Sample records for artificial life system

  1. Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Langton

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

  2. Artificial Life and Piaget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Parisi; Matthew Schlesinger

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of all phenomena of the living world through their reproduction in artificial systems. We argue that Artificial Life models of evolution and development offer a new set of theoretical and methodological tools for investigating Piaget’s ideas. The concept of an Artificial Life Neural Network (ALNN) is first introduced, and contrasted with the study of other

  3. Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life Melanie Mitchell Santa Fe Institute 1660 Old Pecos Tr­11­072 Revised December 15, 1993 To appear in Artificial Life Abstract Genetic algorithms are computational and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, using illustrative examples in which

  4. Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Melanie

    Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life Melanie Mitchell Santa Fe Institute 1660 Old Pecos Tr artificial-life models. We review the history and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, using illustrative examples in which the genetic algorithm is used to study how learning

  5. Department of Physics Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    different natural and social sciences. It is a discipline that studies life and life-like behaviours: growth (Soft ALife) creates digital constructions and simulations that exhibit life-like behaviours. 1 The most of life-like systems. Examples of hardware based artificial life are autonomous robots. In this seminar we

  6. Imitation of Life: Advanced system for native Artificial Evolution

    E-print Network

    Sperl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A model for artificial evolution in native x86 Windows systems has been developed at the end of 2010. In this text, further improvements and additional analogies to natural microbiologic processes are presented. Several experiments indicate the capability of the system - and raise the question of possible countermeasures.

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (editor); Thompson, Brad G. (editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (editor); Volk, Tyler (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  8. Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Keeley

    It is often heard in Artificial Life (A-Life) circles that contemporary biology studies life-as-we-know-it (an Earth based, carbon chain phenomenon), whereas A-Life takes as its domain of study life-as-it-could-be. But lacking a clear definition of \\

  9. Optimum design of short journal bearings by artificial life algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Suk Yang; Yun-Hi Lee; Byeong-Keun Choi; Hyung-Ja Kim

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced artificial life algorithm for optimum design of short journal bearing. As artificial life organisms have a sensing system, they can find the resource they want and metabolize it. The characteristics of artificial life are emergence and dynamic interaction with the environment. In other words, the micro-interaction with each other in the artificial life's group results

  10. Artificial life: organization, adaptation and complexity from the bottom up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Bedau

    2003-01-01

    Artificial life attempts to understand the essential general properties of living systems by synthesizing life-like behavior in software, hardware and biochemicals. As many of the essential abstract properties of living systems (e.g. autonomous adaptive and intelligent behavior) are also studied by cognitive science, artificial life and cognitive science have an essential overlap. This review highlights the state of the art

  11. Artificial Life in Computer Graphics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

  12. Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

  13. Published in Artificial Life V: Proc. Fifth Inter. Conf. on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, Nara, Japan, May, 1996. Perception and Learning in Artificial Animals

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    earlier claim that biomechanical models of animals situated in physics-based worlds are fertile ground Systems, Nara, Japan, May, 1996. Perception and Learning in Artificial Animals Demetri Terzopoulos, Tamer world inhabited by realis- tic artificial animals as an ALife laboratory for develop- ing and evaluating

  14. An artificial life approach to language.

    PubMed

    Parisi, D

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that an Artificial Life approach to language tends to change the research agenda on language which has been shared by both the symbolic paradigm and classical connectionism. Artificial Life Neural Networks (ALNNs) are different from classical connectionist networks because they interact with an independent physical environment; are subject to evolutionary, developmental, and cultural change, and not only to learning; and are part of organisms that have a physical body, have a life (are born, develop, and die), and are members of genetic and sometimes, cultural populations. Using ALNNs to study language shifts the emphasis from research on linguistic forms and laboratory-like tasks to the investigation of the emergence and transmission of language, the use of language, its role in cognition, and language as a populational rather than as an individual phenomenon. PMID:9262853

  15. Artificial Intelligence Production Systems

    E-print Network

    Reed, Nancy E.

    Artificial Intelligence 1 Production Systems Nancy E. Reed nreed@hawaii.edu Production Systems mammal)) 2. (IF (milk t) THEN (subclass mammal)) 3. (IF (covering feathers) THEN (subclass bird)) 4. (IF (flies t) (eggs t) THEN (subclass bird)) 5. (IF (eats meat) THEN (order carnivore)) 6. (IF (teeth pointed

  16. Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wesam Barbakh; Ying Wu; Colin Fyfe

    The Artificial Immune System paradigm (AIS) is inspired by the biological immune system whose main goal is to protect the\\u000a human body from the attack of foreign pathogens such as virus, fungus or other parasites. The biological immune system is\\u000a capable of distinguishing between the normal components of our organism and the foreign materials that can cause us harm that

  17. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  18. Can Artificial Life Emerge in a Network of Interacting Agents?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Murthy; E. V. Krishnamurthy

    2006-01-01

    An interacting multi-agent system in a network can behave like a nature-inspired smart system (SS) exhibiting the four salient properties of an artificial life system (ALS): (i) Collective, coordinated and efficient (ii) Self-organization and emergence (iii) Power law scaling or scale invariance under emergence (iv) Adaptive, fault tolerant and resilient against damage. We explain how these basic properties can arise

  19. An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations

    E-print Network

    Güngör, Tunga

    An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations environments. It is used to examine how different designs for the ants' Artificial Neural Network (ANN) brains aspects of the simulations was to test different artificial neural network structures as the controlling

  20. The Ultimate Future of Artificial Life: Towards Artificial Cosmogenesis

    E-print Network

    Vidal, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical paper tries to tackle the question of what could be the ultimate future of ALife from a cosmic viewpoint. We first argue that the natural direction of ALife is a simulation of an entire universe. Two new challenges naturally arise. The first is to simulate open-ended evolution at all levels in a single simulation; i.e. not only in biology, but also to link it up a level below (physical evolution) and a level above (cultural evolution). The second challenge is to probe what would happen if we would "replay the tape of the universe". Assuming that intelligent life would indeed simulate an entire universe, this leads to two tentative hypotheses. Following the soft-ALife program, some authors argued that we could be in a simulation run by an intelligent entity. Following the hard/wet-ALife program, this would lead to an artificial cosmogenesis. This last direction is argued with a careful speculative philosophical approach, emphasizing the imperative to find a solution to the heat death problem...

  1. Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  2. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  3. Artificial life, the second law of thermodynamics, and Kolmogorov Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Woodward; A. Farjudian

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic features of life is replication. Indeed one of the three components of evolution is inheritance, which implies some similarity (both phenotypic and genotypic) between parents and offspring. Life is a process and not a substance (e.g. being carbon-based does not capture what life is), and this therefore justifies an algorithmic definition. Artificial life is concerned with

  4. Artificial immune system based intrusion detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim D. Kotov; Vladimir I. Vasilyev

    2009-01-01

    In this work the intrusion detection system (IDS) based on artificial immune systems is presented. This IDS traces sequences of applications system calls and then uses the negative selection algorithm to detect changes in the normal system behavior. It works on MS Windows operation system. This IDS also shows a high performance on local area networks when artificial immune systems

  5. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  6. A Model of Protozoan Movement for Artificial Life.

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    ABSTRACT A Model of Protozoan Movement for Artificial Life. Alan Dorin, Justin Martin Department of of a Protozoan and a fluid with the density and viscosity of water have e_xtrernely small Reynolds numbers

  7. Artificial Inmune System Based Art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Romero; Estanislao Sanmartín; Penousal Machado; Antonino Santos

    2005-01-01

    Creating visual art using biologically inspired techniques is a new and exciting field. We describe an interactive image generation system based on an Artificial Immune System (AIS). In our system the user guides image evolution by cueing the system about the aesthetic content of selected areas of images in the current population.

  8. Wains: a pattern-seeking artificial life species.

    PubMed

    de Buitléir, Amy; Russell, Michael; Daly, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We describe the initial phase of a research project to develop an artificial life framework designed to extract knowledge from large data sets with minimal preparation or ramp-up time. In this phase, we evolved an artificial life population with a new brain architecture. The agents have sufficient intelligence to discover patterns in data and to make survival decisions based on those patterns. The species uses diploid reproduction, Hebbian learning, and Kohonen self-organizing maps, in combination with novel techniques such as using pattern-rich data as the environment and framing the data analysis as a survival problem for artificial life. The first generation of agents mastered the pattern discovery task well enough to thrive. Evolution further adapted the agents to their environment by making them a little more pessimistic, and also by making their brains more efficient. PMID:22938560

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  10. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Aickelin; Dipankar Dasgupta

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that\\u000adefends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or\\u000amolecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with\\u000athe help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action\\u000afrom a local and also a global perspective

  11. Formal Models of Reproduction: from Computer Viruses to Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Katie

    Formal Models of Reproduction: from Computer Viruses to Artificial Life Thesis submitted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 Motivations of Computer Virus Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 A Short History of Computer Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.3 Academic Study of Computer Viruses

  12. Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Kenton Kirkpatrick Jim May Jr. John Networks 2 Artificial Neural Networks ANNSID Conclusions and Open Challenges #12;Motivation 3 #12;Motivating Questions Is it possible to use artificial neural networks to determine a linear model

  13. Using Artificial Life Techniques for Distributed Grid Job Azin Moallem and Simone A. Ludwig

    E-print Network

    Ludwig, Simone

    the state of the system at each point in time. On the other hand, having all the load balancing information is a challenge which load balanc- ing algorithms address. Current load balancing implemen- tations for the Grid distributed artificial life-inspired load balancing algo- rithms using Ant Colony Optimization and Particle

  14. Memes in Artificial Life Simulations of Life History Evolution John A. Bullinaria

    E-print Network

    Bullinaria, John

    Memes in Artificial Life Simulations of Life History Evolution John A. Bullinaria School in terms of memes being passed between individuals, and it is clear that this is a substantial part of real learning processes. This paper extends the previous study by incorporating imitation and memes to provide

  15. Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems Jamie Twycross and Uwe Aickelin School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK jpt@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AISs immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure

  16. Artificial-life researchers try to create social reality.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1994-08-12

    Some scientists, among them cosmologist Stephen Hawking, argue that computer viruses are alive. A better case might be made for many of the self-replicating silicon-based creatures featured at the fourth Conference on Artificial Life, held on 5 to 8 July in Boston. Researchers from computer science, biology, and other disciplines presented computer programs that, among other things, evolved cooperative strategies in a selfish world and recreated themselves in ever more complex forms. PMID:17782127

  17. Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Sato, Fumihiro; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi; Maruyama, Shigenao; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Luo, Yun; Okamoto, Eiji; Kubo, Yutaka; Osaka, Motohisa; Nanka, Shunsuke; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Mibiki, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Tasuku; Shibata, Mune-ichi; Nitta, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of "the artificial myocardium" has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The cooling speed problem was solved by the application of the Peltier element. A drive at a speed equal to that of a heartbeat was realized by the application of this system. At present, a ventricular assist device is used for patients waiting for a heart transplant in Japan. An air driven type system disturbs a patient's QOL remarkably because it is connected to the drive device. With our concept, energy is provided by using the electromagnetic force from outside of the body by the use of transcutaneous energy transmission system. Magnetic shielding by amorphous fibers was used at Tohoku University to improve the total efficiency. A natural heart can alter the cardiac output corresponding to the demand. Artificial internal organs must participate in the system of the living body, too. Tohoku University has developed a resistance based artificial heart control algorithm, which simulated a baroreflex system to cope with every demand. Nano level sensing equipment is now under development at Tohoku University. At present, development is being conducted aiming at an "intelligent artificial myocardium". PMID:14572688

  18. A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Albert Horst

    2002-01-01

    We define native intelligence as the specified complexity inherent in the information content of an artificial system. The artificial system is defined as a system that can be encoded in some general purpose language, expressed minimally as some finite length bit string, and decoded by a finite set of rules defined a priori. Using this definition of native intelligence, we

  19. Artificial Homeostatic System: A Novel Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Renan C. Moioli; Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; Fernando J. Von Zuben

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers are developing frameworks inspired by natural, es- pecially biological, systems to solve complex real-world problems. This work extends previous work in the field of biologically inspired computing, propos- ing an artificial endocrine system for autonomous robot navigation. Having in- trinsic self-organizing behaviour, the novel artificial endocrine system can be applied to a wide range of problems, particularly those

  20. Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Yambe; Yasuyuki Shiraishi; Makoto Yoshizawa; Akira Tanaka; Ken-ichi Abe; Fumihiro Sato; Hidetoshi Matsuki; Masayoshi Esashi; Yoichi Haga; Shigenao Maruyama; Toshiyuki Takagi; Yun Luo; Eiji Okamoto; Yutaka Kubo; Motohisa Osaka; Shunsuke Nanka; Yoshifumi Saijo; Yoshiaki Mibiki; Tasuku Yamaguchi; Mune-ichi Shibata; Shinichi Nitta

    2003-01-01

    Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of ”the artificial myocardium” has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The

  1. The dilemma of the symbols: analogies between philosophy, biology and artificial life.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes some analogies going from Artificial Life questions about the symbol-matter connection to Artificial Intelligence questions about symbol-grounding. It focuses on the notion of the interpretability of syntax and how the symbols are integrated in a unity ("binding problem"). Utilizing the DNA code as a model, this paper discusses how syntactic features could be defined as high-grade characteristics of the non syntactic relations in a material-dynamic structure, by using an emergentist approach. This topic furnishes the ground for a confutation of J. Searle's statement that syntax is observer-relative, as he wrote in his book "Mind: A Brief Introduction". Moreover the evolving discussion also modifies the classic symbol-processing doctrine in the mind which Searle attacks as a strong AL argument, that life could be implemented in a computational mode. Lastly, this paper furnishes a new way of support for the autonomous systems thesis in Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence, using, inter alia, the "adaptive resonance theory" (ART). PMID:24109563

  2. Robot Error Detection Using an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Canham; Alexander H. Jackson; Andrew M. Tyrrell

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Biology has produced,living creatures that exhibit re- markable,fault tolerance. The immune,system is one fea- ture that enables this. The acquired immune,system learns during the life of the individual to differentiate between self (that which is normally present) and non-self (that which is not normally present). This paper describes a artificial immune,system (AIS) that is used as an error detection

  3. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control

    E-print Network

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  4. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control 

    E-print Network

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  5. A role for Computer Science in Artificial Life Richard K. Belew

    E-print Network

    Belew, Richard K.

    . 1 Introduction It's now been five years since the first ``Artificial Life'' (ALife) meeting occurs regularly in Europe as well. There is a new journal entitled ``Artificial Life,'' and several behaviors and computer scientists inter­ ested in more heuristic, ``intelligent'' ways of processing

  6. Optimum design of short journal bearings by enhanced artificial life optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Dae Song; Bo-Suk Yang; Byeong-Gun Choi; Hyung-Ja Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an optimum design of high-speed short journal bearing using an enhanced artificial life algorithm (EALA) to compute the solutions of optimization problem. The proposed hybrid EALA algorithm is a synthesis of an artificial life algorithm (ALA) and the random tabu search method (R-tabu method) to solve some demerits of the ALA. The emergence is the most important

  7. An interdisciplinary perspective on artificial immune systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Timmis; Paul S. Andrews; Nick D. L. Owens; Edward Clark

    2008-01-01

    This review paper attempts to position the area of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) in a broader context of interdisciplinary research. We review AIS based on an established conceptual framework that encapsulates math- ematical and computational modelling of immunology, abstraction and then development of engineered systems. We argue that AIS are much more than engineered systems inspired by the immune system

  8. The Design of an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purui Su; Dengguo Feng

    2006-01-01

    Nature immune system is an excellent defense system. Inspired by the two immune response mechanisms of nature immune system, a new design of an artificial immune system-COMUS-has been brought forward. COMUS mainly comprises of two parts: PIRM and SIRM. It could detect both known and unknown intrusions. And it could automatically extract signatures for the abnormalities which have not been

  9. Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    We describe an artificial immune system (AIS)that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse andadaptive. It captures many features of the vertebrateimmune system and places them in thecontext of the problem of protecting a networkof computers from illegal intrusions.1 INTRODUCTIONThe immune system is highly complicated and appears tobe precisely tuned to the problem of detecting and eliminatinginfections. We believe that it also

  10. Learning using an artificial immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Hunt; Denise E. Cooke

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based upon models of the natural immune system. This natural system is an example of an evolutionary learning mechanism which possesses a content addressable memory and the ability to «forget» little-used information. It is also an example of an adaptive non-linear network in which control is decentralized and

  11. Architecture for an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie Forrest

    2000-01-01

    An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security, in the form of a

  12. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. KrishnaKumar

    2003-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune systems to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of

  13. An artificial immune system for data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; John Hunt

    2000-01-01

    We present a simplified view of those parts of the human immune system which can be used to provide the basis for a data analysis tool. The motivation for and reasoning behind such a model is given and the desire for a ‘transparent’ model and meaningful visualization and interpretation techniques is noted. A minimalist formulation of an artificial immune system

  14. Artificial Immune System against Viral Attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyungjoon Lee; Wonil Kim; Manpyo Hong

    2004-01-01

    Since the first computer virus has been found, scanning detection has been used as a primarily method in virus detection systems. As computer viruses and worms become more complex and sophisticated, the scanning detection method is no longer able to detect various forms of viruses and worms effectively. Many anti-virus researchers proposed various detection methods including artificial immune system to

  15. Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Hofmeyr; Stephanie Forrest

    We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context of the problem of protecting a network of computers from illegal intrusions.

  16. Artificial photosynthetic systems for production of hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2015-04-01

    The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has caused unacceptable environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, which may lead to disastrous climatic consequences. Because fossil fuels are the products of long-term photosynthesis, it is highly desirable to develop artificial photosynthetic systems for the production of renewable and clean energy such as hydrogen. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of artificial photosynthetic systems for photocatalytic production of hydrogen with hydrogenases and their functional mimics including hybrids of natural and artificial components. Because it is highly desired to convert gaseous H2 to an easily storable form, recent progress on storage of hydrogen as liquid or solid form has also been described in this article. PMID:25531176

  17. Mapping Artificial Immune Systems into Learning Classifier Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Leandro Nunes De Castro; Fernando J. Von Zuben

    2002-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents one form of mapping Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) into Learning Classifier Systems (LCS). Artificial\\u000a Immune Systems can be defined as adaptive systems inspired by theoretical models and principles of the biological immune system\\u000a and applied to solve problems in the most diverse domains, from biology to computing. Similar to Learning Classifier Systems,\\u000a already used to model complex

  18. Artificial intelligence and expert systems for avionics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee H. Harrison; Pamela J. Saunders; Peter J. Saraceni

    1993-01-01

    This paper is based upon a technical report prepared for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center's Directorate for Aircraft Safety, Flight Safety Research Branch. It includes an overview of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, avionic related applications of AT-based systems, and certification issues relating to AT

  19. Metamorphic Viruses Detection Using Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essam Al Daoud

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new artificial immune system for metamorphic viruses detection, the suggested system uses components and techniques found in the biological immune system such as multilayer, self, nonself , skin,skeleton, B-cell and receptors. In this study; metamorphic viruses are generated by two tools: Next Generation Virus Creation Kit (NGVCK0.30) and Virus Creation Lab for Windows 32 (VCL32). The

  20. Digital systems for artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, L.E. (Interactive Systems Design Lab., Univ. of Washington, WA (US)); Suzuki, Y. (NTT Human Interface Labs. (US))

    1989-11-01

    A tremendous flurry of research activity has developed around artificial neural systems. These systems have also been tested in many applications, often with positive results. Most of this work has taken place as digital simulations on general-purpose serial or parallel digital computers. Specialized neural network emulation systems have also been developed for more efficient learning and use. The authors discussed how dedicated digital VLSI integrated circuits offer the highest near-term future potential for this technology.

  1. On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    On Affinity Measures for Artificial Immune System Movie Recommenders Proceedings RASC-2004, The 5th}@cs.nott.ac.uk, Abstract. We combine Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) technology with Collaborative Filtering (CF) and use it to build a movie recommendation system. We already know that Artificial Immune Systems work well as movie

  2. A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS)

    E-print Network

    Putten, Peter van der

    A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) Lingjun Menga , Peter@liacs.nl Abstract: Artificial Immune Systems are a new class of algorithms inspired by how the immune system in the interest in Artificial Immune Systems for applications in data mining and computational intelligence [4

  3. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  4. Tunable Detectors for Artificial Immune Systems: From Model to Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Tunable Detectors for Artificial Immune Systems: From Model to Algorithm Paul S. Andrews1 and Jon, University of York, UK {psa,jtimmis}@cs.york.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AIS) are often for pattern classification that shows promising results. 1 Introduction Artificial immune systems (AIS

  5. The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems Uwe Aickelin1 , Steve Cayzer.aickelin@bradford.ac.uk, Steve_Cayzer@hp.com artificial immune systems, danger theory Over the last decade, a new idea in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing

  6. in Artificial Life VIII, Standish, Abbass, Bedau (eds)(MIT Press) 2002. pp 8992 1 Generating Biomorphs with an Aesthetic Immune System

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Biomorphs with an Aesthetic Immune System Dennis L. Chao and Stephanie Forrest Department of Computer describe an interactive search algorithm inspired by the immune system. The algorithm learns what parts In this paper we illustrate how an immune system- inspired filtering algorithm described in (Chao & For- rest

  7. Missileborne Artificial Vision System (MAVIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andes, David K.; Witham, James C.; Miles, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Several years ago when INTEL and China Lake designed the ETANN chip, analog VLSI appeared to be the only way to do high density neural computing. In the last five years, however, digital parallel processing chips capable of performing neural computation functions have evolved to the point of rough equality with analog chips in system level computational density. The Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, has developed a real time, hardware and software system designed to implement and evaluate biologically inspired retinal and cortical models. The hardware is based on the Adaptive Solutions Inc. massively parallel CNAPS system COHO boards. Each COHO board is a standard size 6U VME card featuring 256 fixed point, RISC processors running at 20 MHz in a SIMD configuration. Each COHO board has a companion board built to support a real time VSB interface to an imaging seeker, a NTSC camera, and to other COHO boards. The system is designed to have multiple SIMD machines each performing different corticomorphic functions. The system level software has been developed which allows a high level description of corticomorphic structures to be translated into the native microcode of the CNAPS chips. Corticomorphic structures are those neural structures with a form similar to that of the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, or the visual cortex. This real time hardware system is designed to be shrunk into a volume compatible with air launched tactical missiles. Initial versions of the software and hardware have been completed and are in the early stages of integration with a missile seeker.

  8. Artificial intelligence and space power systems automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Various applications of artificial intelligence to space electrical power systems are discussed. An overview is given of completed, on-going, and planned knowledge-based system activities. These applications include the Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) (the expert system interfaced with the Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system test bed); the early work with the Space Station Experiment Scheduler (SSES); the three expert systems under development in the space station advanced development effort in the core module power management and distribution system test bed; planned cooperation of expert systems in the Core Module Power Management and Distribution (CM/PMAD) system breadboard with expert systems for the space station at other research centers; and the intelligent data reduction expert system under development.

  9. Adaboost Classifier by Artificial Immune System Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hind Taud; Juan Carlos Herrera-Lozada; Jesús Álvarez-Cedillo

    \\u000a An algorithm combining Artificial Immune System and AdaBoost called Imaboost is proposed to improve the feature selection\\u000a and classification performance. Adaboost is a machine learning technique, which generates a strong classifier as a combination\\u000a of simple classifiers. In Adaboost, through learning, the search for the best simple classifiers is replaced by the clonal\\u000a selection algorithm. Haar features extracted from face

  10. Modeling Metacognition for Learning in Artificial Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darsana P. Josyula; Harish Vadali; Bette J. Donahue; Franklin C. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that metacognition—the ability to monitor the cognitive processes and regulate them—exists not only in humans but also in some animals. In nature, humans and animals use metacognition to self-regulate their learning process. This paper gathers evidence of metacognition in nature from research in various disciplines. It also shows how metacognition can be modeled in artificial systems and how

  11. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  12. Anticipation and the artificial: aesthetics, ethics, and synthetic life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihai Nadin

    2010-01-01

    If complexity is a necessary but not sufficient premise for the existence and expression of the living, anticipation is the\\u000a distinguishing characteristic of what is alive. Anticipation is at work even at levels of existence where we cannot refer\\u000a to intelligence. The prospect of artificially generating aesthetic artifacts and ethical constructs of relevance to a world\\u000a in which the natural

  13. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  14. A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    A New Classifier Based on Resource Limited Artificial Immune Systems Andrew Watkins Computing Immune Systems. A supervised learning system, it is self-regulatory, efficient, and stable under a wide, and the rock/metal classification problem for mine detection. I. INTRODUCTION Artificial Immune Systems

  15. INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    INTEGRATED INNATE AND ADAPTIVE ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO PROCESS ANOMALY DETECTION Jamie January 2007 #12;Abstract This thesis explores the design and application of artificial immune systems (AISs), problem-solving systems inspired by the human and other immune systems. AISs to date have

  16. Artificial Immune Systems and the Grand Challenge for

    E-print Network

    Stepney, Susan

    Artificial Immune Systems and the Grand Challenge for Non-Classical Computation Susan Stepney, John Ubiquitous Computing Systems 5. Architecture of Brain and Mind 6. Dependable Systems Evolution 7. Journeys, ... · Artificial Immune Systems #12;AIS : selection models · non-classical bio-inspired algorithms ­ how to exploit

  17. Integrated Platform of Artificial Immune System for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zejun Wu; Yiwen Liang

    Originated from human immune system, artificial immune system has been widely applied in the computational fields, especially for the task of anomaly detection. Although intensively investigated in the literature, most of the artificial immune systems involve the process of model pre-definition according to the specific scenarios to be coped with. The pre-definition, however, could cause the system to be unreliable

  18. A Virus Detection System Based on Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Chao; Ying Tan

    2009-01-01

    A virus detection system (VDS) based on artificial immune system (AIS) is proposed in this paper. VDS at first generates the detector set from virus files in the dataset, negative selection and clonal selection are applied to the detector set to eliminate autoimmunity detectors and increase the diversity of the detector set in the non-self space respectively. Two novel hybrid

  19. Artificial immune systems as a novel soft computing paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis

    2003-01-01

    Artificial immune systems (AIS) can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. Their develop- ment and application domains follow those of soft computing paradigms such as artificial neural networks (ANN), evolutionary algorithms (EA) and fuzzy systems (FS). Despite some isolated efforts, the field of AIS still lacks

  20. Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Inspiration for the Next Generation of Artificial Immune Systems Paul S. Andrews1 and Jon Timmis2 1 consider the state of artificial immune system (AIS) design today, and the nature of the immune the- ories of self­non-self discrimina- tions in the immune system, and go on describe on such model that removes

  1. Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Artificial Immune Systems: A Novel Paradigm to Pattern Recognition L. N. de Castro and J. Timmis to perform pattern recognition, named Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). AIS take inspiration from the immune. The basic immune theories used to explain how the immune system perform pattern recognition are described

  2. A Study of Artificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Fabio

    A Study of Artificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection A Dissertation Presented. A Study of Ar- tificial Immune Systems Applied to Anomaly Detection. Major Professor: Dipankar Dasgupta of artificial immune systems, specifically the negative selection algorithm and other self/non-self recognition

  3. Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann

    E-print Network

    Siegelmann , Hava T

    Artificial Death for Attaining System Longevity Megan Olsen, Hava Siegelmann Department of Computer to an artificial creature made of multiple agents in which local death prevents the unhealthy agents from destroying the system. We call this system HADES (Healing and Agent Death Encouraging Stability). The main

  4. Some False Starts in the Construction of a Research Methodology for Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezequiel A. Di Paolo

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews some guidelines for building a r esearch methodology in Artificial Life given by Miller (Miller, 1995). A formal argument is presented to point at some problems arising from the systematic application of these guidelines given the curre nt state of affairs in Theoretical Biology, and some practical arguments are proposed against the downsizing strategy adopted by

  5. Artificial Life Models in Hardware Andrew Adamatzky Maciej Komosinski

    E-print Network

    Conrad, James M.

    , or criticism or review, as per- mitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may of licenses issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms implementations of life-like forms are dominated by robotic applications. Chapter Nature-Inspired Single

  6. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Nizar Hamidon, Mohd; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible.

  7. Tutorial: Recommender Systems International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Jannach, Dietmar

    - 1 - Tutorial: Recommender Systems International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) ? ­ Contentbased Filtering ­ KnowledgeBased Recommendations ­ Hybridization Strategies Advanced topics of Intelligent Systems technology in business Recommender systems implementation & evaluation Product

  8. Proceedings of intelligent engineering systems through artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Dagli, C.H. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Engineering Management); Kumara, S.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Management Systems Engineering); Shin, Y.C. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the edited versions of the technical presentation of ANNIE '91, the first international meeting on Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering. The conference covered the theory of Artificial Neural Networks and its contributions in the engineering domain and attracted researchers from twelve countries. The papers in this edited book are grouped into four categories: Artificial Neural Network Architectures; Pattern Recognition; Adaptive Control, Diagnosis and Process Monitoring; and Neuro-Engineering Systems.

  9. Artificial Immune System for Recognizing Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    A method of recognizing or classifying patterns is based on an artificial immune system (AIS), which includes an algorithm and a computational model of nonlinear dynamics inspired by the behavior of a biological immune system. The method has been proposed as the theoretical basis of the computational portion of a star-tracking system aboard a spacecraft. In that system, a newly acquired star image would be treated as an antigen that would be matched by an appropriate antibody (an entry in a star catalog). The method would enable rapid convergence, would afford robustness in the face of noise in the star sensors, would enable recognition of star images acquired in any sensor or spacecraft orientation, and would not make an excessive demand on the computational resources of a typical spacecraft. Going beyond the star-tracking application, the AIS-based pattern-recognition method is potentially applicable to pattern- recognition and -classification processes for diverse purposes -- for example, reconnaissance, detecting intruders, and mining data.

  10. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The life support systems employed in manned space missions have generally been based on the use of expendables, such as, for instance, liquid oxygen. For the conducted space missions, such systems have advantages related to volume, weight, and economy of power consumption. However, this situation will change in connection with Shuttle Orbiter missions of extended duration, permanent manned facilities in low-earth orbit, and ultimately manned planetary vehicles. A description is given of suitable regenerative life support systems for such extended manned space missions. Attention is given to advanced life support systems technology, air revitalization, CO2 reduction, oxygen generation, nitrogen generation, trace contaminant control, air revitalization system integration, control/monitor instrumentation, water reclamation, solid waste management, manned testing and life support integration, an enhanced duration orbiter, a space operations center, manned interplanetary life support systems, and future development requirements.

  11. Tutorial: Recommender Systems International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Jannach, Dietmar

    - 1 - Tutorial: Recommender Systems International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) ? ­ Contentbased Filtering ­ KnowledgeBased Recommendations ­ Hybridization Strategies Advanced topics Zanker and Gerhard Friedrich Recommender Systems Application areas #12;- 4 - © Dietmar Jannach, Markus

  12. A learning automata based artificial immune system for data classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. M. Azandaryani; M. R. Meybodi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose an artificial immune system in which learning automata are used to adaptively determine the values of its parameters. Learning automata are used for altering the shape of receptor portion of antibodies to better complementarily match the confronted antigen. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed artificial immune computer experiments have been conducted. The

  13. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: ?15N and ?18O of dissolved nitrate, ?34S and ?18O of dissolved sulphate, ?13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and ?2H and ?18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (?15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and ?18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme literature ?N values of -4o and -22o respectively (Aravena and Robertson, 1998; Pauwels et al., 2000). Ongoing denitrification batch experiments will allow us to determine the specific nitrogen and oxygen isotopic fractionation induced by the organic reactive layer, in order to estimate more precisely the extent of denitrification during artificial aquifer recharge. These results confirmed that the reactive layer induces denitrification in the recharge ponds area, proving the usefulness of an isotopic approach to characterize water quality improvement occurring during artificial aquifer recharge. References 1. Aravena, R., Robertson, W.D., 1998. Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: Study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water, 36(6): 975-982. 2. Pauwels, H., J.C., Kloppmann, W., 2000. Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: Influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chemical Geology, 168(3-4): 307-324. Acknowledgment This study was supported by the projects CGL2011-29975-C04-01 from the Spanish Government, 2009SGR-00103 from the Catalan Government and ENPI/2011/280-008 from the European Commission. Please fill in your abstract text.

  14. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  15. in press In Bentley & Kumar (eds). Artificial Life Models of Neural Development

    E-print Network

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    , 00137 Rome, Italy 1. Introduction Artificial neural networks are computational models of nervous systems. Natural organisms, however, do not possess only nervous systems but also genetic information stored in the nucleus of their cells (genotype). The nervous system is part of the phenotype which is derived from

  16. Life in the solar system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brack

    1999-01-01

    Life, defined as a chemical system capable of transferring its molecular information via self-replication and also capable of evolving, must develop within a liquid to take advantage of the diffusion of complex molecules. On Earth, life probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Organic matter might have been formed in the primitive Earth's atmosphere or

  17. The influence of material build up around artificial defects on rolling contact fatigue life and failure mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Dommarco; P. C. Bastias; C. A. Rubin; G. T. Hahn

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results obtained in tests conducted to evaluate the evolution of wear tracks and artificial defects under rolling contact fatigue (RCF) loading and its effect on RCF life. The experiments were conducted on specimens of different materials commonly used in rolling bearings and gears. The artificial defects were introduced with the rounded tip of a Rockwell-C type

  18. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  19. Hybrid Systems and Artificial Immune Systems: Performances and Applications to Biomedical Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitoantonio Bevilacqua; Cosimo G. De Musso; Filippo Menolascina; Giuseppe Mastronardi; Antonio Pedone

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a comparative study of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Artificial Immune Systems. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) represent a novel paradigm in the field of computational intelligence based on the mechanisms that allow vertebrate immune systems to face attacks from foreign agents (called antigens). Several similarities as well as differences have been shown by Dasgupta in

  20. An overview of the artificial intelligence and expert systems component of RICIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feagin, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems are the important component of RICIS (Research Institute and Information Systems) research program. For space applications, a number of problem areas that should be able to make good use of the above tools include: resource allocation and management, control and monitoring, environmental control and life support, power distribution, communications scheduling, orbit and attitude maintenance, redundancy management, intelligent man-machine interfaces and fault detection, isolation and recovery.

  1. A System of Systems approach to model an Artificial Immune System using Discrete Event Specification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Bowen; Ferat Sahin

    2009-01-01

    An artificial immune system (AIS) is a biological inspiration of the human immune system and continues to emerge as a technique for a wide area of applications. This paper presents a model of AIS as it applies to a multi-agent formation problem, similar to predator and prey scenario. Successful multi-agent formations are discovered in conjunction with the artificial immune system's

  2. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  3. Development of a miniaturised hydraulic actuation system for artificial hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kargov; T. Werner; C. Pylatiuk; S. Schulz

    2008-01-01

    This article will present a powerful miniaturised hydraulic system of compact design that is used for the actuation of artificial hands. This system was developed as an alternative to today's commonly used electromechanical prosthetic actuation systems. System components and hand prototypes reflect many years of experience of our laboratory in rehabilitation medicine, CAD design and prototyping, mechanical engineering, electronic construction,

  4. Induction of Fuzzy Classification Rules with an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto T. Alves; Myriam R. Delgado; Heitor S. Lopes; Alex A. Freitas

    Fuzzy systems were designed to compute with uncertainties and linguistic information and allow us to develop mathematical tools for information processing. Artificial immune systems (AIS) consist of methods inspired by the biological immune system and designed for solving real-world problems. This work integrates these two kinds of systems, proposing a novel AIS for discovering fuzzy classification rules from data. The

  5. Artificial Immune Systems Julie Greensmith, Amanda Whitbrook and Uwe Aickelin

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Artificial Immune Systems Julie Greensmith, Amanda Whitbrook and Uwe Aickelin Abstract The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both

  6. An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems J. Timmis1*

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    An Overview of Artificial Immune Systems J. Timmis1* , T. Knight1 , L.N. de Castro2 and E. Hart3 1, Napier University. Edinburgh. Scotland. UK. e.hart@napier.ac.uk ABSTRACT The immune system is highly the ability to continually learn about new encounters. From a computational point of view, the immune system

  7. Application of artificial intelligence techniques to power system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of applying artificial intelligence (Al) techniques to four major power system design problems: generation planning, transmission planning, substation design, and auxiliary-system design. Specifically, a review was made of the various Al techniques, what techniques are currently available, and how does one implement these techniques on a computer. In addition, the fundamental structure of power system

  8. John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

    1999-01-01

    We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context of the problem of protecting a network of computers from illegal intrusions. The AIS resembles a classifier system in many important ways. Similarities and differences are discussed.

  9. The Development of Artificial Immune System in Topographic Facet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bidisha Das; Preeti Kumari; Rachna Jindal; Rashmi Rameshwari

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores artificial immune system in feature extraction mechanism. Certain important features like robustness, dynamic, adaptive, error tolerant, distributive are key features of natural immune system. These features have a detailed description. We have used adaptive immune system to develop this extraction method successfully. The terrain has several facets such as water, vegetation, urban, denseurban, barren and many more.

  10. Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System

    E-print Network

    Sanyal, Sugata

    Evolution Induced Secondary Immunity: An Artificial Immune System based Intrusion Detection System@rediffmail.com Abstract The analogy between Immune Systems and Intrusion Detection Systems encourage the use of Artificial Immune Systems for anomaly detection in computer networks. This paper describes a technique of applying

  11. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a close-up of the working parts of the PLSS.

  12. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

  13. Tuberculosis Disease Diagnosis Using Artificial Immune Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Hessam, Somayeh; Javidnia, Hossein; Amiribesheli, Mohsen; Vahdat, Shaghayegh; Petkovi?, Dalibor; Gani, Abdullah; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis among conventional methods. Objectives:This study is aimed at diagnosing TB using hybrid machine learning approaches. Materials and Methods: Patient epicrisis reports obtained from the Pasteur Laboratory in the north of Iran were used. All 175 samples have twenty features. The features are classified based on incorporating a fuzzy logic controller and artificial immune recognition system. The features are normalized through a fuzzy rule based on a labeling system. The labeled features are categorized into normal and tuberculosis classes using the Artificial Immune Recognition Algorithm. Results:Overall, the highest classification accuracy reached was for the 0.8 learning rate (?) values. The artificial immune recognition system (AIRS) classification approaches using fuzzy logic also yielded better diagnosis results in terms of detection accuracy compared to other empirical methods. Classification accuracy was 99.14%, sensitivity 87.00%, and specificity 86.12%. PMID:24688316

  14. Artificial neural networks for power system static security assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Aggoune; L. E. Atlas; D. A. Cohn; M. J. Damborg; M. A. El-Sharkawi

    1989-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) is used to assess the static security of a test system. It is demonstrated that an ANN can be a useful tool for static security assessment of power systems. It is shown that ANNs perform significantly better than a nearest-neighbor search in terms of classification, recall time, and data storage requirements. The ANN, however, requires

  15. POWER SYSTEM NETWORK TOPOLOGY PROCESSING BASED ON ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. VINOD KUMAR; S. C. SRIVASTAVA

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the determination of power system network topology based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been suggested. For the determination of power system network topology, three models of ANN based on Multilayer perceptron using Backpropagation Algorithm (BPA), Functional Link Network (FLN) and Counterpropagation Network (CPN) have been utilized and tested for both noisy as

  16. A Comprehensive Benchmark of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingjun Meng; Peter Van Der Putten; Haiyang Wang

    2005-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems are a new class of algo rithms inspired by how the immune system recognizes, attacks and remembers intruders. This is a fascinating idea, but to be accepted for mainstream data mining applications, extensive benchmarking is needed to demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of these algorithms. In our research we focus on the A IRS classification algorithm. It

  17. Stable Clusters Formation in an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. t. Wierzcho?; U. Ku?elewska

    Abstract Anew,version of an ,artificial immune ,system designed,for automated ,cluster formation ,in training data is presented. The algorithm fully exploits,self-organizing properties ,of the vertebrate immune ,system and produces ,stable immune,network. The ,algorithm ,uses ,the minimal number,of control parameters.

  18. A method inspired from differential coefficient for calculating danger signals in Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang He; Liang Yiwen; Li Tao; Mao Bo

    2009-01-01

    Artificial Immune System is a computational system which is inspired from vertebrate immune system. For the characteristics of adaptability and diversity, Artificial Immune System is used to solve engineering problems, especially computer security problems. Danger Model is a new research focus of Artificial Immune System which is inspired from innate immune system. Previous researches have proved that Danger Model is

  19. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G. (Miami, FL); Friedman, Peter S. (Toledo, OH)

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  20. Collaborative RFID intrusion detection with an artificial immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haidong Yang; Jianhua Guo; Feiqi Deng

    2011-01-01

    The current RFID systems are fragile to external attacks, due to the limitations of encryption authentication and physical\\u000a protection methods used in implementation of RFID security systems. In this paper, we propose a collaborative RFID intrusion\\u000a detection method that is based on an artificial immune system (AIS). The new method can enhance the security of RFID systems\\u000a without need to

  1. Chip level lithography verification system with artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae-pil; Choi, Jin-sook; Jung, Dae-hyun; Lee, Jee-hyong; Yoo, Moon-hyun; Kong, Jeong-taek

    2005-06-01

    The lithography verification of critical dimension variation, pinching, and bridging becomes indispensable in synthesizing mask data for the photolithography process. In handling IC layout data, the software usually use the hierarchical information of the design to reduce execution time and to overcome peak memory usage. However, the layout data become flattened by resolution enhancement techniques, such as optical proximity correction, assist features insertion, and dummy pattern insertion. Consequently, the lithography verification software should take burden of processing the flattened data. This paper describes the hierarchy restructuring and artificial neural networks methods in developing a rapid lithography verification system. The hierarchy restructuring method is applied on layout patterns so that the lithography verification on the flattened layout data can attain the speed of hierarchical processing. Artificial neural networks are employed to replace lithography simulation. We define input parameters, which is major factors in determining patterns width, for the artificial neural network system. We also introduce a learning technique in the neural networks to achieve accuracy comparable to an existing lithography verification system. Failure detection with artificial neural networks outperforms the methods that use the convolution-based simulation. The proposed system shows 10 times better performance than a widely accepted system while it achieves the same predictability on lithography failures.

  2. Open source life project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Cerny; Diane Figueredo; Chris Keating; Joey Lindsey; Flo McGarrell; Daniel Romano

    2003-01-01

    The experimental new media group - Nomads & Homesteaders explore biotechnology, artificial life systems and simulation through, the Open Source Life (OSL) project.OSL participants create artificially intelligent plants, designed to adapt to life in a changing environment. Once created, the virtual plant's survival is the responsibility of its \\

  3. RICIS research review of artificial intelligence and expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feagin, Terry

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes the research accomplishments of the past year for the artificial intelligence and expert systems areas. Most projects have been underway for only a short time; however, overall progress within the areas has been steady and worthwhile. Several projects have already attained their major objectives.

  4. Emotional robot for intelligent system-artificial emotional creature project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shibata; K. Inoue; R. Irie

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in robotics have been applied to automation in industrial manufacturing, with the primary purpose of optimizing practical systems in terms of such objective measures as accuracy, speed, and cost. This paper introduces the artificial emotional creature project that seeks to explore a different direction that is not so rigidly dependent an such objective measures. The goal of this

  5. Vaccine-Enhanced Artificial Immune System for Multimodal Function Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumlachew M. Woldemariam; Gary G. Yen

    2010-01-01

    This paper emulates a biological notion in vaccines to promote exploration in the search space for solving multimodal function optimization problems using artificial immune systems (AISs). In this method, we first divide the decision space into equal subspaces. The vaccine is then randomly extracted from each subspace. A few of these vaccines, in the form of weakened antigens, are then

  6. Convergence Analysis of a Multiobjective Artificial Immune System Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Villalobos-arias; Carlos A. Coello Coello; Onésimo Hernández-lerma

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical proof of convergence of a multi- objective artificial immune system algorithm (based on clonal selection theory). An specific algorithm (previously reported in the specialized literature) is adopted as a basis for the mathematical model presented herein. The proof is based on the use of Markov chains.

  7. An Artificial Neural Network for a Tank Targeting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans W. Guesgen; Xiao Dong Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we apply artificial neural networks to control the targeting system of a robotic tank in a tank-combat computer game (RoboCode). We suggest an algorithm that not only trains the connection weights of the neural network, but si- multaneously searches for an optimum network architecture. Our hybrid evolutionary algorithm (PSONet) uses modified particle swarm optimisation to train the

  8. Systemic oxygen transport in rats artificially selected for running endurance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norberto C. Gonzalez; Richard A. Howlett; Kyle K. Henderson; Lauren G. Koch; Steve L. Britton; Harrieth E. Wagner; Fabrice Favret; Peter D. Wagner

    2006-01-01

    The relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences to individual exercise capacity is difficult to determine. Accordingly, animal models in which these influences are carefully controlled are highly useful to understand the determinants of intrinsic exercise capacity. Studies of systemic O2 transport during maximal treadmill exercise in two diverging lines of rats artificially selected for endurance capacity showed that, at

  9. A Machine Learning Evaluation of an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Glickman; Justin Balthrop; Stephanie Forrest

    2005-01-01

    ARTIS is an artificial immune system framework which contains several adaptive mechanisms. LISYS is a version of ARTIS specialized for the problem of network in- trusion detection. The adaptive mechanisms of LISYS are characterized in terms of their machine-learning counterparts, and a series of experiments is described, each of which isolates a different mechanism of LISYS and studies its contribution

  10. An Artificially Evolved Vision System for Segmenting Skin Lesion Images

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    is a deadly cancer which most commonly arises in the skin. Its diagnosis at the primary care levelAn Artificially Evolved Vision System for Segmenting Skin Lesion Images Mark E. Roberts and Ela views of the patient's skin, or produced by an instrument such as x-ray, ultrasound, CT or MRI. However

  11. Artificial synapse network on inorganic proton conductor for neuromorphic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Chang Jin; Guo, Li Qiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The basic units in our brain are neurons, and each neuron has more than 1,000 synapse connections. Synapse is the basic structure for information transfer in an ever-changing manner, and short-term plasticity allows synapses to perform critical computational functions in neural circuits. Therefore, the major challenge for the hardware implementation of neuromorphic computation is to develop artificial synapse network. Here in-plane lateral-coupled oxide-based artificial synapse network coupled by proton neurotransmitters are self-assembled on glass substrates at room-temperature. A strong lateral modulation is observed due to the proton-related electrical-double-layer effect. Short-term plasticity behaviours, including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering and spatiotemporally correlated signal processing are mimicked. Such laterally coupled oxide-based protonic/electronic hybrid artificial synapse network proposed here is interesting for building future neuromorphic systems.

  12. Artificial intelligence for explosive ordnance disposal system (AI-EOD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Williams; J. Holland

    1992-01-01

    The artificial intelligence explosive ordnance disposal system (AI-EOD), developed in support of the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center, is a neural network AI-based multiple-incident identification, recording, and tracking system featuring state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management. It is concluded that the AI-EOD has proven itself by meeting the goals established for it. The system separates the reasoning

  13. Issues in the Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Systems in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Perry L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the underlying issues in the evaluation of computer systems which apply artificial intelligence in medicine (AIM). Three different levels of evaluation are described: 1) the subjective evaluation of the research contribution of a developmental prototype, 2) the validation of a system's knowledge and performance, 3) the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of an operational system. The paper outlines a number of evaluation issues at each level, and discusses how previous AIM evaluations fit into this framework.

  14. A Music Recommender Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristomenis S. Lampropoulos; Dionysios N. Sotiropoulos; George A. Tsihrintzis

    \\u000a In this paper, we address the recommendation process as a one-class classification problem based on content features and a\\u000a Negative Selection (NS) algorithm that captures user preferences. Specifically, we develop an Artificial Immune System (AIS) based on a Negative Selection Algorithm that forms the core of a music recommendation system. The NS-based learning algorithm allows our system\\u000a to build a

  15. Clonal Selection Based Artificial Immune System for Generalized Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades has seen a rapid increase in the application of AIS (Artificial Immune Systems) modeled after the human immune system to a wide range of areas including network intrusion detection, job shop scheduling, classification, pattern recognition, and robot control. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has developed an integrated pattern recognition/classification system called AISLE (Artificial Immune System for Learning and Exploration) based on biologically inspired models of B-cell dynamics in the immune system. When used for unsupervised or supervised classification, the method scales linearly with the number of dimensions, has performance that is relatively independent of the total size of the dataset, and has been shown to perform as well as traditional clustering methods. When used for pattern recognition, the method efficiently isolates the appropriate matches in the data set. The paper presents the underlying structure of AISLE and the results from a number of experimental studies.

  16. Using Artificial Intelligence Technology in Failsafe Realtime Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejdl, Wolfgang; Neuhold, Erich J.; Theuretzbacher, Norbert

    1987-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the use of artificial intelligence technology to increase system safety in failsafe realtime systems. A safety module for a failsafe realtime system is specified which uses a production system to implement the necessary security checks. The task of this safety module is to guarantee the safety of the system. To implement the safety module production system the AI language OPS83 is used. A complete prototype for use in the Electronic Interlocking System "ELEKTRA" from ITT-Austria is being built comprising approximately 100 to 200 safety assertions in the form of production rules.

  17. Artificial intelligence-based systems applied in industrial marketing: An historical overview, current and future insights

    E-print Network

    Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

    Artificial intelligence-based systems applied in industrial marketing: An historical overview Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering School Accepted 22 February 2013 Available online 21 March 2013 Keywords: Intelligent systems Marketing

  18. Life history and cost analysis for continuous rearing of Perillus bioculatus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on a zoophytogenous artificial diet.

    PubMed

    Coudron, T A; Kim, Y

    2004-06-01

    The impact of a zoophytogenous, insect-free artificial diet on the developmental rate, life history parameters, and fertility was examined over 11 consecutive generations for domesticated Perillus biocullatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that when fed an insect-free artificial diet during both the nymphal and adult stages, developmental times were prolonged, and the net reproductive rates (R0) and the intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)) were significantly lower than when fed larval Trichoplusia ni at both nymphal and adult stages. Moreover, the cost to rear P. bioculatus on the artificial diet approached 1.1 times the cost of rearing P. bioculatus on natural prey. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and potential cost-savings of the zoophytogenous artificial diet for rearing a beneficial pentatomid. PMID:15279257

  19. Dorin, A., "Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic Art", Proceedings of 3rd European Workshop on Evolutionary Music and Art, Applications of Evo-

    E-print Network

    Dorin, Alan

    Dorin, A., "Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic Art-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, pp448-457 Artificial Life, Death and Epidemics in Evolutionary, Generative Electronic to a genetic algorithm but stops short of exploring different reasons for death in the population [2] (for

  20. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    PubMed

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6?°C for ??14?days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. PMID:23692154

  1. Thermocompressor powered artificial heart assist system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Moise; M. I. Rudnicki; R. J. Faeser

    1975-01-01

    The development of a fully implantable, left ventricular assist system ; is described. The system utilizes a radioisotope-powered Stirling cycle ; thermocompressor and an all-pneumatic actuation and control system to drive a ; pusher-plate type blood pump. This basic approach has been shown to be efficient ; and workable by implantation experiments on calves. The recent effort has been ;

  2. ARTIFICIAL CREATIVITY: A SYNTHETIC APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF CREATIVE BEHAVIOUR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROB SAUNDERS; JOHN S. GERO

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the computational study of creativity, called artificial creativity. Artificial creativity promotes the study of the creative behaviour of individuals and societies in artificial societies of agents. It is similar to the approach to that taken by Artificial Life researchers involved in developing computational models. We present a framework for developing artificial creativity systems as

  3. Artificial Immune System for Multi-Area Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Shankha Suvra; Hazra, Abhik; Basu, Mousumi

    2013-09-01

    This article presents artificial immune system for solving multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints considering transmission losses, multiple fuels, valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones. Artificial immune system is based on the clonal selection principle which implements adaptive cloning, hyper mutation, aging operator and tournament selection. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified on three different test systems, both small and large, involving varying degree of complexity. Compared with differential evolution, evolutionary programming and real-coded genetic algorithm, considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed algorithm seems to be a promising alternative approach for solving the MAED problems in practical power system.

  4. An integrated artificial photosynthesis system based on peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bin; Li, Ying; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems.A peptide nanotube platform that integrates both light-harvesting and catalytic units was successfully engineered for artificial photosynthesis. Peptide nanotubes not only serve as a hub for physically combining both units, but also work as mediators that transfer the energy from photo-excited chromophores to catalytic centers. The direct conversion of NAD+ to NADH upon light illumination was demonstrated. This represents a promising step towards efficient and fully integrated artificial photosynthesis systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00295d

  5. LIFE HISTORY AND COST ANALYSIS FOR CONTINUOUS REARING OF PERILLUS BIOCULATUS (F.) (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) ON A ZOOPHYTOGENOUS ARTIFICIAL DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of a zoophytophagous, insect-free artificial diet on the developmental rate, life table parameters, and fertility table parameters was examined over eleven consecutive generations for domesticated Perillus bioculatus (F.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). This study showed that when fed an i...

  6. Application of artificial neural network for predicting strain-life fatigue properties of steels on the basis of tensile tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Genel

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN) in predicting the strain-life fatigue properties using tensile material data for 73 steels was investigated by conducting four separate neural networks for individual fatigue properties. The fatigue data of these steels extracted from available literatures were used in the formation of training set of ANN. Results of neural network modelling indicated that fatigue

  7. Artificial Baroreflex: Clinical Application of a Bionic Baroreflex System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Yamasaki; Can Zheng; Atsunori Kamiya; Hiroshi Takaki; Masaru Sugimachi; Kenji Yusuke Yanagiya; Takayuki Sato; Toru Kawada; Masashi Inagaki; Teiji Tatewaki; K. Yamamoto; K. Sunagawa; T. Ushida; T. Yokoyama; M. Ando; K. Yamashita

    2006-01-01

    Background—We proposed a novel therapeutic strategy against central baroreflex failure: implementation of an artificial baroreflex system to automatically regulate sympathetic vasomotor tone, ie, a bionic baroreflex system (BBS), and we tested its efficacy in a model of sudden hypotension during surgery. Methods and Results—The BBS consisted of a computer-controlled negative-feedback circuit that sensed arterial pressure (AP) and automatically computed the

  8. Multiobjective Optimization by a Modified Artificial Immune System Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Freschi; Maurizio Repetto

    2005-01-01

    http:\\/\\/www.polito.it\\/cadema Abstract. The aim of this work is to propose and validate a new multi- objective optimization algorithm based on the emulation of the immune system behavior. The rationale of this work is that the artificial im- mune system has, in its elementary structure, the main features required by other multiobjective evolutionary algorithms described in literature. The proposed approach is

  9. A Resource Limited Artificial Immune System for Data Jon Timmis* and Mark Neal **

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    1 A Resource Limited Artificial Immune System for Data Analysis Jon Timmis* and Mark Neal a resource limited artificial immune system for data analysis. The work presented here builds upon previous work on artificial immune systems for data analysis. A population control mechanism, inspired

  10. Comparison of a Multi-Layered Artificial Immune System with a Kohonen Network

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Comparison of a Multi-Layered Artificial Immune System with a Kohonen Network T. Knight and J Networks on some clustering tasks. I. INTRODUCTION Many artificial immune systems (AIS) have been devel is organised as follows. Section II presents a novel multi-layered artificial immune system inspired

  11. SEVEN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES FOR ARTIFICIAL LEARNING SYSTEMS Christophe GiraudCarrier and Tony Martinez

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Tony R.

    the range of applications of artificial learning systems. An overview of the algorithm PDL2, that begins of applications of artificial learning systems. As a proof of concept, the algorithm PDL2 [5] is overviewed. PDL2SEVEN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES FOR ARTIFICIAL LEARNING SYSTEMS Christophe Giraud­Carrier and Tony

  12. AUTONOMIC ADAPTATION OF NETWORK APPLICATIONS WITH THE INET ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Jun

    AUTONOMIC ADAPTATION OF NETWORK APPLICATIONS WITH THE INET ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE SYSTEM Chonho Lee elegantly achieved autono- mous adaptation, the proposed mechanism, called the iNet artificial immune system and makes network applications adaptive. KEY WORDS Autonomous adaptive networks, artificial immune system 1

  13. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.

    1996-04-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  14. Life in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberta Johnson

    2000-07-01

    Life in the Solar System is a Windows to the Universe Exploratour and provides a look at the environments of some places in the solar system, including Mercury, Venus, Mars present and past, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Saturn, Titan, other moons, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, Pluto, comets, and interstellar space. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate, and advanced options for each topic level.

  15. 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms 279 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Organisms 279 4.4 An Artificial Immune System for Robot Immune Systems (AIS) is a diverse area of research that attempts to bridge the divide between immunology and engineering that uses immune system metaphors for the creation of novel solutions to problems (de Castro

  16. Home care artificial heart monitoring system via internet.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Lee, J H; Choi, J; Lee, J; Kim, W G; Sun, K; Min, B G

    2004-10-01

    The availability of a remote management system, which provides both physiological-related information about the patient and device-related information about the implanted device, would be helpful during in vivo experiments or clinical trials involving artificial heart implantation. In order to be able to monitor the course of the in vivo experiment continuously regardless of the patient's location, an internet-based remote monitoring system was developed, which can monitor physiological-related information such as pressure (AoP, LAP, RAP, PAP) and flow data, as well as device-related information such as current, direction and pump operating conditions. The home care artificial heart monitoring system which we developed consists of four main components, which are the transcutaneous information transmission system (TITS), local monitoring station (LMS), data server station (DSS), and client monitoring station (CMS). The device-related information and physiological-related information can be transmitted in real time from a patient in a remote non-clinical environment to the specialist situated in a clinic depending on the current capabilities and availability of the internet. The local monitoring station situated at the remote site is composed of a data acquisition and preprocessing unit connected to a computer via its RS-232 port, and which communicate using a Java-based client-server architecture. The remote monitoring system so developed was used during an in vivo experiment of the artificial heart implantation for 2 months and performed successfully according to design specifications. PMID:15560684

  17. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    PubMed Central

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  18. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power system stability applications of artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, N.; Kirkham, Harold

    1994-01-01

    This report investigates the application of artificial neural networks to the problem of power system stability. The field of artificial intelligence, expert systems, and neural networks is reviewed. Power system operation is discussed with emphasis on stability considerations. Real-time system control has only recently been considered as applicable to stability, using conventional control methods. The report considers the use of artificial neural networks to improve the stability of the power system. The networks are considered as adjuncts and as replacements for existing controllers. The optimal kind of network to use as an adjunct to a generator exciter is discussed.

  19. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  20. Optima, Extrema, and Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Hone; Johnny Kelsey

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a We review various problems of extremization that arise in the calculus of variations, with wide-ranging applications in mathematics,\\u000a physics and biology. Euler-Lagrange equations come from the extremum of an action functional, and we reformulate this as an\\u000a optimization problem. Hence the task of solving systems of differential equations can be recast as the problem of finding\\u000a the minimum of a

  1. Tuning of power system stabilizers using an artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Yih Hsu; Chao-Rong Chen

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tuning of power system stabilizers (PSS) which is investigated using an artificial neural network (ANN). To have good damping characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions, it is desirable to adapt the PSS parameters in real-time based on generator loading conditions. To do this, a pair of on-line measurements, i.e. generator real power output (P)

  2. An adaptive artificial immune system for fault classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilhan Aydin; Mehmet Karakose; Erhan Akin

    Fault diagnosis is very important in ensuring safe and reliable operation in manufacturing systems. This paper presents an\\u000a adaptive artificial immune classification approach for diagnosis of induction motor faults. The proposed algorithm uses memory\\u000a cells tuned using the magnitude of the standard deviation obtained with average affinity variation in each generation. The\\u000a algorithm consists of three steps. First, three-phase induction

  3. A New Artificial Immune System Algorithm for Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reda Younsi; Wenjia Wang

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a This paper describes a new artificial immune system algorithm for data clustering. The proposed algorithm resembles the CLONALG,\\u000a widely used AIS algorithm but much simpler as it uses one shot learning and omits cloning. The algorithm is tested using four\\u000a simulated and two benchmark data sets for data clustering. Experimental results indicate it produced the correct clusters\\u000a for the data

  4. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  5. Biomimetic photoelectric conversion systems based on artificial membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Tian; Lei Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Biological light-driven proton pumps which could transfer light energy to electrical energy have aroused intense interest\\u000a in the past years. Many related researches have been conducted to mimic this process in vitro because of its potential significant applications. This review describes the progress in biomimetic photoelectric conversion\\u000a systems based on different kinds of promising artificial membranes. Both biological bacteriorhodopsin and

  6. GAIS: A Gaussian Artificial Immune System for Continuous Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo A. D. Castro; Fernando J. Von Zuben

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper proposes a Gaussian Artificial Immune System (GAIS) to deal effectively with building blocks (high-quality partial\\u000a solutions coded in the solution vector) in continuous optimization problems. By replacing the mutation and cloning operators\\u000a with a probabilistic model, more specifically a Gaussian network representing the joint distribution of promising solutions,\\u000a GAIS takes into account the relationships among the variables of

  7. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  8. Recognising promoter sequences using an artificial immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.E.; Hunt, J.E. [Univ. of Wales, Dyfed (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    We have developed an artificial immune system (AIS) which is based on the human immune system. The AIS possesses an adaptive learning mechanism which enables antibodies to emerge which can be used for classification tasks. In this paper, we describe how the AIS has been used to evolve antibodies which can classify promoter containing and promoter negative DNA sequences. The DNA sequences used for teaching were 57 nucleotides in length and contained procaryotic promoters. The system classified previously unseen DNA sequences with an accuracy of approximately 90%.

  9. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Heyderman, L J; Stamps, R L

    2013-09-11

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 ?m elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss artificial multiferroics (or multiferroic composites), which hold promise for new applications that involve electric field control of magnetism, or electric and magnetic field responsive devices for high frequency integrated circuit design in microwave and terahertz signal processing. We close with comments on how enhanced functionality can be realised through engineering of nanostructures with interacting ferroic components, creating opportunities for novel spin electronic devices that, for example, make use of the transport of magnetic charges, thermally activated elements, and reprogrammable nanomagnet systems. PMID:23948652

  10. Artificial ferroic systems: novel functionality from structure, interactions and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyderman, L. J.; Stamps, R. L.

    2013-09-01

    Lithographic processing and film growth technologies are continuing to advance, so that it is now possible to create patterned ferroic materials consisting of arrays of sub-1 ?m elements with high definition. Some of the most fascinating behaviour of these arrays can be realised by exploiting interactions between the individual elements to create new functionality. The properties of these artificial ferroic systems differ strikingly from those of their constituent components, with novel emergent behaviour arising from the collective dynamics of the interacting elements, which are arranged in specific designs and can be activated by applying magnetic or electric fields. We first focus on artificial spin systems consisting of arrays of dipolar-coupled nanomagnets and, in particular, review the field of artificial spin ice, which demonstrates a wide range of fascinating phenomena arising from the frustration inherent in particular arrangements of nanomagnets, including emergent magnetic monopoles, domains of ordered macrospins, and novel avalanche behaviour. We outline how demagnetisation protocols have been employed as an effective thermal anneal in an attempt to reach the ground state, comment on phenomena that arise in thermally activated systems and discuss strategies for selectively generating specific configurations using applied magnetic fields. We then move on from slow field and temperature driven dynamics to high frequency phenomena, discussing spinwave excitations in the context of magnonic crystals constructed from arrays of patterned magnetic elements. At high frequencies, these arrays are studied in terms of potential applications including magnetic logic, linear and non-linear microwave optics, and fast, efficient switching, and we consider the possibility to create tunable magnonic crystals with artificial spin ice. Finally, we discuss how functional ferroic composites can be incorporated to realise magnetoelectric effects. Specifically, we discuss artificial multiferroics (or multiferroic composites), which hold promise for new applications that involve electric field control of magnetism, or electric and magnetic field responsive devices for high frequency integrated circuit design in microwave and terahertz signal processing. We close with comments on how enhanced functionality can be realised through engineering of nanostructures with interacting ferroic components, creating opportunities for novel spin electronic devices that, for example, make use of the transport of magnetic charges, thermally activated elements, and reprogrammable nanomagnet systems.

  11. Artificial Neural Networks and quadratic Response Surfaces for the functional failure analysis of a thermal-hydraulic passive system

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Artificial Neural Networks and quadratic Response Surfaces for the functional failure analysis, Energy Department, Milano, Italy Abstract: In this paper, bootstrapped Artificial Neural Network (ANN system reliability, artificial neural network, quadratic response surface 1. INTRODUCTION Modern nuclear

  12. Pathway to artificial pancreas systems revisited: moving downstream.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Artificial pancreas (AP) systems, a long-sought quest to replicate mechanically islet physiology that is lost in diabetes, are reaching the clinic, and the potential of automating insulin delivery is about to be realized. Significant progress has been made, and the safety and feasibility of AP systems have been demonstrated in the clinical research center and more recently in outpatient "real-world" environments. An iterative road map to AP system development has guided AP research since 2009, but progress in the field indicates that it needs updating. While it is now clear that AP systems are technically feasible, it remains much less certain that they will be widely adopted by clinicians and patients. Ultimately, the true success of AP systems will be defined by successful integration into the diabetes health care system and by the ultimate metric: improved diabetes outcomes. PMID:25998296

  13. Identification of nonlinear hysteretic systems by artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S. L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Chen, C. H.; Zhang, X. N.

    2013-01-01

    An identification method is developed for nonlinear hysteretic systems by use of artificial neural network in the paper. Employing the Bouc-Wen differential model widely used for memory-type nonlinear hysteretic systems, the approach sets up a Bouc-Wen model-based neural network. The weights of the designed specifically network correspond to the Bouc-Wen model parameters and are thus physical ones. Taking advantage of powerful function approximation capability of neural network, the nonlinear hysteretic systems can be identified with the proposed approach by network training. The identification scheme is validated by a simulated case and thereafter applied to modeling of a wire cable vibration isolation experimental system. The results show that the presented identification method can identify the nonlinear hysteretic systems with high accuracy.

  14. An artificial bioindicator system for network intrusion detection.

    PubMed

    Blum, Christian; Lozano, José A; Davidson, Pedro Pinacho

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bioindicator system is developed in order to solve a network intrusion detection problem. The system, inspired by an ecological approach to biological immune systems, evolves a population of agents that learn to survive in their environment. An adaptation process allows the transformation of the agent population into a bioindicator that is capable of reacting to system anomalies. Two characteristics stand out in our proposal. On the one hand, it is able to discover new, previously unseen attacks, and on the other hand, contrary to most of the existing systems for network intrusion detection, it does not need any previous training. We experimentally compare our proposal with three state-of-the-art algorithms and show that it outperforms the competing approaches on widely used benchmark data. PMID:25951198

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Mathematical Formulation of Public Electric Transport Scheduling Task for Artificial Immune Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorobetz, Mikhail; Alps, Ivars; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes mathematical formulation and application of artificial immune system for scheduling tasks for public electric transport. Artificial immune system is inspired by human immune system to simulate the process of interaction between antigens and antibodies. The task of scheduling in transport system is represented as one of the most well-known flow shop problem. Artificial immune system as a genetic based method is used to solve such task. Mathematical model and algorithm is proposed to create optimal schedule for public electric transport for minimization of electric energy consumption and time. Numerical example shows several steps of algorithm for artificial immune system for scheduling task solution.

  17. Life prediction systems for critical rotating components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of advanced materials in rotating gas turbine engine components, the methodologies for life prediction of these parts must also increase in sophistication and capability. Pratt & Whitney's view of generic requirements for composite component life prediction systems are presented, efforts underway to develop these systems are discussed, and industry participation in key areas requiring development is solicited.

  18. Tubing rotator system increases pumping unit tubular life

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Brown, C. (Rotating Production Systems, Arlington, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Artificial lift is required on the majority of all oil wells and on some gas wells. The most common form of artificial lift is the beam pump sucker rod system. The beam pump is mechanically simple, cost effective, and has a long service life. However, the economics diminish with an increase in down time, lost production, and pulling jobs, caused by tubing failures. The most common tubing failures-split tubing-are caused by rod wear. The rods and rod boxes wear through the tubing in a narrow groove comprising about 20% of the inside diameter of the tubing. Mechanical wear from the rods and hydrostatic pressure inside the tubing causes the tubing to fail and the well is off line. Rotating the tubing string continually during pumping operations distributes rod wear over the entire inside diameter and increases tubing life. A tubing rotator system consists of surface and subsurface equipment and is powered directly by pumping unit movement is described in this paper. Application to deviated wells and in heavy oil producing wells is also discussed.

  19. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) ­ A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making OR46 (2004) AIS technique inspired by immunology has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). This immune system will very briefly describe the immune system metaphors that are relevant to AIS. We will then give some

  20. Artificial Immune System and its applications in gps single frequency precise point positioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengquan Xu; Suxia Xu; Wei Chen

    2008-01-01

    The natural immune system is a robust and powerful information process system that demonstrates features such as distributed control, parallel processing and adaptation. Artificial immune systems (AIS) are machine-learning algorithms that embody some of the principles and attempt to take advantages of the benefits of natural immune systems for use in tackling complex problem domains. Using the artificial immune algorithm

  1. ANUBIS: artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin J H; Saaj, Chakravarthini M; Allouis, Elie

    2013-01-01

    Gain tuning is a crucial part of controller design and depends not only on an accurate understanding of the system in question, but also on the designer's ability to predict what disturbances and other perturbations the system will encounter throughout its operation. This letter presents ANUBIS (artificial neuromodulation using a Bayesian inference system), a novel biologically inspired technique for automatically tuning controller parameters in real time. ANUBIS is based on the Bayesian brain concept and modifies it by incorporating a model of the neuromodulatory system comprising four artificial neuromodulators. It has been applied to the controller of EchinoBot, a prototype walking rover for Martian exploration. ANUBIS has been implemented at three levels of the controller; gait generation, foot trajectory planning using Bézier curves, and foot trajectory tracking using a terminal sliding mode controller. We compare the results to a similar system that has been tuned using a multilayer perceptron. The use of Bayesian inference means that the system retains mathematical interpretability, unlike other intelligent tuning techniques, which use neural networks, fuzzy logic, or evolutionary algorithms. The simulation results show that ANUBIS provides significant improvements in efficiency and adaptability of the three controller components; it allows the robot to react to obstacles and uncertainties faster than the system tuned with the MLP, while maintaining stability and accuracy. As well as advancing rover autonomy, ANUBIS could also be applied to other situations where operating conditions are likely to change or cannot be accurately modeled in advance, such as process control. In addition, it demonstrates one way in which neuromodulation could fit into the Bayesian brain framework. PMID:22970879

  2. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  3. Gaussian Beam Optical System Analysis By Microcomputer With Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng

    1986-10-01

    Gaussian beam optical system analysis by microcomputer with artificial intelligent has been studied. The analytic and symbolic forms by mu-LISP language of IBM pc microcomputer are very powerful for the purpose of Gaussian beam system analysis. The Gaussian beam optical model cosist of general model, refracting surface model, thin lens model. Using the forward chaining method the beam size locus, beam waist, sister surface are all easily be solved. The expert system consists of knowledge base with rules as well as built-in functions and the problem-solving mechanism with direct solver. The rules could be modified and adding in declarative approach, the program separates the knowledge base from the problem-solving inferance mechanisms, and could improve it performance in a dynamic manner, ie. the rules could be added and modified. Some learning mechanism are suggested in this paper also.

  4. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  5. A Taxonomy of the Evolution of Artificial Neural Systems

    E-print Network

    Mayer, Helmut A.

    of artificial neural network (ANN) evolution there is still a huge gap between the extremely versatile brains into training algorithms being an important area of research in artificial neural networks. Obviously. Realizing that the final performance of an artificial neural network is not only dependent on its struc

  6. Application of artificial intelligence techniques to power system design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of applying artificial intelligence (Al) techniques to four major power system design problems: generation planning, transmission planning, substation design, and auxiliary-system design. Specifically, a review was made of the various Al techniques, what techniques are currently available, and how does one implement these techniques on a computer. In addition, the fundamental structure of power system design problems was analyzed. As a practical example, specific Al techniques were proposed and implemented for the design of the electrical auxiliary system of a power plant. The intent of creating a specific expert system to design an auxiliary system is to demonstrate the feasibility of using Al techniques on specific power system design problems. Furthermore, human experts were used to verify and measure the quality of the design created by the expert system. Overall, the expert system created during this research project received positive marks by human experts and general feasibility was established for the Al techniques utilized for the auxiliary system design problem.

  7. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early space flights no significant changes were found (Heidelbaugh et al. 1968;Watt et al. 1985). However, data from a recent head-down bed rest study showed significant decrease in smell sensation (Enck et al. unpublished data) suggesting that fluid shifts might have an impact. If this holds true and which has to be validated in further studies, this seems to play an important role for lowered food intake causing insufficient energy intake and subsequently insufficient supply of most of the macro- and micronutrients. Other nutrients are taken in excess, for example sodium. As it is very well known from daily food consumption especially premanufactured food with high salt content seems to be more palatable than that with low salt content. Salt also functions as preservation which is very important taking into account the space food system limitations (i.e., lack of refrigerators and freezers). The preference for food with high salt intake by astronauts might therefore very likely be caused by altered smell and taste sensations in microgravity.

  8. Artificial neural-network based feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction in distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoyong Kim; Yunseok Ko; Kyunghee Jung

    1993-01-01

    Neural networks have the capability to map the complex and extremely non-linear relationship between the load levels of zone and system topologies, which is required for feeder reconfiguration in distribution systems. This study is intended to propose the strategies to reconfigure the feeder, by using artificial neural networks with mapping ability. Artificial neural networks determine the appropriate system topology that

  9. John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr,forrestg@cs.unm.edu Abstract We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver­ tebrate immune system and places them in the context

  10. Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System Steven A. Hofmeyr and Stephanie Forrest

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System Steven A. Hofmeyr and Stephanie Forrest Dept We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context

  11. John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    John Holland's Invisible Hand: An Artificial Immune System Stephanie Forrest and Steven A. Hofmeyr.unm.edu Abstract We describe an artificial immune system (AIS) that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse and adaptive. It captures many features of the ver- tebrate immune system and places them in the context

  12. An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use detectors, not the generation of competent detectors. 1 INTRODUCTION The biological immune system has been

  13. Mowgli: A Bipedal Jumping and Landing Robot with an Artificial Musculoskeletal System

    E-print Network

    Mowgli: A Bipedal Jumping and Landing Robot with an Artificial Musculoskeletal System Ryuma Niiyama robot called "Mowgli". Mowgli's artificial musculoskeletal system consists of six McKibben pneumatic musculoskeletal system as a physical feedback loop in explosive movements. I. INTRODUCTION The ability to move

  14. Hybrid Heuristic-Based Artificial Immune System for Task Scheduling

    E-print Network

    sanei, Masoomeh

    2011-01-01

    Task scheduling problem in heterogeneous systems is the process of allocating tasks of an application to heterogeneous processors interconnected by high-speed networks, so that minimizing the finishing time of application as much as possible. Tasks are processing units of application and have precedenceconstrained, communication and also, are presented by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs). Evolutionary algorithms are well suited for solving task scheduling problem in heterogeneous environment. In this paper, we propose a hybrid heuristic-based Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for solving the scheduling problem. In this regard, AIS with some heuristics and Single Neighbourhood Search (SNS) technique are hybridized. Clonning and immune-remove operators of AIS provide diversity, while heuristics and SNS provide convergence of algorithm into good solutions, that is balancing between exploration and exploitation. We have compared our method with some state-of-the art algorithms. The results of the experiments...

  15. Design of speaker recognition system based on artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Lin, Han; Li, Jinlong

    2012-10-01

    Speaker recognition is to recognize speaker's identity from its voice which contains physiological and behavioral characteristics unique to each individual. In this paper, the artificial neural network model, which has very good capacity of non-linear division in characteristic space, is used for pattern matching. The speaker's sample characteristic domain is built for his mixed voice characteristic signals based on Kmeanlbg algorithm. Then the dimension of the inputting eigenvector is reduced, and the redundant information is got rid of. On this basis, BP neural network is used to divide capacity area for characteristic space nonlinearly, and the BP neural network acts as a classifier for the speaker. Finally, a speaker recognition system based on the neural network is realized and the experiment results validate the recognition performance and robustness of the system.

  16. Using isotopes for design and monitoring of artificial recharge systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Contributors: Hendriksson, N.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Massmann, G.; Newman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, the IAEA has provided support to a number of Member States engaged in the implementation of hydrological projects dealing with the design and monitoring of artificial recharge ( A R ) systems, primarily situated in arid and semiarid regions. AR is defined as any engineered system designed to introduce water to, and store water in, underlying aquifers. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR used with the purpose of increasing groundwater resources. Different water management strategies have been tested under various geographical, hydrological and climatic regimes. However, the success of such schemes cannot easily be predicted, since many variables need to be taken into account in the early stages of every AR project.

  17. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Hu, Xinlei; Wang, Feng; Zou, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID) is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS). The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs). This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted. PMID:24790549

  18. Combining rule-based expert systems and artificial neural networks for mark-up estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Love

    1999-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems and artificial neural networks are two major systems for developing intelligent decision support systems. The integration of the two systems can generate a new system which shares the strengths of both rule-based and artificial neural network systems. This research presents a computer based mark-up decision support system called InMES (integrated mark-up estimation system) that integrates a rule-based

  19. Optimization of solar systems using artificial neural-networks and genetic algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use artificial intelligence methods, like artificial neural-networks and genetic algorithms, to optimize a solar-energy system in order to maximize its economic benefits. The system is modeled using a TRNSYS computer program and the climatic conditions of Cyprus, included in a typical meteorological year (TMY) file. An artificial neural-network is trained using the results

  20. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  1. Physiological Characterization of the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart in a Mock Circulation System.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Jessica R; DeCook, Katrina J; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Larson, Douglas F; Khalpey, Zain I; Burkhoff, Daniel; Slepian, Marvin J

    2015-01-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) has emerged as an effective, life-saving biventricular replacement system for a wide variety of patients with end-stage heart failure. Although the clinical performance of the TAH is established, modern physiological characterization, in terms of elastance behavior and pressure-volume (PV) characterization has not been defined. Herein, we examine the TAH in terms of elastance using a nonejecting left ventricle, and then characterize the PV relation of the TAH by varying preload and afterload parameters using a Donovan Mock Circulatory System. We demonstrate that the TAH does not operate with time-varying elastance, differing from the human heart. Furthermore, we show that the TAH has a PV relation behavior that also differs from that of the human heart. The TAH does exhibit Starling-like behavior, with output increasing via preload-dependent mechanisms, without reliance on an alteration of inotropic state within the operating window of the TAH. Within our testing range, the TAH is insensitive to variations in afterload; however, this insensitivity has a limit, the limit being the maximum driving pressure of the pneumatic driver. Understanding the physiology of the TAH affords insight into the functional parameters that govern artificial heart behavior providing perspective on differences compared with the human heart. PMID:25551416

  2. The Design and Implementation of Behavior-Driven Artificial Neural Network Computing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongbin Zhang; Liangbin Zheng; Fucheng You

    2009-01-01

    A behavior-driven artificial neural network computing system is presented to solve problems occurred in artificial neural network course. With this system, users will concentrate their efforts on algorithms instead of computing environment, and can define arbitrary learning algorithms at any time, and submit the work to the server to execute. The server can load the work dynamically. When finishing executing

  3. Artificial Intelligence Measurement System, Overview and Lessons Learned. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; Butler, Frances A.

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Artificial Intelligence Measurement System (AIMS) Project which was undertaken as an exploration of methodology to consider how the effects of artificial intelligence systems could be compared to human performance. The research covered four areas of inquiry: (1) natural language processing and…

  4. Special issue on artificial immune systems 10.1007/s12065-008-0007-7

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    lead to auto-immune problems. The algorithm works by randomly creating bit strings. In an initialEditorial Special issue on artificial immune systems 10.1007/s12065-008-0007-7 Uwe Aickelin, School://www.aickelin.com Artificial Immune Systems (AISs) are a relatively new area of research at the inter- disciplinary interface

  5. [Biomechanical criteria of artificial gravitation].

    PubMed

    Sarkisov, I Iu; Shipov, A A

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of the pertinent literature data and their own findings the authors formulate the basic biophysical criteria that should be taken into consideration while developing an artificial gravity system. These criteria can be used to define the range of variations of the main parameters of artificial gravity systems that should be permissible in terms of normal life activity and performance of consmonauts. The numerical values of the parameters should be considered as theoretical guiding lines for the advanced development of artificial gravity systems. PMID:909269

  6. Fault detection system in gas lift well based on artificial immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manana Araujo; Jose Aguilar; Hugo Aponte

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Artificial Immune System for fault detection in gas lift oil well. Our novel approach inspired by the Immune System allows the application of a pattern recognition model to perform fault detection. A significant feature of our approach is its ability to dynamically learning the fluid patterns of the 'self' and predicting new patterns of

  7. Development of Noninvasive Thrombus Detection System with Near-Infrared Laser and Photomultiplier for Artificial Hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tsujimura; H. Koguchi; T. Yamane; T. Tsutsui; Y. Sankai

    As for artificial hearts generally used in short term, thrombus formation is still a serious issue. To realize effective medical\\u000a treatment for patients with the artificial heart without increase of anticoagulant agent, it is essential to detect and even\\u000a predict thrombus formations. The purpose of this study is to develop a noninvasive thrombus detection system for artificial\\u000a hearts.\\u000a \\u000a Considering the

  8. Impact detection using ultrasonic waves based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Keisuke; Mita, Akira

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a structural health monitoring system for judging structural condition of metallic plates by analyzing ultrasonic waves. Many critical accidents of structures like buildings and aircrafts are caused by small structural errors; cracks and loosened bolts etc. This is a reason why we need to detect little errors at an early stage. Moreover, to improve precision and to reduce cost for damage detection, it is necessary to build and update the database corresponding to environmental change. This study focuses our attention on the automatable structures, specifically, applying artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm to determine the structure safe or not. The AIS is a novelty computational detection algorithm inspired from biological defense system, which discriminates between self and non-self to reject nonself cells. Here, self is defined to be normal data patterns and non-self is abnormal data patterns. Furthermore, it is not only pattern recognition but also it has a storage function. In this study, a number of impact resistance experiments of duralumin plates, with normal structural condition and abnormal structural condition, are examined and ultrasonic waves are acquired by AE sensors on the surface of the aluminum plates. By accumulating several feature vectors of ultrasonic waves, a judging method, which can determine an abnormal wave as nonself, inspired from immune system is created. The results of the experiments show good performance of this method.

  9. Using Decision Support System to Find Suitable Sites for Groundwater Artificial Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemian, D.; Winter, C. L.; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, M. M.; Moradi, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Some parts of Iran are considered as one of the driest regions of the world, where water is a limiting factor for lasting life therefore using seasonal floodwaters is very important in these arid regions. On the other hand, special attention has been paid to artificial groundwater recharge in these regions. Floodwater spreading on the permeable terrain is one of the flood control and utilization methods. Determination of appropriate site for water spreading is one of the most important stages of this project. Parameters considered in the selection of groundwater artificial recharge locations are diverse and complex. These factors consist of earth sciences (geology, geomorphology and soils), hydrology (runoff, sediment yield, infiltration and groundwater conditions) and socio-economic aspects (irrigated agriculture, flood damage mitigation, environment, job creation and so on). Hence, decision making depends on criteria of diverse nature. The goal of this study is defining a Decision Support System for floodwater site selection in Shahriary area. Four main criteria were selected in this research which are floodwater characters, infiltration, water applications and flood damage. In order to determine the weight of factors, Analytical Hierarchy Process was used. The results showed that soil texture and floodwater volume of infiltration are the most important factors. After providing output maps which had been defined in five scenarios, Kappa Index was used to evaluate the model. Based on the obtained results, the maps showed an acceptable agreement with control zones.

  10. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  11. Evolution of immune systems from self/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal selection. Now we may be able to deconstruct clonal selection since it is not applicable in the sense that it is not applicable to invertebrate mechanisms. Clonal selection seems to be purely as all evidence indicates a vertebrate strategy and therefore irrelevant to invertebrates. Some views may insist that anthropocentric mammalian immunologists utilized a tool to propel: the universal innate immune system of ubiquitous and plentiful invertebrates as an essential system for vertebrates. This was advantageous for all immunology; moreover innate immunity acquired an extended raison d'être. Innate immunity should help if there would be a failure of the adaptive immune system. Still to be answered are questions concerning immunologic surveillance that includes clonal selection. We can then ask does immunologic surveillance play a role in the survival of invertebrates that most universally seem to not develop cancer of vertebrates especially mammals; invertebrates only develop benign tumor. A recent proposal concerns an alternative explanation that is all embracing. Danger hypothesis operates in striking contrast to the self/not self hypothesis. This view holds that the immune system is adapted to intervene not because self is threatened but because of the system's sense of danger. This perception occurs by means of signals other than recognition of microbial pattern recognition molecules characteristic of invertebrates. Response to danger may be another way of analyzing innate immunity that does not trigger the production of clones and therefore does not rely entirely on the self/not self model. The review will end with certain perspectives on artificial immune systems new on the scene and the product of computational immunologists. The tentative view is to question if the immune systems of invertebrates might be amenable to such an analysis? This would offer more credence to the innate system, often pushed aside thus favoring the adaptive responses.

  12. An Artificial Immune System as a Recommender for Web Sites Proceedings of the 1st Internal Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 161-169, Canterbury, UK, 2002.

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    An Artificial Immune System as a Recommender for Web Sites Proceedings of the 1st Internal Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 161-169, Canterbury, UK, 2002. Tom Morrison of Computer Science University of Nottingham NG8 1BB UK uxa@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract Artificial Immune Systems

  13. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Brunet; Olivier Gerbi; Philippe André; Elisabeth Davin; Raul Avezuela Rodriguez; Fernando Carbonero; Emilia Soumalainen; Christophe Lasseur

    2010-01-01

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling

  14. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for advanced life support.

  15. Modeling the behavior of the stock market with an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Butler; Dimitar Kazakov

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effectiveness of an Artificial Immune System (AIS) to model and predict the movements of the stock market. To aid in this research the AIS models are compared with a k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) algorithm, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a benchmark market portfolio to compare simulated trading results. The analysis shows that the AIS produced overall

  16. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory Applied to Cooperative Robots: the SocRob Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Lima; Luis Custódio

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence The research has been developed under the SocRob project, jointly carried out by the Intelligent Control and Artificial Intelligence Laboratories at ISR\\/IST. The acronym of the project stands both for \\

  17. The LIFE Dynamic Chamber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Mark; Kane, Jave; Latkowski, Jeffery; Cook, Andrew; Divol, Laurent; Loosmore, Gwendolen; Scott, Howard; Scullard, Christian; Tabak, Max; Wilks, Scott; Moses, Gregory; Heltemes, Thad; Sacks, Ryan; Pantano, Carlos; Kramer, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Dry-wall IFE designs such as LIFE utilize Xe fill gas to protect the target chamber first wall from x-ray heating and ionic debris. A key question is how cool, settled and clean the Xe must be to permit beam propagation and target transport, and how to reach this state at a 10+ Hz shot repetition rate. Xe is at low density in the target chamber, and purified Xe is reinjected at higher density and lower temperature into the larger outer chamber. Maintenance of this density difference due to blast waves generated by implosion of the target capsules is being assessed with HYDRA and 3D VTF, and possible validation experiments are being investigated. Detailed gas response near the wall is being studied using 3D Miranda. A laboratory-scale theta pinch experiment will study cooling and beam propagation in Xe. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Multi-Agent Artificial Immune Systems (MAAIS) for Intrusion Detection: Abstraction from Danger Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-ming Ou; Chung-ren Ou

    2009-01-01

    Danger theory-inspired Multi-agent artificial immune system (MAAIS) is applied to intrusion detection systems (IDS). Antigens\\u000a are profiles of system calls while corresponding behaviors are regarded as signals. The intelligence behind such system is\\u000a based on the danger theory while dentricit cells agents (DC agent) are emulated for innate immune subsystem and artificial\\u000a T-cell agents (TC agent) are for adaptive immune

  19. Water: Life's Elixir in the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article discusses the possible occurrence of water in our solar system. Topics include the necessity of liquid water for life, distribution of water throughout the solar system, and the possibility that there may be liquid water on Mars or on some of Jupiter's moons.

  20. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  1. Battery Life Estimation of Mobile Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debashis Panigrahi; Sujit Dey; Ramesh R. Rao; Kanishka Lahiri; Carla-fabiana Chiasserini; Anand Raghunathan

    2001-01-01

    Since battery life directly impacts the extent and duration of mobility, one of the key considerations in the design of a mo- bile embedded system should be to maximize the energy de- livered by the battery, and hence the battery lifetime. To facil- itate exploration of alternative implementations for a mobile embedded system, in this paper we address the issue

  2. Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Maurice M.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA CELLS program is based upon the integration of biological and physiochemical processes in order to produce a system that will produce food, a breathable atmosphere, and potable water from metabolic and other wastes. The CELSS concept is described and a schematic system diagram is provided. Central to the CELSS concept is the Plant Growth Chamber, where green plant photosynthesis produces food, and aids in the production of oxygen and water. Progress to date at the Breadboard Facility at the Kennedy Space Center is summarized. The Breadboard Facility will implement the basic techniques and processes required for a CELSS based on photosynthetic plant growth in a ground-based system of practical size and results will be extrapolated to predict the performance of a full-sized system. Current available technology and near-future forecasts for plant growth techniques (focusing on maximum productivity), food sources (to select optimal CELSS plants), and waste management and contaminant control are discussed.

  3. Network modeling of membrane-based artificial cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Eric C.; Philen, Michael K.; Leo, Donald J.

    2013-04-01

    Computational models are derived for predicting the behavior of artificial cellular networks for engineering applications. The systems simulated involve the use of a biomolecular unit cell, a multiphase material that incorporates a lipid bilayer between two hydrophilic compartments. These unit cells may be considered building blocks that enable the fabrication of complex electrochemical networks. These networks can incorporate a variety of stimuli-responsive biomolecules to enable a diverse range of multifunctional behavior. Through the collective properties of these biomolecules, the system demonstrates abilities that recreate natural cellular phenomena such as mechanotransduction, optoelectronic response, and response to chemical gradients. A crucial step to increase the utility of these biomolecular networks is to develop mathematical models of their stimuli-responsive behavior. While models have been constructed deriving from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model focusing on describing the system as a combination of traditional electrical components (capacitors and resistors), these electrical elements do not sufficiently describe the phenomena seen in experiment as they are not linked to the molecular scale processes. From this realization an advanced model is proposed that links the traditional unit cell parameters such as conductance and capacitance to the molecular structure of the system. Rather than approaching the membrane as an isolated parallel plate capacitor, the model seeks to link the electrical properties to the underlying chemical characteristics. This model is then applied towards experimental cases in order that a more complete picture of the underlying phenomena responsible for the desired sensing mechanisms may be constructed. In this way the stimuli-responsive characteristics may be understood and optimized.

  4. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S. PMID:21879743

  5. Artificial ventilation for basic life support leads to hyperventilation in first aid providers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R Thierbach; B. B Wolcke; F Krummenauer; M Kunde; C Jänig; W. F Dick

    2003-01-01

    The ‘Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care — International Consensus on Science’ recommend an artificial ventilation volume of 10 ml\\/kg bodyweight (equivalent to a tidal volume of 700–1000 ml) without the use of supplemental oxygen in adults with respiratory arrest. For first aid providers using the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose-ventilation technique, respectively, a ventilation volume of approximately 9.6

  6. Rapid evolution in crop-weed hybrids under artificial selection for divergent life histories

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A; Sweeney, Patricia M; Ketner, Julie M

    2009-01-01

    When species hybridize, offspring typically exhibit reduced fitness and maladapted phenotypes. This situation has biosafety implications regarding the unintended spread of novel transgenes, and risk assessments of crop-wild hybrids often assume that poorly adapted hybrid progeny will not evolve adaptive phenotypes. We explored the evolutionary potential of early generation hybrids using nontransgenic wild and cultivated radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, Raphanus sativus) as a model system. We imposed four generations of selection for two weedy traits – early flowering or large size – and measured responses in a common garden in Michigan, USA. Under selection for early flowering, hybrids evolved to flower as early as wild lineages, which changed little. These early-flowering hybrids also recovered wild-type pollen fertility, suggesting a genetic correlation that could accelerate the loss of crop traits when a short life cycle is advantageous. Under selection for large size at reproduction, hybrids evolved longer leaves faster than wild lineages, a potentially advantageous phenotype under longer growing seasons. Although early generation hybrid offspring have reduced fitness, our findings provide novel support for rapid adaptation in crop-wild hybrid populations. Biosafety risk assessment programs should consider the possibility of rapid evolution of weedy traits from early generations of seemingly unfit crop-wild hybrids. PMID:25567859

  7. Long life reliability thermal control systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Killen, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a program undertaken to conceptually design and evaluate a passive, high reliability, long life thermal control system for space station application are presented. The program consisted of four steps: (1) investigate and select potential thermal system elements; (2) conceive, evaluate and select a thermal control system using these elements; (3) conduct a verification test of a prototype segment of the selected system; and (4) evaluate the utilization of waste heat from the power supply. The result of this project is a conceptual thermal control system design which employs heat pipes as primary components, both for heat transport and temperature control. The system, its evaluation, and the test results are described.

  8. Exploiting Collaborations in the Immune System: The Future of Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Hart; Chris McEwan; Despina Davoudani

    Despite a steady increase in the application of algorithms inspired by the natural immune system to a variety of domains over\\u000a the previous decade, we argue that the field of Artificial Immune Systems has yet to achieve its full potential. We suggest\\u000a that two factors contribute to this; firstly, that the metaphor has been applied to insufficiently complex domains, and

  9. Artificial neural networks and the effects of loading conditions on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pleune, T.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code contains rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figure 1-90 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data indicate significant decreases in the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels in LWR environments when five conditions are satisfied simultaneously. When applied strain range, temperature, dissolved oxygen in the water, and sulfur content of the steel are above a minimum threshold level, and the loading strain rate is below a threshold value, environmentally assisted fatigue occurs. For this study, a data base of 1036 fatigue tests was used to train an artificial neural network (ANN). Once the optimal ANN was designed, ANN were trained and used to predict fatigue life for specified sets of loading and environmental conditions. By finding patterns and trends in the data, the ANN can find the fatigue lifetime for any set of conditions. Artificial neural networks show great potential for predicting environmentally assisted corrosion. Their main benefits are that the fit of the data is based purely on data and not on preconceptions and that the network can interpolate effects by learning trends and patterns when data are not available.

  10. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  11. Environmental assessment of two artificial reef systems off southern Portugal (Faro and Olhão): A question of location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vicente; M. Falcão; M. N. Santos; M. Caetano; D. Serpa; C. Vale; C. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates environmental assessment of artificial reef systems deployed at different areas in terms of nutrient cycling and seabed organic enrichment. Two identical artificial reef systems: Olhão Artificial Reef—OAR (37°00?55?N and 007°44?54?W) and Faro Artificial Reef—FAR (36°58?65?N and 008°00?91?W) were deployed in southern Portuguese coast, adjacent to a highly productive coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa) in 1990 and monitorized over

  12. Ham Tries Out His Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Ham tries out his combination couch and life support system in preparation for his flight in Mercury Redstone-2 (MR-2). The couch is plugged into the circuit that normally would supply the astronaut's full pressure suit. The MR-2 flight was one in a series of flights that led to the manned orbital flights of NASA's Project Mercury program.

  13. Long life reaction control system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Fanciullo; Craig Judd

    1993-01-01

    Future single stage to orbit systems will utilize oxygen\\/hydrogen propellants in their main propulsion means due to the propellant's high energy content and environmental acceptability. Operational effectiveness studies and life cycle cost studies have indicated that minimizing the number of different commodities on a given vehicle not only reduces cost, but reduces the ground span times in both the pre-

  14. Study on The Intelligence Control System of Artificial Cooling Source in Architecture 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Z.; Xu, X.

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the shortcoming of constant temperature and humidity in artificial cooling source control system, a dynamic indoor temperature control strategy was put forward under health and thermal comfortable principles. With a lump human model...

  15. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Barta; D. L. Henninger

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with

  16. Life systems for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mark; Hawes, Philip B.; Augustine, Margret

    1992-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 project is pioneering work on life systems that can serve as a prototype for long-term habitation on the Moon. This project will also facilitate the understanding of the smaller systems that will be needed for initial lunar base life-support functions. In its recommendation for a policy for the next 50 years in space, the National Commission on Space urged, 'To explore and settle the inner Solar System, we must develop biospheres of smaller size, and learn how to build and maintain them' (National Commission on Space, 1986). The Biosphere 2 project, along with its Biospheric Research and Development Center, is a materially closed and informationally and energetically open system capable of supporting a human crew of eight, undertaking work to meet this need. This paper gives an overview of the Space Biospheres Ventures' endeavor and its lunar applications.

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  18. Modeling water infiltration rate under conventional tillage systems on a clay soil using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulwahed Aboukarima; Khaled Ahmed; Abdulrahman Al-Janobi

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the application of artificial neural networks for modeling the parameters of Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration under conventional tillage systems on a clay soil. The conventional tillage systems were moldboard, chisel and rotary plows. Water infiltration rate was defined experimentally by double ring infiltrometer. Artificial neural network estimation indicated strong correlations (R2 = 0.999) between the parameters of Lewis-Kostiakov infiltration

  19. Self-regulating Method for Model Library Based Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zejun Wu; Yiwen Liang

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a In most of the existing artificial immune systems, instabilities mainly stem from the empirical pre-definition of a scenario-specific\\u000a model. In this paper we introduce a self-regulating algorithm into an integrated platform of artificial immune systems based\\u000a on Model Library. The algorithm can dynamically configure multi-AIS-models according to the “pressure” produced during the\\u000a course of training and testing, so that the

  20. A Review on the Application of Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems to Optimization Problems in Operations Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Óscar Ibáñez; Oscar Cordón; Sergio Damas; Luis Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The use of hybrid artificial intelligence systems in operations management has grown during the last years given their ability\\u000a to tackle combinatorial and NP hard problems. Furthermore, operations management problems usually involve imprecision, uncertainty,\\u000a vagueness, and high-dimensionality. This paper examines recent developments in the field of hybrid artificial intelligence\\u000a systems for those operations management problems where hybrid approaches are more

  1. An Application of Artificial Intelligence to Object-Oriented Performance Design for Real-Time Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Honiden; Kazuhiko Nishimura; Naoshi Uchihira; Kiyoshi Itoh

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an application of artificial intelligence technology to the implementation of a rapid prototyping method in object-oriented performance design (OOPD) for real-time systems. OOPD consists of two prototyping phases for real-time systems. Each of these phases consists of three steps: prototype construction, prototype execution, and prototype evaluation. We present artificial intelligence based methods and tools to be applied

  2. Funes, P. and Pollack, J. (1997) Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects. Fourth European Conference on Artificial Life. P. Husbands and I. Harvey, eds., MIT Press. pp 358367.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Funes, P. and Pollack, J. (1997) Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects. Fourth European a simula­ tion to a real object Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects Pablo Funes and Jordan Pollack­9110 {pablo,pollack}@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Creating artificial life forms through evolutionary robotics

  3. Implementation of hybrid short-term load forecasting system using artificial neural networks and fuzzy expert systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang-Ho Kim; Jong-Keun Park; Kab-Ju Hwang; Sung-Hak Kim

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid model for short-term load forecast that integrates artificial neural networks and fuzzy expert systems is presented. The forecasted load is obtained by passing through two steps. In the first procedure, the artificial neural networks are trained with the load patterns corresponding to the forecasting hour, and the provisional forecasted load is obtained by the trained

  4. Applications of artificial neural-networks for energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    2000-01-01

    Artificial neural networks offer an alternative way to tackle complex and ill-defined problems. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with non-linear problems, and once trained can perform predictions and generalisations at high speed. They have been used in diverse applications in

  5. Sensory motor systems of artificial and natural hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Chappell; Andy Cranny; Darryl P. J. Cotton; Neil M. White; Steve P. Beeby

    2007-01-01

    The surgeon Ambroise Paré designed an anthropomorphic hand for wounded soldiers in the 16th century. Since that time, there have been advances in technology through the use of computer-aided design, modern materials, electronic controllers and sensors to realise artificial hands which have good functionality and reliability. Data from touch, object slip, finger position and temperature sensors, mounted in the fingers

  6. Sensory motor systems of artificial and natural hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Chappell; Andy Cranny; Darryl P. J. Cotton; Neil M. White; Steve P. Beeby

    2006-01-01

    The surgeon Ambroise Paredesigned an anthropomorphic hand for wounded soldiers in the 16th century. Since that time, there have been advances in technology through the use of computer-aided design, modern materials, electronic controllers and sensors to rea- lise artificial hands which have good functionality and reliability. Data from touch, object slip, finger position and temperature sensors, mounted in the fingers

  7. The function of hemodialysis equipment in bioengineered systems for artificial clearance of blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Grinval'd

    1999-01-01

    Conclusions  1. A mathematical model of the content of electrolytes, low- and moderate-molecular-weight organic metabolic products, and\\u000a liquid in the healthy human body and in the human body in various pathologic states was constructed.\\u000a \\u000a 2. During artificial clearance, the human body, operator, and control and diagnosis equipment constitute a biotechnical system\\u000a of artificial clearance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. Extracorporeal artificial clearance is performed using

  8. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    SciTech Connect

    Shitara, Shingo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Masaharu [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo [Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan); Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Tomizuka, Kazuma [Department of Biomedical Science, Institute of Regenerative Medicine and Biofunction, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishimachi, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Discovery Research Laboratories, Kirin Pharma Co., Ltd., 3 Miyahara-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1295 (Japan)], E-mail: ktomizuka@kirin.co.jp

    2008-05-09

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

  9. Life Support Systems for Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Engineers designing life support systems for NASA s next Lunar Landers face unique challenges. As with any vehicle that enables human spaceflight, the needs of the crew drive most of the lander requirements. The lander is also a key element of the architecture NASA will implement in the Constellation program. Many requirements, constraints, or optimization goals will be driven by interfaces with other projects, like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Lunar Surface Systems, and the Extravehicular Activity project. Other challenges in the life support system will be driven by the unique location of the vehicle in the environments encountered throughout the mission. This paper examines several topics that may be major design drivers for the lunar lander life support system. There are several functional requirements for the lander that may be different from previous vehicles or programs and recent experience. Some of the requirements or design drivers will change depending on the overall Lander configuration. While the configuration for a lander design is not fixed, designers can examine how these issues would impact their design and be prepared for the quick design iterations required to optimize a spacecraft.

  10. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  11. A Hybrid Approach Towards Intrusion Detection Based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing

    E-print Network

    Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    A number of works in the field of intrusion detection have been based on Artificial Immune System and Soft Computing. Artificial Immune System based approaches attempt to leverage the adaptability, error tolerance, self- monitoring and distributed nature of Human Immune Systems. Whereas Soft Computing based approaches are instrumental in developing fuzzy rule based systems for detecting intrusions. They are computationally intensive and apply machine learning (both supervised and unsupervised) techniques to detect intrusions in a given system. A combination of these two approaches could provide significant advantages for intrusion detection. In this paper we attempt to leverage the adaptability of Artificial Immune System and the computation intensive nature of Soft Computing to develop a system that can effectively detect intrusions in a given network.

  12. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Chunxiao; Liu Hong

    2008-01-01

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria

  13. Performance prediction of a ground-coupled heat pump system using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hikmet Esen; Mustafa Inalli; Abdulkadir Sengür; Mehmet Esen

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict performance of a horizontal ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system. Performance forecasting is the precondition for the optimal control and energy saving operation of heat pump systems. ANNs have been used in varied applications and they have been shown to be particularly useful in system modelling and system identification.

  14. Selected Life-History Traits of Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Reared on Three Artificial Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery K. Tomberlin; D. Craig Sheppard; John A. Joyce

    2002-01-01

    Hermetia illucens (L.) was reared on three larval diets to determine their effects on preimaginal development and selected adult life-history traits. Prepupal and adult characteristics were examined for individuals reared on each diet and compared with Þeld-collected prepupae and corresponding emergent adults. Diet did not signiÞcantly inßuence development or survivorship to the prepupal stage. However, adult emergence for all diets

  15. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  16. Oxygen electrocatalysts for life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogrady, W. E.; Iwakura, C.; Yeager, E.

    1976-01-01

    The irreversibility of the oxygen electrode increases by 30 to 60 percent the energy required for water electrolysis over the thermodynamic value in life support systems involving conventional water electrolysis cells. To minimize this voltage loss, high area electrocatalysts, such as platinum metal, are often used for the O2 anode, but even so, the losses are still very substantial. In an attempt to find more effective electrocatalysts for this application, a number of defect metal oxides have been examined.

  17. A New Rule-Based System for the Construction and Structural Characterization of Artificial Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štambuk, Nikola; Konjevoda, Paško; Gotovac, Nikola

    In this paper, we present a new rule-based system for an artificial protein design incorporating ternary amino acid polarity (polar, nonpolar, and neutral). It may be used to design de novo ? and ? protein fold structures and mixed class proteins. The targeted molecules are artificial proteins with important industrial and biomedical applications, related to the development of diagnostic-therapeutic peptide pharmaceuticals, antibody mimetics, peptide vaccines, new nanobiomaterials and engineered protein scaffolds.

  18. Design of an Artificial Immune System as a Novel Anomaly Detector Combating Financial Fraud in the Retail Sector

    E-print Network

    Overill, Richard E.

    Design of an Artificial Immune System as a Novel Anomaly Detector for Combating Financial Fraud of the human immune system. This novel artificial immune system, called CIFD (Computer Immune system for Fraud implementing analogies of various salient features of the human immune system (HIS). The negative selection

  19. Self-Regulated Artificial Ant Colonies on Digital Image Habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Fernandes; Vitorino Ramos; Agostinho C. Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Artificial life models, swarm intelligent and evolutionary computation algorithms are usually built on fixed size populations. Some studies indicate however that varying the population size can increase the adaptability of these systems and their capability to react to changing environments. In this paper we present an extended model of an artificial ant colony system designed to evolve on digital image

  20. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  1. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  2. The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Proceedings of the 1st Internat Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 141-148, Canterbury, UK, 2002.

    E-print Network

    Francalanza, Adrian

    The Danger Theory and Its Application to Artificial Immune Systems Proceedings of the 1st Internat Conference on ARtificial Immune Systems (ICARIS-2002), pp 141-148, Canterbury, UK, 2002. Uwe Aickelin School in the Artificial Immune Systems world. A number of potential application areas are then used to provide a framing

  3. Modeling of phenol degradation system using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Balan; G. Annadurai; R. Y. Sheeja; V. R. Srinivasamoorthy; T. Murugesan

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas pictorum (NICM-2077) an effective strain used in the biodegradation of phenol was grown on various nutrient compounds which protect the microbes while confronting shock loads of concentrated toxic pollutants during waste water treatment. In the present study the effect of glucose, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl on phenol degradation has been investigated and a Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model

  4. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  5. Chain modeling for life cycle systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shapiro, V. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Spatial Automation Lab.

    1997-12-01

    Throughout Sandia`s history, products have been represented by drawings. Solid modeling systems have recently replaced drawings as the preferred means for representing product geometry. These systems are used for product visualization, engineering analysis and manufacturing planning. Unfortunately, solid modeling technology is inadequate for life cycle systems engineering, which requires maintenance of technical history, efficient management of geometric and non-geometric data, and explicit representation of engineering and manufacturing characteristics. Such information is not part of the mathematical foundation of solid modeling. The current state-of-the-art in life cycle engineering is comprised of painstakingly created special purpose tools, which often are incompatible. New research on {open_quotes}chain modeling{close_quotes} provides a method of chaining the functionality of a part to the geometric representation. Chain modeling extends classical solid modeling to include physical, manufacturing, and procedural information required for life cycle engineering. In addition, chain modeling promises to provide the missing theoretical basis for Sandia`s parent/child product realization paradigm. In chain modeling, artifacts and systems are characterized in terms of their combinatorial properties: cell complexes, chains, and their operators. This approach is firmly rooted in algebraic topology and is a natural extension of current technology. The potential benefits of this approach include explicit hierarchical and combinatorial representation of physics, geometry, functionality, test, and legacy data in a common computational framework that supports a rational decision process and partial design automation. Chain modeling will have a significant impact on design preservation, system identification, parameterization, system reliability, and design simplification.

  6. AISEC: an Artificial Immune System for E-mail Classification Andrew Secker

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    AISEC: an Artificial Immune System for E-mail Classification Andrew Secker Computing Laboratory-interesting material is increasing. Drawing analogies from the biological immune system, this paper presents an immune an immune-inspired approach we believe the final system will have the ability to dynamically determine

  7. Trading a NYSE-stock with a simple artificial neural network-based financial trading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. W. Tan

    1993-01-01

    Reports hypothetical trading results of a New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) listed stock over a period of two years using an artificial neural network (ANN) based financial trading system. The system was designed, constructed and tested for its ability to predict stock prices and more importantly increase trading profit. This system is still at a preliminary stage and many of

  8. Inspection system based on artificial vision for paint defects detection on cars bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo Armesto; Josep Tornero; Alvaro Herraez; Jose Asensio

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementa- tion of a novel inspection system for detecting defects on car bodies based on artificial vision, implemented in Ford Factory at Almussafes (Spain). The system is based on the principle of performing a lightning sweeping with static imagining system, which causes shadows surrounding defects when merging con- secutive images, coined as defect augmentation

  9. Unknown non-self detection & robustness of distributed artificial immune system with normal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Gong

    2008-01-01

    Biological immune system is typical distributed parallel system for processing biological information to defense the body against viruses and diseases. Inspired from nature, a distributed artificial immune system with the normal model is proposed for detecting unknown non-selfs such as worms and software faults. Traditional approaches are used to learn unknown features and types of the unknown non-selfs, but the

  10. Autonomous Fault Detection in Self-Healing Systems: Comparing Hidden Markov Models and Artificial Neural

    E-print Network

    Dobson, Simon

    Autonomous Fault Detection in Self-Healing Systems: Comparing Hidden Markov Models and Artificial of the art by allowing self-healing systems to detect faults with greater autonomy than existing]: Heuristic methods--Plan execution, formation, and generation Keywords self-healing systems; fault detection

  11. A hybrid system for fault detection and sensor fusion based on fuzzy clustering and artificial immune systems

    E-print Network

    Jaradat, Mohammad Abdel Kareem Rasheed

    2007-04-25

    the sensor signals is generated by the fusion engine. The information provided from the previous two phases is used for fault detection in the third phase based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS) negative selection mechanism. The simulations...

  12. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  13. Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, V. Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

  14. AISIMAM - An Artificial Immune System Based Intelligent Multi Agent Model and its Application to a Mine Detection Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srividhya Sathyanath; Ferat Sahin

    Artificial Immune System (AIS) is a novel evolutionary paradigm inspired by the biological aspects of the immune system. The human immune system has motivated scientists and engineers for finding powerful information processing algorithms that has solved complex engineering tasks. This paper discusses two concepts. (a) The behavioral management of artificial intelligence (AI) namely the intelligent multi agent systems, (b) The

  15. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  16. category: Artificial Life Coupling Morphology and Control in an Evolved Robot

    E-print Network

    Belew, Richard K.

    displays an inseparable coupling between organic bod­ ies and the nervous systems that control them. That is, animal nervous systems ex­ tend throughout the entire body and it is problematic to separate them. In contrast to this, the course of natural evolution shows a history of body, nervous system and environment

  17. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  18. Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

  19. Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess- ing neural networks to control chaos. The method makes no assumptions about the system; the training 78712 Received 7 April 1997 We develop a genetic algorithm that produces neural network feedback

  20. Pulsed laser validation of recovery mechanisms of critical SEEs in an artificial neural network system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Buchner; M. Olmos; P. Cheynet; R. Velazco; D. McMorrow; J. Melinger; R. Ecoffet; J. D. Muller

    1998-01-01

    A pulsed laser was used to inject errors into an electronic system consisting of a number of different integrated circuits functioning as a digital version of an artificial neural network. The results confirm that the system as a whole can operate autonomously in the radiation environment of space. Additional work was done to characterize the effects of the upsets on

  1. THE USE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK TO MODELLING OF A CAR POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerzy JANTOS; Krzysztof MALEWICZ

    It was assessed in the hereby study that the use of artificial neural networks for modelling of the car power transmission system of constant power ratio change proves good in imaging interrelations occurring in the unit. With such a network the work of the whole system with power transmission, vehicle, driver and environment was modelled. Original in this method is

  2. Detection of explosives in checked airline baggage using an artificial neural system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick M. Shea; Vincent Lin

    1989-01-01

    An artificial neural system (ANS) has been applied to the problem of discriminating between suitcases with and without explosives. The input to the ANS was data gathered during the field tests of a prototype explosive detection system. The performance of the ANS is contrasted with the standard statistical technique (discriminant analysis) used, and is shown to exceed the performance of

  3. Fugue: An Interactive Immersive Audiovisualisation and Artwork Using an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Bentley; Gordana Novakovic; Anthony Ruto

    2005-01-01

    Fugue is the result of a collaboration between artist, musician and computer scientists. The result is an on-going project which provides a new way of communicating complex scientific ideas to any audience. Im- mersive virtual reality and sound provide an interactive audiovisual interface to the dynamics of a complex system - for this work, an artificial immune system. Participants are

  4. Negative Selection and Niching by an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungwon Kim; Peter Bentley

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a negative selection algorithm with niching by an artificial immune system, for network intrusion detection. The paper starts by introducing the advantages of negative selection algorithm as a novel distributed anomaly detection approach for the development of a network intrusion detection system. After discussing the problems of existing approaches using negative selection for network intrusion detection, this

  5. Spontaneous Neural Firing in Biological & Artificial Neural Systems Christian R. Huyck and Richard Bowles

    E-print Network

    Huyck, Chris

    Spontaneous Neural Firing in Biological & Artificial Neural Systems Christian R. Huyck and Richard of spontaneous neural activation may actually improve the system. Spontaneous neural firing can attenuate neural waves. This allows the waves to carry more information and to stay active for longer. Spontaneous neural

  6. Transmission line fault classification based on wavelet singular entropy and artificial immune recognition system algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhihui Zhu; Yunlian Sun

    2009-01-01

    The method based on wavelet singular entropy(WSE) and artificial immune recognition system (AIRS) for transmission line fault classification is presented in this paper. Wavelet singular entropy is used to quantify uncertainty of fault high frequency transient voltages so as to reflect and identify various failure states of power system. On this basis, AIRS for fault classification is presented to overcome

  7. Artificial neural networks for solving the power flow problem in electric power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Leonardo Paucar; Marcos J Rider

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) is proposed for solving the well known power flow (PF) problem of electric power systems (EPS). PF evaluates the steady state of EPS and is a fundamental tool for planning, operation and control of modern power systems. The mathematical model of the PF comprises a set of non-linear algebraic equations

  8. An expert system for field inspection of concrete dams: Part 2, artificial intelligence issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno M. Franck; Theodor Krauthammer

    1989-01-01

    The preliminary development and final description of the engineering knowledge and reasoning pertaining to an expert system to assist during the field inspection of existing concrete gravity dams have been described in Refs. [1] and [2]. The purpose of this paper is to describe the artificial intelligence (AI) issues that were raised during the construction of the expert system. The

  9. Medium term system load forecasting with a dynamic artificial neural network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghiassi; David K. Zimbra; H. Saidane

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a dynamic artificial neural network model (DAN2) for medium term electrical load forecasting (MTLF). Accurate MTLF provides utilities information to better plan power generation expansion (or purchase), schedule maintenance activities, perform system improvements, negotiate forward contracts and develop cost efficient fuel purchasing strategies. We present a yearly model that uses past monthly system loads

  10. An artificial immune system approach with secondary response for misbehavior detection in mobile ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sarafijanovic; J.-Y. Le Boudec

    2005-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes act both as terminals and information relays, and they participate in a common routing protocol, such as dynamic source routing (DSR). The network is vulnerable to routing misbehavior, due to faulty or malicious nodes. Misbehavior detection systems aim at removing this vulnerability. In this paper, we investigate the use of an artificial immune system

  11. An Artificial Immune System Algorithm for the Resource Availability Cost Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. VAN PETEGHEM; M. VANHOUCKE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for the resource availability cost problem (RACP) is presented, in which the total cost of the (unlimited) renewable resources required to complete the project by a pre-specified project deadline should be minimized. The AIS algorithm makes use of mechanisms inspired by the vertebrate immune system and includes different algorithmic components, such

  12. Fatigue criterion to system design, life and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    A generalized methodology to structural life prediction, design, and reliability based upon a fatigue criterion is advanced. The life prediction methodology is based in part on work of Weibull and Lundberg and Palmgren. The approach incorporates the computed life of elemental stress volumes of a complex machine element to predict system life. The results of coupon fatigue testing can be incorporated into the analysis allowing for life prediction and component or structural renewal rates with reasonable statistical certainty.

  13. Fatigue criterion to system design, life and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    A generalized methodology to structural life prediction, design, and reliability based upon a fatigue criterion is advanced. The life prediction methodology is based in part on work of W. Weibull and G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren. The approach incorporates the computed life of elemental stress volumes of a complex machine element to predict system life. The results of coupon fatigue testing can be incorporated into the analysis allowing for life prediction and component or structural renewal rates with reasonable statistical certainty.

  14. Integrative Systems View of Life: Perspectives from General Systems Thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yasha Kresh

    The application of systems thinking and the principles of general systems science to problems in the life sciences is not\\u000a a new endeavor. In the 1960s systems theory and biology attracted the interest of many notable biologists, cyberneticists,\\u000a mathematicians, and engineers. The avalanche of new quantitative data (genome, proteome, physiome) incited by the boundless\\u000a advances in molecular and cellular biology

  15. Benefits and limitations of factitious prey and artificial diets on life parameters of predatory beetles, bugs, and lacewings: a mini-review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric W. Riddick

    2009-01-01

    The primary peer-reviewed literature pertaining to rearing of predatory beetles, true bugs, and lacewings was reviewed and\\u000a synthesized. This study focused on the literature published from 1998 to 2007. Advances in rearing were revealed in relation\\u000a to the influence of factitious prey and artificial diets on predator life parameters. Eggs of the Angoumois grain moth and\\u000a Mediterranean flour moth were

  16. Reliability in the whole life cycle of building systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaomin Wu; Derek Clements-Croome; Vic Fairey; Bob Albany; Jogi Sidhu; Duncan Desmond; Keith Neale

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to show that reliability analysis and its implementation will lead to an improved whole life performance of the building systems, and hence their life cycle costs (LCC). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper analyses reliability impacts on the whole life cycle of building systems, and reviews the up-to-date approaches adopted in UK construction, based

  17. Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems: engineering the algorithms.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Huyett, Lauren M; Lee, Joon Bok; Zisser, Howard C; Dassau, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    In this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative, recent advances in both the preclinical and clinical aspects of artificial pancreas (AP) development are described. In the preceding Bench narrative, Kudva and colleagues provide an in-depth understanding of the modified glucoregulatory physiology of type 1 diabetes that will help refine future AP algorithms. In the Clinic narrative presented here, we compare and evaluate AP technology to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. We enumerate the design objectives, variables, and challenges involved in AP development, concluding with a discussion of recent clinical advancements. Thanks to the effective integration of engineering and medicine, the dream of automated glucose regulation is nearing reality. Consistent and methodical presentation of results will accelerate this success, allowing head-to-head comparisons that will facilitate adoption of the AP as a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24757226

  18. Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas Systems: Engineering the Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Huyett, Lauren M.; Lee, Joon Bok; Zisser, Howard C.; Dassau, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    In this two-part Bench to Clinic narrative, recent advances in both the preclinical and clinical aspects of artificial pancreas (AP) development are described. In the preceding Bench narrative, Kudva and colleagues provide an in-depth understanding of the modified glucoregulatory physiology of type 1 diabetes that will help refine future AP algorithms. In the Clinic narrative presented here, we compare and evaluate AP technology to gain further momentum toward outpatient trials and eventual approval for widespread use. We enumerate the design objectives, variables, and challenges involved in AP development, concluding with a discussion of recent clinical advancements. Thanks to the effective integration of engineering and medicine, the dream of automated glucose regulation is nearing reality. Consistent and methodical presentation of results will accelerate this success, allowing head-to-head comparisons that will facilitate adoption of the AP as a standard therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:24757226

  19. System issues for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, J N; Pawlowski, C W; Maszle, D R; Auslander, D M

    1995-01-01

    There are several characteristics of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System that are distinct from commonly engineered systems. These are: 1) the uncertainty, due to limited data availability, and variability due to the heterogeneity of biological subsystems; 2) the closed, ecological nature of the system; and 3) the primary criterion of maximizing the probability of survival. Consequences of these features include: complex dynamics characterized by time scales ranging from milliseconds to months, posing difficult problems with respect to mathematical modeling and predictability; and the necessity for a unique controller design that can translate the high level requirement of survivability to low-level actuator tasks. Future research in the systems and control area should include an ecological perspective focusing on the unique dynamical characteristics of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System. PMID:11538586

  20. A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bees randomly discover a population of initial solutions and then iteratively improve them by employing the behavior: moving towards better solutions by means of a neighbor search mechanism while abandoning poor solutions. In this paper, an efficient multiuser detector based on a suboptimal code mapping multiuser detector and artificial bee colony algorithm (SCM-ABC-MUD) is proposed and implemented in direct-sequence ultra-wideband (DS-UWB) systems under the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The simulation results demonstrate that the BER and the near-far effect resistance performances of this proposed algorithm are quite close to those of the optimum multiuser detector (OMD) while its computational complexity is much lower than that of OMD. Furthermore, the BER performance of SCM-ABC-MUD is not sensitive to the number of active users and can obtain a large system capacity. PMID:23983638

  1. Life Stress and Illness: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Christie-Seely, Janet

    1983-01-01

    The link between stress and illness has been forged by researchers like Holmes and Rahe whose Social Readjustment Rating Scale can be used by family physicians to assess their patients' stress. The concept of stress has been clarified by the systems approach to illness. Stress and illness are embedded in a biopsychosocial matrix of several systems levels, each of which may be a source of stress as well as a support system. Stress is not the end result of a linear chain of causes and effects, but part of a feedback system in a community or family. The family is the major source of lifestyle and personality, the health belief system and modes of problem solving and coping, as well as of stress and support. The family physician can have a major role in educating the individual and family about stress and illness, and in altering the meaning of stress from catastrophe to challenge and source of growth. Anticipatory guidance for the normal crises of the life cycle and the crises of illness, loss and death can help prevent further family dysfunction and illness. Imagesp537-a PMID:21283349

  2. Novel artificial anal sphincter system based on transcutaneous energy transmission system tested in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongbing; Liu, Hua; Xu, Qianqian; Yan, Guozheng

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) for severe fecal incontinence. The AASS is composed of an artificial anal sphincter (AAS), an external transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS), and an external control device. The AAS is composed of a cuff, a micropump, a reservoir, and a remote control device. It is designed to be implanted into the body of the patient. The function of the AAS is to open and close the patient's natural anus. Patients suffering from loss of their natural sphincter lose rectal sensation and are thus unable to perceive imminent fecal incontinence. In order to restore rectal sensation, a pressure sensor in the AAS cuff is designed to detect pressure in the colon. The pressure reflects the present quantity of colon contents, allowing patients to control the AAS to open or close the anus according to the pressure. The TETS is designed to provide electrical energy to the implanted AAS without wire connections. The external control device is designed to receive the pressure information from the AAS and send the patient's command to the implanted device. This paper provides a thorough discussion of the design of the novel AASS and describes the performance of the AASS when tested in vivo on two Beagle dogs who were chosen to be the subjects for receiving the implant. The experimental results verified that the performance of the AASS met the functional requirements it was designed for; however, the trial also revealed some challenges to be further studied. PMID:24362899

  3. Toward Nanometer-Scale sensing Systems - Natural and Artificial Noses as Models for Ultra-Small, Ultra Dense Sensing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte M. Rolfe

    2007-01-01

    The development of highly sensitive, selective, reliable, and compact sensing systems to detect toxic chemical and biological agents is of great importance to national security. This chapter examines the best such naturally occurring sensing system, the sense of smell or “olfaction,” as well as artificial sensing systems built to emulate the nose. The goal is to combine lessons learned from

  4. Comparison of the Transcription and Replication Strategies of Marburg Virus and Ebola Virus by Using Artificial Replication Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELKE MUHLBERGER; MICHAEL WEIK; VIKTOR E. VOLCHKOV; HANS-DIETER KLENK; STEPHAN BECKER

    1999-01-01

    The members of the family Filoviridae, Marburg virus (MBGV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), are very similar in terms of morphology, genome organization, and protein composition. To compare the replication and tran- scription strategies of both viruses, an artificial replication system based on the vaccinia virus T7 expression system was established for EBOV. Specific transcription and replication of an artificial monocistronic

  5. Looking for Life, Searching the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Paul; Brack, André; Horneck, Gerda

    2009-12-01

    Preface; Part I. The Imperative of Exploration: 1. Exploration as a metaphor; Part II. How Can We Know Life?: 2. The molecular basis of life on Earth; 3. The limits to life; 4. The transfer of life between planets; 5. What are the signatures of life?; 6. After the discovery/life as a cosmic phenomenon; Part III. The Search for Life Beyond Earth: 7. The prospects for long-duration human space-flight; 8. Human exploration and the search for life; 9. Interplanetary ethics; Part IV. The Cosmic Biological Imperative: 10. The key technologies for human planetary exploration; 11. Exploration in space; 12. Exploration in time; 13. Prediction, imagination and the role of technology; Part IV. Our Cosmic Destiny: 14. Our cosmic destiny; Appendices; Index.

  6. Looking for Life, Searching the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Paul; Brack, André; Horneck, Gerda

    2005-06-01

    Preface; Part I. The Imperative of Exploration: 1. Exploration as a metaphor; Part II. How Can We Know Life?: 2. The molecular basis of life on Earth; 3. The limits to life; 4. The transfer of life between planets; 5. What are the signatures of life?; 6. After the discovery/life as a cosmic phenomenon; Part III. The Search for Life Beyond Earth: 7. The prospects for long-duration human space-flight; 8. Human exploration and the search for life; 9. Interplanetary ethics; Part IV. The Cosmic Biological Imperative: 10. The key technologies for human planetary exploration; 11. Exploration in space; 12. Exploration in time; 13. Prediction, imagination and the role of technology; Part IV. Our Cosmic Destiny: 14. Our cosmic destiny; Appendices; Index.

  7. Creation of closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably contribute to the solution of the most pressing terrestrial problem - energy efficient production of food.

  8. Photocurrent generation in a light-harvesting system with multifunctional artificial nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Zhaoyue; Zhai, Jin

    2015-07-16

    We develop an artificial light-harvesting system for photocurrent generation. Platinized TiO2 nanochannels are used as ultraviolet-light-harvesting antennae, which generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient by asymmetric work function driven photochemical reactions. As a result, a potential difference is formed across the nanochannels, producing a photocurrent flowing through the external circuit. PMID:26139227

  9. Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess +

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Evolving artificial neural networks to control chaotic systems Eric R. Weeks* and John M. Burgess 78712 ~Received 7 April 1997! We develop a genetic algorithm that produces neural network feedback a robust method of train­ ing neural networks to control chaos. The method makes no assumptions about

  10. Artificial Neural Network Modification of Simulation-Based Fitting: Application to a Protein-Lipid System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr V. Nazarov; Vladimir V. Apanasovich; Vladimir M. Lutkovski; Mikalai M. Yatskou; Rob B. M. Koehorst; Marcus A. Hemminga

    2004-01-01

    Simulation-based fitting has been applied to data analysis and parameter determination of complex experimental systems in many areas of chemistry and biophysics. However, this method is limited because of the time costs of the calculations. In this paper it is proposed to approximate and substitute a simulation model by an artificial neural network during the fitting procedure. Such a substitution

  11. A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiaoching Gong; Chen Zheng; Martin L. Doughty; Kasia Losos; Nicholas Didkovsky; Uta B. Schambra; Norma J. Nowak; Alexandra Joyner; Gabrielle Leblanc; Mary E. Hatten; Nathaniel Heintz

    2003-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic

  12. An Evaluation of Negative Selection in an Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of negative selection in an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. The work focuses on the use of negative selection as a network traffic anomaly detector. The results of the negative selection algorithm experiments show a severe scaling problem for handling real network traffic data. The paper concludes by suggesting that the most

  13. Zoning farmland protection under spatial constraints by integrating remote sensing, GIS and artificial immune systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Liu; Xia Li; Zhangzhi Tan; Yimin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Currently, with rapid expanding of urban area, the rate of conversion of agricultural land to nonagricultural uses in China is increasing. Zoning farmland protection is an important measure to protect limited land resource. This article presented an innovative approach based on the integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and artificial immune systems (AIS) for generating farmland protection areas. Some modifications

  14. Multi-agents Artificial Immune System (MAAIS) Inspired by Danger Theory for Anomaly Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haidong Fu; Xiguo Yuan; Na Wang

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the potential interesting ideas of the danger theory (DT), the research into artificial immune system (AIS) has been developing faster then ever. The basic role of DT embedded in AIS is to provide what T-cells should respond through the professional antigen-presenting cells when there are some cells undergoing injury, or stress or 'bad cell death'. However, in the

  15. On the Use of Hyperspheres in Artificial Immune Systems as Antibody Recognition Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Stibor; Jonathan Timmis; Claudia Eckert

    2006-01-01

    Using hyperspheres as antibody recognition regions is an es- tablished abstraction which was initially proposed by theoretical immu- nologists for use in the modeling of antibody-antigen interactions. This abstraction is also employed in the development of many artificial im- mune system algorithms. Here, we show several undesirable properties of hyperspheres, especially when operating in high dimensions and dis- cuss the

  16. Automatic Keyword Identification by Artificial Neural Networks Compared to Manual Identification by Users of Filtering Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Zvi; Kuflik, Tsvi; Shoval, Peretz; Shapira, Bracha

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information filtering (IF) and information retrieval focuses on the use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as an alternative method for both IF and term selection and compares its effectiveness to that of traditional methods. Results show that the ANN relevance prediction out-performs the prediction of an IF system. (Author/LRW)

  17. Immunity from Spam: An Analysis of an Artificial Immune System for Junk Email Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Oda; Tony White

    2005-01-01

    Despite attempts to legislate them out of existence, spam messages (junk email) continue to fill electronic mailboxes around the world. With spam senders adapting to each technical solution put on the market, adaptive solutions are being incorporated into new products. This paper undertakes an extended examination of the spam-detecting artificial immune system proposed in (1,2), focusing on comparison of scoring

  18. The development of an artificial neural network embedded automated inspection quality management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hsien Kung; Michael J. Devaney; Chung-Ming Huang; Chih-Ming Kung; Yi-Jen Wang

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the development of an innovative artificial neural network embedded automated inspection scheme for the manufacturing industry employing digital image processing techniques. Such a system is capable of performing real-time image processing tasks and identifies the size and location of the finished components on manufactured products as well as the flaws and scratches on surface of

  19. Defence Against 802.11 DoS Attacks Using Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zubair Shafiq; Muddassar Farooq

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an Artificial Immune System (AIS) based security framework, which prevents a number of serious Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. The proposed security framework can counter de-authentication and disassociation attacks. The results of our experi- ments clearly demonstrate that the proposed framework approximately achieved 100% detection rate with negligible false positive rate. One can conclude from

  20. A DNA based artificial immune system for self-nonself discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Deaton; M. Garzon; J. A. Rose; R. C. Murphy; D. R. Francheschetti

    1997-01-01

    Artificial immune systems attempt to distinguish self from nonself through string matching operations. A detector set of strings is selected by eliminating random strings that match the self strings. DNA based computers have been proposed to solve complex problems that defy solution on conventional computers. They are based on (hydrogen bonding based) matchings (called hybridizations) between Watson-Crick complementary pairs, Adenine-Thymine

  1. The creation of a reputation in an artificial society organised by a gift system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliette Rouchier; Martin O'connor; François Bousquet

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes simulations in an artificial society in which autonomous agents exchange gifts. In this society agents perform simple acts that are looked at by the others and are analysed so that a common image is created for each agent (a reputation). The model is based on numerous descriptions of non-merchant exchange systems, which are very interesting for ethnologists

  2. Development of Eddy Current Sensor systems in artificial heart for noncontact gap sensing.

    PubMed

    Ahn, C; Kim, K; Moon, K; Jeong, K; Kim, H; Lee, J; Hwang, C; Sun, K

    2005-01-01

    The axial flow pump has been developed in Korea Artificial Organ Center. It consists of an impeller, a motor and a magnetic bearing. The magnetic bearing fully levitates the impeller not to contact with other parts of pump. However, in order to control the gap between the impeller and other parts, continuous gap sensing is necessary. The conventional gap sensors are relatively large to implant in artificial heart. Thus, the compact eddy current sensor system proper for artificial heart was developed and the performances were evaluated. It showed good results and has small size. However, the dependency of the sensor upon temperature and target material was shown also. Moreover, the output of sensor had nonlinear responses. These must be calibrated in further study. PMID:17281087

  3. Evolution of immune systems from self\\/not self to danger to artificial immune systems (AIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin L. Cooper

    2010-01-01

    This review will examine the evolution of immune mechanisms by emphasizing information from animal groups exclusive of all vertebrates. There will be a focus on concepts that propelled the immune system into prominent discourse in the life sciences. The self\\/not self hypothesis was crucial and so was the concern for immunologic memory or anamnesia, development of cancer, autoimmunity, and clonal

  4. Artificial intelligence in pharmaceutical product formulation: knowledge-based and expert systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C Rowe; Ronald J Roberts

    1998-01-01

    The pharmaceutical formulation process is a highly specialized task requiring specific domain knowledge and often years of experience. Knowledge-based systems, expert systems, neural computing and machine-learning derived from research into artificial intelligence can assist the efficient formulation of products and therefore increase productivity, consistency and quality. The authors provide an introduction to the technology of knowledge-based and expert systems.

  5. A review of machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence process models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Vicente Abellan-Nebot; Fernando Romero Subirón

    2010-01-01

    Many machining monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence (AI) process models have been successfully developed in\\u000a the past for optimising, predicting or controlling machining processes. In general, these monitoring systems present important\\u000a differences among them, and there are no clear guidelines for their implementation. In order to present a generic view of\\u000a machining monitoring systems and facilitate their implementation, this

  6. Development of artificial-intelligent power quality diagnosis equipment for single-phase power system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Geun Kwack; Gyo-Bum Chung; Jaeho Choi; Ginkyu Choi

    2008-01-01

    A DSP process-based equipment to diagnose the power quality of a single-phase power system is developed. The artificial-intelligent equipment diagnoses the transient, the voltage sag, the voltage swell and the THD among the power quality index of a power system. The 256 data sampled in a period of the single-phase voltage of the power system are used for the real-time

  7. Nutrient removal from polluted stream water by artificial aquatic food web system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawoon Jung; Ahnna Cho; Young-Gun Zo; Seung-Ik Choi; Tae-Seok Ahn

    2009-01-01

    For the removal of nutrients from eutrophic stream water polluted by non-point sources, an artificial aquatic food web (AAFW)\\u000a system comprising processes of phytoplankton growth and Daphnia magna grazing was developed. The AAFW system was a continuous-flow system constructed with one storage basin of 3 m3 capacity, one phytoplankton tank of 3 m3 capacity, and one zooplankton growth chamber of 1.5 m3 capacity.

  8. Melissa: The European project of closed life support system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Lasseur; C. Paillé; B. Lamaze; P. Rebeyre; A. Rodriguez; L. Ordonez; F. Marty

    2006-01-01

    The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a

  9. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Lasseur

    2008-01-01

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum

  10. Who Really Benets from Pension Systems? When Life Expectancy Matters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Who Really Benets from Pension Systems? When Life Expectancy Matters Christophe Hachon Abstract A growing literature shows that life expectancy depends on the wage level. Using an overlapping generations been explored recently. Indeed, agents dier by their life expectancy. More particulary, these dierences

  11. A red-light running prevention system based on artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory data.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Yan; Guo, Xiucheng

    2014-01-01

    The high frequency of red-light running and complex driving behaviors at the yellow onset at intersections cannot be explained solely by the dilemma zone and vehicle kinematics. In this paper, the author presented a red-light running prevention system which was based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to approximate the complex driver behaviors during yellow and all-red clearance and serve as the basis of an innovative red-light running prevention system. The artificial neural network and vehicle trajectory are applied to identify the potential red-light runners. The ANN training time was also acceptable and its predicting accurate rate was over 80%. Lastly, a prototype red-light running prevention system with the trained ANN model was described. This new system can be directly retrofitted into the existing traffic signal systems. PMID:25435870

  12. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  13. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  14. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  15. Artificial Intelligence for Explosive Ordnance Disposal System (AI-EOD)

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, R.; Williams, B.; Holland, J.

    1992-03-01

    Based on a dynamically configurable neural net that learns in a single pass of the training data, this paper describes a system used by the military in the identification of explosive ordnance. Allowing the technician to input incomplete, contradictory, and wrong information, this system combines expert systems and neural nets to provide a state-of-the-art search, retrieval, and image and text management system.

  16. Artificial intelligence and networking in integrated building management systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Clark; P. Mehta

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the emphasis has moved towards integrating all a building's systems via centralised building management systems (BMS). To provide a more intelligent approach to the facility management, safety and energy control in building management systems (IBMS), this paper proposes a methodology for integrating the data within a BMS via a single multi-media networking technology and providing the BMS

  17. [Advances and perspectives in artificial chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Chuan; Han, Fang-Pu

    2011-04-01

    Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are genetic-engineered vector systems with defined native chromosomal elements. ACs have large carrying capacity and genetic stability without integration into host genome, thus avoiding random insertion and positional effects. ACs were first successfully developed in yeast (Yeast artificial chromosome, YAC), and then in bacterium (Bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC), human (Human artificial chromosome, HAC), and plant (Plant artificial chromosome, PAC). Here, we summarized recent progress on ACs, especially, on PAC. To date, YAC and BAC have been widely applied in genome sequencing and gene isolation, while HAC and PAC have been subjected to gene therapy, protein production, and plant transgenesis, respectively. Recently, American scientists reported a man-made genome of prokaryote Mycoplasma mycoides. However, like ACs, this man-made genome was also genetic-engineered product and can't survive as an independent life without a cellular environment. PMID:21482517

  18. Diagnosis - Using automatic test equipment and artificial intelligence expert systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, J. E., Jr.

    Three expert systems (ATEOPS, ATEFEXPERS, and ATEFATLAS), which were created to direct automatic test equipment (ATE), are reviewed. The purpose of the project was to develop an expert system to troubleshoot the converter-programmer power supply card for the F-15 aircraft and have that expert system direct the automatic test equipment. Each expert system uses a different knowledge base or inference engine, basing the testing on the circuit schematic, test requirements document, or ATLAS code. Implementing generalized modules allows the expert systems to be used for any different unit under test. Using converted ATLAS to LISP code allows the expert system to direct any ATE using ATLAS. The constraint propagated frame system allows for the expansion of control by creating the ATLAS code, checking the code for good software engineering techniques, directing the ATE, and changing the test sequence as needed (planning).

  19. Optimization with artificial neural network systems - A mapping principle and a comparison to gradient based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Harrison Monfook

    1988-01-01

    General formulae for mapping optimization problems into systems of ordinary differential equations associated with artificial neural networks are presented. A comparison is made to optimization using gradient-search methods. The performance measure is the settling time from an initial state to a target state. A simple analytical example illustrates a situation where dynamical systems representing artificial neural network methods would settle faster than those representing gradient-search. Settling time was investigated for a more complicated optimization problem using computer simulations. The problem was a simplified version of a problem in medical imaging: determining loci of cerebral activity from electromagnetic measurements at the scalp. The simulations showed that gradient based systems typically settled 50 to 100 times faster than systems based on current neural network optimization methods.

  20. Detection technique for artificially illuminated objects in the outer solar system and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-04-01

    Existing and planned optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially illuminated objects, comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city, at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of<10(-3). Here, we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux F from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope ? ? (d log F/d log D)=-4, whereas artificially illuminated objects should exhibit ?=-2. The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and other planned surveys will provide superb data and allow measurement of ? for thousands of KBOs. If objects with ?=-2 are found, follow-up observations could measure their spectra to determine whether they are illuminated by artificial lighting. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with future generations of telescopes on the ground and in space that would have the capacity to detect phase modulation due to very strong artificial illumination on the nightside of planets as they orbit their parent stars. PMID:22490065

  1. Detection Technique for Artificially-Illuminated Objects in the Outer Solar System and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Loeb, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Existing optical telescopes and surveys can detect artificially-illuminated objects comparable in total brightness to a major terrestrial city at the outskirts of the Solar System. Orbital parameters of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) are routinely measured to exquisite precisions of <10^{-3}. Here we propose to measure the variation of the observed flux, F, from such objects as a function of their changing orbital distances, D. Sunlight-illuminated objects will show a logarithmic slope alpha=(dlogF/dlogD)=-4 whereas artificially-illuminated objects should exhibit alpha=-2. If objects with alpha=-2 are found, follow-up observations with large telescopes can measure their spectra to determine if they are illuminated by artificial lighting. This method opens a new window in the search for extraterrestrial civilizations. The search can be extended beyond the Solar System with next generation telescopes on the ground and in space, which would be capable of detecting phase modulation due to very strong artificial il...

  2. Artificial and Bioartificial Liver Support

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The fact that liver failure constitutes a life-threatening condition and can, in most cases, only be overcome by orthotopic liver transplantation, lead to the development of various artificial and bioartificial liver support devices. While artificial systems are based on the principles of adsorption and filtration, the more complex concept of bioartificial devices includes the provision of liver cells. Instead of solely focussing on detoxification, these concepts also support the failing organ concerning synthetic and regulative functions. The systems were evaluated in a variety of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and investigating the impact on the patient's clinical condition. This review gives an overview over the most common artificial and bioartificial liver support devices and summarizes the results of the clinical studies. PMID:19279696

  3. Fuzzy Rule Induction and Artificial Immune Systems in Female Breast Cancer Familiarity Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Menolascina; Roberto Teixeira Alves; Stefania Tommasi; Patrizia Chiarappa; Myriam Regattieri Delgado; Vitoantonio Bevilacqua; Giuseppe Mastronardi; Alex Alves Freitas; Angelo Paradiso

    2007-01-01

    Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumours although their underlying causes of chromosomal instability\\u000a in tumours remain obscure. In this paper we show how Artificial Immune System (AIS) paradigm can be successfully employed\\u000a in the elucidation of biological dynamics of cancerous processes using a novel fuzzy rule induction system for data mining\\u000a (IFRAIS) [1] of aCGH data.

  4. Artificial Cognitive Systems: From VLSI Networks of Spiking Neurons to Neuromorphic Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Indiveri; Elisabetta Chicca; Rodney J. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Neuromorphic engineering {(NE)} is an emerging research field that has been attempting to identify neural types of computational\\u000aprinciples, by implementing biophysically realistic models of neural systems in Very Large Scale Integration {(VLSI)} technology.\\u000aRemarkable progress has been made recently, and complex artificial neural sensory-motor systems can be built using this technology.\\u000aToday, however, {NE} stands before a large

  5. Preemptive Performance Monitoring of a Large Network of Wi-Fi Hotspots: An Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pheeha Machaka; Antoine Bagula

    \\u000a This paper addresses the problem of network monitoring by proposing an Artificial Immune System (AIS) system to achieve situation\\u000a recognition and monitoring in a large network of Wi-Fi hotspots as part of a highly scalable preemptive monitoring tool for\\u000a wireless networks. Using a set of data extracted from a live network of Wi-Fi hotspots managed by an ISP, we integrated

  6. Optimization of Steel Catenary Risers for Offshore Oil Production Using Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian N. Vieira; Beatriz S. L. P. De Lima; Breno P. Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This work presents an application of Artificial Immune System (AIS) using Clonalg to the synthesis and optimization procedure of a Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) for floating oil production systems at deep and\\u000a ultra-deep waters. The evaluation of the behavior of riser configurations, needed for the calculation of the fitness function\\u000a in the optimization procedure by an evolutionary algorithm, requires a

  7. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  8. Modelling of a vertical ground coupled heat pump system by using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hikmet Esen; Mustafa Inalli

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate of performance of a vertical ground coupled heat pump (VGCHP) system used for cooling and heating purposes experimentally. The system involved three heat exchangers in the different depths at 30 (VB1), 60 (VB2) and 90 (VB3)m. The experimental results were obtained in cooling and heating seasons of 2006–2007.

  9. A GA-Artificial Neural Network Hybrid System for Financial Time Series Forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binoy B. Nair; S. Gnana Sai; A. N. Naveen; A. Lakshmi; G. S. Venkatesh; V. P. Mohandas

    \\u000a Accurate prediction of financial time series, such as those generated by stock markets, is a highly challenging task due to\\u000a the highly nonlinear nature of such series. A novel method of predicting the next day’s closing value of a stock market is\\u000a proposed and empirically validated in the present study. The system uses an adaptive artificial neural network based system

  10. An Artificial Immune System for the MultiMode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Van Peteghem; Mario Vanhoucke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an Artificial Immune System (AIS) for the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MRCPSP),\\u000a in which multiple execution modes are available for each of the activities of the project, is presented. The AIS algorithm\\u000a makes use of mechanisms which are inspired on the vertebrate immune system performed on an initial population set. This population\\u000a set is generated with

  11. Combination of artificial intelligence and procedural language programs in a computer application system supporting nuclear reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Town, G.G.; Stratton, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artificial intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages.

  12. Fault diagnosis of pneumatic systems with artificial neural network algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Demetgul; Ibrahim N. Tansel; S. Taskin

    2009-01-01

    Pneumatic systems repeat the identical programmed sequence during their operation. The data was collected when the pneumatic system worked perfectly and had some faults including empty magazine, zero vacuum, inappropriate material, no pressure, closed manual pressure valve, missing drilling stroke, poorly located material, not vacuuming the material and low air pressure. The signals of eight sensors were collected during the

  13. An Artificially Evolved Vision System for Segmenting Skin Lesion Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Roberts; Ela Claridge

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel technique where a medical image seg- mentation system is evolved using genetic programming. The evolved system was trained on just 8 images outlined by a clinical expert and generalised well, achieving high performance rates on over 90 unseen test images (average sensitivity 97% , average specificity 81%). This method learns by example and produces fully automatic

  14. Personalized web based English learning system using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiqiang Wang; Yuhang He; Zheng Liu; Huimin Wu

    2009-01-01

    Traditional educational systems are usually presented in a course based and static way, without taking into account the learner's interests and learning progress. Language learning by that means could be accompanied by boredom and lack of real experiences, which is a great barrier to improving language skills. This paper presents an English learning system that is based on Web browsing.

  15. Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

  16. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  17. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  18. Quality of Life in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Panopalis, Pantelis; Clarke, Ann E.

    2006-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a pervasive disease with wide-ranging effects on physical, psychological and social well-being. As such, a comprehensive assessment of SLE should include several different outcomes, such as quality of life (QoL) and economic costs, in addition to measures of disease activity and damage. In fact, disease effects on QoL are often considered of greater overall importance to patients. Two approaches have been used in the measurement of QoL: generic questionnaires and disease-specific questionnaires. Generic questionnaires are designed to be used across various conditions and populations, whereas disease-specific questionnaires are designed to measure outcomes in one specific disease or condition. The most commonly used measure of QoL is the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), which is a generic measure that is applicable in a variety of conditions, including SLE. Recently, SLE-specific measures have been developed that may prove to be more responsive than generic measures. The hope is that improved outcome measures will allow for better assessment of SLE and eventually facilitate drug development and improve patient care. PMID:17162373

  19. A regional planning system based on artificial intelligence concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etele Barfith; Iván Futó

    1984-01-01

    In the paper we present a logic-based system that makes possible the comparison of the requirements of particular sectors (e.g. agriculture, industry, construction, mining, energy) and social requirements (e.g. living conditions, employment, education, culture) at the level of the territorial system. It is based on a hierarchical model of national, county and district level activities. Every level has its own

  20. Dynamic route guidance algorithm based on artificial immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Licai Yang; Jie Lin; Dewei Wang; Lei Jia

    2007-01-01

    To improve the performance of the K-shortest paths search in intelligent traffic guidance systems, this paper proposes an optimal search algorithm based on the\\u000a intelligent optimization search theory and the metaphor mechanism of vertebrate immune systems. This algorithm, applied to\\u000a the urban traffic network model established by the node-expanding method, can expediently realize K-shortest paths search in the urban traffic

  1. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  2. Face Recognition System using Artificial Neural Networks Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Nazeer; Nazaruddin Omar; M. Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Advances in face recognition have come from considering various aspects of this specialized perception problem. Earlier methods treated face recognition as a standard pattern recognition problem; later methods focused more on the representation aspect, after realizing its uniqueness using domain knowledge; more recent methods have been concerned with both representation and recognition, so a robust system with good generalization capability

  3. An artificial immune system architecture for computer security applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Harmer; Paul D. Williams; Gregg H. Gunsch; Gary B. Lamont

    2002-01-01

    With increased global interconnectivity, reliance on e-commerce, network services, and Internet communication, computer security has become a necessity. Organizations must protect their systems from intrusion and computer-virus attacks. Such protection must detect anomalous patterns by exploiting known signatures while monitoring normal computer programs and network usage for abnormalities. Current antivirus and net- work intrusion detection (ID) solutions can become overwhelmed

  4. Concise review: Spermatogenesis in an artificial three-dimensional system.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Huleihel

    2012-11-01

    Culture of spermatogonial stem cells has been performed under a variety of conditions. Most featured two-dimensional systems, with different types of sera, conditioned media, feeder layers, and growth factors. Some have used three-dimensional (3D) matrices produced from gelatin, collagen, or other material. In spite of their increasingly sophisticated composition, however, complete spermatogenesis in vitro has not yet been achieved. In the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis occurs in an environment where cells are embedded in a 3D structure with specific niches regulating each stage of germ cell maturation mediated by hormones and paracrine/autocrine factors. We have recently reported achievement of complete in vitro spermatogenesis of mouse testicular germ cells in a 3D culture system featuring a soft agar matrix. This review discusses the advantages of the 3D culture system for studying the spermatogenic process in its entirety. Also discussed are the steps necessary to expand the applicability of the 3D culture system to human germ cell development and determine the functionality of culture-produced spermatozoa for generating offspring. PMID:22997006

  5. Urban Transit Coordination Using an Artificial Transportation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lefei Li; Han Zhang; Xiaofang Wang; Wei Lu; Zongping Mu

    2011-01-01

    An urban transit system usually consists of several modes, including busses, streetcars, a subway, and light rail. Unfortunately, coordination among different modes remains a challenging problem. Difficulties arise when modifying the transit network structure on a strategic level or when synchronizing timetables on a tactical level. Traditional transit network design and timetabling intend to solve a network-optimization problem based on

  6. Knowledge Based Systems and Artificial Intelligence Visual Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Pizurica, Aleksandra

    a limited set of examples and generalize to unknown scenarios, much like our visual system does. Example and Circuits in the Feedforward Path of the Ventral Stream in Primate Visual Cortex" #12;Feedforward model Recognition: Computations and Circuits in the Feedforward Path of the Ventral Stream in Primate Visual Cortex

  7. Development of a control system for artificially rehabilitated limbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M S H; Choudhury, I A; Dahari, M

    2015-04-01

    Development of an advanced control system for prostheses (artificial limbs) is necessary to provide functionality, effectiveness, and preferably the feeling of a sound living limb. The development of the control system has introduced varieties of control strategies depending on the application. This paper reviews some control systems used for prosthetics, orthotics, and exoskeletons. The advantages and limitations of different control systems for particular applications have been discussed and presented in a comparative manner to help in deciding the appropriate method for pertinent application. PMID:25491411

  8. Calculation of transmission system losses for the Taiwan Power Company by the artificial neural network with time decayed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.C.; Chen, B.K.; Mo, P.C. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-12-31

    For energy conservation and improvement of power system operation efficiency, how to reduce the transmission system losses becomes an important topic of grave concern. To understand the cause, and to evaluate the amount, of the losses are the prior steps to diminish them. To simplify the evaluation procedure without losing too much accuracy, this paper adopts the artificial neural network, which is a model free network, to analyze the transmission system losses. As the artificial neural network with time decayed weight has the capability of learning, memorizing, and forgetting, it is more suitable for a power system with gradually changing characteristics. By using this artificial neural network, the estimation of transmission system losses will be more precise. In this paper, comparison will be made between the results of artificial neural network analysis and polynomial loss equations analysis.

  9. Precise Selenodetic Coordinate System on Artificial Light Refers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Pichkhadze, Konstantin M.; Sysoev, Valentin

    Historically a coordinate system for the Moon was established on the base of telescopic observations from the Earth. As the angular resolution of Earth-to-Space telescopic observations is limited by Earth atmosphere, and is ordinary worse then 1 ang. second, the mean accuracy of selenodetic coordinates is some angular minutes, which corresponds to errors about 900 meters for positions of lunar objects near center of visible lunar disk, and at least twice more when objects are near lunar poles. As there are no Global Positioning System nor any astronomical observation instruments on the Moon, we proposed to use an autonomous light beacon on the Luna-Globe landing module to fix its position on the surface of the moon ant to use it as refer point for fixation of spherical coordinates system for the Moon. The light beacon is designed to be surely visible by orbiting probe TV-camera. As any space probe has its own stars-orientation system, there is not a problem to calculate a set of directions to the beacon and to the referent stars in probe-centered coordinate system during flight over the beacon. Large number of measured angular positions and time of each observation will be enough to calculate both orbital parameters of the probe and selenodetic coordinates of the beacon by methods of geodesy. All this will allow fixing angular coordinates of any feature of lunar surface in one global coordinate system, referred to the beacon. The satellite’s orbit plane contains ever the center mass of main body, so if the beacon will be placed closely to a lunar pole, we shall determine pole point position of the Moon with accuracy tens times better then it is known now. When angular accuracy of self-orientation by stars of the orbital module of Luna-Glob mission will be 6 angular seconds, then being in circular orbit with height of 200 km the on-board TV-camera will allow calculation of the beacon position as well as 6" corresponding to spatial resolution of the camera. It mean that coordinates of the beacon will be determined with accuracy not worse then 6 meters on the lunar surface. Much more accuracy can be achieved if orbital probe will use as precise angular measurer as optical interferometer. The limiting accuracy of proposed method is far above any reasonable level, because it may be sub-millimeter one. Theoretical analysis shows that for achievement of 1-meter accuracy of coordinate measuring over lunar globe it will be enough to disperse over it surface some 60 light beacons. Designed by Lavochkin Association light beacon is autonomous one, and it will work at least 10 years, so coordinate frame of any other lunar mission could use established selenodetic coordinates during this period. The same approach may be used for establishing Martial coordinates system.

  10. Incorporation of Adapted Real World Tournament Selection into Artificial Immune Recognition System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahram Golzari; Shyamala Doraisamy; Nur Udzir

    The resource competition phase of the Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) incorporates a selection mechanism with\\u000a a high selective pressure and loss of diversity. This selection mechanism generates premature memory cells and decreases the\\u000a classification accuracy. In this study, the Real World Tournament Selection (RWTS) method is incorporated in resource competition\\u000a phase of AIRS to tackle this limitation. Some experiments

  11. On the use of innate and adaptive parts of artificial immune systems for online fraud detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Huang; H. Tawfik; A. K. Nagar

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid model for online fraud detection of the Video-on-Demand System as an E-commence application, which combines algorithms from the main two distinct viewpoints of the self, non-self theory and danger theory. Our artificial immune based algorithm includes the improved version of negative selection called Conserved Self Pattern Recognition Algorithm (CSPRA) and a recently established algorithm inspired

  12. A New Constrained Multiobjective Optimization Algorithm Based on Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansong Xiao; Jean W. Zu

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new constrained multiobjective optimization algorithm based on artificial immune systems (AIS). To deal with constrained multiobjective optimization problems, the constrained AlS-based multiobjective optimization algorithm is developed by integrating a proposed constraint-handling technique with the unconstrained AIS-based multiobjective optimization algorithm named MOAIS (Xiao and Zu, 2006). We propose the constraint-handling technique by extending a single-objective constraint-handling technique

  13. Applications of Artificial Intelligence Systems in the Analysis of Epidemiological Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas D. Flouris; Jack Duffy

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of the germane literature suggests that the use of artificial intelligence (AI) statistical algorithms in epidemiology\\u000a has been limited. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using AI systems in large-scale sets of epidemiological data\\u000a to extract inherent, formerly unidentified, and potentially valuable patterns that human-driven deductive models may miss.

  14. The Search for Life in the Solar System*

    PubMed Central

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I give an overview of the long struggle to answer the age old question, does life exist anywhere else? The focus will be specifically on the search for life in the solar system, since this is the only region currently accessible to direct investigation. A hundred years ago many people believed that life, possibly even intelligent life, existed at the nearby planets Venus and Mars, and possibly elsewhere. The space age exploration of the planets has radically altered that view. We now know that Venus is a very hostile place, with no possibility for life, and that Mars is almost completely barren and very cold, with little prospect for life. The only remaining possibility appears to be in the interior of some of the moons of the outer planets where, due to an unlikely combination of factors, the conditions may be suitable for life. PMID:19768185

  15. The search for life in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I give an overview of the long struggle to answer the age old question, does life exist anywhere else? The focus will be specifically on the search for life in the solar system, since this is the only region currently accessible to direct investigation. A hundred years ago many people believed that life, possibly even intelligent life, existed at the nearby planets Venus and Mars, and possibly elsewhere. The space age exploration of the planets has radically altered that view. We now know that Venus is a very hostile place, with no possibility for life, and that Mars is almost completely barren and very cold, with little prospect for life. The only remaining possibility appears to be in the interior of some of the moons of the outer planets where, due to an unlikely combination of factors, the conditions may be suitable for life. PMID:19768185

  16. A novel artificial anal sphincter system in an in vitro and in vivo experiment.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guo-Zheng; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Ping-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yong-Bing; Ding, Zai-Xian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents some of the latest progress in the development of a novel artificial anal sphincter system (AASS) to treat severe fecal incontinence. We have redesigned and integrated an intelligent, remote-controlled artificial anal sphincter based on biological signal feedback mechanisms. The device consists of an external telemetry unit, an internal artificial anal sphincter (IAAS), and a transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS). The mechanical medical micropump of the IAAS can realize bidirectional flow with a maximum flow rate of 8.5 ml/min and can build backpressure up to 170 kPa. The design of the prosthesis reduces occlusion pressure and allows for low inflation volumes (9 mL-10.5 mL); operating pressures between 4.05 kPa and 7.16 kPa indicate that the risk of ischemic injury to the bowel is minimal. Furthermore, the rechargeable battery based on TETS puts the operation time at an estimated 2 days. The performance characteristics of the AASS and its efficiency in achieving continence and sensing the stool inside the anorectum were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a pig model. Experimental results confirm that the system can maintain continence and build the sense of defecation successfully. Moreover, this innovation can be integrated into not only severe fecal incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and therapy-resistant reflux disease, but also morbid adiposity therapeutic AASS applications. PMID:24744170

  17. Risk assessment and life prediction of complex engineering systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.D.; Varma, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heger, A.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1996-03-01

    Many complex engineering systems will exceed their design life expectancy within the next 10 to 15 years. It is also expected that these systems must be maintained and operated beyond their design life. This paper presents a integrated approach for managing the risks associated with aging effects and predicting the residually expectancy these systems, The approach unifies risk assessment, enhanced surveillance and testing, and robust computational models to assess the risk, predict age, and develop a life-extension management procedure. It also relies on the state of the art in life-extension and risk assessment methods from the nuclear power industry. Borrowing from the developments in decision analysis, this approach should systematically identify the options available for managing the existing aging systems beyond their intended design life.

  18. NASA Johnson Space Center Life Sciences Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan; Cardenas, Jeffery

    1994-01-01

    The Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) at JSC, which manages human life sciences flight experiments for the NASA Life Sciences Division, augmented its Life Sciences Data System (LSDS) in support of the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission, October 1993. The LSDS is a portable ground system supporting Shuttle, Spacelab, and Mir based life sciences experiments. The LSDS supports acquisition, processing, display, and storage of real-time experiment telemetry in a workstation environment. The system may acquire digital or analog data, storing the data in experiment packet format. Data packets from any acquisition source are archived and meta-parameters are derived through the application of mathematical and logical operators. Parameters may be displayed in text and/or graphical form, or output to analog devices. Experiment data packets may be retransmitted through the network interface and database applications may be developed to support virtually any data packet format. The user interface provides menu- and icon-driven program control and the LSDS system can be integrated with other workstations to perform a variety of functions. The generic capabilities, adaptability, and ease of use make the LSDS a cost-effective solution to many experiment data processing requirements. The same system is used for experiment systems functional and integration tests, flight crew training sessions and mission simulations. In addition, the system has provided the infrastructure for the development of the JSC Life Sciences Data Archive System scheduled for completion in December 1994.

  19. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  20. The Pace of Life under Artificial Selection: Personality, Energy Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs.

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs. Author(s): Vincent Careau, Denis Réale, Murray M. Humphries, Donald W. Thomas Expenditure, and Longevity Are Correlated in Domestic Dogs Vincent Careau,1,* Denis Re´ale,2 Murray M 12, 2010 Online enhancement: appendix. abstract: The domestic dog has undergone extensive artificial

  1. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  2. Examination of the reliability of a technical object after its regeneration in a maintenance system with an artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanis?aw Duer

    This article presents the issues of an examination and evaluation of the reliability of a technical object after its regeneration\\u000a in a maintenance system. The preventive activities (regeneration) of an object are conducted in a maintenance system which\\u000a includes an artificial neural network. The author made an attempt in the paper to prove that an artificial neural network\\u000a has an

  3. Pulsed laser validation of recovery mechanisms of critical SEE`s in an artificial neural network system

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S. [SFA Inc/NRL, Washington, DC (United States)] [SFA Inc/NRL, Washington, DC (United States); Olmos, M.; Cheynet, P.; Velazco, R. [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France)] [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France); McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Ecoffet, R. [CNES-CT/AQ/CB, Toulouse (France)] [CNES-CT/AQ/CB, Toulouse (France); Muller, J.D. [CEA-DAM/FRIF/DCRE/SEIM, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)] [CEA-DAM/FRIF/DCRE/SEIM, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1998-06-01

    A pulsed laser was used to inject errors into an electronic system consisting of a number of different integrated circuits functioning as a digital version of an artificial neutral network. The results confirm that the system as a whole can operate autonomously in the radiation environment of space. Additional work was done to characterize the effects of the upsets on the output of the artificial neural network.

  4. Non-linear dynamic analysis of hemodynamic parameters in an undulation type artificial heart system.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Nanka, Shunsuke; Imachi, Kou; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2002-01-01

    Undulation pump total artificial heart (UPTAH) is a unique total artificial heart implant (TAH) using an undulation pump that is a continuous blood flow pump. To evaluate the autonomic nerve function mediating the circulation system, we analyzed the hemodynamic parameters during animal experiments with UPTAH using the non-linear mathematical analyzing technique, including chaos and fractal theory. Adult female goats were used for the implantation of UPTAH. The natural heart was replaced with UPTAH under extra-corporal circulation. The conductance- and arterial pressure-based control method (1/R control) was applied on the 5th to 7th post-operative day as the influences of the cardiopulmonary bypass circulation were diagnosed to be terminated. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded on the data recorder, and non-linear mathematical analysis was performed. For the quantitative evaluation of the strange attractor, which was the characteristics of the deterministic chaos, the fractal dimension analysis was carried out. As a result, hemodynamic parameters fluctuated on the time axis and showed fractal characteristics, which were thought to be the characteristics of the deterministic chaos. The reconstructed attractor of the hemodynamics showed various behaviors according to changes in the situation of the goats. These results suggest that non-linear dynamical analysis might be useful in monitoring the circulatory regulatory system in artificial heart circulation. PMID:12653195

  5. The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, John

    2006-12-01

    Since Earth is the only planet that unequivocally supports living ecosystems, it is logical to first look for life elsewhere that resembles Earth-life. Earth-life requires liquid water, either light or a chemical energy source, other nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and a large number of elements in trace concentration. Additionally, chemical disequilibria are required to fuel the maintenance and growth of organisms. Thus the search for extraterrestrial life is focused on planets and moons that currently have or have had liquid water; that have a history of geological and geophysical properties that favor the synthesis of organic compounds and their polymerization; and that provide the energy sources and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, inasmuch as we can use Earth-life as a point of comparison, we are also limited by our almost complete lack of data about possible alternative biochemistries. We begin any extraterrestrial search by assuming carbon-based life. The key arguments in favor of carbon-based life are the ubiquity of organic compounds in the universe and the ability of carbon to form stable compounds with a high number of different inorganic elements, thus creating the wide variety of structural, catalytic and informational macromolecules that make up Earth-life. But how versatile and adequate is the carbon-based life model to environmental conditions that have either not been adequately explored on Earth, or that extend beyond the bounds found on Earth? Are there alternate carbon-based biochemistries that would allow organisms to exist under more extreme conditions than can Earth-life? What are the limitations to evolutionary innovations in carbon-based life? These questions will be discussed with emphasis on our search for life on planets and moons that have environmental conditions that are outside the bounds of Earth life including Titan, deep subsurface of Europa and Earth-like planets in other solar systems.

  6. Life prediction technologies for aeronautical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue and fracture problems continue to occur in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Components whose useful life is limited by these failure modes include turbine hot-section blades, vanes and disks. Safety considerations dictate that catastrophic failures be avoided, while economic considerations dictate that noncatastrophic failures occur as infrequently as possible. The design decision is therefore in making the tradeoff between engine performance and durability. The NASA Lewis Research Center has contributed to the aeropropulsion industry in the areas of life prediction technology for 30 years, developing creep and fatigue life prediction methodologies for hot-section materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of methods capable of handling both thermal and mechanical fatigue under severe environments. Recent accomplishments include the development of more accurate creep-fatigue life prediction methods such as the total strain version of Lewis' Strainrange Partitioning (SRP) and the HOST-developed Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) model. Other examples include the Double Damage Curve Approach (DDCA), which provides greatly improved accuracy for cumulative fatigue design rules.

  7. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  8. Issues in Integrated Health Management of Life Support Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kortenkamp; Gautam Biswas; Eric-Jan Manders

    The Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system of a space vehicle or habitat is respon- sible for maintaining a livable environment for human crew members. Depending on the duration of the mission, ECLS systems can vary from a set of simple subsystems to a set of complex interacting systems. The high importance of ECLS systems on manned space vehicles

  9. The "Living" Room A Case Study in Artificial Intelligence, Collaborative Systems, and Language Understanding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephanie E. August

    2008-01-01

    This case study analyzes the reasoning processes and types of information that we need to embed in collaborative software systems in order for these systems to demonstrate intelligent behavior and allow us to interact with them in a natural way. The central character of the case, Kate, is a college student who lives in an “intelligent” dorm room that converses with her as a friend would. Developed to introduce the ideas of collaboration and natural language understanding in an upper-division course in artificial intelligence, the case can be adapted for non-technical audiences for use in developing critical thinking skills.

  10. Title: Affective Artificial Intelligence for loving robots By Professor Hooman Samani, NTPU, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chaur-Chin

    advanced artificial intelligence system of Lovotics includes an Artificial Endocrine System (based artificial intelligence employs artificial endocrine system consisting of artificial emotional and biological, etc. The affective system of the robot analyzes system inputs to generate suitable states

  11. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Applequist, C. A. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Chasensky, T.M. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  12. Design and fabrication of a novel tactile sensory system applicable in artificial palpation.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Elnaz; Najarian, Siamak; Simforoosh, Nasser; Hajizade Farkoush, Siamak

    2011-01-01

    Force and position feedback are the two important parameters that are employed in different medical diagnoses and more specifically surgical operations. Furthermore, during different minimally invasive procedures, the ability of touch and force and position feedback are absent. In this regard, artificial palpation is a new technology that is employed to obtain tactile data in situations where physicians/surgeons cannot use their tactile sense. One of the most valuable achievements of artificial palpation are tactile sensory systems that have various applications in the detection of hard objects inside the soft tissue. Considering the present problems and limitations of kidney stone removal laparoscopy, the aim of this research is to design and fabricate a novel tactile sensory system capable of determining the exact location of stones during laparoscopy. This new tactile sensory system consists of four main parts: The sensory part, the mechanical part, the electrical part, and the display part. In this new system, due to the use of both displacement and force sensors, the usage limitations of previous tactile sensory systems are eliminated. The new tactile sensory system is well capable of finding the stone in the laboratory models through physical contact with the model's surface. PMID:20977388

  13. Systems integration and analysis of advanced life support technologies

    E-print Network

    Nworie, Grace A.

    2009-06-02

    Extended missions to space have long been a goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Accomplishment of NASA's goal requires the development of systems and tools for sustaining human life for periods of several months...

  14. An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Margaret Miller

    2014-01-01

    The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

  15. Applications of artificial neural networks for refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems—A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohanraj; S. Jayaraj; C. Muraleedharan

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper an attempt has been made to review the applications of artificial neural networks (ANN) for energy and exergy analysis of refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump (RACHP) systems. The studies reported are categorized into eight groups as follows: (i) vapour compression systems (ii) RACHP systems components, (iii) vapour absorption systems, (iv) prediction of refrigerant properties (v)

  16. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  17. The INCA system: a further step towards a telemedical artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando Pérez, M Elena; Vering, Thomas; Rigla Cros, Mercedes; Bott, Oliver; García-Sáez, Gema; Pretschner, Peter; Brugués, Eulalia; Schnell, Oliver; Patte, Caroline; Bergmann, Joachim; Dudde, Ralf; de Leiva, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    Biomedical engineering research efforts have accomplished another level of a "technological solution" for diabetes: an artificial pancreas to be used by patients and supervised by healthcare professionals at any time and place. Reliability of continuous glucose monitoring, availability of real-time programmable insulin pumps, and validation of safe and efficient control algorithms are critical components for achieving that goal. Nevertheless, the development and integration of these new technologies within a telemedicine system can be the basis of a future artificial pancreas. This paper introduces the concept, design, and evaluation of the "intelligent control assistant for diabetes, INCA" system. INCA is a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based personal smart assistant to provide patients with closed-loop control strategies (personal and remote loop), based on a real-time continuous glucose sensor (Guardian RT, Medtronic), an insulin pump (D-TRON, Disetronic Medical Systems), and a mobile general packet radio service (GPRS)-based telemedicine communication system. Patient therapeutic decision making is supervised by doctors through a multiaccess telemedicine central server that provides to diabetics and doctors a Web-based access to continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion data. The INCA system has been technically and clinically evaluated in two randomized and crossover clinical trials showing an improvement on glycaemic control of diabetic patients. PMID:18632327

  18. Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 313321 (2005) EGU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2005-01-01

    Simulation of flood flow in a river system using artificial neural networks 313 Hydrology and Earth neural networks Rajesh Raj Shrestha1 , Stephan Theobald2 and Franz Nestmann2 1 Department of Hydrological Artificial neural networks (ANNs) provide a quick and flexible means of developing flood flow simulation

  19. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Kao; W. S. Morris

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports

  20. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Y. Kao; William S. Morris

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports

  1. [The results of the artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Flecher, E; Joudinaud, T

    2007-01-01

    The artificial heart is no more a dream but a reality. Over the last 40 years, many circulatory assist devices have been developed. First were the pneumatic devices, external or implantable, providing uni- or biventricular support; next were the partially implantable electromecanical devices. We went from the first generation of devices with all components (pump, energy power, control system) outside of the body to the second generation of devices with the pump and the motor implanted inside the body. Recently, the third generation of artificial hearts appeared with all components implanted inside the body allowing better mobility and quality of life. Results depend on the indication and on the kind of artificial heart implanted: partial (native heart still in place) or total (native heart removed). Essentially developped as a bridge to transplant, the artificial heart is now allowed as destination therapy. PMID:17343040

  2. Biological life-support systems for Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I

    1992-01-01

    Mars mission like the Lunar base is the first venture to maintain human life beyond earth biosphere. So far, all manned space missions including the longest ones used stocked reserves and can not be considered egress from biosphere. Conventional path proposed by technology for Martian mission LSS is to use physical-chemical approaches proved by the experience of astronautics. But the problem of man living beyond the limits of the earth biosphere can be fundamentally solved by making a closed ecosystem for him. The choice optimum for a Mars mission LSS can be substantiated by comparing the merits and demerits of physical-chemical and biological principles without ruling out possible compromise between them. The work gives comparative analysis of ecological and physical-chemical principles for LSS. Taking into consideration universal significance of ecological problems with artificial LSS as a particular case of their solution, complexity and high cost of large-scale experiments with manned LSS, it would be expedient for these works to have the status of an International Program open to be joined. A program of making artificial biospheres based on preceding experience and analysis of current situation is proposed. PMID:11537063

  3. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  4. Investment in Series and Parallel Systems to Maximize Expected Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Jacobsen; S. Arunkumar

    1973-01-01

    A series (parallel) system consisting of n stochastically independent components is considered. The system works if, and only it, each component (at least one component) works. The failure time distribution of each component can be influenced by investment in that component. The optimization problem is to choose an investment allocation which maximizes expected system life. It is demonstrated that this

  5. Method for improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1984-11-29

    A method is disclosed improving product yields in an anionic metalloporphyrin-based artificial photosynthesis system for hydrogen generation. The method comprises forming an aqueous solution comprising an electron donor, methylviologen, and certain metalloporphyrins and metallochlorins, and irradiating said aqueous solution with light in the presence of a catalyst. In the photosynthesis process, solar energy is collected and stored in the form of a hydrogen. Ligands attached above and below the metalloporphyrin and metallochlorin plane are capable of sterically blocking photochemically inactive electrostatically bound ..pi..-..pi.. complexes which can develop.

  6. Charge transfer and quantum coherence in solar cells and artificial light harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienau, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    In artificial light harvesting systems the conversion of light into electrical or chemical energy happens on the femtosecond time scale, and is thought to involve the incoherent jump of an electron from the optical absorber to an electron acceptor. Here we investigate the primary dynamics of the photoinduced electronic charge transfer process in two prototypical structures: (i) a carotene-porphyrin-fullerene triad, a prototypical elementary component for an artificial light harvesting system and (ii) a polymer:fullerene blend as a model system for an organic solar cell. Our approach combines coherent femtosecond spectroscopy and first-principles quantum dynamics simulations. Our experimental and theoretical results provide strong evidence that the driving mechanism of the primary step within the current generation cycle is a quantum-correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We furthermore highlight the fundamental role played by the flexible interface between the light-absorbing chromophore and the charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting.

  7. Identification of artificial gamma-emitting nuclides using a scintillator-based gamma-ray spectral logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The standard spectral gamma ray logging system used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contains a large sodium iodide detector which provides high efficiency but low energy resolution. To enhance the capabilities of this system for identifying artificial gamma-emitting nuclides, I developed and implemented a simple procedure for extracting artificial components from low-resolution gamma-ray spectra. This procedures uses three bias spectra, developed by a consultant using numerical modeling, representing the spectral response of the downhole instrument to naturally occurring potassium, uranium and thorium family gamma rays in a large-diameter air-filled borehole. To extract the artificial spectral components, the three basis spectra are first scaled to the recorded field spectrum using the usual spectral windows for K, U and Th; these windows bracket the photopeaks at 1.46, 1.76 and 2.61 MeV. Since most of the contribution from artificial nuclides will fall below 1.26 MeV (the lower limit of the potassium window) this scaling process should be insensitive to the presence of artificial nuclides. The scaled basis spectra are then subtracted from the field data, leaving a residual spectrum consisting of noise plus the contribution of any artificial gamma-emitting nuclides. This process is repeated for each spectrum in the log, or the spectra can be accumulated over any desired depth range for better statistics. Rather than inspect each spectrum visually, a parameter can be computed which indicates the presence of artificial nuclides; this parameter can be plotted along with the usual K, U and Th concentration estimates as a function of depth. These techniques have been used successfully on field data and provide us with an inexpensive screening tool to detect artificial nuclides along boreholes. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  9. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  10. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems. PMID:11538966

  11. System strategies in the management of transit systems towards the end of their life cycle

    E-print Network

    Kairon, Ajmer Singh

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores and evaluates essential strategies needed for the transit authority/operator to deal with end of life cycle challenges of Rapid Transit Systems (RTS) systems. RTS systems are elaborate systems consisting ...

  12. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  13. Determining The Life Expectancy of Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Jaffe, P.

    1985-01-01

    Several tests used to determine adequacy of photovoltaic systems, their modules, and materials to survive in real environments. Tests include outdoor testing of systems, real-time and accelerated outdoor testing of modules and materials, and laboratory testing of modules and materials.

  14. Integration of artificial intelligence and numerical optimization techniques for the design of complex aerospace systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, S.S.; Powell, D.; Goel, S. (GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States) GE Consulting Services, Albany, NY (United States))

    1992-02-01

    A new software system called Engineous combines artificial intelligence and numerical methods for the design and optimization of complex aerospace systems. Engineous combines the advanced computational techniques of genetic algorithms, expert systems, and object-oriented programming with the conventional methods of numerical optimization and simulated annealing to create a design optimization environment that can be applied to computational models in various disciplines. Engineous has produced designs with higher predicted performance gains that current manual design processes - on average a 10-to-1 reduction of turnaround time - and has yielded new insights into product design. It has been applied to the aerodynamic preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine, concurrent aerodynamic and mechanical preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine blade and disk, a space superconductor generator, a satellite power converter, and a nuclear-powered satellite reactor and shield. 23 refs.

  15. A 2-transistor/1-resistor artificial synapse capable of communication and stochastic learning in neuromorphic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Ambrogio, Stefano; Balatti, Simone; Ielmini, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Resistive (or memristive) switching devices based on metal oxides find applications in memory, logic and neuromorphic computing systems. Their small area, low power operation, and high functionality meet the challenges of brain-inspired computing aiming at achieving a huge density of active connections (synapses) with low operation power. This work presents a new artificial synapse scheme, consisting of a memristive switch connected to 2 transistors responsible for gating the communication and learning operations. Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is achieved through appropriate shaping of the pre-synaptic and the post synaptic spikes. Experiments with integrated artificial synapses demonstrate STDP with stochastic behavior due to (i) the natural variability of set/reset processes in the nanoscale switch, and (ii) the different response of the switch to a given stimulus depending on the initial state. Experimental results are confirmed by model-based simulations of the memristive switching. Finally, system-level simulations of a 2-layer neural network and a simplified STDP model show random learning and recognition of patterns. PMID:25642161

  16. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate. PMID:25650810

  17. Funes, P. and Pollack, J. (1997) Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects. Fourth European Conference on Artificial Life. P. Husbands and I. Harvey, eds., MIT Press. pp 358-367.

    E-print Network

    Pollack, Jordan B.

    1997-01-01

    Funes, P. and Pollack, J. (1997) Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects. Fourth European a simula- tion to a real object Computer Evolution of Buildable Objects Pablo Funes and Jordan Pollack-9110 {pablo,pollack}@cs.brandeis.edu Abstract Creating artificial life forms through evolutionary robotics

  18. Ultrasonic Applications for Space Based Life Support Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amos Steve Johnson

    1990-01-01

    The extreme reduction of gravitational acceleration forces in space-born environments allows the behavior of fluids to be dominated by forces normally masked by gravity. This altered behavior presents challenges and opportunities in the design of systems expected to operate in space. The dependence of life support systems on such fluid interactions to accomplish various processes can not be overlooked. For

  19. Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C Heller; Gregory A Keoleian; Timothy A Volk

    2003-01-01

    The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting

  20. Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if the expected scenario is different from the originally planned one. This approach postulates that even a primitive living species possesses additional, non-Newtonian properties that are not included in the laws of Newtonian or statistical mechanics. These properties follow from a privileged ability of living systems to possess a self-image (a concept introduced in psychology) and to interact with it. The proposed mathematical system is based on the coupling of the classical dynamical system representing the motor dynamics with the corresponding Liouville equation describing the evolution of initial uncertainties in terms of the probability density and representing the mental dynamics. The coupling is implemented by the information-based supervising forces that can be associated with self-awareness. These forces fundamentally change the pattern of the probability evolution, and therefore, lead to a major departure of the behavior of living systems from the patterns of both Newtonian and statistical mechanics. This innovation is meant to capture the signature of life based only on observable behavior, not on any biochemistry. This will not prevent the use of this model for developing artificial living systems, as well as for studying some general properties of behavior of natural, living systems.

  1. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  2. Screening and genetic manipulation of green organisms for establishment of biological life support systems in space

    PubMed Central

    Saei, Amir Ata; Omidi, Amir Ali; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Curiosity has driven humankind to explore and conquer space. However, today, space research is not a means to relieve this curiosity anymore, but instead has turned into a need. To support the crew in distant expeditions, supplies should either be delivered from the Earth, or prepared for short durations through physiochemical methods aboard the space station. Thus, research continues to devise reliable regenerative systems. Biological life support systems may be the only answer to human autonomy in outposts beyond Earth. For construction of an artificial extraterrestrial ecosystem, it is necessary to search for highly adaptable super-organisms capable of growth in harsh space environments. Indeed, a number of organisms have been proposed for cultivation in space. Meanwhile, some manipulations can be done to increase their photosynthetic potential and stress tolerance. Genetic manipulation and screening of plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria is currently a fascinating topic in space bioengineering. In this commentary, we will provide a viewpoint on the realities, limitations and promises in designing biological life support system based on engineered and/or selected green organism. Special focus will be devoted to the engineering of key photosynthetic enzymes in pioneer green organisms and their potential use in establishment of transgenic photobioreactors in space. PMID:22992434

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  4. Saitou, K., Jakiela, M. J., "Automated Optimal Design of Mechanical Conformational Switches," Artificial Life 2(2):129156, 1995.

    E-print Network

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    Saitou Mark J. Jakiela Computer-Aided Design Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract Bacteriophage viruses spontaneously self-assemble in the presence of their component parts (cer- tain protein.1 Viruses and conformational switching Viruses are one of the simplest known life forms. An interesting

  5. July 10, 2008 12:33 WSPC/INSTRUCTION FILE GWALfinale ARTIFICIAL LIFE FROM THE PRINCIPLE OF HOMEOKINESIS

    E-print Network

    Der, Ralf

    in the fields of sensor, mechanotronic, and precessing technology gives rise to more and more complex robotic to the self-organization of robotic forms of life which has been developed and tested in various examples in recent years. The robot's "brain" consists of a controller and a self model both realized by a neural

  6. An artificial ecosystem model used in the study of social, economic and technological dynamics: An artificial electrical energy market

    SciTech Connect

    Arjona, D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper will present the artificial ecosystem as a tool, in the development of multi agent models for the simulation of economic and technological dynamics (as well as other possible applications). This tool is based on the mechanics of an artificial society and consists of autonomous artificial agents that interact with individuals that have different characteristics and behavior and other that have a similar conduct to their own. Initial conditions are assumed not to be controllable, however they can be influenced. The importance of the concept of the ecosystem is in understanding great units in the light of their own components which are relevant for the analysis and become interdependent among themselves and with other essential components that hold the total operation of the system. Ideas for the development of a simulation model based on autonomous intelligent agents are presented. These agents will have a brain that is based on artificial intelligence technologies. The Sand Kings Simulation Model, an artificial ecosystem model developed by the author, is described as well as the application of artificial intelligence to this artificial life model. An application to a real life problem is also offered as an artificial energy market that is currently being developed by the author is described.

  7. Regenerative life support systems - why do we need them?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As missions durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  8. Erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system may determine maximum life span.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Kumar, Dileep; Chakravarti, Shilpa; Singh, Prabhakar

    2011-04-01

    There is great variation in the maximum life span of different species. The rate of living theory provides an explanation for the inter species difference in life span but falls short in accounting for the long life span of humans and flying birds. Although the membrane pacemaker theory given by Hulbert provides a viable explanation but there are still some unanswered questions. We propose that long living species have abnormally high activity of erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system which provides an effective armament to combat oxidative stress. The elevated PMRS hypothesis combined with Hulbert's 'membrane pacemaker' theory provides a better explanation for the observed long life span of humans and flying birds. PMID:21247707

  9. The Artificial Immune System for Network Intrusion Detection: An Investigation of Clonal Selection with a Negativ e Selection Operator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. As one significant component for a complete AIS, static clonal selection with a negative selection operator is developed and the system is described in detail. Two important factors, the detector sample size and the antigen sample size, are investigated in order to generate an appropriate

  10. Towards an artificial immune system for network intrusion detection: an investigation of clonal selection with a negative selection operator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungwon Kim; Peter J. Bentley

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes research towards the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) for network intrusion detection. Specifically, we focus on one significant component of a complete AIS, static clonal selection with a negative selection operator, describing this system in detail. Three different data sets from the UCI repository for machine learning are used in the experiments. Two important factors,

  11. A hybrid approach to Traditional Malay Music genre classification: Combining feature selection and artificial immune recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahram Golzari; Shyamala Doraisamy; Nur Izura Udzir

    2008-01-01

    Music genre classification has a great important role in music information retrieval systems. In this study we propose hybrid approach for Traditional Malay Music (TMM) genre classification. The proposed approach consists of tree stages: feature extraction, feature selection and classification with Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS). The new version of AIRS is used in this study. In Proposed algorithm, the

  12. Incident Command Systems: Because Life Happens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for every possible contingency seems daunting, but with teamwork and some help from the government, it's almost do-able. There is a great system out there that will help business professionals and educators develop a strong, effective emergency preparedness plan. If they haven't done a good job of implementing a solid emergency response…

  13. A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 4(2), pp 181-198, 2005.

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    A Recommender System based on Idiotypic Artificial Immune Networks Journal of Mathematical of Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK, uxa@cs.nott.ac.uk # corresponding author Abstract-The immune system is a complex an Artificial Immune System (AIS) that exploits some of these characteristics and is applied to the task of film

  14. Accelerated Life Tests for Weibull Series Systems With Masked Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsai-Hung Fan; Wan-Lun Wang

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a -stage step-stress acceler- ated life test on system products, where each system contains -independent non-identical components connected in series, and it fails if any component has broken down. Due to cost considera- tions or environmental restrictions, masked causes of system fail- ures and type-I censored observations might occur in the collected data. The time to failure

  15. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  16. Life as Complex Systems --- Viewpoint from Intra-Inter Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunihiko Kaneko

    1998-01-01

    Basic problems in complex systems are surveyed in connection with Life. As a key issue for complex systems, complementarity between syntax\\/rule\\/parts and semantics\\/behavior\\/whole is stressed. To address the issue, a constructive approach for a biological system is proposed. As a construction in a computer, intra-inter dynamics is presented for cell biology, where the following five general features are drawn from

  17. Numerical Comparison of Artificial Recharge by Small-diameter Wells to Common Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, F.; Liu, G.; Dietrich, P.; Liedl, R.; Fank, J.; Fank, A.; Butler, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Scarcity of potable water has reached to a critical level all around the world. To address the temporal inequality of demand and availability of water resources, as well as additional purposes like enhancing water quality, artificial recharge is increasingly used. For shallow infiltration, such recharge methods as surface infiltration basins and trenches are commonly applied. However, these methods have significant disadvantages, e.g., enhanced clogging, evaporation, and an increased need of land use. Therefore, a new method for artificial recharge using shallow small-diameter wells is investigated. Such wells can be installed by Direct Push (DP) and water is allowed to infiltrate into aquifers by natural gravity, so that their installation and operation costs are very low. In this work, this method is compared numerically to a surface infiltration basin and a system applying horizontal filter pipes. For this, the work is divided into two parts. First, a rigorous comparison is done between the DP well and the infiltration basin. The simulated aquifer is composed of an unsaturated zone of 12 m and a saturated zone of 8 m. The results show the dependency of both methods on different components of the hydraulic conductivity, and highlight the advantages of the DP well over the basin. A small number of 5-cm shallow wells of 12 m length can be used to recharge water at the same infiltration rate as from a 60 m2 basin. When a layer of low hydraulic conductivity is present, the infiltration capacity of surface basins is significantly reduced while the adverse impacts on the wells are less pronounced due to the horizontal flow above the low conductivity layer (larger distance of water movement away from the screen). In the second part of this work, the DP wells will be compared to an operating horizontal, vadose zone artificial recharge system in Southern Styria, Austria. The water table is 3 m deep and horizontal filter pipes are used to recharge water into the shallow vadose zone. Different DP well scenarios will be explored and detailed comparison with the existing system will be performed to assess the applicability of small-diameter low-cost wells in the study region.

  18. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  19. A closed life-support system for space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

  20. Shelf life of the Gluma bonding system.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Finger, W J; Walkowiak, M; Walter, H F

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine by shear bond strength testing the efficacy of Gluma batches produced between 1985 and 1990 and stored at either 23 degrees C or varying temperatures between 19 degrees and 32 degrees C. The average bond strength figures for the thirty variable conditions tested were not significantly different from each other on the 0.05 significance level. Chemical analysis of the individual Gluma Primer batches investigated proved that the concentration of the main active ingredients of the mixture, glutaraldehyde and HEMA, were not or only moderately reduced when compared with the composition determined on the dates of manufacture. It was concluded that this bonding system is stable over a period of 6 years when possible extremes in storage temperature are avoided. PMID:1810330

  1. Emergency Life Support System aiming preprimed oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Isoyama, Takashi; Ariyoshi, Koki; Nii, Kyosuke; Saito, Itsuro; Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Ishii, Kohei; Hara, Shintaro; Imachi, Kou; Takai, Madoka; Abe, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Development have been achieved of a new blood pump for next generation Percutaneous Cardio-Pulmonary Support (PCPS) system and a novel surface coating method for silicone membrane hollow fiber by physical adsorption using a copolymer composed of a 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit and a hydrophobic unit. The new blood pump, named the Troidal Convolution Pump (TCP), is based on the principle of a cascade pump and perfused 5 L/min and 350 mmHg at 2450 rpm. The novel copolymer composed of 30% MPC unit and 3-(methacryloyloxy) propyltris (trimethylsiloxy) silane (MPTSSi) unit (PMMSi30) was the most suitable molecular design on a silicone surface. The PMMSi30 coated surface adsorbed 7.2 % as much protein a non-coated surface adsorbed. PMID:24111039

  2. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  3. Combination of artificial intelligence and procedural language programs in a computer application system supporting nuclear reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Town, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artifical intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages.

  4. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  5. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sin?ak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vir?ikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  6. Artificial intelligence in public health prevention of legionelosis in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Sin?ak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vir?ikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-08-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  7. Topological defects from doping and quenched disorder in artificial ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV

    2010-01-01

    We examine the ice-rule obeying and ice-rule breaking vertices in an artificial spin ice system created using magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors with nanostructured pinning arrays. We show that this system can be doped by changing the external field to move the number of vortices away from commensurability and create sites that contain two or zero vortices. For a square ice, the doping leads to the formation of a grain boundary of vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In commensurate systems where the ice rules are obeyed, we can introduce random disorder at the individual pinning sites to create regions where vortices may not be able to flip from one side of the trap to another. For weak disorder, all of the vertices still obey the ice rules, while at intermediate levels of disorder we find grain boundaries of vertices which do not obey the ice rules. For strong disorder it is possible to create isolated paired vertices that do not obey the ice rules. In summary, we have shown that an artificial square ice can be created using vortices in a type-II superconductor interacting with a periodic array of pinning sites where each site has a double well potential. By defining the direction of the effective spin according to the side of the double well occupied by the vortex, we find that this system obeys the ice rules for square ice. We add disorder to the system in the form of randomness of the height of the potential barrier at the center of the well, and obtain vertex configurations using a rotating drive protocol which is similar to the shaking ac magnetic field used in nanomagnetic systems. For weak disorder the entire system still obeys the square ice rules. For intermediate disorder, ice-rule breaking vertices appear and form grain boundaries, while for strong disorder there are both gain boundaries and isolated paired defects. In a system with uniform potential barrier heights, we introduce disorder by moving away from commensurability and creating Home pinning sites that contain two or zero vortices. In this case we find grain boundaries that emanate from the defect site and span the sample.

  8. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  9. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.

  10. Spectral pattern recognition of controlled substances in street samples using artificial neural network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poryvkina, Larisa; Aleksejev, Valeri; Babichenko, Sergey M.; Ivkina, Tatjana

    2011-04-01

    The NarTest fluorescent technique is aimed at the detection of analyte of interest in street samples by recognition of its specific spectral patterns in 3-dimentional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS) measured with NTX2000 analyzer without chromatographic or other separation of controlled substances from a mixture with cutting agents. The illicit drugs have their own characteristic SFS features which can be used for detection and identification of narcotics, however typical street sample consists of a mixture with cutting agents: adulterants and diluents. Many of them interfere the spectral shape of SFS. The expert system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) has been developed and applied for such pattern recognition in SFS of street samples of illicit drugs.

  11. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment. PMID:26180754

  12. A robust damage detection method developed for offshore jacket platforms using modified artificial immune system algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedi, A.; Lotfollahi Yaghin, M. A.; Hassanzadeh, Y.; Abbasidoust, F.; Ettefagh, M. M.; Aminfar, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment. In the present study, a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model. The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties. For this purpose, incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification. Based on mimicking immune recognition, noise simulation and attributes weighting, the method offers important advantages and has high success rates. Therefore, it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry, such as the considered case study.

  13. Using coherent pulse width and edge modulations in artificial neural systems.

    PubMed

    Reyneri, L M; Chiaberge, M; Del Corso, D

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes an existing silicon implementation of an artificial neural system based on coherent pulse width and edge modulation techniques. A chip set with different neural functions has been conceived, manufactured and tested. Neural circuits have been optimized for lowest computation energy and highest reconfigurability. The main device is a 32 x 32 synaptic array consuming 10 mW of power at 140 MCPS. Synapsis size is about 7.200 microns 2 using a standard 1.5 microns CMOS technology. The problem of interfacing robotic sensors and actuators is addressed: voltage, current and resistance-based sensors are considered for the measurement of physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, strain, etc. Low resolution imaging sensors for robotic vision are also considered. PMID:8049802

  14. Monitoring immune system function and reactivation of latent viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Satish K; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P

    2007-07-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day 6 head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of a daily artificial gravity (AG) countermeasure treatment on immunity, stress, and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each of the 15 male test subjects (8 treatment, 7 control) periodically throughout the study. The immune assessment consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles, and measurement of T cell function. With the exception of mild reactivation of Epstein-Barr (EBV) and Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses, no significant changes in immune function were observed, suggesting that the AG countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no adverse effect on immune function. PMID:18372687

  15. Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  16. Minimum Variance Distortionless Response Beamformer with Enhanced Nulling Level Control via Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Salem, S. Balasem; Paw, Johnny Koh Siaw; Sankar, K. Prajindra

    2014-01-01

    In smart antenna applications, the adaptive beamforming technique is used to cancel interfering signals (placing nulls) and produce or steer a strong beam toward the target signal according to the calculated weight vectors. Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming is capable of determining the weight vectors for beam steering; however, its nulling level on the interference sources remains unsatisfactory. Beamforming can be considered as an optimization problem, such that optimal weight vector should be obtained through computation. Hence, in this paper, a new dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS) is proposed to enhance MVDR beamforming for controlling the null steering of interference and increase the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) for wanted signals. PMID:25003136

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic,

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic, Economic, and Climate Change October 30, 2009. Accepted November 17, 2009. Biomass pyrolysis with biochar returned to soil with biochar applied to soils results in four coproducts: long-term carbon (C) sequestration from stable C

  18. Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

    1991-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

  19. Applications of living systems theory to life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James Grier

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual system and methodology of living systems theory appear to be of value to research on life in isolated environments. A space station, which must provide suitable conditions for human life in a stressful environment that meets none of the basic needs of life, is an extreme example of such isolation. A space station would include living systems at levels of individual human beings, groups of people engaged in a variety of activities, and the entire space crew as an organization. It could also carry living systems of other species, such as other animals and plants. Using the subsystem analysis of living systems theory, planners of a station, either in space or on a celestial body, would make sure that all the requirements for survival at all these levels had been considered. Attention would be given not only to the necessary matter and energy, but also the essential information flows that integrate and control living systems. Many variables for each subsystem could be monitored and kept in steady states. Use of living systems process analysis of the five flows of matter energy and information would assure that all members of the crew received what they needed.

  20. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Crusian, Brian; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 deg. head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of EBV and CMV was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in plasma cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 10(exp 6) PBMCs. These data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  1. Monitoring Immune System Function and Reactivation of Latent Viruses in the Artificial Gravity Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence; Stowe, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that dysregulation of the immune system occurs during or after spaceflight. Using 21 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest as a spaceflight analog, this study describes the effects of artificial gravity (AG) as a daily countermeasure on immunity, stress and reactivation of clinically important latent herpes viruses. The specific aims were to evaluate psychological and physiological stress, to determine the status of the immune system, and to quantify reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Blood, saliva, and urine samples were collected from each participating subject at different times throughout the study. An immune assessment was performed on all treatment and control subjects that consisted of a comprehensive peripheral immunophenotype analysis, intracellular cytokine profiles and a measurement of T cell function. The treatment group displayed no differences throughout the course of the study with regards to peripheral leukocyte distribution, cytokine production or T cell function. Shedding of Epstein barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was quantified by real time PCR in saliva and urine samples, respectively. There was no significant difference in CMV DNA in the treatment group as compared to the control group. EBV and VZV on the other hand showed a mild reactivation during the study. There were no significant differences in cortisol between the control and treatment groups. In addition, no significant differences between antiviral antibody titers (EBV-VCA, -EA, -EBNA, CMV) or tetramer-positive (EBV, CMV) were found between the two groups. EBV DNA copies in blood were typically undetectable but never exceeded 1,500 copies per 106 PBMCs. Overall, these data indicate that the artificial gravity countermeasure and the 21 day head-down tilt bed rest regimen had no observable adverse effect on immune function.

  2. In-situ materials processing systems and bioregenerative life support systems interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mignon, George V.; Frye, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The synergy and linkages between bioregenerative life support systems and the materials produced by in-situ materials processing systems was investigated. Such systems produce a broad spectrum of byproducts such as oxygen, hydrogen, processed soil material, ceramics, refractory, and other materials. Some of these materials may be utilized by bioregenerative systems either directly or with minor modifications. The main focus of this project was to investigate how these materials can be utilized to assist a bioregenerative life support system. Clearly the need to provide a sustainable bioregenerative life support system for long term human habitation of space is significant.

  3. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  4. The design of an optimized portable artificial kidney system using recirculation and regeneration of dialysate.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, R J; Rider, R J; Blount, G N

    1998-01-01

    This paper is intended as an overview of the research carried out at Coventry University in the design of a portable artificial kidney system. It was seen that the key to the problem was the reduction in dialysate volume, and so it was decided to develop a prototype that would utilize the regeneration and recirculation of a small volume of dialysate. A prototype system has been produced and used to simulate a dialysis session. Activated carbon was used as a sorbent for the regeneration of the dialysate, circulating in a closed loop. For the purpose of this work, the adsorption of urea was investigated as this is, volumetrically, the major solute to be removed. Peltier effect cooling was used to vary the dialysate temperature down to 2 degrees C, as activated carbon will adsorb greater amounts of urea at lower temperatures. A series of tests was then carried out to investigate the effect of dialysate temperature, flowrate and volume on the amount of urea that could be dialysed. From the experimental results, a model of the system was derived, which made it possible to determine the implications of different operating conditions on the overall mass and size of a portable dialysis system. The output of this model was then used to establish a design specification and produce an optimum design solution for the system. PMID:9803156

  5. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  6. Life cycle assessment of municipal waste water systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Tillman; Mikael Svingby; Henrik Lundström

    1998-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment was applied to municipal planning in a study of waste water systems in Bergsjön, a Göteborg suburb,\\u000a and Hamburgsund, a coastal village. Existing waste water treatment consists of mechanical, biological and chemical treatment.\\u000a The heat in the waste water from Bergsjön is recovered for the district heating system. One alternative studied encompassed\\u000a pretreatment, anaerobic digestion or drying

  7. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  8. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-05-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research. PMID:26001176

  9. In 4th European Conference on Artificial Life 97,Brighton UK CHORUSING AND CONTROLLED CLUSTERING FOR MINIMAL MOBILE AGENTS

    E-print Network

    West of England, University of the

    FOR MINIMAL MOBILE AGENTS Owen Holland, Chris Melhuish, and Steve Hoddell Intelligent Autonomous Systems clustering, where there is no preferred site. Results from simulations are presented. For seeded clustering known to be used by biological systems such as social insects. The system described in this paper

  10. First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lloyd-Hart; P. Wizinowich; B. McLeod; D. Wittman; D. Colucci; R. Dekany; D. McCarthy; J. R. P. Anel; D. Sandler

    1992-01-01

    The first results are reported of an adaptive optics system operating on-line at the telescope with the wavefront aberration sensed by a trained artificial neural network. Star images were formed at 2.2 microns by two coherently phased apertures of the Multiple Mirror Telescope and analyzed by the neural net. The net derives wavefront parameters in a few milliseconds, and the

  11. Optical performance monitoring in 40-Gbps optical duobinary system using artificial neural networks trained with reconstructed eye diagram parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-sen Lai; Ai-ying Yang; Lin Zuo; Yu-nan Sun

    2011-01-01

    A technique using artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from reconstructed eye diagrams for optical performance monitoring in 40-Gbps optical duobinary (ODB) system is demonstrated. Firstly, the optical signal is asynchronously sampled by short pulse in the nonlinear medium such as semiconductor optical amplifier and highly nonlinear fiber, the sampled and collected data is then processed by improved software

  12. Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms: Views of Three Artificial Intelligence Concepts Used in Modeling Scientific Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Karr, Charles L.; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    Students' conceptions of three major artificial intelligence concepts used in the modeling of systems in science, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms were investigated before and after a higher education science course. Students initially explored their prior ideas related to the three concepts through active tasks. Then,…

  13. Artificial-vision stereo system as a source of visual information for preventing the collision of vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Machtovoi, I.A. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-10-01

    This paper explains the principle of automatically determining the position of extended and point objects in 2-D space of recognizing them by means of an artificial-vision stereo system from the measured coordinates of conjugate points in stereo pairs, and also analyzes methods of identifying these points.

  14. Environmental assessment of two artificial reef systems off southern Portugal (Faro and Olhão): A question of location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, M.; Falcão, M.; Santos, M. N.; Caetano, M.; Serpa, D.; Vale, C.; Monteiro, C.

    2008-04-01

    This study investigates environmental assessment of artificial reef systems deployed at different areas in terms of nutrient cycling and seabed organic enrichment. Two identical artificial reef systems: Olhão Artificial Reef—OAR (37°00'55?N and 007°44'54?W) and Faro Artificial Reef—FAR (36°58'65?N and 008°00'91?W) were deployed in southern Portuguese coast, adjacent to a highly productive coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa) in 1990 and monitorized over two years (1992-1993). Water samples were collected within OAR and FAR systems, inside the lagoon (L) and in a non-reef area (NRA) to evaluate nutrient dynamics. Settled particles and sediment cores were also sampled within OAR and FAR to determine aluminium, calcium, silicon and chlorophyll a and organic and inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. Results obtained showed that: (i) water column nutrients evidenced seasonal and spatial variability. The maximum nutrients concentration was recorded inside the lagoon and in OAR, mainly during warmer periods. Ammonium, nitrate and silicate in OAR were statistically higher ( p<0.01, n=18) than in FAR and NRA; (ii) particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in FAR settled particles were significantly higher ( p<0.005) than those collected at OAR; and (iii) organic carbon and nitrogen, calcium, aluminium and chlorophyll a in OAR upper sediment were higher than at FAR. The overall results suggest that OAR is a productive system, emphasizing its contribution to the trophic chain pull out, while FAR presented oceanic oligotrophic water.

  15. Imaging dipole flow sources using an artificial lateral-line system made of biomimetic hair flow sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dagamseh, Ahmad; Wiegerink, Remco; Lammerink, Theo; Krijnen, Gijs

    2013-01-01

    In Nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc., using the lateral-line organ. Artificial hair flow sensors arranged in a linear array shape (inspired by the lateral-line system (LSS) in fish) have been applied to measure airflow patterns at the sensor positions. Here, we take advantage of both biomimetic artificial hair-based flow sensors arranged as LSS and beamforming techniques to demonstrate dipole-source localization in air. Modelling and measurement results show the artificial lateral-line ability to image the position of dipole sources accurately with estimation error of less than 0.14 times the array length. This opens up possibilities for flow-based, near-field environment mapping that can be beneficial to, for example, biologists and robot guidance applications. PMID:23594816

  16. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  17. High-rate artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

  18. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation. PMID:6838394

  19. Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.

  20. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). 12.4 Section 12...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed...allowances using the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal...

  1. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). 12.4 Section 12...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed...allowances using the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal...

  2. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). 12.4 Section 12...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed...allowances using the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal...

  3. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). 12.4 Section 12...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed...allowances using the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal...

  4. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). 12.4 Section 12...Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed...allowances using the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal...

  5. ARTIFICIAL MIND SYSTEM: AS AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO THE LANGUAGE ACQUISITION STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko AKIHO-TOYODA; Tetsuya HOYA

    The approaches utilising Artificial Intelligence (AI)1 have provided useful tools towards elucidating the various faculties of human language. This presentation will focus on the contribution of an engineering approach to linguistics and the possibility of an AI approach for language acquisition. This study briefly introduces a novel connectionist model. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a branch of AI study. Research

  6. Application of genetic algorithm to the development of artificial intelligence module system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-tang Wu; Wen-ta Hsiao; Chih-tsang Lin; Tao-ming Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is an extremely important aspect of modern technological progress. It represents humanity's long-time dream of elevating computers beyond the realm of simple machines for the calculation and processing of data. With the incorporation of artificial intelligence, computers are able to engage in behavior similar to human thought, helping humans perform necessary tasks of cognition, theorizing, and even judgment.

  7. Physical and biochemical insights on DNA structures in artificial and living systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Li, Jiang; Song, Haiyun; Chao, Jie; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Highly specific DNA base-pairing is the basis for both fulfilling its genetic role and constructing novel nanostructures and hybrid conjugates with inorganic nanomaterials (NMs). There exist many remarkable differences in the physical properties of single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA, which play important roles in regulation of biological processes in nature. Rapid advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology pose new questions on how DNA and DNA structures interact with inorganic nanomaterials or cells and animals, which should be important for their biological and biomedical applications. In this Account, we intend to provide an overview on many facets of DNA and DNA structures in artificial and living systems, with the focus on their properties and functions at the interfaces of inorganic nanomaterials and biological systems. ssDNA, dsDNA, and DNA nanostructures interact with NMs in different ways. In particular, gold nanoparticles and graphene oxide exhibit strikingly different affinity toward ssDNA and dsDNA. Such binding differences can be coupled with optical properties of NMs. For example, DNA hybridization can effectively modulate the plasmonic and catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles. By exploitation of these interactions, there have been many ways for sensitive transduction of biomolecular recognition for various sensing applications. Alternatively, modulation of the properties of DNA and DNA structures with NMs has led to new tools for genetic analysis including genotyping and haplotyping. Self-assembled DNA nanostructures have emerged as a new type of NMs with pure biomolecules. These nanostructures can be designed in one, two, or three dimensions with various sizes, shapes, and geometries. They also have characteristics of uniform size, precise addressability, excellent water solubility, and biocompatibility. These nanostructures provide a new toolbox for biophysical studies with unparalleled advantages, for example, NMR-based protein structure determination and single-molecule studies. Also importantly, DNA nanostructures have proven highly useful in various applications including biological detection, bioreactors, and nanomedicine. In particular, DNA nanostructures exhibit high cellular permeability, a property that is not available for ssDNA and dsDNA, which is required for their drug delivery applications. DNA and DNA structures can also form hybrids with inorganic NMs. Notably, DNA anchored at the interface of inorganic NMs behaves differently from that at the macroscopic interface. Several types of DNA-NM conjugates have exerted beneficial effects for bioassays and in vitro translation of proteins. Even more interestingly, hybrid nanoconjugates demonstrate distinct properties under the context of biological systems such as cultured cells or animal models. These unprecedented properties not only arouse great interest in studying such interfaces but also open new opportunities for numerous applications in artificial and living systems. PMID:24588263

  8. New strategy for misalignment calculation in optical systems using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, Esther; Arasa, Josep

    2013-07-01

    A method to calculate element misalignments in optical systems is presented. The method uses the wavefront information in the exit pupil in the form of Zernike coefficients and a function that relates them to the misalignment values. Three different functions with its calculation procedures have been studied: in the first one, a nonlinear equations system is used by the authors to show the complexity around misalignments computing; in the next two, a single artificial neural network (ANN) and a procedure with two ANNs overcome the limitations of the equations systems. It is shown that for misalignments being small perturbations of position around the nominal value, the Zernike coefficients' behavior in front of misalignments can be approximated with a polynomial expression. But for combinations of both decenter and tilt the problem becomes too complex to be solved analytically, therefore, we have used ANNs to solve it. The method is validated by simulation for each of the functions, using a triplet where the second lens is misaligned, and the results are compared.

  9. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells by using a mammalian artificial chromosome expression system.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Blazsó, P; Cserpán, I; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, V; Udvardy, A; Hadlaczky, Gy; Katona, R L

    2014-09-01

    Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) was achieved recently by overexpression of four transcription factors encoded by retroviral vectors. Most of the virus vectors, however, may cause insertional mutagenesis in the host genome and may also induce tumor formation. Therefore, it is very important to discover novel and safer, non-viral reprogramming methods. Here we describe the reprogramming of somatic cells into iPS cells by a novel protein-based technique. Engineered Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 transcription factors carrying an N-terminal Flag-tag and a C-terminal polyarginine tail were synthesized by a recently described mammalian artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs). This system is suitable for the high-level production of recombinant proteins in mammalian tissue culture cells. Recombinant proteins produced in this system contain all the post-translational modifications essential for the stability and the authentic function of the proteins. The engineered Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 proteins efficiently induced the reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by means of protein transduction. This novel method allows for the generation of iPS cells, which may be suitable for therapeutic applications in the future. PMID:25194736

  10. Artificial atoms and electron puddles: Single and double barriers in a silicon MOS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusch-Magder, David

    We have fabricated one of the first electrostatically defined double barrier artificial atoms in a Silicon Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) system, and observed Coulomb blockade. Intriguingly, we have found that electrons do not simply tunnel across the individual barriers fabricated, but rather tunnel through states that exist within these barriers. Such resonances are due to the localization of electrons by fluctuations in the impurity potential in the barrier region. The separation of these resonances in gate voltage is surprisingly constant, indicating only small fluctuations in the addition energy as more electrons are trapped in the states localized in the barrier. After considering several models we conclude that we can only account for the uniform addition energy by hypothesizing that the electrons are localized in 'electron puddles'. With this hypothesis in mind, we interpret reports in the literature of equally spaced conductance resonances in single barriers fabricated in a variety of different material systems as evidence that these electron puddles are a general consequence of disorder. We suggest that such electron puddles form in a variety of systems near the metal-insulator transition. Using transport spectroscopy to study these electron puddles we find that some of their behavior can not be understood within a single-particle picture. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139- 4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  11. Life Support Systems for a New Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2012-01-01

    A life support system concept has been developed for a new NASA lunar lander concept. The ground rules and assumptions driving the design of this vehicle are different from the Constellation Altair vehicle, and have led to a different design solution. For example, this concept assumes that the lander vehicle arrives in lunar orbit independently of the crew. It loiters in lunar orbit for months before rendezvousing with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), resulting in the use of solar power for this new lander, rather than fuel cells that provided product water to the life support system in the Altair vehicle. Without the need to perform a single Lunar Orbit Insertion burn for both the lander and the MPCV, the modules do not have to be centered in the same way, so the new lander has a smaller ascent module than Altair and a large habitat rather than a small airlock. This new lander utilizes suitport technology to perform EVAs from the habitat, which leads to significantly different requirements for the pressure control system. This paper describes the major trades and resulting concept design for the life support system of a new lunar lander concept. I

  12. Life Support Systems for a New Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    A life support system concept has been developed for a new NASA lunar lander concept. The ground rules and assumptions driving the design of this vehicle are different from the Constellation Altair vehicle, and have led to a different design solution. For example, this concept assumes that the lander vehicle arrives in lunar orbit independently of the crew. It loiters in lunar orbit for months before rendezvousing with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), resulting in the use of solar power for this new lander, rather than fuel cells that provided product water to the life support system in the Altair vehicle. Without the need to perform a single Lunar Orbit Insertion burn for both the lander and the MPCV, the modules do not have to be centered in the same way, so the new lander has a smaller ascent module than Altair and a large habitat rather than a small airlock. This new lander utilizes suitport technology to perform EVAs from the habitat, which leads to significantly different requirements for the pressure control system. This paper describes the major trades and resulting concept design for the life support system of a new lunar lander concept.

  13. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  14. Cooperative research and development for artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Abboud, R.G. [Commonwealth Research Corp., Chicago, IL (United States); Chasensky, T.M. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Braidwood, IL (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in the form of knowledge-based Expert Systems (ESs) have been proposed to provide on-line decision-making support for plant operators during both normal and emergency conditions. However, in spite of the great interest in these advanced techniques, their application in the diagnosis of large-scale processes has not yet reached its full potential because of limitations of the knowledge base. These limitations include problems with knowledge acquisition and the use of an event-oriented approach for process diagnosis. To investigate the capabilities of this two-level hierarchical knowledge structure, Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project to perform feasibility studies on the proposed diagnostic system. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a physics-based plant level process diagnostic ES and the characterization of component-level fault project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use T-H signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance. To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. This is an ongoing multi-year project and the remainder of this paper presents a mid-term status report.

  15. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  16. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  17. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  18. Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..

  19. An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells under day–night cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Ogbonna; Toshihiko Soejima; Charles U. Ugwu; Hideo Tanaka

    2001-01-01

    An integrated system of solar light, artificial light and organic carbon supply was developed for cyclic photoautotrophic-heterotrophic cultivation of photosynthetic cells. The energy source for the culture is automatically switched to solar light energy (when the weather is sunny), to artificial light energy (during the cloudy period of the day) or to organic carbon source (at night). Thus minimum amount

  20. An Electronic Nose System Using Artificial Neural Networks with anEffective Initial Training Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charumporn, Bancha; Yoshioka, Michifumi; Omatu, Sigeru

    Nowadays there are several commercial electrical noses (ENs) applied in many applications, mainly in food and cosmetics industries. Most of them have been added with complicated mechanisms to control the measuring environment. Consequently, they are large in size and expensive. However, the reliability of those ENs can be achieved only at moderate levels. Therefore, a simple EN system with an effective method to analyze the data is proposed as an alternative way for classifying smells. The EN has not been added with a mechanism to control the measuring environment. Thus, the EN system is inexpensive, small and can be operated easily. However, a normalization method need to be utilized to reduce the effect of measuring environment. Then a method to select the representative training data for artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on a similarity index (SI) value is applied to reduce the training time. The results show the ability of the EN that is able to classify not only different kinds of smoke but also the same kind of smoke from different brands and different concentration levels quite precisely.