; Automotive coating 1

Huang, Yinlun

301

Instrument validation and measurement of home healthcare nurses' knowledge of artificial nutrition and hydration at end of life.  

PubMed

The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was two-fold: (a) to determine the reliability of the instrument to measure nurses' knowledge of artificial nutrition and hydration, and (b) to assess home healthcare nurses' knowledge of artificial nutrition and hydration. A cross-sectional design was used to administer the questionnaire to 91 home healthcare nurses in North Carolina; 33 questionnaires were returned. Results revealed an accurate answer rate of 73% and Cronbach's alpha was 0.71, indicating adequate internal consistency reliability. PMID:25654345

Smith, Lenora; Amella, Elaine J; Mueller, Martina

2015-01-01

302

An artificial neural-net based technique for power system dynamic stability with the Kohonen model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an artificial-neural-network (ANN)-based technique for evaluating power system dynamic stability. The method is based on estimating the dynamic stability index that corresponds to the most critical eigenvalue of the S-matrix method. The ANN of Kohonen is used to estimate the index so that computational efforts are reduced and numerical instability problems are avoided. The Kohonen model is

H. Mori; Y. Tamaru; S. Tsuzuki

1992-01-01

303

Apsis:. AN Artificial Planetary System in Space to Probe Extra-Dimensional Gravity and MOND  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made to test Newton's inverse-square law using the perihelion shift of test masses (planets) in free fall within a spacecraft located at the Earth-Sun L2 point. Such an artificial planetary system in space (APSIS) will operate in a drag-free environment with controlled experimental conditions and minimal interference from terrestrial sources of contamination. We demonstrate that such a

Varun Sahni; Yuri Shtanov

2008-01-01

304

Applications of Artificial Intelligence Systems in the Analysis of Epidemiological Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the germane literature suggests that the use of artificial intelligence (AI) statistical algorithms in epidemiology\\u000a has been limited. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using AI systems in large-scale sets of epidemiological data\\u000a to extract inherent, formerly unidentified, and potentially valuable patterns that human-driven deductive models may miss.

Andreas D. Flouris; Jack Duffy

2006-01-01

305

Artificial intelligence/expert systems within the US Army Depot System Command  

SciTech Connect

The Depot System Command (DESCOM) is the industrial arm of the US Army. It employs over 37,000 individuals (97% civilian), has an operating budget of over $2 billion, and holds over $33 billion of material in storage. As a result, DESCOM is a prime candidate for extensive use of traditional industrially oriented expert systems (ES). DESCOM supports three primary mission areas: maintenance, supply, and ammunition. In addition, DESCOM performs a number of other support activities. Each of these mission areas has unique requirements and potential for ES applications. Artificial intelligence (AI) was identified as a desirable technology, and a specific AI component of the READY 2000 program was established. The purpose of this AI component was to rapidly infuse AI technology into DESCOM's organization. The objectives of this effort included integrating AI technology into the performance of current organizational responsibilities., establishing internal capabilities in this technical area, and rapidly demonstrating the immediate utility of the technology. This document discusses activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives.

Hollengaugh, R. (Army Depot System Command, Chambersburg, PA (USA)); Franklin, A.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-03-01

306

Power flow control of TET system for a novel artificial anal sphincter system.  

PubMed

This paper presents an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) integrated with a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) for treating severe faecal incontinence (FI). The ES-AASS is based on a novel executive mechanism that uses a spring scalable structure to clamp the rectum. To deliver the correct amount of power (i.e. to match the load demand under variable coupling conditions or different operation stages of the implanted device) for internal battery charging and ensure safety for the human body, theoretical analysis was conducted as a control rule with respect to the relationship between the phase of driver signals and output voltage. An easy regulating procedure to stabilize output voltage with a phase shift controller is also presented. To validate the phase control rules, a prototype of the TETS was constructed and its performance was validated across the whole coupling coefficient range (0.09???0.29) as well as load resistance (50???120??). The results show that the output voltage of the secondary side can be maintained at a constant 7?V with a phase regulation range of 78.7-178.2 and the proposed controller has reached a maximal end-to-end power efficiency of 74.2% at 1?W. PMID:25350041

Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Li, Xiyang

2015-01-01

307

Life prediction technologies for aeronautical propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue and fracture problems continue to occur in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Components whose useful life is limited by these failure modes include turbine hot-section blades, vanes and disks. Safety considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that noncatastrophic failures occur as infrequently as possible. The design decision is therefore in making the tradeoff between engine performance and durability. The NASA Lewis Research Center has contributed to the aeropropulsion industry in the areas of life prediction technology for 30 years, developing creep and fatigue life prediction methodologies for hot-section materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of methods capable of handling both thermal and mechanical fatigue under severe environments. Recent accomplishments include the development of more accurate creep-fatigue life prediction methods such as the total strain version of Lewis' Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) and the HOST-developed Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) model. Other examples include the Double Damage Curve Approach (DDCA), which provides greatly improved accuracy for cumulative fatigue design rules.

Mcgaw, Michael A.

1987-01-01

308

[Distribution, migration and purifying effect of cadmium in artificial Avicennia marina wetland system].  

PubMed

An artificial mangrove Avicennia marina wetland was set up in a greenhouse, and an irrigation experiment with synthetic wastewater was performed to research the behavior of cadmium in the artificial wetland system. The synthetic wastewater C1 had the characteristics and strength similar to normal municipal sewage, while C5 and C10 had the nutrients and heavy metals as five and ten times as those in C1, respectively. The control was of 15 per thousand salinity. All the test wastewater was quantitatively irrigated weakly for a year. The results showed that the cadmium in the synthetic wastewater discharged into the system was mainly stagnated in soil subsystem (87.67%-96.74%), and only a small portion (0.43%-3.23%) migrated into plants and litters. After a year trial, the Cd content in roots was more than that in stems and leaves. The artificial Avicennia marina wetland system did have a significant effect on purifying cadmium in synthetic wastewater, and the purification rate for C1, C5 and C10 was 90.43%, 97.17% and 97.06%, respectively. PMID:15943375

Chen, Guikui; Chen, Guizhu

2005-03-01

309

Security Observance throughout the Life-Cycle of Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

Security Observance throughout the Life-Cycle of Embedded Systems S. Hasan Mirjalili, Arjen K. Their security requirements underline the importance of properly formulated, implemented, and enforced security policies throughout their life-cycle. Currently, security is just an afterthought, and most solutions

Lenstra, Arjen K.

310

An Artificial Intelligence system to help the player of Real-Time Strategy games Renato L. de Freitas Cunha Luiz Chaimowicz  

E-print Network

An Artificial Intelligence system to help the player of Real-Time Strategy games Renato L. de propose and develop an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system that helps the player during the game, giving. Keywords:: Real-time Strategy, Artificial Intelligence Author's Contact: renato@renatocunha.com chaimo

Chaimowicz, Luiz

311

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 2 (1994) 132 Submitted 4/94; published 8/94 A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees  

E-print Network

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 2 (1994) 1­32 Submitted 4/94; published 8/94 A System and artificial data, that analyze OC1's ability to construct oblique trees that are smaller and more accurate

Salzberg, Steven

312

The Pace of Life under Artificial Selection: Personality, Energy Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs.  

E-print Network

Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs. Author(s): Vincent Careau, Denis Réale, Murray M. Humphries, Donald W. Thomas Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs Vincent Careau,1,* Denis Re´ale,2 Murray M 12, 2010 Online enhancement: appendix. abstract: The domestic dog has undergone extensive artificial

Indiana University

313

Low-crested coastal defence structures as artificial habitats for marine life: Using ecological criteria in design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal defence structures to protect sedimentary coastlines from erosion and flooding are increasingly common throughout Europe. They will become more widespread over the next 1030 years in response to rising and stormier seas and accelerating economic development of the coastal zone. Building coastal defences results in the loss and fragmentation of sedimentary habitats and their replacement by artificial rocky habitats

P. S. Moschella; M. Abbiati; P. berg; L. Airoldi; J. M. Anderson; F. Bacchiocchi; F. Bulleri; G. E. Dinesen; M. Frost; E. Gacia; L. Granhag; P. R. Jonsson; M. P. Satta; A. Sundelf; R. C. Thompson; S. J. Hawkins

2005-01-01

314

Search for Life Beyond the Solar System. Exoplanets, Biosignatures & Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the rapidly increasing number of known Earth-sized planets, the increasing range of extreme conditions in which life on Earth can persist, and the progress toward a technology that will ultimately enable the search for life on exoplanets, the Vatican Observatory and the Steward Observatory announce a major conference entitled The Search for Life Beyond the Solar System: Exoplanets, Biosignatures & Instruments. The goal of the conference is to bring together the interdisciplinary community required to address this multi-faceted challenge: experts on exoplanet observations, early and extreme life on Earth, atmospheric biosignatures, and planet-finding telescopes.

Apai, Daniel; Gabor, Pavel

2014-03-01

315

Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

1989-01-01

316

Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical InformaticsInformatics  

E-print Network

ICS 313 1 Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical Informatics Systems Outline and Objectives Describe basic concepts in artificial intelligence Understand is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Goals of AI systems fall into four categories: Thinking humanly Thinking

Reed, Nancy E.

317

An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System  

PubMed Central

Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time. PMID:22194721

Martinelli, Eugenio; Polese, Davide; Dini, Francesca; Paolesse, Roberto; Filippini, Daniel; Lundstrm, Ingemar; Di Natale, Corrado

2011-01-01

318

Pressure distribution-based texture sensing by using a simple artificial mastication system.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel texture sensing method for nursing-care gel by using an artificial mastication system, in which not only mechanical characteristics but also geometrical ones are objectively and quantitatively evaluated. When human masticates gel food, she or he perceives the changes of the shape and contact force simultaneously. Based on the impressions, they evaluate the texture. For reproducing such a procedure, the pressure distribution of gel is measured in the simple artificial mastication, and the information associated to both the geometrical and mechanical characteristics is simultaneously acquired. The relationship between the value of sensory evaluation (i.e. impression human perceives), and the pressure distribution data is numerically modeled by applying the image texture analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method succeeds in estimating the values of sensory evaluation of nine kinds of gel with the coefficient of determination greater than 0.93. PMID:25570096

Yamamoto, Takeshi; Higashimori, Mitsuru; Nakauma, Makoto; Nakao, Satomi; Ikegami, Akira; Ishihara, Sayaka

2014-08-01

319

A special purpose embedded system for neural machine interface for artificial legs.  

PubMed

This paper presents a design and implementation of a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial legs that can decode amputee's intended movement in real time. The newly designed NMI integrates an FPGA chip for fast processing and a microcontroller unit (MCU) with multiple on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for real-time data sampling. The resulting embedded system is able to sample in real time 12 EMG signals and 6 mechanical signals and execute a special complex phase-dependent classifier for accurate recognition of the user's intended locomotion modes. The implementation and evaluation are based on Altera's Stratix III 3S150 FPGA device coupled with Freescale's MPC5566 MCU. The experimental results for classifying three locomotion modes (level-ground walking, stairs ascent, and stairs descent) based on data collected from an able-bodied human subject have shown acceptable performance for real-time controlling of artificial legs. PMID:22255511

Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

2011-01-01

320

Life in our Solar System and Beyond: Astrobiology in the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no broadly accepted definition of life, although spacecraft searches for extraterrestrial biology implicitly assume some operational definition. Most search strategies rapidly fall back on the idea of "life as we know it" based on a liquid water solvent, a suite of biogenic elements (most famously carbon) and a useful source of free energy. Searches for life within our solar system naturally focus on those objects that hold the prospect of liquid water, but we must also then consider the availability of biogenic elements and free energy sources on these worlds. Mars and Europa represent the most interesting venues, because of strong evidence for liquid water at the present time, but offer special challenges to biology as well. More exotic possibilities, for example life based on a liquid hydrocarbon solvent, will in effect begin to be explored with the Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan. Decades of radio astronomical detection of interstellar molecules have provided an empirical probe into speculations about silicon-based life, as a rich interstellar carbon chemistry has been revealed without comparable silicon analogues. Beyond the solar system, searches for signs of life can be pursued in two ways: detection and spectroscopic observations of extrasolar planets, and targeted or all-sky surveys for artificial electromagnetic signals. The current SETI Institute search, examining the thousand nearest Sun-like stars from 1 to 3 GHz, should soon (in 2004) be expanded through the completion of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). The ATA will demonstrate great reductions in the cost of constructing large radio telescopes (the ATA will have 1 hectare of collecting area, but be composed of over 350 6-meter dishes), and will permit the one hundred thousand to one million nearest Sun-like stars to be searched from 1 to 10 GHz over a period of about a decade. This research is supported in part by a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers and the NASA exobiology program.

Chyba, C. F.

2001-12-01

321

An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats  

E-print Network

The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

Shaw, Margaret Miller

2014-01-01

322

Animat Vision: Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision r e- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artific ial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the pr evailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artifici al animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as aut onomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems.

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

1995-01-01

323

The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These plants were grown under artificial light conditions from 5 to 7 months. All crops were cut periodically in every month. On the base of our investigations it is possible to recommend for using in CELSS the next crops: marjoram, sweet-Mary and common thyme. The micronutrients containing in barley and above mentioned volatile crops will be useful for good appetite and health of the crew.

Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

324

Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

Roman, Monserrate

2009-01-01

325

Recent progress on transcutaneous energy transfer for total artificial heart systems.  

PubMed

For many years, transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) systems have been developed for energizing total artificial heart systems. Although such a basic system can be developed without too much design effort, optimization toward high power transfer efficiency forces the introduction of novel system topologies and design strategies. In addition, for medical applications, the thermal impact of a TET system on the biological tissue should be taken into account, resulting in limitations on usable coil geometries. This article presents a TET system that has been developed for a power transfer of 25 W over a distance of 1 cm with minimal dimensions of 1 x 6 x 4 cm for the external driver and 5 x 3 x 1 cm for the internal electronics. The coil geometries have a thickness of 2 mm and a diameter of 6 cm. An overall system efficiency of 80% was achieved for an internal load of 25 W. PMID:11403672

Puers, R; Vandevoorde, G

2001-05-01

326

The "Living" Room A Case Study in Artificial Intelligence, Collaborative Systems, and Language Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study analyzes the reasoning processes and types of information that we need to embed in collaborative software systems in order for these systems to demonstrate intelligent behavior and allow us to interact with them in a natural way. The central character of the case, Kate, is a college student who lives in an intelligent dorm room that converses with her as a friend would. Developed to introduce the ideas of collaboration and natural language understanding in an upper-division course in artificial intelligence, the case can be adapted for non-technical audiences for use in developing critical thinking skills.

Stephanie E. August

2008-01-01

327

Natural and artificial intelligence. Processor systems compared to the human brain  

SciTech Connect

This comparison of artificial intelligence systems to the human brain has implications for a variety of disciplines. Original views are specified and compared with traditional models. Main Features: 1. Integration of logic programming in the brain functions. 2. New computer parallel architecture (for hardware engineers). 3. Main principles of symbolic manipulation by logic programming (for software engineers in Al, expert systems and logic programming). 4. Logical models of brain connections and functions (for neuroscientists). 5. Definition of memory types and functions (for psychologists). 6. Parallel between Al applied to robots and theory of knowledge (for philosophers).

de Callatay, A.M.

1986-01-01

328

Artificial equilibrium points for a solar balloon in the ? Centauri system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the generation, stability, and control of artificial equilibrium points for a solar balloon spacecraft in the ? Centauri A and B binary star system. The continuous propulsive acceleration provided by a solar balloon is shown to be able to modify the position of the (classical) Lagrangian equilibrium points of the three-body system on a locus whose geometrical form is known analytically. A linear stability analysis reveals that the new generated equilibrium points are usually unstable, but part of them can be stabilized with a simple feedback control logic.

Aliasi, Generoso; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

2014-11-01

329

Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

2007-01-01

330

Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S. [and others

1995-06-01

331

A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.

Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

2007-01-01

332

Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life.  

PubMed

Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system. PMID:9243009

Shock, E L

1996-01-01

333

Hydrothermal systems as environments for the emergence of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the chemical disequilibrium provided by the mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in present-day systems indicates that organic synthesis from CO2 or carbonic acid is thermodynamically favoured in the conditions in which hyperthermophilic microorganisms are known to live. These organisms lower the Gibbs free energy of the chemical mixture by synthesizing many of the components of their cells. Primary productivity is enormous in hydrothermal systems because it depends only on catalysis of thermodynamically favourable, exergonic reactions. It follows that hydrothermal systems may be the most favourable environments for life on Earth. This fact makes hydrothermal systems logical candidates for the location of the emergence of life, a speculation that is supported by genetic evidence that modern hyperthermophilic organisms are closer to a common ancestor than any other forms of life. The presence of hydrothermal systems on the early Earth would correspond to the presence of liquid water. Evidence that hydrothermal systems existed early in the history of Mars raises the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars as well. Redox reactions between water and rock establish the potential for organic synthesis in and around hydrothermal systems. Therefore, the single most important parameter for modelling the geochemical emergence of life on the early Earth or Mars is the composition of the rock which hosts the hydrothermal system.

Shock, E. L.

1996-01-01

334

Light and Life: Exotic Photosynthesis in Binary Star Systems  

E-print Network

The potential for hosting photosynthetic life on Earth-like planets within binary/multiple stellar systems was evaluated by modelling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in: (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems and (iii) three-star systems were investigated and a range of stable radiation environments found to be possible. These environmental conditions allow for the possibility of familiar, but also more exotic forms of photosynthetic life, such as infrared photosynthesisers and organisms specialised for specific spectral niches.

O'Malley-James, J T; Cockell, C S; Greaves, J S

2011-01-01

335

Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

Hart, Maxwell M.

1991-01-01

336

Life sciences and space research XXIV(4) - Natural and artificial ecosystems; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meetings F10, F11, F1 and F12) of the COSPAR 28th Plenary Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, June 25-July 6, 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference on natural and artificial ecosystems and their application to space research encompasses both in-flight and ground-based issues of recycling and control in regenerative life support, the relationships of productivity and facility design in higher plant growth, life-support systems for manned missions to Mars, and biochemical engineering applications in space. Specific issues addressed include interface problems between material recycling systems and plants, temperature and humidity control on a lunar base, the CELSS Test-Facility Project, achieving closure in plant-growth facilities, and life-support systems for Mars transit. Also addressed are a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system, a simulated Mars outpost in the Antarctica dry valleys, analyses of human kidney-cell populations separated on the space shuttle, and the evolution of a phase-separated gravity-independent bioreactor.

Macelroy, R. D. (editor); Averner, M. M. (editor); Tibbits, T. W. (editor); Bugbee, B. B. (editor); Horneck, G. (editor); Dunlop, E. H. (editor)

1992-01-01

337

Promise of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system in artificial leg control.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses. PMID:23367113

Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

2012-01-01

338

Promise of a Low Power Mobile CPU based Embedded System in Artificial Leg Control  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses. PMID:23367113

Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

2013-01-01

339

Direct observation of magnetic monopole defects in an artificial spin-ice system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustration is the inability to satisfy the bonding requirements of all pairs in a system. Spin-ice materials have proven to be a model system to study frustration, and more recently they have been shown both theoretically and experimentally to be home to exotic excitations, whereby the atomic magnetic moments fractionalize into monopoles. Two-dimensional Kagome and square lattice systems have been shown to capture the physics of frustration and reproduce the ice-rules. In this study we have carried out magnetic force microscopy (MFM) at remanence in order to understand the magnetic reversal of an artificial kagome ice structure. We find that during the switching process ice-rule violating defects which carry magnetic charge are created and hop through the lattice with further increments to the magnetic field. These defects are the two-dimensional equivalent of magnetic monopoles in bulk spin-ice and hence are defined as monopole defects. The dynamics of the monopole defects through the artificial spin ice system will be discussed. High resolution MFM imaging at vertices and OOMMF simulations allow the micro-magnetic configuration of a monopole defect to be resolved.

Ladak, Sam; Read, Dan; Perkins, Garry; Branford, Will; Cohen, Lesley

2010-03-01

340

Recognizing animal-caused faults in power distribution systems using artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

Faults are likely to occur in most power distribution systems. If the causes of the faults are known, specific action can be taken to eliminate the fault sources as soon as possible to avoid unnecessary costs, such as power system down-time cost, that are caused by failing to identify the fault sources. However, experts that can accurately recognize the causes of distribution faults are scarce and the knowledge about the nature of these faults is easily transferable from person to person. Therefore, artificial neural networks are used in this paper to recognize the causes of faults in power distribution systems, based on fault currents information collected for each outage. Actual field data collected by Duke Power Company are used in this paper. The methodology and implementation of artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic for the identification of animal-caused distribution faults will be presented. Satisfactory results have been obtained, and the developed methodology can be easily generalized and used to identify other causes of faults in power distribution systems.

Chow, Mo Yuen; Yee, S.O. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Taylor, L.S. (Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States). Distribution Engineering)

1993-07-01

341

Life-critical digital flight control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital autopilot systems were first used on commercial airplanes in the late 1970s. The A-320 airplane was the first air transport airplane with a fly-by-wire primary flight control system. On the 767-X (777) airplane Boeing will install all fly-by-wire flight controls. Activities related to safety, industry status and program phases are discussed.

Mcwha, James

1990-01-01

342

SMART AIRCREW INTEGRATED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (SAILSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

of the lower body, as blood from the upper part of the body shifts into these lower vessels. The pooling of blood in the lower extremities translates into reduced cardiac output Cardiovascular system reflexes respond by increasing heart rate to maintain adequate blood flow to the central nervous system in an attempt to preserve normal brain function. The physical symptoms

E. Forster; P. Whitley; B. Shender

343

Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults  

DOEpatents

Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

Tilly, Jonathan L. (Windham, NH); Kolesnick, Richard N. (New York, NY)

2010-12-14

344

Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

Shelnutt, J.A.

1984-11-29

345

Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system  

DOEpatents

A method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation which comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a gas hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound .pi.--.pi. complexes which can develop.

Shelnutt, John A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

346

Supervised pixel classification using a feature space derived from an artificial visual system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image segmentation involves labelling pixels according to their membership in image regions. This requires the understanding of what a region is. Using supervised pixel classification, the paper investigates how groups of pixels labelled manually according to perceived image semantics map onto the feature space created by an Artificial Visual System. Multiscale structure of regions are investigated and it is shown that pixels form clusters based on their geometric roles in the image intensity function, not by image semantics. A tentative abstract definition of a 'region' is proposed based on this behavior.

Baxter, Lisa C.; Coggins, James M.

1991-01-01

347

Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m^2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1996-01-01

348

Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

1996-01-01

349

Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

2006-01-01

350

System strategies in the management of transit systems towards the end of their life cycle  

E-print Network

This thesis explores and evaluates essential strategies needed for the transit authority/operator to deal with end of life cycle challenges of Rapid Transit Systems (RTS) systems. RTS systems are elaborate systems consisting ...

Kairon, Ajmer Singh

2007-01-01

351

A development framework for artificial intelligence based distributed operations support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced automation is required to reduce costly human operations support requirements for complex space-based and ground control systems. Existing knowledge based technologies have been used successfully to automate individual operations tasks. Considerably less progress has been made in integrating and coordinating multiple operations applications for unified intelligent support systems. To fill this gap, SOCIAL, a tool set for developing Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systems is being constructed. SOCIAL consists of three primary language based components defining: models of interprocess communication across heterogeneous platforms; models for interprocess coordination, concurrency control, and fault management; and for accessing heterogeneous information resources. DAI applications subsystems, either new or existing, will access these distributed services non-intrusively, via high-level message-based protocols. SOCIAL will reduce the complexity of distributed communications, control, and integration, enabling developers to concentrate on the design and functionality of the target DAI system itself.

Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

1990-01-01

352

Demonstrating artificial intelligence for space systems - Integration and project management issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project (SADP), NASA has recently demonstrated the Thermal Expert System (TEXSYS). Advanced real-time expert system and human interface technology was successfully developed and integrated with conventional controllers of prototype space hardware to provide intelligent fault detection, isolation, and recovery capability. Many specialized skills were required, and responsibility for the various phases of the project therefore spanned multiple NASA centers, internal departments and contractor organizations. The test environment required communication among many types of hardware and software as well as between many people. The integration, testing, and configuration management tools and methodologies which were applied to the TEXSYS project to assure its safe and successful completion are detailed. The project demonstrated that artificial intelligence technology, including model-based reasoning, is capable of the monitoring and control of a large, complex system in real time.

Hack, Edmund C.; Difilippo, Denise M.

1990-01-01

353

Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

2013-12-01

354

Microsoft kinect-based artificial perception system for control of functional electrical stimulation assisted grasping.  

PubMed

We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES. PMID:25202707

Strbac, Matija; Ko?ovi?, Slobodan; Markovi?, Marko; Popovi?, Dejan B

2014-01-01

355

Microsoft Kinect-Based Artificial Perception System for Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation Assisted Grasping  

PubMed Central

We present a computer vision algorithm that incorporates a heuristic model which mimics a biological control system for the estimation of control signals used in functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted grasping. The developed processing software acquires the data from Microsoft Kinect camera and implements real-time hand tracking and object analysis. This information can be used to identify temporal synchrony and spatial synergies modalities for FES control. Therefore, the algorithm acts as artificial perception which mimics human visual perception by identifying the position and shape of the object with respect to the position of the hand in real time during the planning phase of the grasp. This artificial perception used within the heuristically developed model allows selection of the appropriate grasp and prehension. The experiments demonstrate that correct grasp modality was selected in more than 90% of tested scenarios/objects. The system is portable, and the components are low in cost and robust; hence, it can be used for the FES in clinical or even home environment. The main application of the system is envisioned for functional electrical therapy, that is, intensive exercise assisted with FES. PMID:25202707

Ko?ovi?, Slobodan; Popovi?, Dejan B.

2014-01-01

356

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

357

Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting

Martin C Heller; Gregory A Keoleian; Timothy A Volk

2003-01-01

358

Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

1990-01-01

359

Battery management systems (BMS) for increasing battery life time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and costs of an energy storage system are two very important parameters for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and other battery applications. The increasing of battery life and the prediction of battery failure are therefore two important features of a battery management system (BMS). A couple of other helpful features can be implemented in a BMS. In the case of

J. Garche; A. Jossen

2000-01-01

360

Fault diagnosis of pneumatic systems with artificial neural network algorithms M. Demetgul a,*, I.N. Tansel b  

E-print Network

Fault diagnosis of pneumatic systems with artificial neural network algorithms M. Demetgul a,*, I) Back propagation (Bp) Fault diagnosis Pneumatic Modular production system a b s t r a c t Pneumatic the pneumatic system worked perfectly and had some faults including empty magazine, zero vacuum, inappropriate

Rucci, Michele

361

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

362

Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

2014-01-01

363

Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing for every possible contingency seems daunting, but with teamwork and some help from the government, it's almost do-able. There is a great system out there that will help business professionals and educators develop a strong, effective emergency preparedness plan. If they haven't done a good job of implementing a solid emergency response

Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

2011-01-01

364

Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

1989-01-01

365

Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

1978-01-01

366

The University of Leeds: Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Biological Systems at the University of Leeds draws from "expertise in solid mechanics and mechatronics to carry out multi-disciplinary R&D." The group's research focuses on materials, structural optimization, dynamic systems, automotive applications, control systems and mobile robotics. This website describes the organization's current research activities as well as future plans. The group's theoretical and practical research activities include, for example, dynamic material properties and processing, which they apply to studies of impact crashworthiness of composite race-car structures and impact biomechanics such as in spinal burst fracture. The group also houses the Leeds/Ricardo Automotive Driveline research program. A bibliography of publications is posted here, but the full articles are available only to staff and students who can access the University of Leeds Publications Database. The research section, however, provides a nice overview of the various projects.

367

A 2-transistor/1-resistor artificial synapse capable of communication and stochastic learning in neuromorphic systems.  

PubMed

Resistive (or memristive) switching devices based on metal oxides find applications in memory, logic and neuromorphic computing systems. Their small area, low power operation, and high functionality meet the challenges of brain-inspired computing aiming at achieving a huge density of active connections (synapses) with low operation power. This work presents a new artificial synapse scheme, consisting of a memristive switch connected to 2 transistors responsible for gating the communication and learning operations. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is achieved through appropriate shaping of the pre-synaptic and the post synaptic spikes. Experiments with integrated artificial synapses demonstrate STDP with stochastic behavior due to (i) the natural variability of set/reset processes in the nanoscale switch, and (ii) the different response of the switch to a given stimulus depending on the initial state. Experimental results are confirmed by model-based simulations of the memristive switching. Finally, system-level simulations of a 2-layer neural network and a simplified STDP model show random learning and recognition of patterns. PMID:25642161

Wang, Zhongqiang; Ambrogio, Stefano; Balatti, Simone; Ielmini, Daniele

2014-01-01

368

Simultaneous parameter identification of a heterogeneous aquifer system using artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial neural network (ANN) model is proposed for the simultaneous determination of transmissivity and storativity distributions of a heterogeneous aquifer system. ANNs may be useful tools for parameter identification problems due to their ability to solve complex nonlinear problems. As an extension of previous studyKarahan H, Ayvaz MT (2006) Forecasting aquifer parameters using artificial neural networks, J Porous Media 9(5):429-444the performance of the proposed ANN model is tested on a two-dimensional hypothetical aquifer system for transient flow conditions. In the proposed ANN model, Cartesian coordinates of observation wells, associated piezometric heads and observation time are used as inputs while corresponding transmissivity and storativity values are used as outputs. The training, validation and testing processes of the ANN model are performed under two scenarios. In scenario 1, all the sampled data are used through the simulation time. However, in the scenario 2, there are data gaps due to irregular observations. By using the determined synaptic network weights, transmissivity and storativity distributions are predicted. In addition, the performance of the proposed ANN is tested for different noise data conditions. Results showed that the developed ANN model may be used in simultaneous aquifer parameter estimation problems.

Karahan, Halil; Ayvaz, M. Tamer

2008-08-01

369

A 2-transistor/1-resistor artificial synapse capable of communication and stochastic learning in neuromorphic systems  

PubMed Central

Resistive (or memristive) switching devices based on metal oxides find applications in memory, logic and neuromorphic computing systems. Their small area, low power operation, and high functionality meet the challenges of brain-inspired computing aiming at achieving a huge density of active connections (synapses) with low operation power. This work presents a new artificial synapse scheme, consisting of a memristive switch connected to 2 transistors responsible for gating the communication and learning operations. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is achieved through appropriate shaping of the pre-synaptic and the post synaptic spikes. Experiments with integrated artificial synapses demonstrate STDP with stochastic behavior due to (i) the natural variability of set/reset processes in the nanoscale switch, and (ii) the different response of the switch to a given stimulus depending on the initial state. Experimental results are confirmed by model-based simulations of the memristive switching. Finally, system-level simulations of a 2-layer neural network and a simplified STDP model show random learning and recognition of patterns. PMID:25642161

Wang, Zhongqiang; Ambrogio, Stefano; Balatti, Simone; Ielmini, Daniele

2015-01-01

370

AITSO: A Tool for Spatial Optimization Based on Artificial Immune Systems  

PubMed Central

A great challenge facing geocomputation and spatial analysis is spatial optimization, given that it involves various high-dimensional, nonlinear, and complicated relationships. Many efforts have been made with regard to this specific issue, and the strong ability of artificial immune system algorithms has been proven in previous studies. However, user-friendly professional software is still unavailable, which is a great impediment to the popularity of artificial immune systems. This paper describes a free, universal tool, named AITSO, which is capable of solving various optimization problems. It provides a series of standard application programming interfaces (APIs) which can (1) assist researchers in the development of their own problem-specific application plugins to solve practical problems and (2) allow the implementation of some advanced immune operators into the platform to improve the performance of an algorithm. As an integrated, flexible, and convenient tool, AITSO contributes to knowledge sharing and practical problem solving. It is therefore believed that it will advance the development and popularity of spatial optimization in geocomputation and spatial analysis.

Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Ma, Xiaoya

2015-01-01

371

Bias correction of temperature produced by the Community Climate System Model using Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to predict circulation and energy transfers between the atmosphere and the land. It is known that these models produce biased results that will have impact on their uses. This work proposes a new method for bias correction: the equidistant cumulative distribution function-artificial neural network (EDCDFANN) procedure. The method uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a surrogate model to estimate bias-corrected temperature, given an identification of the system derived from GCM models output variables. A two-layer feed forward neural network is trained with observations during a historical period and then the adjusted network can be used to predict bias-corrected temperature for future periods. To capture the extreme values this method is combined with the equidistant CDF matching method (EDCDF, Li et al. 2010). The proposed method is tested with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) outputs using air and skin temperature, specific humidity, shortwave and longwave radiation as inputs to the ANN. This method decreases the mean square error and increases the spatial correlation between the modeled temperature and the observed one. The results indicate the EDCDFANN has potential to remove the biases of the model outputs.

Moghim, S.; Hsu, K.; Bras, R. L.

2013-12-01

372

Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space  

PubMed Central

Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space. PMID:22992434

Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

2013-01-01

373

Simulation of large-scale tropical tuna movements in relation with daily remote sensing data: the artificial life approach.  

PubMed

Tunas are known to be able to travel long distances. The aim of this paper is to propose new ethological models which reproduce some tuna movements using the dynamics of their environment. We use sea surface temperature animations (from remote sensing data) to model the South West Indian Ocean, and French purse seiners data are used to estimate movements of fish. The objective of the models will be to find a northern movement from the Mozambique Channel to the Seychelles Islands at the appropriate time (May-July). The initial model uses our ecological knowledge of tunas, i.e. the search behavior for high concentrations of food commonly associated with thermal fronts. In some cases, this simple model creates some northern movements from the Mozambique Channel, but it cannot be used to reproduce large-scale movements between the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles Islands. The next generation model is created where tuna behaviors are modeled by an artificial neural network, using a genetic algorithm to adjust the connection weights. The tuna school-network receives daily information from its local environment and chooses the best actions in order to be able to pass from the Mozambique Channel to the Seychelles Islands at the appropriate time. One neural network emerges and represents an adaptive behavior able to interpret daily sea surface temperatures to mimic large-scale tuna movements. This artificial behavior can be generalized to each possible departure position from the Mozambique Channel. This modelling represents a new tool to study large-scale movements of pelagic fish, and is a first step towards real-time management of fisheries. PMID:9460558

Dagorn, L; Petit, M; Stretta, J M

1997-01-01

374

Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial gravity paradigms may offer effective, efficient, multi-system protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) produced by a horizontal short-radius centrifuge (SRC) has recently been utilized on human test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. This presentation will review preliminary results of a 41 day study conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX bed rest facility. During the first eleven days of the protocol, subjects were ambulatory, but confined to the facility. They began a carefully controlled diet, and participated in multiple baseline tests of bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immunological, and psychological function. On the twelfth day, subjects entered the bed rest phase of the study, during which they were confined to strict 6deg head down tilt bed rest for 21 days. Beginning 24 hrs into this period, treatment subjects received one hour daily exposures to artificial gravity which was produced by spinning the subjects on a 3.0 m radius SRC. They were oriented radially in the supine position so that the centrifugal force was aligned with their long body axis, and while spinning, they "stood" on a force plate, supporting the centrifugal loading (2.5 g at the feet, 1.0 g at the heart). The subject station allowed free translation over approximately 10 cm to ensure full loading of the lower extremities and to allow for anti-orthostatic muscle contractions. Control subjects were positioned on the centrifuge but did not spin. Following the bed rest phase, subjects were allowed to ambulate again, but remained within the facility for an additional 9 days and participated in multiple follow-up tests of physiological function.

Warren, L. E.; Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

2006-01-01

375

A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

Daues, Katherine R.

2006-01-01

376

Decision support system using artificial immune recognition system for fault classification of centrifugal pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centrifugal pumps are a crucial part of many industrial plants. Early detection of faults in pumps can increase their reliability, reduce energy consumption, service and maintenance costs, and increase their life-cycle and safety, thus resulting in a significant reduction in life-time costs. Vibration analysis is a very popular tool for condition monitoring of machinery like pumps, turbines and compressors. The

N. R. Sakthivel; Binoy B. Nair; V. Sugumaran; Rajakumar S. Rai

2011-01-01

377

Composting in advanced life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

1998-01-01

378

Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.

Drysdale, Alan E.; Maxwell, Sabrina; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.

2000-01-01

379

Computer-aided diagnosis of thyroid malignancy using an artificial immune system classification algorithm.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of thyroid malignancy by fine needle aspiration (FNA) examination has been proven to show wide variations of sensitivity and specificity. This paper proposes the utilization of a computer-aided diagnosis system based on a supervised classification algorithm from the artificial immune systems to assist the task of thyroid malignancy diagnosis. The core of the proposed algorithm is the so-called BoxCells, which are defined as parallelepipeds in the feature space. Properly defined operators act on the BoxCells in order to convert them into individual, elementary classifiers. The proposed algorithm is applied on FNA data from 2016 subjects with verified diagnosis and has exhibited average specificity higher than 99%, 90% sensitivity, and 98.5% accuracy. Furthermore, 24% of the cases that are characterized as "suspicious" by FNA and are histologically proven nonmalignancies have been classified correctly. PMID:19273012

Delibasis, Konstantinos K; Asvestas, Pantelis A; Matsopoulos, George K; Zoulias, Emmanouil; Tseleni-Balafouta, Sofia

2009-09-01

380

Fault tolerance of artificial neural networks with applications in critical systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the fault tolerance characteristics of time continuous recurrent artificial neural networks (ANN) that can be used to solve optimization problems. The principle of operations and performance of these networks are first illustrated by using well-known model problems like the traveling salesman problem and the assignment problem. The ANNs are then subjected to 13 simultaneous 'stuck at 1' or 'stuck at 0' faults for network sizes of up to 900 'neurons'. The effects of these faults is demonstrated and the cause for the observed fault tolerance is discussed. An application is presented in which a network performs a critical task for a real-time distributed processing system by generating new task allocations during the reconfiguration of the system. The performance degradation of the ANN under the presence of faults is investigated by large-scale simulations, and the potential benefits of delegating a critical task to a fault tolerant network are discussed.

Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Arras, Michael K.

1992-01-01

381

Mechanism of gemini disulfide detergent mediated oxidative refolding of lysozyme in a new artificial chaperone system.  

PubMed

Gemini surfactants are a new class of surfactants that consist of two hydrophilic head groups and two hydrophobic tails separated by a spacer group. As the properties of geminis are different to their monomeric counterparts, a large number of applications have been investigated. Here we report on the use of a new class of gemini detergents containing a disulfide bond in the spacer (Det-SS-Det) for protein refolding. Using lysozyme as a model protein we could demonstrate that the disulfide gemini detergents allow oxidative refolding of the protein in the absence of any external redox system in an "artificial chaperone system". Refolding kinetics using gemini disulfide detergents differing in their hydrophobicity were analysed to determine the folding and aggregation rate constants. The results point to an important role of the transiently formed mixed disulfides between the protein and the detergent (Prot-SS-Det) in the oxidative refolding process of lysozyme. PMID:20857183

Potempa, Marc; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

2010-10-01

382

Intelligence Dynamics and Representations Artificial Intelligence Laboratory  

E-print Network

Intelligence ­ Dynamics and Representations Luc Steels Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Vrije: intelligence, self­organisation, representation, complex dynamical systems. 1 Introduction Artificial the methods of the artificial [24]. This means that systems are built which exhibit intelligent behavior

Steels, Luc

383

Controlled ecological life support systems for space habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of regenerative life support systems to meet the physiological requirements of humans in space is described. A review of previous research on regenerative systems is presented. NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program, which is to develop an environment for a human space crew, is discussed. The table of physiological requirements of an average human and the logical system approach to planning a closed system created by Spurlock and Modell (1976, 1978) are examined. The weight of food and oxygen with respect to lift-off weight is investigated. The creation of the proper atmosphere for space, by balancing all the necessary parameters is studied. The need for a mineral and fluid balance and methods of maintaining it are analyzed. The required cooperation between physicians, physiologists, and nutritionists for the success of the CELSS program is discussed.

Buchanan, P.

1984-01-01

384

A closed life-support system for space colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

1977-01-01

385

Towards an artificial immune system for network intrusion detection: an investigation of clonal selection with a negative selection operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes research towards the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. Specifically, we focus on one significant component of a complete AIS, static clonal selection with a negative selection operator, describing this system in detail. Three different data sets from the UCI repository for machine learning are used in the experiments. Two important factors,

Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

2001-01-01

386

Continuous flow total artificial heart: modeling and feedback control in a mock circulatory system.  

PubMed

We developed a mock circulatory loop and used mathematical modeling to test the in vitro performance of a physiologic flow control system for a total artificial heart (TAH). The TAH was constructed from two continuous flow pumps. The objective of the control system was to maintain loop flow constant in response to changes in outflow resistance of either pump. Baseline outflow resistances of the right (pulmonary vascular resistance) and the left (systemic vascular resistance) pumps were set at 2 and 18 Wood units, respectively. The corresponding circuit flow was 4 L/min. The control system consisted of two digital integral controllers, each regulating the voltage, hence, the rotational speed of one of the pumps. The in vitro performance of the flow control system was validated by increasing systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances in the mock loop by 4 and 8 Wood units (simulating systemic and pulmonary hypertension conditions), respectively. For these simulated hypertensive states, the flow controllers regulated circuit flow back to 4 L/min within seconds by automatically adjusting the rotational speed of either or both pumps. We conclude that this multivariable feedback mechanism may constitute an adequate supplement to the inherent pressure sensitivity of rotary blood pumps for the automatic flow control and left-right flow balance of a dual continuous flow pump TAH system. PMID:18496274

Khalil, Hassan A; Kerr, Daniel T; Franchek, Matthew A; Metcalfe, Ralph W; Benkowski, Robert J; Cohn, William E; Tuzun, Egemen; Radovancevic, Branislav; Frazier, O H; Kadipasaoglu, Kamuran A

2008-01-01

387

A Special Purpose Embedded System for Neural Machine Interface for Artificial Legs  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a design and implementation of a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial legs that can decode amputees intended movement in real time. The newly designed NMI integrates an FPGA chip for fast processing and a microcontroller unit (MCU) with multiple on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for real-time data sampling. The resulting embedded system is able to sample in real time 12 EMG signals and 6 mechanical signals and execute a special complex phase-dependent classifier for accurate recognition of the users intended locomotion modes. The implementation and evaluation are based on Alteras Stratix III 3S150 FPGA device coupled with Freescales MPC5566 MCU. The experimental results for classifying three locomotion modes (level-ground walking, stairs ascent, and stairs descent) based on data collected from an able-bodied human subject have shown acceptable performance for real-time controlling of artificial legs. PMID:22255511

Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

2013-01-01

388

Tactile Stimulation During Artificial Rearing Influences Adult Function and Morphology in a Sexually Dimorphic Neuromuscular System  

PubMed Central

Maternal licking of rat pups affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Maternal licking influences SNB motoneurons, with reductions in licking producing decreased SNB number, size, and dendritic length in adulthood. Reduced maternal licking also produces deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. In this experiment, we used an artificial rearing paradigm to assess the potential role of tactile stimulation in mediating the effects of maternal licking on the SNB neuromuscular system. During artificial rearing, pups were stroked with a paintbrush to mimic maternal licking, receiving low, medium, or high levels of daily stimulation. In adulthood, ex copula penile reflex behavior was tested and the morphology of SNB motoneurons assessed. SNB motoneurons were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated HRP and dendritic arbor was reconstructed in three dimensions. Animals that received low levels of stimulation showed deficits in penile reflexes relative to maternally reared controls, including a longer latency to erection, fewer cup erections, and fewer erection clusters. SNB dendritic morphology was also shaped by stimulation condition, with animals that received low or medium levels of stimulation showing an average 27% reduction in dendritic length. In addition, several reflex behaviors were significantly correlated with dendritic length, including latency to first erection, percent of cup erections, and number of erection clusters. These results suggest that tactile stimulation provided by maternal licking mediates some of the effects of maternal care on the development of male copulatory behavior. PMID:18186491

Lenz, Kathryn M.; Graham, M. Dean; Parada, Mayte; Fleming, Alison S.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Monks, D. Ashley

2009-01-01

389

Artificial lymphatic drainage systems for vascularized microfluidic Keith H. K. Wong, James G. Truslow, Aimal H. Khankhel, Kelvin L. S. Chan, Joe Tien  

E-print Network

Artificial lymphatic drainage systems for vascularized microfluidic scaffolds Keith H. K. Wong. 2013. Artificial lymphatic drainage systems for vascularized microfluidic scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res in maintaining vascular stability and perfusion. Here we show that a system of empty chan- nels that provides

Tien, Joe

390

A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 4(2), pp 181-198, 2005.  

E-print Network

A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Networks Journal of Mathematical of Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK, uxa@cs.nott.ac.uk # corresponding author Abstract-The immune system is a complex an Artificial Immune System (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film

Aickelin, Uwe

391

Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1998-08-01

392

LifeSize Video Conferencing Systems University of California, Davis  

E-print Network

and Educational Technology Office of the Vice Provost #12;LifeSize Video Communications System Quick-Start Guide on the remote. You will be returned to the Main Menu. 4. Follow steps for calling a recently dialed site a Video Presentation to a Meeting: 1. Connect a VGA cable from the codec to the VGA output on your laptop

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

393

Group management system of RFID passwords for item life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on RFID tags placed on items must be protected to secure the privacy of that information throughout the item life cycle from production to purchase to recycling. Therefore, we propose low cost RFID tags with an access control function of using a password and a system that assigns and manages a different password for each group of RFID

Yuichi Kobayashi; Toshiyuki Kuwana; Yoji Taniguchi; Norihisa Komoda

2007-01-01

394

Earth analogs for Martian life. Microbes in evaporites, a new model system for life on Mars.  

PubMed

The prospect of life on Mars today is daunting. Especially problematic for a potential life form is a lack of water, particularly in a liquid state; extremely cold temperatures; ultraviolet and ionizing radiation; and soil oxidants. Yet, "oases" where life might persist have been suggested to occur in rocks (in analogy with endolithic microorganisms described from deserts around the world), in polar ice caps (in analogy with snow and ice algae) and in possible volcanic regions (in analogy with chemoautotrophs living in deep sea hydrothermal vents); all are critically examined. Microorganisms are known to be able to survive in salt crystals, and recently it has been shown that organisms can metabolize while encrusted in evaporites. Because evaporites are thought to occur on Mars and can attenuate light in the UV range while being far more transparent to radiation useful for photosynthesis (400-700 nm), and because of the properties of these "endoevaporitic" organisms, I propose that such communities provide a new model system for studying potential life on Mars. On the basis of this model, I suggest possibilities for site selection for future exobiological experiments on Mars. PMID:11538366

Rothschild, L J

1990-01-01

395

Self-assembly strategies for integrating light harvesting and charge separation in artificial photosynthetic systems.  

PubMed

In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor-acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular "wires" that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular recognition properties to facilitate self-assembly of complete, functional artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we explore how self-assembly strategies involving pi-stacking can be used to integrate light harvesting with charge separation and transport. Our current strategy uses covalent building blocks based on chemically robust arylene imide and diimide dyes, biomimetic porphyrins, and chlorophylls. We take advantage of the shapes, sizes, and intermolecular interactions--such as pi-pi and/or metal-ligand interactions--of these molecules to direct the formation of supramolecular structures having enhanced energy capture and charge-transport properties. We use small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) from a synchrotron source to elucidate the solution phase structures of these monodisperse noncovalent aggregates. We expect that a greater understanding of self-assembly using pi-stacking and molecular designs that combine those features with hydrogen bonding and metal-ligand bonding could simplify the structure of the building blocks for artificial photosynthetic complexes, while retaining their ability to assemble complex, photofunctional structures. PMID:19803479

Wasielewski, Michael R

2009-12-21

396

Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

1991-01-01

397

Applications of living systems theory to life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual system and methodology of living systems theory appear to be of value to research on life in isolated environments. A space station, which must provide suitable conditions for human life in a stressful environment that meets none of the basic needs of life, is an extreme example of such isolation. A space station would include living systems at levels of individual human beings, groups of people engaged in a variety of activities, and the entire space crew as an organization. It could also carry living systems of other species, such as other animals and plants. Using the subsystem analysis of living systems theory, planners of a station, either in space or on a celestial body, would make sure that all the requirements for survival at all these levels had been considered. Attention would be given not only to the necessary matter and energy, but also the essential information flows that integrate and control living systems. Many variables for each subsystem could be monitored and kept in steady states. Use of living systems process analysis of the five flows of matter energy and information would assure that all members of the crew received what they needed.

Miller, James Grier

1992-01-01

398

The Life System and Environmental and Evolutionary Biology II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Life System" is a component of the course series (TESY) developed by Columbia University and Barnard College, providing an integrated view of the biological component of the Earth system. It emphasizes the history of life, biogeochemical cycles, biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and physiology at the microbe to global scale. It also stresses the biotic systems, in contrast to the physical systems, as maintaining the non-equilibrium state of Earth's surface. The course is divided into three parts. Part 1 is entitled Entities, Cycles, and History; and covers the nature of individuals, species, evolution of the long-term carbon cycle, and the history of life. Part 2 is entitled Mechanisms of Evolution and Ecology, and covers the origin of species and diversity by natural selection, and interactions that shape the abundance, distribution, and conservation of organisms. Part 3 is entitled Physiology at Different Scales, and focuses on the flow of materials and energy within and between organisms and their environments, from microbes to the biosphere. The labs focus on Earth system elements, and are intended to be a very substantial part of the course in which students gain experience with working with parts of the biosphere. Students will work with mathematical models and on-line data streams complementing the more traditional descriptive aspects of working with living and fossil biological systems. Students also gain experience with different methods of approaching biological systems such as physiological analysis and systematics and ecological methods.

2007-05-29

399

Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluids velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

Zhao, Ming

400

Conceptual designs for lunar base life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three designs for lunar-base life support are described emphasizing the choices of individual processes for initial, intermediate, and advanced systems. Mass balances for the systems are employed to demonstrate the interactions of air, water, and waste loops, and several waste-treatment processes are considered for the initial life-support system. NASA space-station technologies are adopted for the start-up air, water, and waste treatment subsystems, and the intermediate subsystems provide enhanced capabilities. The intermediate waste-management subsystem permits the recovery of reusable waste, and the advanced system provides biological waste treatment. The reduction of resupply requirements and power use are identified as critical issues as is the ability to operate over extended periods.

Dall-Bauman, Liese; Edeen, Marybeth; Brown, Mariann

1991-01-01

401

"ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

2004-01-01

402

Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

Knott, W. M.

1990-01-01

403

Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

Agui, Juan H.

2007-01-01

404

Systematically In Silico Comparison of Unihormonal and Bihormonal Artificial Pancreas Systems  

PubMed Central

Automated closed-loop control of blood glucose concentration is a daily challenge for type 1 diabetes mellitus, where insulin and glucagon are two critical hormones for glucose regulation. According to whether glucagon is included, all artificial pancreas (AP) systems can be divided into two types: unihormonal AP (infuse only insulin) and bihormonal AP (infuse both insulin and glucagon). Even though the bihormonal AP is widely considered a promising direction, related studies are very scarce due to this system's short research history. More importantly, there are few studies to compare these two kinds of AP systems fairly and systematically. In this paper, two switching rules, P-type and PD-type, were proposed to design the logic of orchestrates switching between insulin and glucagon subsystems, where the delivery rates of both insulin and glucagon were designed by using IMC-PID method. These proposed algorithms have been compared with an optimal unihormonal system on virtual type 1 diabetic subjects. The in silico results demonstrate that the proposed bihormonal AP systems have outstanding superiorities in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia, smoothing the glucose level, and robustness with respect to insulin/glucagon sensitivity variations, compared with the optimal unihormonal AP system. PMID:24260042

Gao, Xiaoteng; Ning, Huangjiang; Wang, Youqing

2013-01-01

405

Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems  

PubMed Central

Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

Sin?ak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vir?ikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

2014-01-01

406

Artificial intelligence in public health prevention of legionelosis in drinking water systems.  

PubMed

Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

Sin?ak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vir?ikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

2014-08-01

407

Topological defects from doping and quenched disorder in artificial ice systems  

SciTech Connect

We examine the ice-rule obeying and ice-rule breaking vertices in an artificial spin ice system created using magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors with nanostructured pinning arrays. We show that this system can be doped by changing the external field to move the number of vortices away from commensurability and create sites that contain two or zero vortices. For a square ice, the doping leads to the formation of a grain boundary of vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In commensurate systems where the ice rules are obeyed, we can introduce random disorder at the individual pinning sites to create regions where vortices may not be able to flip from one side of the trap to another. For weak disorder, all of the vertices still obey the ice rules, while at intermediate levels of disorder we find grain boundaries of vertices which do not obey the ice rules. For strong disorder it is possible to create isolated paired vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In summary, we have shown that an artificial square ice can be created using vortices in a type-II superconductor interacting with a periodic array of pinning sites where each site has a double well potential. By defining the direction of the effective spin according to the side of the double well occupied by the vortex, we find that this system obeys the ice rules for square ice. We add disorder to the system in the form of randomness of the height of the potential barrier at the center of the well, and obtain vertex configurations using a rotating drive protocol which is similar to the shaking ac magnetic field used in nanomagnetic systems. For weak disorder the entire system still obeys the square ice rules. For intermediate disorder, ice-rule breaking vertices appear and form grain boundaries, while for strong disorder there are both gain boundaries and isolated paired defects. In a system with uniform potential barrier heights, we introduce disorder by moving away from commensurability and creating Home pinning sites that contain two or zero vortices. In this case we find grain boundaries that emanate from the defect site and span the sample.

Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV

2010-01-01

408

A robust damage detection method developed for offshore jacket platforms using modified artificial immune system algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment. In the present study, a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model. The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties. For this purpose, incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification. Based on mimicking immune recognition, noise simulation and attributes weighting, the method offers important advantages and has high success rates. Therefore, it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry, such as the considered case study.

Mojtahedi, A.; Lotfollahi Yaghin, M. A.; Hassanzadeh, Y.; Abbasidoust, F.; Ettefagh, M. M.; Aminfar, M. H.

2012-09-01

409

Static analysis of an artificial muscle system based on PZT strain amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the design and static analysis of a novel artificial muscle system are presented. The proposed design is based on exponential strain amplification applied to PZT stack actuators. Exponential strain amplification is achieved by means of a nested cellular architecture. The primary limitation of the nested strain amplification mechanisms is the loss of blocking force due to structural compliance. Therefore, to quantify and improve the performance of the design, analytical expressions are obtained for the blocking force and free displacement of two separate amplification mechanisms using Castigliano's strain energy and displacement theorem. Measured values for blocking force and free displacement validate the static behavior predicted by the solid mechanics. Design implications for the amplification mechanisms are then enumerated based on the theoretical modeling.

Secord, Thomas W.; Ueda, Jun; Asada, H. Harry

2008-03-01

410

Hybrid optical fiber sensor and artificial neural network system for bioethanol quality control and productivity enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol is produced by bio-chemical process that converts sugar or biomass feedstock into ethanol. After bio-chemical process, the solution is distilled under controlled conditions of pressure and temperature, in order to obtain an ethanol-water solution. However, the ethanol concentration analysis is generally performed off-line and, sometimes, a re-distillation process becomes necessary. In this research, an optical apparatus based on Fresnel reflection has been used in combination with artificial neural networks for determination of bioethanol concentration in hydro-alcoholic solution at any temperature. The volumetric concentration and temperature effect was investigated. This intelligent system can effectively detect and update in real-time the correction of distillation parameters to reduce losses of bioethanol and also to improve the quality in a production plant.

Gusken, Edmilton; Salgado, Ricardo M.; Rossell, Carlos E. V.; Ohishi, Takaaki; Suzuki, Carlos K.

2008-04-01

411

Minimum variance distortionless response beamformer with enhanced nulling level control via dynamic mutated artificial immune system.  

PubMed

In smart antenna applications, the adaptive beamforming technique is used to cancel interfering signals (placing nulls) and produce or steer a strong beam toward the target signal according to the calculated weight vectors. Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming is capable of determining the weight vectors for beam steering; however, its nulling level on the interference sources remains unsatisfactory. Beamforming can be considered as an optimization problem, such that optimal weight vector should be obtained through computation. Hence, in this paper, a new dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS) is proposed to enhance MVDR beamforming for controlling the null steering of interference and increase the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) for wanted signals. PMID:25003136

Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Salem, S Balasem; Paw, Johnny Koh Siaw; Sankar, K Prajindra; Darzi, Soodabeh

2014-01-01

412

A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie

1989-01-01

413

Spectral pattern recognition of controlled substances in street samples using artificial neural network system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NarTest fluorescent technique is aimed at the detection of analyte of interest in street samples by recognition of its specific spectral patterns in 3-dimentional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS) measured with NTX2000 analyzer without chromatographic or other separation of controlled substances from a mixture with cutting agents. The illicit drugs have their own characteristic SFS features which can be used for detection and identification of narcotics, however typical street sample consists of a mixture with cutting agents: adulterants and diluents. Many of them interfere the spectral shape of SFS. The expert system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) has been developed and applied for such pattern recognition in SFS of street samples of illicit drugs.

Poryvkina, Larisa; Aleksejev, Valeri; Babichenko, Sergey M.; Ivkina, Tatjana

2011-04-01

414

Space Station Freedom thermal control and life support system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Freedom thermal control system (TCS) and environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are reviewed. Differences in the TCS and ECLSS are discussed between the early man-tended configuration (MTC) compared to the eventual evolutions to the permanently manned configuration (PMC). Concurrent analytical and developmental testing programs are included in the systems discussions as well as a description of an early 1993 flight test program on elements of the PMC water recovery system. Recent TCS design changes to the air cooling of rack mounted equipment are discussed. An overview of all TCS and ECLSS subsystems is included.

Wegrich, R. D.

1992-01-01

415

Dynamic Considerations for Control of Closed Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliability of closed life support systems depend on their ability to continue supplying the crew's needs during perturbations and equipment failures. The dynamic considerations interact with the basic static design through the sizing of storages, the specification of excess capacities in processors, and the choice of system initial state. A very simple system flow model was used to examine the possibilities for system failures even when there is sufficient storage to buffer the immediate effects of the perturbation. Two control schemes are shown which have different dynamic consequences in response to component failures.

Babcock, P. S.; Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.

1985-01-01

416

Ocean acidification increases copper toxicity to the early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina in artificial seawater.  

PubMed

The speciation and therefore bioavailability of the common pollutant copper is predicted to increase within the pH range anticipated under near-future ocean acidification (OA), hence the potential exists for copper toxicity to marine organisms to also increase. We investigated the impact of OA (seawater pH values of 7.77 (pCO2 1400 ?atm) and 7.47 (pCO2 3000 ?atm)) upon copper toxicity responses in early life history stages of the polychaete Arenicola marina and found both synergistic and additive toxicity effects of combined exposures depending on life history stage. The toxicity of copper on sperm DNA damage and early larval survivorship was synergistically increased under OA conditions. Larval survival was reduced by 24% when exposed to both OA and copper combined compared to single OA or copper exposures. Sperm motility was negatively affected by both OA and copper singularly with additive toxicity effects of the two stressors when combined. Fertilization success was also negatively affected by both OA and copper individually, but no additive effects when exposed as combined stressors were present for this stage. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that OA will act to increase the toxicity of copper to marine organisms, which has clear implications for coastal benthic ecosystems suffering chronic metal pollution as pCO2 levels rise and drive a reduction in seawater pH. PMID:25033036

Campbell, Anna L; Mangan, Stephanie; Ellis, Robert P; Lewis, Ceri

2014-08-19

417

Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an Autonomous System)  

PubMed Central

The Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health presented a public workshop to facilitate medical device innovation in the development of the artificial pancreas (or autonomous system) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus on November 10, 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss four aspects of artificial pancreas research and development, including: (1) the current state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus; (2) challenges in developing this expert device system using existing technology; (3) clinical expectations for these systems; and (4) development plans for the transition of this device system toward an outpatient setting. The patients discussed how clinical science, system components, and regulatory policies will all need to harmonize in order to achieve the goal of seeing an AP product brought forward to the marketplace for patients to use. PMID:21722597

Klonoff, David C; Zimliki, Charles L; Stevens, LCDR Alan; Beaston, Patricia; Pinkos, Arleen; Choe, Sally Y; Arreaza-Rubn, Guillermo; Heetderks, William

2011-01-01

418

Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity (AG) as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system, and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of Epstein barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 106 PBMCs. Overall, these data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P.

2007-01-01

419

Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond

2007-01-01

420

Well-controlled experimentation in artificial catchments as the key to better understand natural hydrologic systems?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catchments are open dynamic systems that process mass and momentum, and drive energy and entropy towards an equilibrium state of development. The formulation of equations to explain these systems results in a number of redundant variables for which constitutive relationships are required at the scale of integration. This so called "closure problem" exists due to the generally unknown relationship between hydrologic state variables and fluxes. Traditionally, we deal with two complementary approaches in hydrological research: i) experimental catchment studies and ii) physically-based hydrological modelling. The unique character of each catchment and of its eco-hydrological processes often does not allow conclusions by analogy, which would require similarity and homogeneity of catchment features. Generalised theories to cope with both the closure problem and the singularity of catchments in hydrological research have not been derived so far, and the modelling of flow processes in catchments is still impeded e. g. by scale incompatibilities of involved parameters. One of the main questions addressed in our contribution is: How much improvement in hydrological research is possible by well-controlled experimentation fields as artificially created catchments? The definition of parameters and boundary conditions in such well-controlled experiments allows for an improvement in observation strategies and therefore a systematic learning from observed data and an enhanced understanding of the interrelation of given structures and process triggers. Also, the conditions for targeted testing of hydrological hypotheses are considered to be the best possible. In our contribution we identify examples for the determination of such processes and their description e.g. for water transport in the soil matrix, structure and dynamics of sedimentation as well as erosion in the artificial catchment Chicken Creek, Lusatia, Germany. We also show that there are still challenging aspects even in well-controlled experiments, e.g. when dealing with non-equilibrium conditions and related threshold phenomena.

Hollnder, H.; Schoenheinz, D.; Stadler, S.

2012-04-01

421

Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers opportunities for licensing to commercial entities. In the case of the HRWRS, commercial markets with broad applications have not been identified but some terrestrial applications are being explored where this approach has advantages over other methods of waste water processing. Although these potential applications do not appear to have the same broad attraction from the standpoint of rapid commercialization, they represent niches where commercialization possibilities as well as social benefits could be realized.

Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

1994-01-01

422

Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

2001-01-01

423

System life and reliability modeling for helicopter transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program which simulates life and reliability of helicopter transmissions is presented. The helicopter transmissions may be composed of spiral bevel gear units and planetary gear units - alone, in series or in parallel. The spiral bevel gear units may have either single or dual input pinions, which are identical. The planetary gear units may be stepped or unstepped and the number of planet gears carried by the planet arm may be varied. The reliability analysis used in the program is based on the Weibull distribution lives of the transmission components. The computer calculates the system lives and dynamic capacities of the transmission components and the transmission. The system life is defined as the life of the component or transmission at an output torque at which the probability of survival is 90 percent. The dynamic capacity of a component or transmission is defined as the output torque which can be applied for one million output shaft cycles for a probability of survival of 90 percent. A complete summary of the life and dynamic capacity results is produced by the program.

Savage, M.; Brikmanis, C. K.

1986-01-01

424

Prediction of protein cellular localization sites using a hybrid method based on artificial immune system and fuzzy k-NN algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of artificial intelligence methods in biological data analysis has been increased recent since performance of the classification and detection systems have improved considerably to help medical experts in diagnosing. In this paper, we investigate the performance of an artificial immune system (AIS) based fuzzy k-NN algorithm with and without cross validation in a class of imbalanced problems in

Abdulkadir Sengr

2009-01-01

425

Control and modeling of a CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research topics that arise from the conceptualization of control for closed life support systems which are life support systems in which all or most of the mass is recycled are discussed. Modeling and control of uncertain and poorly defined systems, resource allocation in closed life support systems, and control structures or systems with delay and closure are emphasized.

Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Babcock, P. S.; Nadel, M.

1983-01-01

426

Performance of an optical sectored receiver for indoor wireless communication systems in presence of artificial and natural noise sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives special attention to wireless local area networks using infrared technology mainly with respect to the reception techniques and presents the performance evaluation of optical sectored receivers for indoor wireless communication systems in the presence of artificial and natural noise sources. Performance evaluation was extended to four distinct sectored receiver configurations which result in significant gains over a non-sectored optical receiver. A characterization of the ambient light noise distribution due artificial light was performed. Also, the radiation patterns of some directional incandescent lamps were measured and modeled through a generalized Lambertian function. The feasibility of optical sectored receivers in the presence of directional light sources is demonstrated.

Tavares, Antonio M.; Valadas, Rui J. M. T.; de Oliveira Duarte, A. M.

1995-12-01

427

Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the managed aquifer recharge system have been evaluated. Among numerous results it could be shown that replacing the lawn by sand basins and operating them constantly during winter holds the largest potential to increase the infiltration volume. However, this is only an option for new to build structures since the current basin positions would lead to large direct losses of recharged groundwater into the river Mur. Adjusting the timing of infiltration and withdrawal based on subsurface travel time yields an increase of the pumped amount of about 11% given about the same extension the wells' capture zones. The overall costs of artificial groundwater recharge amount to 0,15 /m excluding pumping and distribution costs compared to a water price of about 1,5 /m charged to consumers. Currently, the implications of building a hydro power plant adjacent to the recharge site are evaluated emphasizing the need for innovative solutions given only limited land resources. On the basis of the projected impacts of climate change on the availability of surface water and groundwater in the South-Eastern alpine regions, the aquifers can act as a buffer system to help overcome the timely shift between supply and demand. Thus, also in predominantly humid regions artificial groundwater recharge represents a viable and sustainable solution to safeguard the supply of drinking water in the long term.

Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

2010-05-01

428

Statistical modeling of the geometrical structure of the system of artificial air pores in autoclaved aerated concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geometrical structure of the system of artificial air pores in autoclaved concrete is studied, based on samples from laboratory and industry. The single pores are approximated by spheres, the corresponding radius distribution is determined by means of stereological methods. The resulting distribution is not a classical standard distribution, but instead requires a mixture of three components, one of them

Ilja Kadashevich; Hans-Jrgen Schneider; Dietrich Stoyan

2005-01-01

429

Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

2003-01-01

430

Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to

Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

2007-01-01

431

Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

2014-09-01

432

Life Support Systems for a New Lunar Lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A life support system concept has been developed for a new NASA lunar lander concept. The ground rules and assumptions driving the design of this vehicle are different from the Constellation Altair vehicle, and have led to a different design solution. For example, this concept assumes that the lander vehicle arrives in lunar orbit independently of the crew. It loiters in lunar orbit for months before rendezvousing with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), resulting in the use of solar power for this new lander, rather than fuel cells that provided product water to the life support system in the Altair vehicle. Without the need to perform a single Lunar Orbit Insertion burn for both the lander and the MPCV, the modules do not have to be centered in the same way, so the new lander has a smaller ascent module than Altair and a large habitat rather than a small airlock. This new lander utilizes suitport technology to perform EVAs from the habitat, which leads to significantly different requirements for the pressure control system. This paper describes the major trades and resulting concept design for the life support system of a new lunar lander concept. I

Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

2012-01-01

433

Evaluation of an online navigation system for laparoscopic interventions in a perfused ex vivo artificial tumor model of the liver  

PubMed Central

Background. Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a safe and effective method for tumor destruction in patients with unresectable liver tumors. However, accurate probe placement using laparoscopic ultrasound guidance is required to achieve complete tumor ablation. After evaluation of an ultrasound navigation system for transcutaneous and open RFA, we now intend to tranfer this technique to laparoscopic liver surgery. This study aimed to evaluate an electromagnetic navigation system for laparoscopic interventions using a perfusable ex vivo artificial tumor model. Materials and methods. First a special adapter was developed to attach the ultrasound and electromagnetic tracking-based navigation system to a laparoscopic ultrasound probe. The laparoscopic online navigation system was studied in a laparoscopic artificial tumor model using perfused porcine livers. Artificial tumors were created by injection of a mixture of 3% agarose, 3% cellulose, and 7% glycerol, creating hyperechoic lesions in ultrasound. Results. This study showed that laparoscopic ultrasound-guided navigation is technically feasible. Even in cases of angulation of the ultrasound probe no disturbances of the navigation system could be detected. Artificial tumors were clearly visible on laparoscopic ultrasound and not felt during placement of the RFA probe. Anatomic landmarks and simulated tumors in the liver could be reached safely. Discussion. Laparoscopic RFA requires advanced laparoscopic ultrasound skills for accurate placement of the RFA probe. The use of an ultrasound-based, laparoscopic online navigation system offers the possibility of out-of-plane needle placement and could increase the safety and accuracy of punctures. The perfused artificial tumor model presented a realistic model for the evaluation of this new technique. PMID:18333220

Martens, Volker; Schweikard, Achim; Schlichting, Stefan; Besirevic, Armin; Kleemann, Markus; Roblick, Uwe; Mirow, Lutz; Brk, C.; Bruch, Hans-Peter

2007-01-01

434

System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

2006-01-01

435

Measuring the Resilience of Advanced Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the central importance of crew safety in designing and operating a life support system, the metric commonly used to evaluate alternative Advanced Life Support (ALS) technologies does not currently provide explicit techniques for measuring safety. The resilience of a system, or the system s ability to meet performance requirements and recover from component-level faults, is fundamentally a dynamic property. This paper motivates the use of computer models as a tool to understand and improve system resilience throughout the design process. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data can then be used to test alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system s ability to recover from component-level faults. A novel approach to measuring system resilience using a Markov chain model of performance data is also developed. Results emphasize that resilience depends on the complex interaction of faults, controls, and system dynamics, rather than on simple fault probabilities.

Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

2002-01-01

436

Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.

Paloski, William H.

2007-01-01

437

Nonlinear estimation-based dipole source localization for artificial lateral line systems.  

PubMed

As a flow-sensing organ, the lateral line system plays an important role in various behaviors of fish. An engineering equivalent of a biological lateral line is of great interest to the navigation and control of underwater robots and vehicles. A vibrating sphere, also known as a dipole source, can emulate the rhythmic movement of fins and body appendages, and has been widely used as a stimulus in the study of biological lateral lines. Dipole source localization has also become a benchmark problem in the development of artificial lateral lines. In this paper we present two novel iterative schemes, referred to as Gauss-Newton (GN) and Newton-Raphson (NR) algorithms, for simultaneously localizing a dipole source and estimating its vibration amplitude and orientation, based on the analytical model for a dipole-generated flow field. The performance of the GN and NR methods is first confirmed with simulation results and the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) analysis. Experiments are further conducted on an artificial lateral line prototype, consisting of six millimeter-scale ionic polymer-metal composite sensors with intra-sensor spacing optimized with CRB analysis. Consistent with simulation results, the experimental results show that both GN and NR schemes are able to simultaneously estimate the source location, vibration amplitude and orientation with comparable precision. Specifically, the maximum localization error is less than 5% of the body length (BL) when the source is within the distance of one BL. Experimental results have also shown that the proposed schemes are superior to the beamforming method, one of the most competitive approaches reported in literature, in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. PMID:23538856

Abdulsadda, Ahmad T; Tan, Xiaobo

2013-06-01

438

Life support in small one-atmosphere underwater work systems.  

PubMed

Manned submersibles and atmospheric diving suits share a number of characteristics, with the most obvious being the rigid hull structure required to maintain a one-atmosphere cabin pressure in the presence of high external pressures. The rigid pressure hull results in a fixed internal volume that allow a simple, mechanical means of precisely controlling the input of make up oxygen to replace that metabolized by the occupant(s). The field-proven life support hardware described in this article is peculiar to monobaric systems but may have applications in other manned cabin situations where a fixed volume is present--regardless of maintenance pressure. Also briefly described is a state-of-the-art life support monitoring system developed by Nuytco Research Ltd. under contract to the National Energy Board of Canada. The "Biosensor" is thought to have broad application potential in the manned undersea field. PMID:11876198

Nuytten, P

1998-01-01

439

Tool Life Detecting System Using Damage Sensor-Integrated Insert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-process tool life detecting system has been developed. In order to detect tool life, we monitored breakage of an electrical conductive thin film band of titanium nitride (TiN) on flank faces of a ceramic insert that was an insulation material. The conductive band was parallel to the cutting edge and was broken by fracture of the cutting edge or excessive tool wear. A coil and a capacitor were connected in series to the band on an insert to make a series resonance circuit in a tool holder for turning, or in an arbor for face milling. A detecting coil with high frequency oscillator was coupled to the coil in the holder/arbor electromagnetically. An electromagnetic induction between two coils was used to take the signal from the insert. The system developed in this study showed good stability against electric noises radiated from electrical devices of machine tools.

Sekiya, Katsuhiko; Yamane, Yasuo; Torimoto, Ayumu

440

Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

1992-01-01

441

Artificial intelligence as a discursive practice: the case of embodied software agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore some of the ways in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) is mediated discursively. I assume that AI is informed by an ancestral dream to reproduce nature by artificial means. This dream drives the production of cyborg discourse, which hinges on the belief that human nature (especially intelligence) can be reduced to symbol manipulation and hence replicated

Sean Zdenek

2003-01-01

442

DiAs User Interface: A Patient-Centric Interface for Mobile Artificial Pancreas Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Recent in-hospital studies of artificial pancreas (AP) systems have shown promising results in improving glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The next logical step in AP development is to conduct transitional outpatient clinical trials with a mobile system that is controlled by the patient. In this article, we present the user interface (UI) of the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs), an experimental smartphone-based mobile AP system, and describe the reactions of a round of focus groups to the UI. This work is an initial inquiry involving a relatively small number of potential users, many of whom had never seen an AP system before, and the results should be understood in that light. Methods We began by considering how the UI of an AP system could be designed to make use of the familiar touch-based graphical UI of a consumer smartphone. After developing a working prototype UI, we enlisted a human factors specialist to perform a heuristic expert analysis. Next we conducted a formative evaluation of the UI through a series of three focus groups with N = 13 potential end users as participants. The UI was modified based upon the results of these studies, and the resulting DiAs system was used in transitional outpatient AP studies of adults in the United States and Europe. Results The DiAs UI was modified based on focus group feedback from potential users. The DiAs was subsequently used in JDRF- and AP@Home-sponsored transitional outpatient AP studies in the United States and Europe by 40 subjects for 2400 h with no adverse events. Conclusions Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are able to control an AP system successfully using a patient-centric UI on a commercial smartphone in a transitional outpatient environment. PMID:24351168

Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Guerlain, Stephanie; Mize, Benton; Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Khan, Momin; McElwee-Malloy, Molly; Kovatchev, Boris P.

2013-01-01

443

Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

1984-01-01

444

Life Cycle Assessment of Amonix 7700 HCPV Systems  

SciTech Connect

We estimated the energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the life cycle of the Amonix high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system with III-V solar cells. For a location in the southwest United States, the Amonix 7700 has an EPBT of only 0.86 yrs and GHG emissions of 24g CO{sub 2}-eq./kWh we expect further decreases in both by 2011.

Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

2010-04-07

445

Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..

Block, Roger F.

1987-01-01

446

Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning  

SciTech Connect

Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

447

A multilayer perceptron solution to the match phase problem in rule-based artificial intelligence systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In rule-based AI planning, expert, and learning systems, it is often the case that the left-hand-sides of the rules must be repeatedly compared to the contents of some 'working memory'. The traditional approach to solve such a 'match phase problem' for production systems is to use the Rete Match Algorithm. Here, a new technique using a multilayer perceptron, a particular artificial neural network model, is presented to solve the match phase problem for rule-based AI systems. A syntax for premise formulas (i.e., the left-hand-sides of the rules) is defined, and working memory is specified. From this, it is shown how to construct a multilayer perceptron that finds all of the rules which can be executed for the current situation in working memory. The complexity of the constructed multilayer perceptron is derived in terms of the maximum number of nodes and the required number of layers. A method for reducing the number of layers to at most three is also presented.

Sartori, Michael A.; Passino, Kevin M.; Antsaklis, Panos J.

1992-01-01

448

Physiological Considerations of Artificial Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reasons for the development of artificial gravity environments on spacecraft are outlined. The physiological effects of weightlessness on the human cardiovascular skeletal, and vestibular systems are enumerated. Design options for creating artificial gravity environments are shown.

Cramer, D. B.

1985-01-01

449

Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source.  

PubMed

An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation. PMID:6838394

Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

1983-02-01

450

Life Cycle Assessment of the Mobile Communication System UMTS: Towards Eco-efficient Systems (12 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background Goal of this study is an evaluation of the environmental sustainability of the UMTS mobile communication system in Switzerland\\u000a by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A baseline environmental impact profile across the full life cycle of the UMTS\\u000a (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and its predecessor, the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is presented.

Mireille Faist Emmenegger; Rolf Frischknecht; Markus Stutz; Michael Guggisberg; Res Witschi; Tim Otto

2006-01-01

451

Monitoring and control technologies for bioregenerative life support systems/CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will require NASA to develop innovative monitoring and control technologies to operate the different components of the system. Primary effort over the past three to four years has been directed toward the development of technologies to operate a biomass production module. Computer hardware and software required to operate, collect, and summarize environmental data for a large plant growth chamber facility were developed and refined. Sensors and controls required to collect information on such physical parameters as relative humidity, temperature, irradiance, pressure, and gases in the atmosphere; and PH, dissolved oxygen, fluid flow rates, and electrical conductivity in the nutrient solutions are being developed and tested. Technologies required to produce high artificial irradiance for plant growth and those required to collect and transport natural light into a plant growth chamber are also being evaluated. Significant effort was directed towards the development and testing of a membrane nutrient delivery system required to manipulate, seed, and harvest crops, and to determine plant health prior to stress impacting plant productivity are also being researched. Tissue culture technologies are being developed for use in management and propagation of crop plants. Though previous efforts have focussed on development of technologies required to operate a biomass production module for a CELSS, current efforts are expanding to include technologies required to operate modules such as food preparation, biomass processing, and resource (waste) recovery which are integral parts of the CELSS.

Knott, William M.; Sager, John C.

1991-01-01

452

SLS-PLAN-IT: A knowledge-based blackboard scheduling system for Spacelab life sciences missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary scheduling tool in use during the Spacelab Life Science (SLS-1) planning phase was the operations research (OR) based, tabular form Experiment Scheduling System (ESS) developed by NASA Marshall. PLAN-IT is an artificial intelligence based interactive graphic timeline editor for ESS developed by JPL. The PLAN-IT software was enhanced for use in the scheduling of Spacelab experiments to support the SLS missions. The enhanced software SLS-PLAN-IT System was used to support the real-time reactive scheduling task during the SLS-1 mission. SLS-PLAN-IT is a frame-based blackboard scheduling shell which, from scheduling input, creates resource-requiring event duration objects and resource-usage duration objects. The blackboard structure is to keep track of the effects of event duration objects on the resource usage objects. Various scheduling heuristics are coded in procedural form and can be invoked any time at the user's request. The system architecture is described along with what has been learned with the SLS-PLAN-IT project.

Kao, Cheng-Yan; Lee, Seok-Hua

1992-01-01

453

Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and purification processes can be expected to continue to fulfill environmental control and life support needs on future missions.

Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

454

Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

1994-01-01

455

The spatial decision-supporting system combination of RBR & CBR based on artificial neural network and association rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of artificial intelligence should be imported on the basis of the geographic information system to bring up the spatial decision-supporting system (SDSS). The paper discusses the structure of SDSS, after comparing the characteristics of RBR and CBR, the paper brings up the frame of a spatial decisional system that combines RBR and CBR, which has combined the advantages of them both. And the paper discusses the CBR in agriculture spatial decisions, the application of ANN (Artificial Neural Network) in CBR, and enriching the inference rule base based on association rules, etc. And the paper tests and verifies the design of this system with the examples of the evaluation of the crops' adaptability.

Tian, Yangge; Bian, Fuling

2007-06-01

456

Carbon recycling in materially closed ecological life support systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of studies are presented of materially closed energetically open microbial ecosystems or 'closed ecosystems'. These are natural marine ecosystems that have been sealed in glass containers to prevent material exchange with the environment but allow energy to pass freely through them. They represent model life support systems for the future human habitation of space. The results are discussed analytically and indicate that these ecosystems, when subjected to a constant energy flux, seem to be reliable and self-sufficient systems for recycling of biologically produced carbon compounds.

Obenhuber, D. C.; Folsome, C. E.

1988-01-01

457

Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design decisions to aid the development of future space-based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. Here the biochemical stoichiometry is developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady-state system with wheat as the sole food source.

Volk, Tyler; Rumel, John D.

1987-01-01

458

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

459

Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.  

PubMed

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

2012-01-01

460

Design and assessment of novel artificial anal sphincter with adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper presents the in vitro assessment of a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) with an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) for treatment of severe faecal incontinence (FI). The proposed adaptive TETS has a phase control, which can maintain the output voltage at ??7?V across the full range of the coupling coefficient variation (from 0.09-0.31) during the whole process of charging with a phase shift of 177.5 to 79.1. A maximum surface temperature of 42.2?C was measured above the secondary coil during an energy transmission of 3.5?W in air. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density analysis of the biological three-layers structure, including the skin, fat and muscle) surrounding the coil pair were analysed and the results of simulation analysis showed that the value of SAR and current density were very small at any given transmission condition compared with the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In conclusion, in vitro experimental results showed that the ES-AASS can control simulated faecal behaviour effectively and the performance of TETS was validated. PMID:25626127

Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang

2015-02-01

461

Development of transformation system of rice based on binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) vector.  

PubMed

An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol using binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) vector system in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed. Calli derived from mature embryos of japonica rice cv. H1493 were used as target tissues. Various aspects in transformation and regeneration processes including callus induction and culture, Agrobacterium concentration and duration of co-cultivation, bacterial elimination and transformant selection were examined in order to improve the transformation efficiency. An optimized transformation conditions was established including: using an Agr