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Sample records for artificial muscles reality

  1. Electroactive Polymers (EAP) as Artificial Muscles: Reality and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2003-04-30

    Human with bionic muscles is synonymous with science fiction or a superhuman actor in a TV series. With bionic muscles, the character is portrayed as capable of strength and speeds that are far superior to human. Recent development in EAP with large electrically induced strain may one day be used to make such bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms that are biologically inspired are starting to emerge, where EAP materials are providing actuation with lifelike response and more flexible configurations. Even though the actuation force and robustness require further improvement, there have been already several reported successes. In this seminar the current and future efforts will be reviewed.

  2. Electroactive Polymers as Artificial Muscles - Reality and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) are emerging as effective displacement actuators. These materials offer the closest resemblance of biological muscle potentially enabling unique capabilities changing the paradigm about robots construction. Under a NASA task, several EAP driven mechanisms were developed including dust wiper, gripper, and robotic arm EAP are inducing a low actuation force limiting the applications that can use their current capability. In recognition of this limitation a series of international forums were established including SPIE conference, Webhub, Newsletter, and Newsgroup. A challenge was posed to the EAP community to have an arm wrestling between robot that is equipped with EAP actuators and human.

  3. An artificial muscle computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  4. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  5. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  6. A two dimensional artificial reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Myron W.

    1991-01-01

    The current presumption is that it is necessary to don goggles, gloves and a data suit to experience artificial reality. However, there is another technology that offers an alternative or complement to the encumbering techniques associated with NASA. In VIDEOPLACE, your image appears in a 2D graphic world created by a computer. The VIDEOPLACE computer can analyze a person's image in 1/30 second and can detect when an object is touched. Thus, it can generate a graphic or auditory response to an illusory contact. VIDEOPLACE technology exists in two formats: the VIDEODESK and the VIDEOPLACE. In the VIDEODESK environment, the image of your hands can be used to perform the normal mouse functions, such as menuing and drawing. In addition, you have the advantage of multipoint control. For instance, you can use the thumbs and forefingers of each hand as control points for a spline curve. Perhaps most important, the image of your hands can be compressed and transmitted to a colleague over an ISDN voice channel to appear on the remote screen superimposed over identical information. Likewise, the image of your colleague's hands can appear on both screens. The result is that the two of you can use your hands to point to features on your respective screens as you speak, exactly as you would if you were sitting together. In the VIDEOPLACE environment, you can interact with graphic creatures and the images of other people in other locations in a graphic world. Your whole body can be moved, scaled and rotated in real-time without regard to the laws of physics. Thus, VIDEOPLACE can be used to create a fantasy world in which the laws of cause and effect are composed by an artist.

  7. Fuel-powered artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Ebron, Von Howard; Yang, Zhiwei; Seyer, Daniel J; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Xie, Hui; Razal, Joselito; Hall, Lee J; Ferraris, John P; Macdiarmid, Alan G; Baughman, Ray H

    2006-03-17

    Artificial muscles and electric motors found in autonomous robots and prosthetic limbs are typically battery-powered, which severely restricts the duration of their performance and can necessitate long inactivity during battery recharge. To help solve these problems, we demonstrated two types of artificial muscles that convert the chemical energy of high-energy-density fuels to mechanical energy. The first type stores electrical charge and uses changes in stored charge for mechanical actuation. In contrast with electrically powered electrochemical muscles, only half of the actuator cycle is electrochemical. The second type of fuel-powered muscle provides a demonstrated actuator stroke and power density comparable to those of natural skeletal muscle and generated stresses that are over a hundred times higher. PMID:16543453

  8. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  9. Magical Stories: Blending Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and virtual reality (VR) make possible powerful interactive stories, and this paper focuses on examples of virtual characters in three dimensional (3-D) worlds. Waldern, a virtual reality game designer, has theorized about and implemented software design of virtual teammates and opponents that incorporate AI…

  10. Artificial Muscle Kits for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "artificial muscles," electroactive polymer (EAP) materials are lightweight strips of highly flexible plastic that bend or stretch when subjected to electric voltage. EAP materials may prove to be a substitution for conventional actuation components such as motors and gears. Since the materials behave similarly to biological muscles, this emerging technology has the potential to develop improved prosthetics and biologically-inspired robots, and may even one day replace damaged human muscles. The practical application of artificial muscles provides a challenge, however, since the material requires improved effectiveness and durability before it can fulfill its potential.

  11. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  12. Biomimetic actuators using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution has resolved many of nature's challenges leading to lasting solutions with maximal performance and effective use of resources. Nature's inventions have always inspired human achievements leading to effective materials, structures, tools, mechanisms, processes, algorithms, methods, systems and many other benefits. The field of mimicking nature is known as Biomimetics and one of its topics includes electroactive polymers that gain the moniker artificial muscles. Integrating EAP with embedded sensors, self-repair and many other capabilities that are used in composite materials can add greatly to the capability of smart biomimetic systems. Such development would enable fascinating possibilities potentially turning science fiction ideas into engineering reality.

  13. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their response mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are still not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the current state of- the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  14. Dielectric elastomer switches for smart artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Calius, Emilio P.; Inamura, Tokushu; Xie, Sheng Q.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2010-08-01

    Some of the most exciting possibilities for dielectric elastomer artificial muscles consist of biologically inspired networks of smart actuators working towards common goals. However, the creation of these networks will only be realised once intelligence and feedback can be fully distributed throughout an artificial muscle device. Here we show that dielectric elastomer artificial muscles can be built with intrinsic sensor, control, and driver circuitry, bringing them closer in capability to their natural analogues. This was achieved by exploiting the piezoresistive behaviour of the actuator's highly compliant electrodes using what we have called the dielectric elastomer switch. We developed suitable switching material using carbon loaded silicone grease and experimentally demonstrated the primitives required for self-sensing actuators and digital computation, namely compliant electromechanical NAND gates and oscillator circuits. We anticipate that dielectric elastomer switches will reduce the need for bulky and rigid external circuitry as well as provide the simple distributed intelligence required for soft, biologically inspired networks of actuators. Examples include many-degree-of-freedom robotic hearts, intestines, and manipulators; wearable assistive devices; smart sensor skins and fabrics; and ultimately new types of artificial muscle embedded, electromechanical computers.

  15. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    After billions of years of evolution, nature developed inventions that work, which are appropriate for the intended tasks and that last. The evolution of nature led to the introduction of highly effective and power efficient biological mechanisms that are scalable from micron to many meters in size. Imitating these mechanisms offers enormous potentials for the improvement of our life and the tools we use. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature and we are increasingly reaching levels of advancement where it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. Some of the biomimetic technologies that have emerged include artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision to which significant advances in materials science, mechanics, electronics, and computer science have contributed greatly. One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their operation mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the state-of-the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  16. Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai; Wickramatunge, Kanchana C.

    2009-10-01

    A Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) yields a natural muscle-like actuator with a high force to weight ratio, a soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for a humanoid robot, rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled, etc. To obtain optimum design and usage, the mechanical behavior of the PAM need to be understood. In this study, observations of experimental results reveal an empirical model for relations of physical variables, contraction and air pressure within the PAM, as compared to mechanical characteristics, such as stiffness or/and pulling forces of the PAM available now in market.

  17. Artificial muscle using nonlinear elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna, Banahalli

    2002-03-01

    Anisotropic freestanding films or fibers of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When a large change in the order parameter occurs, as at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. The crosslinked network imposes a symmetry-breaking field on the nematic and drives the nematic-isotropic transition towards a critical point with the application of external stress. Isostrain studies on these nonlinear elastomers, show that there are large deviations from ideal classical rubber elasticity and the contributions from total internal energy to the elastic restoring force cannot be ignored. The liquid crystal elastomers exhibiting anisoptopic contraction/extension coupled with a graded strain response to an applied external stimulus provide an excellent framework for mimicking muscular action. Liquid crystal elastomers by their very chemical nature have a number of ‘handles’ such as the liquid crystalline phase range, density of crosslinking, flexibility of the backbone, coupling between the backbone and the mesogen and the coupling between the mesogen and the external stimulus, that can be tuned to optimize the mechanical properties. We have demonstrated actuation in nematic elastomers under thermal and optical stimuli. We have been able to dope the elastomers with dyes to make them optically active. We have also doped them with carbon nanotubes in order to increase the thermal and electrical conductivity of the elastomer.

  18. A cellular control architecture for compliant artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Odhner, Lael U; Ueda, Jun; Asada, H Harry

    2006-01-01

    Dividing an artificial muscle material into a network of small cells could provide performance benefits and eliminate unwanted behaviors such as hysteresis. This paper presents a scheme for the position control or compliance control of an artificial muscle having this kind of cellular structure. Each cell contracts or relaxes probabilistically in response to a global feedback control loop, which measures only the aggregate force and displacement of the muscle. The stochastic nature of the cells produces smooth, reliable global behavior in the artificial muscle. By choosing a control law such that the expected response of the artificial muscle is equal to the desired response, good tracking control is achieved. PMID:17946978

  19. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation.Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties

  20. A thin membrane artificial muscle rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Hale, Thom; Gisby, Todd; Inamura, Tokushu; McKay, Thomas; O'Brien, Benjamin; Walbran, Scott; Calius, Emilio P.

    2010-01-01

    Desirable rotary motor attributes for robotics include the ability to develop high torque in a low mass body and to generate peak power at low rotational speeds. Electro-active polymer artificial muscles offer promise as actuator elements for robotic motors. A promising artificial muscle technology for use as a driving mechanism for rotary motion is the dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We present a membrane DEA motor in which phased actuation of electroded sectors of the motor membrane impart orbital motion to a central drive that turns a rotor. The motor is inherently scalable, flexible, flat, silent in operation, amenable to deposition-based manufacturing approaches, and uses relatively inexpensive materials. As a membrane it can also form part of the skin of a robot. We have investigated the torque and power of stacked membrane layers. Specific power and torque ratios when calculated using active membrane mass only were 20.8 W/kg and 4.1 Nm/kg, respectively. These numbers compare favorably with a commercially available stepper motor. Multi-membrane fabrication substantially boosts torque and power and increases the active mass of membrane relative to supporting framework. Through finite element modeling, we show the mechanisms governing the maximum torque the device can generate and how the motor can be improved.

  1. Biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeob; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-02-14

    Biomolecule responsive materials have been studied intensively for use in biomedical applications as smart systems because of their unique property of responding to specific biomolecules under mild conditions. However, these materials have some challenging drawbacks that limit further practical application, including their speed of response and mechanical properties, because most are based on hydrogels. Here, we present a fast, mechanically robust biscrolled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn as a torsional artificial muscle through entrapping an enzyme linked to a thermally sensitive hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), utilizing the exothermic catalytic reaction of the enzyme. The induced rotation reached an equilibrated angle in less than 2 min under mild temperature conditions (25-37 °C) while maintaining the mechanical properties originating from the carbon nanotubes. This biothermal sensing of a torsional artificial muscle offers a versatile platform for the recognition of various types of biomolecules by replacing the enzyme, because an exothermic reaction is a general property accompanying a biochemical transformation. PMID:26806884

  2. Structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle provides inspiration for design of new artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    A variety of actuator technologies have been developed to mimic biological skeletal muscle that generates force in a controlled manner. Force generation process of skeletal muscle involves complicated biophysical and biochemical mechanisms; therefore, it is impossible to replace biological muscle. In biological skeletal muscle tissue, the force generation of a muscle depends not only on the force generation capacity of the muscle fiber, but also on many other important factors, including muscle fiber type, motor unit recruitment, architecture, structure and morphology of skeletal muscle, all of which have significant impact on the force generation of the whole muscle or force transmission from muscle fibers to the tendon. Such factors have often been overlooked, but can be incorporated in artificial muscle design, especially with the discovery of new smart materials and the development of innovative fabrication and manufacturing technologies. A better understanding of the physiology and structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle will therefore benefit the artificial muscle design. In this paper, factors that affect muscle force generation are reviewed. Mathematical models used to model the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle are reviewed and discussed. We hope the review will provide inspiration for the design of a new generation of artificial muscle by incorporating the structure-function relationship of skeletal muscle into the design of artificial muscle.

  3. Artificial muscles versus natural actuators from frogs to flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Full, Robert J.; Meijer, Kenneth

    2000-06-01

    When is a human-made actuator an artificial muscle. Natural actuators in the animal kingdom vary greatly in their capacity and role. Maximum stress variety by 100-fold as does the velocity at which muscles contract. Some muscles generate near maximum force over broad strain ranges, while others function over only the narrowest ranges. Frequencies of operation range from less than 1 Hz to 1000 Hz. Mass- specific power output can reach over 250 W/kg muscle. Muscles function not simply as force generators, but as springs and dampers. Our isolated muscle experiments on insects show that some muscles function primarily as energy absorber sand have a role in control, while others are effective at power generation. At present, we are evaluating EAPs to see where these actuators fit in the functional space of nature's muscles. EAPs appear particularly promising as artificial muscles for insect-sized robots.

  4. Artificial Muscle: Carbon Nanotube Yarn-Based Glucose Sensing Artificial Muscle (Small 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghan; Ko, Sachan; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-04-01

    On page 2085, S. J. Kim and co-workers introduce a reversibly rotatable and highly glucose-sensitive carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) yarn artificial muscle. This yarn is created using a boronic acid-conjugated hyaluronic acid/cholesterol nanogel (HC-BA NG) deposited on a two-end-tethered structural actuator. By exploiting the swelling/de-swelling of HC-BA NG, the MWNT yarn actuator shows a reversible torsional actuation with short response time and high sensitivity for monitoring changes in glucose concentration with 5-100 mM range. This actuator can be utilized for an implantable glucose monitoring sensor. PMID:27076046

  5. Electrical activation of artificial muscles containing polyacrylonitrile gel fibers.

    PubMed

    Schreyer, H B; Gebhart, N; Kim, K J; Shahinpoor, M

    2000-01-01

    Gel fibers made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are known to elongate and contract when immersed in caustic and acidic solutions, respectively. The amount of contraction for these pH-activated fibers is 50% or greater, and the strength of these fibers is shown to be comparable to that of human muscle. Despite these attributes, the need of strong acids and bases for actuation has limited the use of PAN gel fibers as linear actuators or artificial muscles. Increasing the conductivity by depositing platinum on the fibers or combining the fibers with graphite fibers has allowed for electrical activation of artificial muscles containing gel fibers when placed in an electrochemical cell. The electrolysis of water in such a cell produces hydrogen ions at an artificial muscle anode, thus locally decreasing the pH and causing the muscle to contract. Reversing the electric field allows the PAN muscle to elongate. A greater than 40% contraction in artificial muscle length in less than 10 min is observed when it is placed as an electrode in a 10 mM NaCl electrolyte solution and connected to a 10 V power supply. These results indicate potential in developing electrically activated PAN muscles and linear actuators, which would be much more applicable than chemically activated muscles. PMID:11710194

  6. An artificial reality environment for remote factory control and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.

    1993-01-01

    Work has begun on the merger of two well known systems, VEOS (HITLab) and CLIPS (NASA). In the recent past, the University of Massachusetts Lowell developed a parallel version of NASA CLIPS, called P-CLIPS. This modification allows users to create smaller expert systems which are able to communicate with each other to jointly solve problems. With the merger of a VEOS message system, PCLIPS-V can now act as a group of entities working within VEOS. To display the 3D virtual world we have been using a graphics package called HOOPS, from Ithaca Software. The artificial reality environment we have set up contains actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. The environment allows us to view and control the objects within the virtual world. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS. A graphical renderer generates camera views on X-Windows devices; Head Mounted Devices are not required. This allows more people to make use of this technology. We are experimenting with different types of virtual vehicles to give the user a sense that he or she is actually moving around inside the factory looking ahead through windows and virtual monitors.

  7. Application requirements of artificial muscles for swimming robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrebrock, Peter A.; Anderson, Jamie M.; Parry, Joel R.

    2001-07-01

    In the near future, we will find biomimetic undersea robots in the forefront of unmanned underwater applications due to their ability to operate in new, challenging, and highly dynamic environments such as rivers, surf, and turbulent pipe flow. In particular, fish-like vehicles (FLVs) have emerged as a viable technology for highly maneuverable, efficient and stealthy platforms. Attempts to produce fish-like motion using conventional mechanical means have proven difficult, however, resulting in complex and unreliable machines, especially when compared to the simplicity of a rotating propeller and conventional control surfaces. To take full advantage of fish-like propulsion, a new actuation strategy is needed, to which artificial muscles may be uniquely suited. Some artificial muscles are made of materials with relatively low specific gravity (compared to conventional mechanical systems), and so will be nearly neutrally buoyant in underwater applications. This is critical in FLV actuation, as correct longitudinal mass distribution is required to avoid stability problems. Additionally, some artificial muscle formulations require water, sometimes including an electrolyte, which is easily provided in underwater applications. Finally, for stealthy applications, artificial muscles may provide acoustically quiet actuation due to their suppleness and reduced number of interconnecting mechanical components. In this paper, we suggest artificial muscle-based actuation strategies for FLVs, based on experience with the Vorticity Control Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (VCUUV), an eight-foot long autonomous robotic tuna. Recently developed artificial muscles are surveyed and evaluated as to their suitability for fish-like propulsion. Requirements for force, power, and strain as well as implementation issues are discussed.

  8. Rotating turkeys and self-commutating artificial muscle motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Gisby, Todd A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2012-02-01

    Electrostatic motors—first used by Benjamin Franklin to rotisserie a turkey—are making a comeback in the form of high energy density dielectric elastomer artificial muscles. We present a self-commutated artificial muscle motor that uses dielectric elastomer switches in the place of bulky external electronics. The motor simply requires a DC input voltage to rotate a shaft (0.73 Nm/kg, 0.24 Hz) and is a step away from hard metallic electromagnetic motors towards a soft, light, and printable future.

  9. An Artificial Tendon with Durable Muscle Interface

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Witte, David; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    A coupling mechanism that can permanently fix a forcefully contracting muscle to a bone anchor or any totally inert prosthesis would meet a serious need in orthopaedics. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to satisfy these demands. The objective of this study was to test OrthoCoupler’s performance in vitro and in vivo in the goat semitendinosus tendon model. For in vitro evaluation, 40 samples were fatigue-tested, cycling at 10 load levels, n=4 each. For in vivo evaluation, the semitendinosus tendon was removed bilaterally in 8 goats. Left sides were reattached with an OrthoCoupler, and right sides were reattached using the Krackow stitch with #5 braided polyester sutures. Specimens were harvested 60 days post-surgery and assigned for biomechanics and histology. Fatigue strength of the devices in vitro was several times the contractile force of the semitendinosus muscle. The in vivo devices were built equivalent to two of the in vitro devices, providing an additional safety factor. In strength testing at necropsy, suture controls pulled out at 120.5 ± 68.3 N, whereas each OrthoCoupler was still holding after the muscle tore, remotely, at 298±111.3N (mean ± SD)(p<0.0003). Muscle tear strength was reached with the fiber-muscle composite produced in healing still soundly intact. This technology may be of value for orthopaedic challenges in oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and sports-injury reconstruction. PMID:19639642

  10. Climbing robot actuated by meso-hydraulic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Jason; Miller, Samuel; Saltzman, Jonah; Kim, Sangkyu; Lin, Yong; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, experimental characterization, and system testing of a legged, wall-climbing robot actuated by meso-scale hydraulic artificial muscles. While small wall-climbing robots have seen increased research attention in recent years, most authors have primarily focused on designs for the gripping and adhesion of the robot to the wall, while using only standard DC servo-motors for actuation. This project seeks to explore and demonstrate a different actuation mechanism that utilizes hydraulic artificial muscles. A four-limb climbing robot platform that includes a full closed-loop hydraulic power and control system, custom hydraulic artificial muscles for actuation, an on-board microcontroller and RF receiver for control, and compliant claws with integrated sensing for gripping a variety of wall surfaces has been constructed and is currently being tested to investigate this actuation method. On-board power consumption data-logging during climbing operation, analysis of the robot kinematics and climbing behavior, and artificial muscle force-displacement characterization are presented to investigate and this actuation method.

  11. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles. PMID:27623216

  12. Carbon Nanotube Yarn-Based Glucose Sensing Artificial Muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghan; Ko, Sachan; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Boronic acid (BA), known to be a reversible glucose-sensing material, is conjugated to a nanogel (NG) derived from hyaluronic acid biopolymer and used as a guest material for a carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) yarn. By exploiting the swelling/deswelling of the NG that originates from the internal anionic charge changes resulting from BA binding to glucose, a NG MWNT yarn artificial muscle is obtained that provides reversible torsional actuation that can be used for glucose sensing. This actuator shows a short response time and high sensitivity (in the 5-100 × 10(-3) m range) for monitoring changes in glucose concentration in physiological buffer, without using any additional auxiliary substances or an electrical power source. It may be possible to apply the glucose-sensing MWNT yarn muscles as implantable glucose sensors that automatically release drugs when needed or as an artificial pancreas. PMID:26929006

  13. Control approach development for variable recruitment artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.

  14. Artificial-life researchers try to create social reality.

    PubMed

    Flam, F

    1994-08-12

    Some scientists, among them cosmologist Stephen Hawking, argue that computer viruses are alive. A better case might be made for many of the self-replicating silicon-based creatures featured at the fourth Conference on Artificial Life, held on 5 to 8 July in Boston. Researchers from computer science, biology, and other disciplines presented computer programs that, among other things, evolved cooperative strategies in a selfish world and recreated themselves in ever more complex forms. PMID:17782127

  15. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    PubMed

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society. PMID:26799903

  16. EAP application to artificial tactile feel display of virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyo, Masashi; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Takamori, Toshi; Oguro, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    A tactile feel display device for virtual reality was developed using Nafion-Platinum composite type EAP actuator (known as IPMC or ICPF). Conventional tactile displays can hardly express tactile human feeling of the fine touch of the surface of a cloth, because their mechanisms cannot excite minute distributed stimuli on human skin. We propose a new ciliary device using ICPF actuators. The ICPF has sufficient softness, utilizing the passive material property, that complex control is not required. The low drive voltage is safe enough for the touch of fingers. Its simple operation mechanism allows miniaturization for practical equipments. The developed device was designed with a number of cilia consisting of ICPF actuators, where a cilium is 2 mm wide and 5 mm long. An ICPF membrane is cut into pectination, and only the cilium part is plated and has a function of an actuator. An inclined configuration of the cilia produces variety of stimuli to human skin controlling frequencies. We tried to display both pressure and vibration at the same time using modulated low and high frequencies. The result clearly shows that over 80% of the subjects sensed some special tactile feeling. A comparison with real material samples shows that this display can present a subtle distinction of tactile feeling of cloth, especially like a towel and denim.

  17. Variable recruitment fluidic artificial muscles: modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Meller, Michael A.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-07-01

    We investigate taking advantage of the lightweight, compliant nature of fluidic artificial muscles to create variable recruitment actuators in the form of artificial muscle bundles. Several actuator elements at different diameter scales are packaged to act as a single actuator device. The actuator elements of the bundle can be connected to the fluidic control circuit so that different groups of actuator elements, much like individual muscle fibers, can be activated independently depending on the required force output and motion. This novel actuation concept allows us to save energy by effectively impedance matching the active size of the actuators on the fly based on the instantaneous required load. This design also allows a single bundled actuator to operate in substantially different force regimes, which could be valuable for robots that need to perform a wide variety of tasks and interact safely with humans. This paper proposes, models and analyzes the actuation efficiency of this actuator concept. The analysis shows that variable recruitment operation can create an actuator that reduces throttling valve losses to operate more efficiently over a broader range of its force-strain operating space. We also present preliminary results of the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of three such bioinspired variable recruitment actuator prototypes.

  18. Using reactive artificial muscles to determine water exchange during reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, T. F.; Martínez, J. G.; Zaifoglu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Artificial muscles based on films of conducting polymers translate film volume variations, driven by electrochemical reactions (Faradaic motors), into macroscopic movements with generation of mechanical energy. The reaction promotes exchange of counterions (anions here) and solvent molecules with the electrolyte. Attributing here both the film volume variation and the movement originated by these exchanges of ions and solvent, the described angles can be used to quantify the exchanged solvent. Different angles described by bending muscles consuming equal driving charges in electrolytes having the same cation and different anions were measured. The number of exchanged counterions is given by the consumed charge and the ion valence: this is a Faradaic reaction. The described angle fraction due to the exchanged anions is given by the number of anions and the crystallographic radius. Taking as reference the anion giving the shorter angle, whatever the consumed charge, the relative number of solvent molecules exchanged by the polymeric membrane during a reversible reaction was determined. Actuators and artificial muscles can be used as useful tools for, at least, an initial study of the solvent exchange during reactions in reactive gels.

  19. Design and optimization of multi-class series-parallel linear electromagnetic array artificial muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Ji, Zhenyu; Shi, Xuetao; You, Fusheng; Fu, Feng; Liu, Ruigang; Xia, Junying; Wang, Nan; Bai, Jing; Wang, Zhanxi; Qin, Xiansheng; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibiting complex and excellent precision has evolved for millions of years. Skeletal muscle has better performance and simpler structure compared with existing driving modes. Artificial muscle may be designed by analyzing and imitating properties and structure of skeletal muscle based on bionics, which has been focused on by bionic researchers, and a structure mode of linear electromagnetic array artificial muscle has been designed in this paper. Half sarcomere is the minimum unit of artificial muscle and electromagnetic model has been built. The structural parameters of artificial half sarcomere actuator were optimized to achieve better movement performance. Experimental results show that artificial half sarcomere actuator possesses great motion performance such as high response speed, great acceleration, small weight and size, robustness, etc., which presents a promising application prospect of artificial half sarcomere actuator. PMID:24211938

  20. Biodegradable and edible gelatine actuators for use as artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. D.; Winfield, J.; Ieropoulos, I.; Rossiter, J.

    2014-03-01

    The expense and use of non-recyclable materials often requires the retrieval and recovery of exploratory robots. Therefore, conventional materials such as plastics and metals in robotics can be limiting. For applications such as environmental monitoring, a fully biodegradable or edible robot may provide the optimum solution. Materials that provide power and actuation as well as biodegradability provide a compelling dimension to future robotic systems. To highlight the potential of novel biodegradable and edible materials as artificial muscles, the actuation of a biodegradable hydrogel was investigated. The fabricated gelatine based polymer gel was inexpensive, easy to handle, biodegradable and edible. The electro-mechanical performance was assessed using two contactless, parallel stainless steel electrodes immersed in 0.1M NaOH solution and fixed 40 mm apart with the strip actuator pinned directly between the electrodes. The actuation displacement in response to a bias voltage was measured over hydration/de-hydration cycles. Long term (11 days) and short term (1 hour) investigations demonstrated the bending behaviour of the swollen material in response to an electric field. Actuation voltage was low (<10 V) resulting in a slow actuation response with large displacement angles (<55 degrees). The stability of the immersed material decreased within the first hour due to swelling, however, was recovered on de-hydrating between actuations. The controlled degradation of biodegradable and edible artificial muscles could help to drive the development of environmentally friendly robotics.

  1. Fullerenol-based electroactive artificial muscles utilizing biocompatible polyetherimide.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Mahendran; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2011-03-22

    Two essential functional requirements for electroactive artificial muscles, which can be used for biomedical active devices, are biocompatibility and sufficient range of motion. Fullerenol nanoparticles and their derivatives have been validated as potential candidates to be used for nanobiomaterials and biomedical applications because of their excellent proton conductivity, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility. We developed fullerenol-based electroactive artificial muscles utilizing biocompatible polyetherimide. By using a solvent recasting method, present ionic networking membranes have been successfully synthesized with homogeneous dispersion of polyhydroxylated fullerene (PHF) nanoparticles into a sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. In comparison with pure SPEI membranes, the PHF-SPEI nanocomposite membranes show much higher water uptake and proton conductivity, which are both essential characteristics for high-performance ionic polymer actuators. The developed PHF-SPEI actuator shows over three times larger motion ranges and two times higher blocking forces than the pure SPEI actuator. The excellent biocompatibility of PHF and SPEI makes these actuators promising candidate materials for biomedical devices such as active stents and catheters. PMID:21332175

  2. Pneumatic artificial muscle actuators for compliant robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan Michael

    Robotic systems are increasingly being utilized in applications that require interaction with humans. In order to enable safe physical human-robot interaction, light weight and compliant manipulation are desirable. These requirements are problematic for many conventional actuation systems, which are often heavy, and typically use high stiffness to achieve high performance, leading to large impact forces upon collision. However, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators that can satisfy these safety requirements while offering power-to-weight ratios comparable to those of conventional actuators. PAMs are extremely lightweight actuators that produce force in response to pressurization. These muscles demonstrate natural compliance, but have a nonlinear force-contraction profile that complicates modeling and control. This body of research presents solutions to the challenges associated with the implementation of PAMs as actuators in robotic manipulators, particularly with regard to modeling, design, and control. An existing PAM force balance model was modified to incorporate elliptic end geometry and a hyper-elastic constitutive relationship, dramatically improving predictions of PAM behavior at high contraction. Utilizing this improved model, two proof-of-concept PAM-driven manipulators were designed and constructed; design features included parallel placement of actuators and a tendon-link joint design. Genetic algorithm search heuristics were employed to determine an optimal joint geometry; allowing a manipulator to achieve a desired torque profile while minimizing the required PAM pressure. Performance of the manipulators was evaluated in both simulation and experiment employing various linear and nonlinear control strategies. These included output feedback techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic, a model-based control for computed torque, and more advanced controllers, such as sliding mode, adaptive sliding mode, and

  3. Sensing and Tactile Artificial Muscles from Reactive Materials

    PubMed Central

    Conzuelo, Laura Valero; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquín; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V.; Smit, Mascha Afra; Otero, Toribio Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Films of conducting polymers can be oxidized and reduced in a reversible way. Any intermediate oxidation state determines an electrochemical equilibrium. Chemical or physical variables acting on the film may modify the equilibrium potential, so that the film acts as a sensor of the variable. The working potential of polypyrrole/DBSA (Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid) films, oxidized or reduced under constant currents, changes as a function of the working conditions: electrolyte concentration, temperature or mechanical stress. During oxidation, the reactive material is a sensor of the ambient, the consumed electrical energy being the sensing magnitude. Devices based on any of the electrochemical properties of conducting polymers must act simultaneously as sensors of the working conditions. Artificial muscles, as electrochemical actuators constituted by reactive materials, respond to the ambient conditions during actuation. In this way, they can be used as actuators, sensing the surrounding conditions during actuation. Actuating and sensing signals are simultaneously included by the same two connecting wires. PMID:22319265

  4. Ultrathin Alvarez lens system actuated by artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Petsch, S; Grewe, A; Köbele, L; Sinzinger, S; Zappe, H

    2016-04-01

    A key feature of Alvarez lenses is that they may be tuned in focal length using lateral rather than axial translation, thus reducing the overall length of a focus-tunable optical system. Nevertheless the bulk of classical microsystems actuators limits further miniaturization. We present here a new, ultrathin focus-tunable Alvarez lens fabricated using molding techniques and actuated using liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) artificial muscle actuators. The large deformation generated by the LCE actuators permits the integration of the actuators in-plane with the mechanical and optical system and thus reduces the device thickness to only 1.6 mm. Movement of the Alvarez lens pair of 178 μm results in a focal length change of 3.3 mm, based on an initial focal length of 28.4 mm. This design is of considerable interest for realization of ultraflat focus-tunable and zoom systems. PMID:27139677

  5. A potential material to cut down infection caused by application of artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ning; Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, De-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Artificial muscles are so important that can be used to cure prosthetic limbs. A new kind of taurine Schiff base sodium was synthesized by a series of chemical reactions, which may be applied to strengthen antibacterial activity of artificial muscle. The bioactivity of this material was screened by cytotoxicity test, antibacterial test, and thermal gravity test and so on. All results told us that this material had low toxicity, high antibacterial activity and thermal stability. Combine our deep studies on pharmacological activity of the active material with our knowledge on artificial muscles; we want to know if we can put this material into the content of artificial muscle, in order to strengthen its antimicrobial activity, so that the pains of the patients who were applied artificial muscle would be relieved. PMID:23374427

  6. Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Keith E; Sawicki, Gregory S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    We developed a powered ankle-foot orthosis that uses artificial pneumatic muscles to produce active plantar flexor torque. The purpose of this study was to quantify the mechanical performance of the orthosis during human walking. Three subjects walked at a range of speeds wearing ankle-foot orthoses with either one or two artificial muscles working in parallel. The orthosis produced similar total peak plantar flexor torque and network across speeds independent of the number of muscles used. The orthosis generated approximately 57% of the peak ankle plantar flexor torque during stance and performed approximately 70% of the positive plantar flexor work done during normal walking. Artificial muscle bandwidth and force-length properties were the two primary factors limiting torque production. The lack of peak force and work differences between single and double muscle conditions can be explained by force-length properties. Subjects altered their ankle kinematics between conditions resulting in changes in artificial muscle length. In the double muscle condition greater plantar flexion yielded shorter artificial muscles lengths and decreased muscle forces. This finding emphasizes the importance of human testing in the design and development of robotic exoskeleton devices for assisting human movement. The results of this study outline the mechanical performance limitations of an ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles. This orthosis could be valuable for gait rehabilitation and for studies investigating neuromechanical control of human walking. PMID:16023126

  7. Empirical modeling of dynamic behaviors of pneumatic artificial muscle actuators.

    PubMed

    Wickramatunge, Kanchana Crishan; Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

    2013-11-01

    Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) actuators yield muscle-like mechanical actuation with high force to weight ratio, soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled as well as humanoid robots or machines. The present study is to develop empirical models of the PAM actuators, that is, a PAM coupled with pneumatic control valves, in order to describe their dynamic behaviors for practical control design and usage. Empirical modeling is an efficient approach to computer-based modeling with observations of real behaviors. Different characteristics of dynamic behaviors of each PAM actuator are due not only to the structures of the PAM actuators themselves, but also to the variations of their material properties in manufacturing processes. To overcome the difficulties, the proposed empirical models are experimentally derived from real physical behaviors of the PAM actuators, which are being implemented. In case studies, the simulated results with good agreement to experimental results, show that the proposed methodology can be applied to describe the dynamic behaviors of the real PAM actuators. PMID:23871151

  8. Cutting the fat: artificial muscle oscillators for lighter, cheaper, and slimmer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2012-04-01

    Artificial muscles based on dielectric elastomers show enormous promise for a wide range of applications and are slowly moving from the lab to industry. One problem for industrial uptake is the expensive, rigid, heavy and bulky high voltage driver, sensor and control circuitry that artificial muscle devices currently require. One recent development, the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES), shows promise for substantially reducing auxiliary circuitry and helping to mature the technology. DES are piezoresistive elements that can be used to form logic, driver, and sensor circuitry. One particularly useful feature of DES is their ability to embed oscillatory behaviour directly into an artificial muscle device. In this paper we will focus on how DES oscillators can break down the barriers to industrial adoption for artificial muscle devices. We have developed an improved artificial muscle ring oscillator and applied it to form a mechanosensitive conveyor. The free running oscillator ran at 4.4 Hz for 1056 cycles before failing due to electrode degradation. With better materials artificial muscle oscillators could open the door to robots with increased power to weight ratios, simple-to-control peristaltic pumps, and commercially viable artificial muscle motors.

  9. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J; Leang, Kam K; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1-3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process. PMID:25146561

  10. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J.; Leang, Kam K.; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1–3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process. PMID:25146561

  11. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  12. The effect of virtual reality-based eccentric training on lower extremity muscle activation and balance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Uhm, Yo Han; Heo, Jae Won; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of virtual reality-based eccentric training on lower extremity muscle activity and balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated, with 15 patients allotted to each of two eccentric training groups: one using a slow velocity (group I) and one using a fast velocity (group II). The virtual reality-based eccentric training was performed by the patients for 30 minutes once a day, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks using an Eccentron system. Surface electromyography was used to measure the lower extremity muscle activity, while a BioRescue was used to measure balancing ability. [Results] A significant difference in lower extremity muscle activation and balance ability was observed in group I compared with group II. [Conclusion] This study showed that virtual reality-based eccentric training using a slow velocity is effective for improving lower extremity muscle activity and balance in stroke patients. PMID:27512263

  13. The effect of virtual reality-based eccentric training on lower extremity muscle activation and balance in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Uhm, Yo Han; Heo, Jae Won; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of virtual reality-based eccentric training on lower extremity muscle activity and balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated, with 15 patients allotted to each of two eccentric training groups: one using a slow velocity (group I) and one using a fast velocity (group II). The virtual reality-based eccentric training was performed by the patients for 30 minutes once a day, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks using an Eccentron system. Surface electromyography was used to measure the lower extremity muscle activity, while a BioRescue was used to measure balancing ability. [Results] A significant difference in lower extremity muscle activation and balance ability was observed in group I compared with group II. [Conclusion] This study showed that virtual reality-based eccentric training using a slow velocity is effective for improving lower extremity muscle activity and balance in stroke patients. PMID:27512263

  14. In vivo generation of a mature and functional artificial skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fuoco, Claudia; Rizzi, Roberto; Biondo, Antonella; Longa, Emanuela; Mascaro, Anna; Shapira-Schweitzer, Keren; Kossovar, Olga; Benedetti, Sara; Salvatori, Maria L; Santoleri, Sabrina; Testa, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Bottinelli, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Cannata, Stefano M; Seliktar, Dror; Cossu, Giulio; Gargioli, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Extensive loss of skeletal muscle tissue results in mutilations and severe loss of function. In vitro-generated artificial muscles undergo necrosis when transplanted in vivo before host angiogenesis may provide oxygen for fibre survival. Here, we report a novel strategy based upon the use of mouse or human mesoangioblasts encapsulated inside PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel. Once engineered to express placental-derived growth factor, mesoangioblasts attract host vessels and nerves, contributing to in vivo survival and maturation of newly formed myofibres. When the graft was implanted underneath the skin on the surface of the tibialis anterior, mature and aligned myofibres formed within several weeks as a complete and functional extra muscle. Moreover, replacing the ablated tibialis anterior with PEG-fibrinogen-embedded mesoangioblasts also resulted in an artificial muscle very similar to a normal tibialis anterior. This strategy opens the possibility for patient-specific muscle creation for a large number of pathological conditions involving muscle tissue wasting. PMID:25715804

  15. Force optimization of ionic polymeric platinum composite artificial muscles by means of an orthogonal array manufacturing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Tariq; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1999-05-01

    Ionic polymer platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles have been the subject of research activities at AMRI (Artificial Muscle Research Institute) and have been identified as smart intelligent material. The potential for such artificial muscles is so vast that muscles of different enhanced characteristics will be required in the future to accomplish different desired tasks. However the immediate challenges are to identify, control and enhance different desired characteristics of artificial muscles (IPPC). One important milestone that may be regarded, as the most critical one is to enhance force produced by these artificial muscles. Obviously force enhancement if successful may put these artificial muscles into one-to-one competition against the available line of traditional force actuators which fall in the same category. In order to experimentally approach the process of optimizing the force output of ionic polymeric platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles, an orthogonal array method was used to identify potential specific manufacturing procedures. These sets of procedures will eventually be helpful to identify the different desired characteristics of manufactured artificial muscles. One manufactured artificial muscles are tested for force outputs, the best ones would then be easily traced back to manufacturing procedure and will be further enhanced up to the desired levels by further refining the underlying manufacturing procedures. The measure chosen for optimization process was basically the force generated by a specific piece of muscle of specific geometry.

  16. High performance electrochemical and electrothermal artificial muscles from twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Ah; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-04-01

    High performance torsional and tensile artificial muscles are described, which utilize thermally- or electrochemically-induced volume changes of twist-spun, guest-filled, carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. These yarns were prepared by incorporating twist in carbon nanotube sheets drawn from spinnable CNT forests. Inserting high twist into the CNT yarn results in yarn coiling, which can dramatically amplify tensile stroke and work capabilities compared with that for the non-coiled twisted yarn. When electrochemically driven in a liquid electrolyte, these artificial muscles can generate a torsional rotation per muscle length that is over 1000 times higher than for previously reported torsional muscles. All-solid-state torsional electrochemical yarn muscles have provided a large torsional muscle stroke (53° per mm of yarn length) and a tensile stroke of up to 1.3% when lifting loads that are ~25 times heavier than can be lifted by the same diameter human skeletal muscle. Over a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles have been demonstrated for thermally powered CNT hybrid yarns muscles filled with paraffin wax, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. At lower actuation rates, these thermally powered muscles provide tensile strokes of over 10%.

  17. Carbon-based torsional and tensile artificial muscles driven by thermal expansion (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Carter S.; Lima, Márcio D.; Li, Na; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Foroughi, Javad; Madden, John D. W.; Kim, Shi-Hyeong; Fang, Shaoli; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Göktepe, Fatma; Göktepe, Ozer; Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Naficy, Sina; Lepró, Xavier; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Kim, Seon Jeong; Xu, Xiuru; Swedlove, Benjamin J.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2014-03-01

    High-performance artificial muscles have been produced from fibers having highly anisotropic thermal expansion. Inserting twist into these precursor fibers enables thermally-driven torsional actuation and can cause the formation of helical coils. Such coiled structures provide giant-stroke tensile actuation exceeding the 20% in-vivo contraction of natural muscles. This contraction is highly reversible, with over one million cycles demonstrated, and can occur without the hysteresis that plagues competing shape-memory and piezoelectric muscles. Several materials and composites are investigated, including low-cost, commercially-available muscle precursors, potentially facilitating thermally-responsive textiles that change porosity to provide wearer comfort.

  18. A reconfigurable robot with tensegrity structure using nylon artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lianjun; de Andrade, Monica Jung; Brahme, Tarang; Tadesse, Yonas; Baughman, Ray H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design and experimental investigation of a self-reconfigurable icosahedral robot for locomotion. The robot consists of novel and modular tensegrity structures, which can potentially maneuver in unstructured environments while carrying a payload. Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles were utilized to actuate the tensegrity structure as needed. The tensegrity system has rigid struts and flexible TCP muscles that allow keeping a payload in the central region. The TCP muscles provide large actuation stroke, high mechanical power per fiber mass and can undergo millions of highly reversible cycles. The muscles are electrothermally driven, and, upon stimulus, the heated muscles reconfigure the shape of the tensegrity structure. Here, we present preliminary experimental results that determine the rolling motion of the structure.

  19. Human-like android face equipped with EAP artificial muscles to endow expressivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioggia, Giovanni; Di Francesco, Fabio; Geraci, C.; Chiarelli, P.; De Rossi, Danilo

    2001-07-01

    Electroactive polymer artificial muscles (EAP) can be used to mimic human muscles. In an attempt to exploit these properties we are developing in our laboratory a human-like android unit able to replicate human facial expressions. The android is equipped with linear actuators and is made up of a multisensing acquisition system able to assess rheological and organoleptic properties of food. After the data analysis, the android looks like a man who tastes similar substances. It develops expressions mimicking human responses to the same foodstuff. In this paper we will present the design and relevant features of the artificial muscles and the performance of the android. Human anatomy and mechanical studies were needed to construct the carbon fiber composite holding structure. Location and electromechanical characteristics of EAP actuators were investigated. The system holds sensors, artificial skin and actuators to obtain suitable expressions, implementing the chewing phase, performed by a dedicated actuator, from the expressive phase achieved through multiactuator synergistic drive.

  20. Controllable rectification of the axial expansion in the thermally driven artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Donghua; Zhang, Xingyi; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2015-09-01

    At present, the concept of artificial muscle twisted by polymers or fibers has become a hot issue in the field of intelligent material research according to its distinguishing advantages, e.g., high energy density, large-stroke, non-hysteresis, and inexpensive. The axial thermal expansion coefficient is an important parameter which can affect its demanding applications. In this letter, a device with high accuracy capacitive sensor is constructed to measure the axial thermal expansion coefficient of the twisted carbon fibers and yarns of Kevlar, and a theoretical model based on the thermal elasticity and the geometrical features of the twisted structure are also presented to predict the axial expansion coefficient. It is found that the calculated results take good agreements with the experimental data. According to the present experiment and analyses, a method to control the axial thermal expansion coefficient of artificial muscle is proposed. Moreover, the mechanism of this kind of thermally driven artificial muscle is discussed.

  1. A top-down multi-scale modeling for actuation response of polymeric artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianxi; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-07-01

    A class of innovative artificial muscles made of high-strength polymeric fibers such as fishing lines or sewing threads have been discovered recently. These muscles are fabricated by a simple "twist-insertion" procedure, which have attracted increasing attention due to their low cost and readily availability, giant tensile stroke, record energy density, and easy controllability. In the present paper, we established a multi-scale modeling framework for the thermomechanical actuation responses by a top-down strategy, spanning from macro-scale helical spring analysis down to molecular level chain interaction study. Comparison between modeling results and experimental results exhibited excellent agreement. The effect of the micro-, meso- and macro-scale parameters on the actuation responses of the artificial muscle was further discussed through a parametric study per the validated model. This work helps understand the physical origin behind the remarkable tensile actuation behavior of the twisted-then-coiled polymeric artificial muscles and also provides inspirations for optimal design of advanced artificial muscles made by twist-insertion procedure.

  2. Efficient, Absorption-Powered Artificial Muscles Based on Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Yarns.

    PubMed

    Lima, Márcio Dias; Hussain, Mohammad W; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Naficy, Sina; Hagenasr, Daniela; Bykova, Julia S; Tolly, Derrick; Baughman, Ray H

    2015-07-01

    A new type of absorption-powered artificial muscle provides high performance without needing a temperature change. These muscles, comprising coiled carbon nanotube fibers infiltrated with silicone rubber, can contract up to 50% to generate up to 1.2 kJ kg(-1) . The drive mechanism for actuation is the rubber swelling during exposure to a nonpolar solvent. Theoretical energy efficiency conversion can be as high as 16%. PMID:25755113

  3. Artificial Muscle Devices: Innovations and Prospects for Fecal Incontinence Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Elisa; Brusa, Tobia; Gingert, Christian; Hieber, Simone E; Leung, Vanessa; Osmani, Bekim; Dominietto, Marco D; Büchler, Philippe; Hetzer, Franc; Müller, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Fecal incontinence describes the involuntary loss of bowel content, which is responsible for stigmatization and social exclusion. It affects about 45% of retirement home residents and overall more than 12% of the adult population. Severe fecal incontinence can be treated by the implantation of an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, are not part of everyday surgery due to long-term re-operation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. Such figures suggest that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter. This article reviews the artificial sphincters on the market and under development, presents their physical principles of operation and critically analyzes their performance. We highlight the geometrical and mechanical parameters crucial for the design of an artificial fecal sphincter and propose more advanced mechanisms of action for a biomimetic device with sensory feedback. Dielectric electro-active polymer actuators are especially attractive because of their versatility, response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence during daily activities. PMID:26926695

  4. Bio-inspired artificial muscle structure for integrated sensing and actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhihang; Faisal, Md. Shahnewaz Sabit; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chen, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a novel artificial muscle/tendon structure is developed for achieving bio-inspired actuation and self-sensing. The hybrid structure consists of a dielectric elastomer (DE) material connected with carbon fibers, which incorporates the built-in sensing and actuation capability of DE and mechanical, electrical interfacing capability of carbon fibers. DEs are light weight artificial muscles that can generate compliant actuation with low power consumption. Carbon fibers act as artificial tendon due to their high electro-conductivity and mechanical strength. PDMS material is used to electrically and mechanically connect the carbon fibers with the DE material. A strip actuator was fabricated to verify the structure design and characterize its actuation and sensing capabilities. A 3M VHB 4905 tape was used as the DE material. To make compliant electrodes on the VHB tape, carbon black was sprayed on the surface of VHB tape. To join the carbon fibers to the VHB tape, PDMS was used as bonding material. Experiments have been conducted to characterize the actuation and sensing capabilities. The actuation tests have shown that the energy efficiency of artificial muscle can reach up to 0.7% and the strain can reach up to 1%. The sensing tests have verified that the structure is capable of self-sensing through the electrical impedance measurement.

  5. Biologically inspired hexapedal robot using field-effect electroactive elastomer artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerle, Joseph; Stanford, Scott; Marlow, John; Schmidt, Roger; Oh, Seajin; Low, Thomas; Shastri, Subramanian V.

    2001-06-01

    Small, autonomous mobile robots are needed for applications such as reconnaissance over difficult terrain or internal inspection of large industrial systems. Previous work in experimental biology and with legged robots has revealed the advantages of using leg actuators with inherent compliance for robust, autonomous locomotion over uneven terrain. Recently developed field-effect electroactive elastomer artificial muscle actuators offer such compliance as well as attractive performance parameters such as force/weight and efficiency, so we developed a small (670 g) six-legged robot, FLEX, using AM actuators. Electrically, AM actuators are a capacitive, high-impedance load similar to piezoelectrics, which makes them difficult to rive optimally with conventional circuitry. Still, we were able to devise a modular, microprocessor-based control system capable of driving 12 muscles with up to 5,000 V, operating form an on- board battery. The artificial muscle actuators had excellent compliance and peak performance, but suffered from poor uniformity and degradation over time. FLEX is the first robot of its kind. While there is room for improvement in some of the robot systems such as actuators and their drivers, this work has validated the idea of using artificial muscle actuators in biologically inspired walking robots.

  6. Contribution to the mechanics of worm-like motion systems and artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Steigenberger, J

    2003-08-01

    In this paper the author presents a mathematical model of a device that can be seen as a segment of an artificial worm (following the paradigm "earthworm") and as an artificial muscle as well. Confining considerations to statics, the model shows up as an ordinary parameter-dependent boundary value problem. It is tackled numerically in various particular forms by means of Maple and thus gives a good view of the segment's behavior during inflation and under longitudinal load. Segments of maximal volume present a useful preliminary stage of the investigations. PMID:14586816

  7. Electroactive artificial muscle: nonionic polymer gels and elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Toshihiro; Uddin, Md. Zulhash; Zheng, Jianming; Watanabe, Masashi; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2003-10-01

    Non-ionic dielectric polymers have not been considered adequate for electroactive actuator materials because of their poor reaction to the electric field. As electroactive polymeric materials, the polyelectrolytes and conductive polymers have been investigated intensively, since they can show large deformation in aqueous media or in the presence of water as an additive. In this paper, the author will show the non-ionic polymeric materials can be used as electrically active materials. The electrically induced deformation phenomena that will be shown are contraction and relaxation, bending by solvent drag in the gel, crawling deformation, and "electrotactic" amoeba-like creep deformation. And the controlling factors of bending of elatomers. The materials that will be treated in this presentation covers from highly swollen dielectric gels through plasticized polymers to non-solvent type elastomers. Characteristics of the actuations are particularly large deformation or huge strain under much smaller energy dissipation compared to the conventional polyelectrolyte or conductive polymer actuators. Applications of the materials for pumping, valve, artificial pupil etc. will be demonstrated.

  8. The use of artificial neural networks to predict the muscle behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutilek, Patrik; Viteckova, Slavka; Svoboda, Zdenĕk; Smrcka, Pavel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce methods of prediction of muscle behavior of the lower extremities based on artificial neural networks, which can be used for medical purposes. Our work focuses on predicting muscletendon forces and moments during human gait with the use of angle-time diagram. A group of healthy children and children with cerebral palsy were measured using a Vicon MoCap system. The kinematic data was recorded and the OpenSim software system was used to identify the joint angles, muscle-tendon forces and joint muscle moment, which are presented graphically with time diagrams. The musculus gastrocnemius medialis that is often studied in the context of cerebral palsy have been chosen to study the method of prediction. The diagrams of mean muscle-tendon force and mean moment are plotted and the data about the force-time and moment-time dependencies are used for training neural networks. The new way of prediction of muscle-tendon forces and moments based on neural networks was tested. Neural networks predicted the muscle forces and moments of healthy children and children with cerebral palsy. The designed method of prediction by neural networks could help to identify the difference between muscle behavior of healthy subjects and diseased subjects.

  9. Development of Haptic Display Actuated with Magnetorheological Fluid and Artificial Muscle (HAMA Device)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    To operate in Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) with standard devices, beginners will feel difficulties to do it because they are not intuitive devices. Haptic sense is very important for intuitive operation. But existing haptic device is not suited to use in IVE for reasons of displayed sense and the size of the device itself. A device that is a portable one can only display Force-Feedback sense, and a device that can display tactile sense is impossible to be mounted on a hand. In this paper we proposed Haptic display Actuated with Magnetorheological fluid and Artificial muscle (HAMA device). It is a potable haptic device that can display Force-Feedback and tactile sense. The device is constructed of two small devices, a device for displaying Force-Feedback sense and a device for displaying tactile sence. They use Artificial Muscle and Magnetorheological fluid for an actuator. This time we developed index finger part for a trial and evaluate it.

  10. Electrostriction in Field-Structured Composites: Basis for a Fast Artificial Muscle?

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Martin, J.E.

    1999-01-27

    The electrostriction of composites consisting of dielectric particles embedded in a gel or elastomer is discussed. It is shown that when these particles are organized by a uniaxial field before gelation, the resulting field-structured composites are expected to exhibit enhanced electrostriction in a uniform field applied along the same axis as the structuring field. The associated stresses might be large enough to form the basis of a polymer-based fast artificial muscle.

  11. Artificial Muscles Based on Electroactive Polymers as an Enabling Tool in Biomimetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Evolution has resolved many of nature's challenges leading to working and lasting solutions that employ principles of physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, materials science, and many other fields of science and engineering. Nature's inventions have always inspired human achievements leading to effective materials, structures, tools, mechanisms, processes, algorithms, methods, systems, and many other benefits. Some of the technologies that have emerged include artificial intelligence, artificial vision, and artificial muscles, where the latter is the moniker for electroactive polymers (EAPs). To take advantage of these materials and make them practical actuators, efforts are made worldwide to develop capabilities that are critical to the field infrastructure. Researchers are developing analytical model and comprehensive understanding of EAP materials response mechanism as well as effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are still not readily available; however, in recent years, significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. In the current paper, the state-of-the-art and challenges to artificial muscles as well as their potential application to biomimetic mechanisms and devices are described and discussed.

  12. Hybrid carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscle inspired by spider dragline silk.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Hyeong Kim, Shi; Kyoon Shin, Min; Hoon Kwon, Cheong; Park, Jihwang; Tae Kim, Youn; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Lima, Márcio D; Haines, Carter S; Baughman, Ray H; Jeong Kim, Seon

    2014-01-01

    Torsional artificial muscles generating fast, large-angle rotation have been recently demonstrated, which exploit the helical configuration of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. These wax-infiltrated, electrothermally powered artificial muscles are torsionally underdamped, thereby experiencing dynamic oscillations that complicate positional control. Here, using the strategy spiders deploy to eliminate uncontrolled spinning at the end of dragline silk, we have developed ultrafast hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles that generated a 9,800 r.p.m. rotation without noticeable oscillation. A high-loss viscoelastic material, comprising paraffin wax and polystyrene-poly(ethylene-butylene)-polystyrene copolymer, was used as yarn guest to give an overdamped dynamic response. Using more than 10-fold decrease in mechanical stabilization time, compared with previous nanotube yarn torsional muscles, dynamic mirror positioning that is both fast and accurate is demonstrated. Scalability to provide constant volumetric torsional work capacity is demonstrated over a 10-fold change in yarn cross-sectional area, which is important for upscaled applications. PMID:24557457

  13. Hybrid carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscle inspired by spider dragline silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Hyeong Kim, Shi; Kyoon Shin, Min; Hoon Kwon, Cheong; Park, Jihwang; Tae Kim, Youn; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Lima, Márcio D.; Haines, Carter S.; Baughman, Ray H.; Jeong Kim, Seon

    2014-02-01

    Torsional artificial muscles generating fast, large-angle rotation have been recently demonstrated, which exploit the helical configuration of twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns. These wax-infiltrated, electrothermally powered artificial muscles are torsionally underdamped, thereby experiencing dynamic oscillations that complicate positional control. Here, using the strategy spiders deploy to eliminate uncontrolled spinning at the end of dragline silk, we have developed ultrafast hybrid carbon nanotube yarn muscles that generated a 9,800 r.p.m. rotation without noticeable oscillation. A high-loss viscoelastic material, comprising paraffin wax and polystyrene-poly(ethylene-butylene)-polystyrene copolymer, was used as yarn guest to give an overdamped dynamic response. Using more than 10-fold decrease in mechanical stabilization time, compared with previous nanotube yarn torsional muscles, dynamic mirror positioning that is both fast and accurate is demonstrated. Scalability to provide constant volumetric torsional work capacity is demonstrated over a 10-fold change in yarn cross-sectional area, which is important for upscaled applications.

  14. Multi-functional dielectric elastomer artificial muscles for soft and smart machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Gisby, Todd A.; McKay, Thomas G.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Calius, Emilio P.

    2012-08-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators are popularly referred to as artificial muscles because their impressive actuation strain and speed, low density, compliant nature, and silent operation capture many of the desirable physical properties of muscle. Unlike conventional robots and machines, whose mechanisms and drive systems rapidly become very complex as the number of degrees of freedom increases, groups of DE artificial muscles have the potential to generate rich motions combining many translational and rotational degrees of freedom. These artificial muscle systems can mimic the agonist-antagonist approach found in nature, so that active expansion of one artificial muscle is taken up by passive contraction in the other. They can also vary their stiffness. In addition, they have the ability to produce electricity from movement. But departing from the high stiffness paradigm of electromagnetic motors and gearboxes leads to new control challenges, and for soft machines to be truly dexterous like their biological analogues, they need precise control. Humans control their limbs using sensory feedback from strain sensitive cells embedded in muscle. In DE actuators, deformation is inextricably linked to changes in electrical parameters that include capacitance and resistance, so the state of strain can be inferred by sensing these changes, enabling the closed loop control that is critical for a soft machine. But the increased information processing required for a soft machine can impose a substantial burden on a central controller. The natural solution is to distribute control within the mechanism itself. The octopus arm is an example of a soft actuator with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOF). The arm utilizes neural ganglia to process sensory data at the local "arm" level and perform complex tasks. Recent advances in soft electronics such as the piezoresistive dielectric elastomer switch (DES) have the potential to be fully integrated with actuators

  15. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  16. Propulsion System with Pneumatic Artificial Muscles for Powering Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneva, Ivanka; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk; Cherelle, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design of device for control of new propulsion system with pneumatic artificial muscles. The propulsion system can be used for ankle joint articulation, for assisting and rehabilitation in cases of injured ankle-foot complex, stroke patients or elderly with functional weakness. Proposed device for control is composed by microcontroller, generator for muscles contractions and sensor system. The microcontroller receives the control signals from sensors and modulates ankle joint flex- ion and extension during human motion. The local joint control with a PID (Proportional-Integral Derivative) position feedback directly calculates desired pressure levels and dictates the necessary contractions. The main goal is to achieve an adaptation of the system and provide the necessary joint torque using position control with feedback.

  17. Effective Young's modulus of the artificial muscle twisted by fishing lines: Analysis and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Donghua; Zhang, Xingyi; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2015-09-01

    Artificial muscles transformed by fishing lines or sewing thread, have distinguished advantages, e. g., fast, scalable, nonhysteretic, and long-life, which have been proposed by Haines et al. [Science 343, 868 (2014)]. In this paper, we present a geometrical model to predict the effective Young's modulus of the basic structure that is twisted by three fishing lines with the same diameter. Moreover, series of experiments are carried out to verify the present model, and it is found the theoretical calculations take good agreements with the experimental results.

  18. Determination of five nitroimidazole residues in artificial porcine muscle tissue samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingyun; Su, Yan; Liao, Xiulin; Yang, Na; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2012-01-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of five nitroimidazoles including benzoylmetronidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ronidazole, and secnidazole in porcine muscles. Nitroimidazoles in samples were extracted by ethyl acetate with subsequent clean-up by a strong cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The clean extracts were subjected to CE separation with optimal experimental conditions: pH 3.0 running buffer containing 25mM sodium phosphate and 0.10mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, 5s hydrodynamic injection at 0.5psi and 28kV separation voltage. The nitroimidazoles could be monitored and detected at 320nm within 18min. The limits of detection were below 1.0μg/kg and limits of quantification were lower than 3.2μg/kg for all nitroimidazoles in the muscle samples. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 85.4-96.0, 83.5-92.5, 1.3-3.9, and 1.1-4.2%, respectively for the intra-day and inter-day analyses. The proposed CE method has been successfully applied to determine nitroimidazoles in artificial porcine muscle samples with good accuracy and recovery, demonstrating that it has potential for detection and quantification of multi-nitroimidazole residue in real muscle samples. PMID:22265553

  19. An artificial niche preserves the quiescence of muscle stem cells and enhances their therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Quarta, Marco; Brett, Jamie O; DiMarco, Rebecca; De Morree, Antoine; Boutet, Stephane C; Chacon, Robert; Gibbons, Michael C; Garcia, Victor A; Su, James; Shrager, Joseph B; Heilshorn, Sarah; Rando, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    A promising therapeutic strategy for diverse genetic disorders involves transplantation of autologous stem cells that have been genetically corrected ex vivo. A major challenge in such approaches is a loss of stem cell potency during culture. Here we describe an artificial niche for maintaining muscle stem cells (MuSCs) in vitro in a potent, quiescent state. Using a machine learning method, we identified a molecular signature of quiescence and used it to screen for factors that could maintain mouse MuSC quiescence, thus defining a quiescence medium (QM). We also engineered muscle fibers that mimic the native myofiber of the MuSC niche. Mouse MuSCs maintained in QM on engineered fibers showed enhanced potential for engraftment, tissue regeneration and self-renewal after transplantation in mice. An artificial niche adapted to human cells similarly extended the quiescence of human MuSCs in vitro and enhanced their potency in vivo. Our approach for maintaining quiescence may be applicable to stem cells isolated from other tissues. PMID:27240197

  20. Improvement of McKibben Artificial Muscle with Long Stroke Motion and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Kuno, Hiroaki; Ihara, Michinori

    The actuators required for a wearable system need to be flexible so as not to injure the body. The purpose of this study is to develop a flexible and lightweight actuator which can be safe enough to be attached to the human body. In the previous study, a new type of McKibben artificial muscle that had a long stroke of more than 80 % of its original length was proposed and tested. However, the damages on the tube of the actuator were found. They are caused by a large friction between the slide stage and the tube. Therefore, the life time of the actuator becomes shorter. In this paper, the improved McKibben actuator which consists of a McKibben artificial muscle on the market (FESTO Co. Ltd.), steel balls as a cylinder head and two pairs of slide stages is proposed and tested. The slide stage has steel balls set on the inner bore of the stage to decrease the friction. The steel ball in the McKibben actuator is held by two pairs of slide stages from both sides of the ball. As a result, the minimum driving pressure of the improved actuator decreases about 68 % compared with that of the previous one. The actuator can realize both pushing and pulling motion even if it has flexibility. By using these properties of the actuator, the various rehabilitation devices were proposed and tested.

  1. Pneumatic artificial rubber muscle using shape-memory polymer sheet with embedded electrical heating wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Kazuto; Sugitani, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Naohiro; Sakaguchi, Seiya; Noritsugu, Toshiro; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2014-12-01

    Shape-memory polymer (SMP) can be deformed by applying a small load above its glass transition temperature (Tg). Shape-memory polymer maintains its shape after it has cooled below Tg and returns to a predefined shape when subsequently heated above Tg. The reversible change in the elastic modulus between the glassy and rubbery states of an SMP can be on the order of several hundred times. Based on the change in stiffness of the SMP in relation to the change in temperature, the present study attempts to evaluate the application of the SMP to soft actuators of a robot. In order to control the temperature of the SMP, we developed an SMP sheet with an embedded electrical heating wire. We formed a uniform, thin SMP sheet without air bubbles using a heat press. The SMP sheet with a heating wire can be heated quickly and can be maintained at a constant temperature. Moreover, the effects of the embedded wire on the mechanical properties in bending and tensile tests were small. Then, we applied the SMP sheet with the embedded electrical heating wire to a pneumatic artificial rubber muscle. The enhanced versatility of SMP sheet applications is demonstrated through a series of experiments conducted using a prototype. The initial shape and bending displacement of the pneumatic artificial rubber muscle can be changed by controlling the temperature of the SMP sheet.

  2. EDITORIAL: Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009) Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio and the 4th International Conference on Artificial Muscles were held in Osaka, Japan, 23-27 November 2009. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers presented at this international conference and congress. Of the 76 or so papers presented at the conference, only 10 papers were finally selected, reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular reviewing procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites and their applications. In particular, an electromechanical model for self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes is presented which discusses the concept of creating self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes where actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Eventually, an electromechanical model of the device is also proposed and validated. Following that, there is broad coverage of polytetrahydrofurane-polyethylene oxide-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) for high speed actuators. The conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated within the IPNs, which are synthesized from polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks. PEO/PTHF IPNs are prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxythelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The conducting IPN actuators are prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. Subsequently, giant and reversible magnetorheology of carrageenan/iron oxide magnetic gels are discussed and the effect of magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties

  3. Towards artificial molecular motor-based electroactive/photoactive biomimetic muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tony Jun

    2007-04-01

    Artificial molecular motors have recently attracted considerable interest from the nanoscience and nanoengineering community. These molecular-scale systems utilize a 'bottom-up' technology centered around the design and manipulation of molecular assemblies, and are potentially capable of delivering efficient actuations at dramatically reduced length scales when compared to traditional microscale actuators. When stimulated by light, electricity, or chemical reagents, a group of artificial molecular motors called bistable rotaxanes - which are composed of mutually recognizable and intercommunicating ring and dumbbell-shaped components - experience relative internal motions of their components just like the moving parts of macroscopic machines. Bistable rotaxanes' ability to precisely and cooperatively control mechanical motions at the molecular level reveals the potential of engineering systems that operate with the same elegance, efficiency, and complexity as biological motors function within the human body. We are in a process of developing a new class of bistable rotaxane-based electroactive/photoactive biomimetic muscles with unprecedented performance (strain: 40-60%, operating frequency: up to 1 MHz, energy density: ~50 J/cm 3, multi-stimuli: chemical, electricity, light). As a substantial step towards this longterm objective, we have proven, for the first time, that rotaxanes are mechanically switchable in condensed phases on solid substrates. We have further developed a rotaxane-powered microcantilever actuator utilizing an integrated approach that combines "bottom-up" assembly of molecular functionality with "top-down" micro/nano fabrication. By harnessing the nanoscale mechanical motion from artificial molecular machines and eliciting a nanomechanical response in a microscale device, this system mimics natural skeletal muscle and provides a key component for the development of nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS).

  4. Cardiomyopathy induced by artificial cardiac pacing: myth or reality sustained by evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Andrés Di Leoni; Borges, Anibal Pires; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Sussenbach, Carolina Pelzer; da Rosa, Priscila Raupp; Piantá, Ricardo Medeiros; Wiehe, Mario; Goldani, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Implantable cardiac pacing systems are a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic irreversible bradycardia. Under the proper indications, cardiac pacing might bring significant clinical benefit. Evidences from literature state that the action of the artificial pacing system, mainly when the ventricular lead is located at the apex of the right ventricle, produces negative effects to cardiac structure (remodeling, dilatation) and function (dissinchrony). Patients with previously compromised left ventricular function would benefit the least with conventional right ventricle apical pacing, and are exposed to the risk of developing higher incidence of morbidity and mortality for heart failure. However, after almost 6 decades of cardiac pacing, just a reduced portion of patients in general would develop these alterations. In this context, there are not completely clear some issues related to cardiac pacing and the development of this cardiomyopathy. Causality relationships among QRS widening with a left bundle branch block morphology, contractility alterations within the left ventricle, and certain substrates or clinical (previous systolic dysfunction, structural heart disease, time from implant) or electrical conditions (QRS duration, percentage of ventricular stimulation) are still subjecte of debate. This review analyses contemporary data regarding this new entity, and discusses alternatives of how to use cardiac pacing in this context, emphasizing cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25372916

  5. Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Using the Nintendo Wii Fit on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities of Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults. PMID:24648647

  6. EDITORIAL: Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009) Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio and the 4th International Conference on Artificial Muscles were held in Osaka, Japan, 23-27 November 2009. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers presented at this international conference and congress. Of the 76 or so papers presented at the conference, only 10 papers were finally selected, reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular reviewing procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites and their applications. In particular, an electromechanical model for self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes is presented which discusses the concept of creating self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes where actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Eventually, an electromechanical model of the device is also proposed and validated. Following that, there is broad coverage of polytetrahydrofurane-polyethylene oxide-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) for high speed actuators. The conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated within the IPNs, which are synthesized from polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks. PEO/PTHF IPNs are prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxythelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The conducting IPN actuators are prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. Subsequently, giant and reversible magnetorheology of carrageenan/iron oxide magnetic gels are discussed and the effect of magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties

  7. Synthesis of nanoscaled platinum particles (NSPP): their role in performance improvement of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang J.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-07-01

    In this work the synthesis of nano-scaled platinum particles by a chemical reducing technique within an ion-exchange membrane has been performed. It is desirable to gain a fundamental knowledge and understanding of the properties of small nano-scaled platinum particles within ion-exchange membranes, which can affect the performance of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) artificial muscles. In IPMC artificial muscle applications, the finite size of platinum particles is believed to strongly influence their properties. This might be related to a platinum surface effect originating from the electronic surface states of platinum particles that differ from the bulk states. In order to address this issue, we have attempted to synthesize small platinum particles having different size distributions by using protective agents. Further, we have characterized them as well. For IPMC artificial muscles, the presence of such nano-scale platinum particles minimizes the solvent- leakage from the surface electrodes. This in turn improves their performance dramatically. A successfully fabricated IPMC artificial muscle with nano-Platinum particles has shown a significantly improved force density as much as 100% than that of the conventional IPMC.

  8. Development and Analysis of Bending Actuator Using McKibben Artificial Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feifei; Dohta, Shujiro; Akagi, Tetsuya

    Recent years, the number of nuclear families is rapidly growing. So the development of a human-friendly-robot which can take care of human daily life is strongly desired. This robot has to work just like a human, so, it is needed to have a dexterous soft hand in the robot. Therefore, we have developed an artificial soft gripper. This robot hand which has five fingers is made of silicone rubber. We also developed the hand which could be used to achieve several works just like a human hand. For example, it can grasp some objects that have the different shape and stiffness. Since it is made of silicone rubber, there is little damage to the object. However, the finger could not generate a larger force, less than 3N. In addition, it needs a skill and time to make the finger. In this study, we proposed and tested a bending actuator that could be easily constructed by putting the McKibben artificial muscle into the flexible tube. We also investigated the generated force and bending angle of the actuator. As a result, the generated force of the actuator was improved about 8.5 times as large as previous one. We also improved the bending actuator by changing the tube and the slit of the flexible tube. And the analytical model for the bending actuator was proposed and the calculated results were compared with the experimental ones.

  9. [Artificial blood in 1990: from a lifelong dream to today's reality].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, C

    1990-10-01

    Human blood is a very complex tissue. Therefore the idea of rediscovery its different cellular and plasmatic constituents would seem to be utopic. To be efficient the oxygen carrier, be it natural or by synthesis, must be stripped of antigenicity, be easily stockable and transportable. Thus these properties permit its use in urgent circumstances (accidents, natural disasters, war...), in those countries where there is a non existent or limited transfusional structure. This, under certain conditions, during very specific pathologies (localised ischemia for example). Among several hypotheses, they are two main lines of research that of "hemoglobin solutions" the oldest and the most physiological. This will be developed here in more lengthy terms due to our personal work on the subject. The second line of research concerns fluorocarbons, the most modern and artificial and without doubt better known to doctors and the public. 1. HEMOGLOBIN SOLUTIONS. Other than nephrotoxicity, which has proved affordable, research han revealed four large limitations with hemoglobin solutions (a high affinity for oxygen due to absence or loss of 2.3 DPG, a short half life due to vascular loss, rapid dimerisation and elimination of urine, insufficient concentration of prepared solutions (70 g/L) with as a result a weak oncotic pressure and oxygen supply, oxidation in methemoglobin). In order to overcome the two inconveniences, proposals were made to modify hemoglobin chemically, the idea coming from the putting into operation of potential analogues to or substitutes for 2.3 DPG which it is advisable to bring or to keep--by covalent bonding--near to the fixation site of the natural ligand. Thus our group has already deposed several patents and is now working on a complex hemoglobin-dextran benzine tetracarboxylate which appears promising. Today, due to the quality and reproduction of the results obtained on animals with chemically modified hemoglobin preparations clinical assays should be

  10. Dynamics of a pneumatic artificial muscle actuation system driving a trailing edge flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Benjamin K. S.; Kothera, Curt S.; Wang, Gang; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents a time domain dynamic model of an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) driven trailing edge flap (TEF) system for next generation active helicopter rotors. Active rotor concepts are currently being widely researched in the rotorcraft community as a means to provide a significant leap forward in performance through primary aircraft control, vibration mitigation and noise reduction. Recent work has shown PAMs to be a promising candidate for active rotor actuation due to their combination of high force, large stroke, light weight, and suitable bandwidth. When arranged into biologically inspired agonist/antagonist muscle pairs they can produce bidirectional torques for effectively driving a TEF. However, there are no analytical dynamic models in the literature that can accurately capture the behavior of such systems across the broad range of frequencies required for this demanding application. This work combines mechanical, pneumatic, and aerodynamic component models into a global flap system model developed for the Bell 407 rotor system. This model can accurately predict pressure, force, and flap angle response to pneumatic control valve inputs over a range of operating frequencies from 7 to 35 Hz (1/rev to 5/rev for the Bell 407) and operating pressures from 30 to 90 psi.

  11. New horizons for orthotic and prosthetic technology: artificial muscle for ambulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Hugh M.; Kornbluh, Roy D.

    2004-07-01

    The rehabilitation community is at the threshold of a new age in which orthotic and prosthetic devices will no longer be separate, lifeless mechanisms, but intimate extensions of the human body-structurally, neurologically, and dynamically. In this paper we discuss scientific and technological advances that promise to accelerate the merging of body and machine, including the development of actuator technologies that behave like muscle and control methodologies that exploit principles of biological movement. We present a state-of-the-art device for leg rehabilitation: a powered ankle-foot orthosis for stroke, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis patients. The device employs a forcecontrollable actuator and a biomimetic control scheme that automatically modulates ankle impedance and motive torque to satisfy patient-specific gait requirements. Although the device has some clinical benefits, problems still remain. The force-controllable actuator comprises an electric motor and a mechanical transmission, resulting in a heavy, bulky, and noisy mechanism. As a resolution of this difficulty, we argue that electroactive polymer-based artificial muscle technologies may offer considerable advantages to the physically challenged, allowing for joint impedance and motive force controllability, noise-free operation, and anthropomorphic device morphologies.

  12. An Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Stringer, Keith; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    No permanent, reliable artificial tendon exists clinically. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device as a versatile connector, fixed at one end to a muscle, and adaptable at the other end to inert implants such as prosthetic bones or to bone anchors. The objective of this study was to evaluate four configurations of the device to replace the extensor mechanism of the knee in goats. Within muscle, the four groups had: (A) needle-drawn uncoated bundles, (B) needle-drawn coated bundles, (C) barbed uncoated bundles, and (D) barbed coated bundles. The quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon were removed from the right hind limb in 24 goats. The four groups (n=6 for each) were randomly assigned to connect the quadriceps muscle to the tibia (with a bone plate). Specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated controls both for mechanical testing and histology at 90 days post-surgery. In strength testing, maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated control) were 1288±123 N (vs. 1387±118 N) for group A, 1323±144 N (vs. 1396±779 N) for group B, 930±125 N (vs. 1337±126 N) for group C, and 968±109 N (vs. 1528±146 N) for group D (mean ± SEM). The strengths of the OrthoCoupler™ legs in the needled device groups were equivalent to unoperated controls (p=0.6), while both barbed device groups had maximum forces significantly lower than their controls (p=0.001). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:21520259

  13. Characterization of bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing mCherry fluorescent protein substituted for the murine smooth muscle-alpha-actin gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smooth muscle a actin (SMA) is a cytoskeletal protein expressed by mesenchymal and smooth muscle cell types, including mural cells(vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes). Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) recombineering technology, we generated transgenic reporter mice that express a ...

  14. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Real-Time Myoelectric Control of Multifunction Artificial Arms

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A.; Li, Guanglin; Lock, Blair A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Miller, Laura A.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Englehart, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    the average times of control participants. For TMR patients, the average (SD) motion-selection and motion-completion times for hand-grasp patterns were 0.38 s (0.12) and 1.54 s (0.27), respectively. TMR patients successfully completed an average (SD) of 96.3% (3.8) of elbow and wrist movements and 86.9% (13.9) of hand movements within 5 s, compared to 100% (0) and 96.7% (4.7) completed by controls. Three of the patients were able to demonstrate the use of this control system in advanced prostheses including motorized shoulders, elbows, wrists and hands. Conclusion These results suggest that reinnervated muscles can produce sufficient EMG information to control advanced artificial arms. PMID:19211469

  15. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made. PMID:25644277

  16. PREFACE: Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles & Nano-Bio 2007: Scientists Meet Doctors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Otero, Toribio

    2008-02-01

    invaded by a new virus. A very expensive trial and error (still pseudo-alchemic) procedure has to be initiated to try to enable ill people to get better. Nowadays models from chemical kinetics do not include any quantification of either changes to the molecular interactions inside the system during reaction or structural information about the conformational changes brought about by enzymes or reactive proteins. From our point of view this is one the most important scientific challenges for the 21st century, involving responses to questions related to life, health and illness. Those responses, due to the magnitude of the challenge, can only be obtained by cooperative work involving chemists, physicist, engineers, biologists and clinicians. Figure Figure showing the full distance inside the universe. Small and large systems are submitted as `constant physical' interactions affording quite predictive models. Life is based on chemistry giving rise to simultaneous changes on all the molecular interactions included in the system: their interpretation is outside current chemical or physical models. Most technological advances developed by human beings are inspired by biological systems, organs, or mechanisms present in living creatures. The main difference between human technology and natural organs is the changes in chemical composition occurring inside the wet natural organ during actuation: they are reactive, soft and wet materials. Our artificial machines are constructed of dry materials that maintain a constant composition under actuation. This is the context proposed for the consecutive World Congresses on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles & Nano-Bio and more specifically for the IVth Congress held in Torre Pacheco, Spain, 6-9 November 2007. The papers selected for this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes: dry and wet materials, chemically reactive or physically reactive materials, organic and inorganic materials, macroscopic films and nanoparticles

  17. Ultimate test bench for pediatric biventricular assist device based on artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Muradbegovic, Mirza; Taub, Steven; Rizzo, Elena; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Tozzi, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are used in treatment for terminal heart failure or as a bridge to transplantation. We created biVAD using the artificial muscles (AMs) that supports both ventricles at the same time. We developed the test bench (TB) as the in vitro evaluating system to enable the measurement of performance. The biVAD exerts different pressure between left and right ventricle like the heart physiologically does. The heart model based on child's heart was constructed in silicone. This model was fitted with the biVAD. Two pipettes containing water with an ultrasonic sensor placed on top of each and attached to ventricles reproduced the preload and the after load of each ventricle by the real-time measurement of the fluid height variation proportionally to the exerted pressure. The LabVIEW software extrapolated the displaced volume and the pressure generated by each side of our biVAD. The development of a standardized protocol permitted the validation of the TB for in vitro evaluation, measurement of the performances of the AM biVAD herein, and reproducibility of data. PMID:21229806

  18. Proof of concept of an artificial muscle: theoretical model, numerical model, and hardware experiment.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R; Schmitt, S

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, the contraction dynamics of this CE concept were analyzed in a numerical simulation of quick release experiments against different loads. A hyperbolic force-velocity relation was found. The results correspond to measurements of the contraction dynamics of a technical prototype. Deviations from the theoretical prediction could partly be explained by the low stiffness of the SE, which was modeled analog to the metal spring in the hardware prototype. The numerical model and hardware prototype together, are a proof of this CE concept and can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles. This opens up new vistas for the technical realization of natural movements with rehabilitation devices. PMID:22275541

  19. Effect of bladder wall thickness on miniature pneumatic artificial muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Pillsbury, Thomas E; Kothera, Curt S; Wereley, Norman M

    2015-10-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators known for their high power to weight ratio, natural compliance and light weight. Due to these advantages, PAMs have been used for orthotic devices and robotic limbs. Small scale PAMs have the same advantages, as well as requiring greatly reduced volumes with potential application to prostheses and small scale robotics. The bladder of a PAM affects common actuator performance metrics, specifically: blocked force, free contraction, hysteresis, and dead-band pressure. This paper investigates the effect that bladder thickness has on static actuation performance of small scale PAMs. Miniature PAMs were fabricated with a range of bladder thicknesses to quantify the change in common actuator performance metrics specifically: blocked force, free contraction, and dead-band pressure. These PAMs were then experimentally characterized in quasi-static conditions, where results showed that increasing bladder wall thickness decreases blocked force and free contraction, while dead-band pressure increases. A nonlinear model was then applied to determine the structure of the stress-strain relationship that enables accurate modeling and the minimum number of terms. Two nonlinear models are compared and the identified parameters are analyzed to study the effect of the bladder thickness on the model. PMID:26414160

  20. Characterization and dynamic modeling of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC): artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudigonda, Ashwin; Zhu, Jianchao J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper deals with the characterization and dynamic modeling of the behavior of two types of the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) "artificial muscle" materials. Environmental Robots, Inc. (ERI) was the initial vendor and its IPMC products required hydration for optimal performance. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech, VT) subsequently developed their innovative ionic solvent filled IPMCs that obviated hydration. Static tests were conducted to characterize force, displacement and current as a function of applied voltage. Dynamic tests were conducted to observe the frequency response of the material. Fatigue tests were performed on the ERI IPMCs to observe the change in behavior over time. It was found that the VT IPMCs had a bandwidth that was almost half that of the ERI product. However, the obviation of hydration of the VT's IPMC ensured the repeatability of performance and generated increased force densities. A feasibility study is presented to estimate the amount of IPMC materials and power consumption for a biceps exo-muscular assistance device based on the characteristics of the current IPMC materials and a primitive exo-muscular fiber bundle structure.

  1. Anisotropic surface roughness enhances the bending response of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoimenov, Boyko L.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    Demands from the fields of bio-medical engineering and biologically-inspired robotics motivate a growing interest in actuators with properties similar to biological muscle, including ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC), the focus of this study. IPMC actuators consist of an ion-conductive polymer membrane, coated with thin metal electrodes on both sides and bend when voltage is applied. Some of the advantages of IPMC actuators are their softness, lack of moving parts, easy miniaturization, light weight and low actuation voltage. When used in bio-mimetic robotic applications, such as a snake-like swimming robot, locomotion speed can be improved by increasing the bending amplitude. However, it cannot be improved much by increasing the driving voltage, because of water electrolysis. To enhance the bending response of IPMCs we created a "preferred" bending direction by anisotropic surface modification. Introduction of anisotropic roughness with grooves across the length of the actuator improved the bending response by a factor of 2.1. Artificially introduced cracks on the electrodes in direction, in which natural cracks form by bending, improved bending response by a factor of 1.6. Anisotropic surface modification is an effective method to enhance the bending response of IPMC actuators and does not compromise their rigidity under loads perpendicular to the bending plane.

  2. Artificial muscle actuators for haptic displays: system design to match the dynamics and tactile sensitivity of the human fingerpad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, S. James; Hitchcock, Roger N.

    2010-04-01

    Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscles (EPAMTM) based on dielectric elastomers have the bandwidth and the energy density required to make haptic displays that are both responsive and compact. Recent work at Artificial Muscle Inc. has been directed toward the development of thin, high-fidelity haptic modules for mobile handsets. The modules provide the brief tactile "click" that confirms key press, and the steady state "bass" effects that enhance gaming and music. To design for these capabilities we developed a model of the physical system comprised of the actuator, handset, and user. Output of the physical system was passed through a transfer function to covert vibration into an estimate of the intensity of the user's haptic sensation. A model of fingertip impedance versus button press force is calibrated to data, as is impedance of the palm holding a handset. An energy-based model of actuator performance is derived and calibrated, and the actuator geometry is tuned for good haptic performance.

  3. Design and simulative experiment of an innovative trailing edge morphing mechanism driven by artificial muscles embedded in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongda; Liu, Long; Xiao, Tianhang; Ang, Haisong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, conceptual design of a tailing edge morphing mechanism developed based on a new kind of artificial muscle embedded in skin, named Driving Skin, is proposed. To demonstrate the feasibility of this conceptual design, an experiment using ordinary fishing lines to simulate the function of artificial muscles was designed and carried out. Some measures were designed to ensure measurement accuracy. The experiment result shows that the contraction ratio and force required by the morphing mechanism can be satisfied by the new artificial muscles, and a relationship between contraction ratios and morphing angles can be found. To demonstrate the practical application feasibility of this conceptual design, a wing section using ordinary ropes to simulate the function of the Driving Skin mechanism was designed and fabricated. The demonstration wing section, extremely light in weight and capable of changing thickness, performs well, with a -30^\\circ /+30^\\circ morphing angle achieved. The trailing edge morphing mechanism is efficient in re-contouring the wing profile.

  4. Development and characterization of self-healing carbon fabric/ionomer composite through stitched polymeric artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark Joseph

    Typical cracks in composite materials are hard to detect, because they may be very small or occur inside the material. This study investigates the development and characterization of carbon fiber and an ionomer, self-healing, laminate composite, enhanced with stitched artificial muscle elements. Although the carbon fiber is used as a structural reinforcement, the carbon fiber can also act as a resistive heating element in order to activate the healing elements in a Close-Then-Heal (CTH) approach. However in this study, hot air in an oven was used to activate the, SurlynRTM 8940, self-healing matrix. Artificial muscle was prepared from commercial fishing line to stitch reinforce the carbon laminate composite in the Z plane. Holes were drilled into the final composite and the muscle was stitched into the composite for active reinforcement. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to characterize the matrix and fishing line properties. The resulting smart composite was subjected to low velocity impact tests and consequential damage before healing in an oven, followed by three point bending flexure tests. Cracks in the carbon fiber reinforcement formed more easily than expected after impact because the holes were drilled to facilitate the muscle stitching. The matrix material could heal, but the reinforcement carbon could not. Several equipment issues and failures limited the amount of samples that could be created to continue testing with new parameters.

  5. Electrical Resistivity-Based Study of Self-Sensing Properties for Shape Memory Alloy-Actuated Artificial Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yin, Yue-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) has great potential to develop light and compact artificial muscle (AM) due to its muscle-like high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility and silent operation properties. In this paper, SMA self-sensing properties are explored and modeled in depth to imitate the integrated muscle-like functions of actuating and self-sensing for SMA-AM based on the investigation of SMA electrical resistivity (ER). Firstly, an ER transformation kinetics model is proposed based on the simulation of SMA differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Then a series of thermal-electrical-mechanical experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the ER model, whereby the SMA-AM self-sensing function is well established under different stress conditions. Finally the self-sensing capability is further demonstrated by its application to a novel SMA-AM-actuated active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO). PMID:24077316

  6. The effects of training by virtual reality or gym ball on pelvic floor muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Silva, Valéria R.; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Iunes, Denise H.; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of abdominopelvic training by virtual reality compared to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) using a gym ball (a previously tested and efficient protocol) on postmenopausal women’s pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 postmenopausal women, randomly allocated into two groups: Abdominopelvic training by virtual reality – APT_VR (n=30) and PFMT using a gym ball – PFMT_GB (n=30). Both types of training were supervised by the same physical therapist, during 10 sessions each, for 30 minutes. The participants’ PFM strength was evaluated by digital palpation and vaginal dynamometry, considering three different parameters: maximum strength, average strength and endurance. An intention-to-treat approach was used to analyze the participants according to original groups. Results No significant between-group differences were observed in most analyzed parameters. The outcome endurance was higher in the APT_VR group (p=0.003; effect size=0.89; mean difference=1.37; 95% CI=0.46 to 2.28). Conclusion Both protocols have improved the overall PFM strength, suggesting that both are equally beneficial and can be used in clinical practice. Muscle endurance was higher in patients who trained using virtual reality. PMID:27437716

  7. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  8. Selected papers from the 7th International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-bio (BAMN2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Oh, Ilkwon

    2014-07-01

    The 7th International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio was held on the magnificent and beautiful Jeju Island in Korea on 26-30 August 2013. In June 2007, the volcanic island and lava tube cave systems were designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites for their natural beauty and unique geographical values. The aim of the congress was to offer high-level lectures, extensive discussions and communications covering the state-of-the-art on biomimetics, artificial muscles, and nano-bio technologies providing an overview of their potential applications in the industrial, biomedical, scientific and robotic fields. This conference provided a necessary platform for an ongoing dialogue between researchers from different areas (chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, engineering, robotics, etc) within biomimetics, artificial muscle and nano-bio technologies. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers that were presented at BAMN2013. Of the 400 or so papers and over 220 posters presented at this international congress, 15 papers were finally received, reviewed and accepted for this special issue, following the regular peer review procedures of the journal. The special issue covers polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites, and their applications. In particular, electromechanical performance and other characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with various commercially available ion exchange membranes are discussed. Additionally, the control of free-edge interlaminar stresses in composite laminates using piezoelectric actuators is elaborated on. Further, the electrode effects of a cellulose-based electroactive paper energy harvester are described. Next, a flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators is discussed. A broad coverage of bio-applications of IPMC transducers is

  9. Challenges to the Transition of IPMC Artificial Muscle Actuators to Practical Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean; Oguro, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Harrison, Joycelyn; Smith, Joseph; Su, Ji

    1999-01-01

    Ion-exchange membrane metallic composites (IPMC), which were first reported in 1992, are one of the electroactive materials (EAP) with potential applications as artificial muscle actuators. The recent introduction of perfluorocarboxylate-gold composite with tetra-n-butylammonium and Lithium cations instead of sodium made the most significant improvement of the material electroactivity. Under less than 3 volts, IPMC with the new constituents is capable of bending beyond a complete loop. Taking into account the fact that IMPC materials do not induce a significant force, the authors are extensively seeking applications for these bending EAP. Some of the applications that were demonstrated include dust-wiper, catheter guide, miniature motor, robotic-gripper, micro-manipulator, etc. Generally, space applications are the most demanding in terms of operating conditions, robustness and durability, and the co-authors of this paper are jointly addressing the associated challenges. Specifically, a dust-wiper is being developed for the Nanorover's infrared camera window of the MUSES-CN mission. This joint NASA and the Japanese space agency mission, is scheduled to be launch from Kagoshima, Japan, in January 2002, to explore the surface of a small near-Earth asteroid. Several issues that are critical to the operation of IPMC are addressed including the operation in vacuum, low temperatures, and the effect of the electromechanical characteristic of the IPMC on its actuation capability. Highly efficient IPMC materials, mechanical modeling, unique elements and protective coating were introduced by the authors and are making a high probability the success of the IPMC actuated dust-wiper.

  10. PREFACE: Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles & Nano-Bio 2007: Scientists Meet Doctors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Otero, Toribio

    2008-02-01

    invaded by a new virus. A very expensive trial and error (still pseudo-alchemic) procedure has to be initiated to try to enable ill people to get better. Nowadays models from chemical kinetics do not include any quantification of either changes to the molecular interactions inside the system during reaction or structural information about the conformational changes brought about by enzymes or reactive proteins. From our point of view this is one the most important scientific challenges for the 21st century, involving responses to questions related to life, health and illness. Those responses, due to the magnitude of the challenge, can only be obtained by cooperative work involving chemists, physicist, engineers, biologists and clinicians. Figure Figure showing the full distance inside the universe. Small and large systems are submitted as `constant physical' interactions affording quite predictive models. Life is based on chemistry giving rise to simultaneous changes on all the molecular interactions included in the system: their interpretation is outside current chemical or physical models. Most technological advances developed by human beings are inspired by biological systems, organs, or mechanisms present in living creatures. The main difference between human technology and natural organs is the changes in chemical composition occurring inside the wet natural organ during actuation: they are reactive, soft and wet materials. Our artificial machines are constructed of dry materials that maintain a constant composition under actuation. This is the context proposed for the consecutive World Congresses on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles & Nano-Bio and more specifically for the IVth Congress held in Torre Pacheco, Spain, 6-9 November 2007. The papers selected for this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes: dry and wet materials, chemically reactive or physically reactive materials, organic and inorganic materials, macroscopic films and nanoparticles

  11. Artificial selection for high activity favors mighty mini-muscles in house mice.

    PubMed

    Houle-Leroy, Philippe; Guderley, Helga; Swallow, John G; Garland, Theodore

    2003-02-01

    After 14 generations of selection for voluntary wheel running, mice from the four replicate selected lines ran, on average, twice as many revolutions per day as those from the four unselected control lines. To examine whether the selected lines followed distinct strategies in the correlated responses of the size and metabolic capacities of the hindlimb muscles, we examined mice from selected lines, housed for 8 wk in cages with access to running wheels that were either free to rotate ("wheel access" group) or locked ("sedentary"). Thirteen of twenty individuals in one selected line (line 6) and two of twenty in another (line 3) showed a marked reduction ( approximately 50%) in total hindlimb muscle mass, consistent with the previously described expression of a small-muscle phenotype. Individuals with these "mini-muscles" were not significantly smaller in total body mass compared with line-mates with normal-sized muscles. Access to free wheels did not affect the relative mass of the mini-muscles, but did result in typical mammalian training effects for mitochondrial enzyme activities. Individuals with mini-muscles showed a higher mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity as revealed by the maximal in vitro rates of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, these mice showed the highest activities of hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase. Females with mini-muscles showed the highest levels of phosphofructokinase, and males with mini-muscles the highest levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase. As shown by total muscle enzyme contents, the increase in mass-specific aerobic capacity almost completely compensated for the reduction caused by the "loss" of muscle mass. Moreover, the mini-muscle mice exhibited the lowest contents of lactate dehydrogenase and glycogen phosphorylase. Interestingly, metabolic capacities of mini-muscled mice resemble those of muscles after endurance training. Overall, our results demonstrate that during selection for voluntary wheel

  12. Analysis of 31P MR spectroscopy data using artificial neural networks for longitudinal evaluation of muscle diseases: dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kari, S; King, L E; Olsen, N J

    1998-01-01

    Classical myopathic dermatomyositis (DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by an erythematous rash and severe, proximal muscle weakness. A disease variant, amyopathic DM, presents with the typical rash but without clinical evidence of muscle weakness. Prednisone and immunosuppressive drugs alleviate symptoms in many patients. Accurate longitudinal evaluations of patients are important to limit serious side effects of these drugs, including osteoporosis, cataracts, and growth inhibition. Metabolic abnormalities detected with 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provide the best quantitative data for evaluating these patients. With 31P MRS, the levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and phosphodiesters (PDE) were determined in the quadricep muscles of patients during rest and exercise. Artificial neural network (ANN) analyses of these data were previously used for accurate classification of patients with myopathic or amyopathic DM and normal controls. In the present investigation, an artificial neural network was employed for further analysis of the 31P metabolite levels in quantitative, longitudinal evaluations of the extent (percent) of clinical improvement or deterioration during treatment with prednisone and immunosuppressive drugs. The ANN results showed that adult patients in a severe myopathic state could improve with treatment to a clinical status of amyopathic DM. In contrast, severely weak juvenile patients in the myopathic state recovered to normal status. One juvenile patient did not improve and remained in the myopathic state. Additionally, a serious clinical relapse in an amyopathic patient was predicted with serial ANN analyses well in advance of the actual clinical event. These network analyses show potential utility for clinical applications in muscle diseases. PMID:9719579

  13. Selective targeting of ASIC3 using artificial miRNAs inhibits primary and secondary hyperalgesia after muscle inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Walder, Roxanne Y.; Gautam, Mamta; Wilson, Steven P.; Benson, Christopher J.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by acidic pH and may play a significant role in the development of hyperalgesia. Earlier studies show ASIC3 is important for induction of hyperalgesia after muscle insult using ASIC3−/− mice. ASIC3−/− mice lack ASIC3 throughout the body, and the distribution and composition of ASICs could be different from wild-type mice. We therefore tested whether knockdown of ASIC3 in primary afferents innervating muscle of adult wild-type mice prevented development of hyper-algesia to muscle inflammation. We cloned and characterized artificial miRNAs (miR-ASIC3) directed against mouse ASIC3 (mASIC3) to downregulate ASIC3 expression in vitro and in vivo. In CHO-K1 cells transfected with mASIC3 cDNA in culture, the miR-ASIC3 constructs inhibited protein expression of mASIC3 and acidic pH-evoked currents and had no effect on protein expression or acidic pH-evoked currents of ASIC1a. When miR-ASIC3 was used in vivo, delivered into the muscle of mice using a herpes simplex viral vector, both muscle and paw mechanical hyperalgesia were reduced after carrageenan-induced muscle inflammation. ASIC3 mRNA in DRG and protein levels in muscle were decreased in vivo by miRASIC3. In CHO-K1 cells co-transfected with ASIC1a and ASIC3, miR-ASIC3 reduced the amplitude of acidic pH-evoked currents, suggesting an overall inhibition in the surface expression of heteromeric ASIC3-containing channels. Our results show, for the first time, that reducing ASIC3 in vivo in primary afferent fibers innervating muscle prevents the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia in wild-type mice, and thus, may have applications in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain in humans. PMID:21843914

  14. Cardiac supporting device using artificial rubber muscle: preliminary study to active dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Goto, Takeshi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a surgical treatment that utilizes the patient's skeletal muscle to support circulation. To overcome the limitations of autologous skeletal muscles in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, we studied the use of a wrapped-type cardiac supporting device using pneumatic muscles. Four straight rubber muscles (Fluidic Muscle, FESTO, Esslingen, Germany) were used and connected to pressure sensors, solenoid valves, a controller and an air compressor. The driving force was compressed air. A proportional-integral-derivative system was employed to control the device movement. An overflow-type mock circulation system was used to analyze the power and the controllability of this new device. The device worked powerfully with pumped flow against afterload of 88 mmHg, and the beating rate and contraction/dilatation time were properly controlled using simple software. Maximum pressure inside the ventricle and maximum output were 187 mmHg and 546.5 ml/min, respectively, in the setting of 50 beats per minute, a contraction/dilatation ratio of 1:2, a preload of 18 mmHg, and an afterload of 88 mmHg. By changing proportional gain, contraction speed could be modulated. This study showed the efficacy and feasibility of a pneumatic muscle for use in a cardiac supporting device. PMID:26253252

  15. Synthesis of an air-working trilayer artificial muscle using a conductive cassava starch biofilm (manihot esculenta, cranz) and polypyrrole (PPy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez D, Y. E.; Arrieta A, Á. A.; Segura B, J. A.; Bertel H, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a methodology for obtaining a conductive cassava starch biofilm doped with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) is shown, as well as the electrochemical technique for the synthesis of polypyrrole films, which are used for developing the trilayer artificial muscle PPy/Biopolymer/PPy designed to operate in air. Furthermore, results from the trilayer movement using chronoamperometric techniques are shown.

  16. Validation of Mitochondrial Gene Delivery in Liver and Skeletal Muscle via Hydrodynamic Injection Using an Artificial Mitochondrial Reporter DNA Vector.

    PubMed

    Yasuzaki, Yukari; Yamada, Yuma; Ishikawa, Takuya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2015-12-01

    For successful mitochondrial transgene expression, two independent processes, i.e., developing a mitochondrial gene delivery system and construction of DNA vector to achieve mitochondrial gene expression, are required. To date, very few studies dealing with mitochondrial gene delivery have been reported and, in most cases, transgene expression was not validated, because the construction of a reporter DNA vector for mitochondrial gene expression is the bottleneck. In this study, mitochondrial transgene expression by the in vivo mitochondrial gene delivery of an artificial mitochondrial reporter DNA vector via hydrodynamic injection is demonstrated. In the procedure, a large volume of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) is rapidly injected. We designed and constructed pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) as a mitochondrial reporter DNA vector that possesses a mitochondrial heavy strand promoter (HSP) and an artificial mitochondrial genome with the reporter NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system. We delivered the pDNA into mouse liver mitochondria by hydrodynamic injection, and detected exogenous mRNA in the liver using reverse transcription PCR analysis. The hydrodynamic injection of pHSP-mtLuc (CGG) resulted in the expression of the Nluc luciferase protein in liver and skeletal muscle. Our mitochondrial transgene expression reporter system would contribute to mitochondrial gene therapy and further studies directed at mitochondrial molecular biology. PMID:26567847

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Characterization of Artificial Muscles Based on Charge Injection in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baughman, Ray

    2002-03-01

    We theoretically predicted that carbon nanotubes have the potential of providing at least an order of magnitude higher work capacity per cycle and stress generation capability, as compared with any prior-art material for directly converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. Experimental and theoretical results expand understanding of the nanotube actuation mechanism, and demonstrate that improvements in nanotube sheet and macrofiber properties correspondingly increase actuator performance. The actuation mechanism is electrochemical double-layer charge injection, which we show is dominated by band structure effects for low degrees of charge transfer and by intra-tube electrostatic repulsion when charge transfer is large. Measurements indicate that charge transfer is limited to the outer nanotubes in a nanotube bundle, which limits present performance (as does creep, nanotube misalignment, and poor inter-bundle stress transfer). Nevertheless, measured actuation stresses are 100 times that of natural muscle, and the measured gravimetric work-per-cycle (fixed load condition) is already much higher than for the hard ferroelectrics. Efforts to eliminate these problems (via debundling, nanotube welding, and improvements in nanotube spinning methods) will be described, together with the initial demonstration and analysis of chemically powered carbon nanotube muscles.

  18. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) as Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscles: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahinpoor, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Simpson, J. O.; Smith, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to ionic polymer-metal composites and some mathematical modeling pertaining to them. It further discusses a number of recent findings in connection with ion-exchange polymer-metal composites (IPMCS) as biomimetic sensors and actuators. Strips of these composites can undergo large bending and flapping displacement if an electric field is imposed across their thickness. Thus, in this sense they are large motion actuators. Conversely by bending the composite strip, either quasi-statically or dynamically, a voltage is produced across the thickness of the strip. Thus, they are also large motion sensors. The output voltage can be calibrated for a standard size sensor and correlated to the applied loads or stresses. They can be manufactured and cut in any size and shape. In this paper first the sensing capability of these materials is reported. The preliminary results show the existence of a linear relationship between the output voltage and the imposed displacement for almost all cases. Furthermore, the ability of these IPMCs as large motion actuators and robotic manipulators is presented. Several muscle configurations are constructed to demonstrate the capabilities of these IPMC actuators. This paper further identifies key parameters involving the vibrational and resonance characteristics of sensors and actuators made with IPMCS. When the applied signal frequency varies, so does the displacement up to a critical frequency called the resonant frequency where maximum deformation is observed, beyond which the actuator response is diminished. A data acquisition system was used to measure the parameters involved and record the results in real time basis. Also the load characterizations of the IPMCs were measured and it was shown that these actuators exhibit good force to weight characteristics in the presence of low applied voltages. Finally reported are the cryogenic properties of these muscles for potential utilization in an outer space

  19. Dynamic bending of bionic flexible body driven by pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs) for spinning gait of quadruped robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jingtao; Yu, Huangying; Wang, Tianmiao

    2016-01-01

    The body of quadruped robot is generally developed with the rigid structure. The mobility of quadruped robot depends on the mechanical properties of the body mechanism. It is difficult for quadruped robot with rigid structure to achieve better mobility walking or running in the unstructured environment. A kind of bionic flexible body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which is composed of one bionic spine and four pneumatic artificial muscles(PAMs). This kind of body imitates the four-legged creatures' kinematical structure and physical properties, which has the characteristic of changeable stiffness, lightweight, flexible and better bionics. The kinematics of body bending is derived, and the coordinated movement between the flexible body and legs is analyzed. The relationship between the body bending angle and the PAM length is obtained. The dynamics of the body bending is derived by the floating coordinate method and Lagrangian method, and the driving force of PAM is determined. The experiment of body bending is conducted, and the dynamic bending characteristic of bionic flexible body is evaluated. Experimental results show that the bending angle of the bionic flexible body can reach 18°. An innovation body mechanism for quadruped robot is proposed, which has the characteristic of flexibility and achieve bending by changing gas pressure of PAMs. The coordinated movement of the body and legs can achieve spinning gait in order to improve the mobility of quadruped robot.

  20. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad-1. Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  1. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure to microgravity: a pilot study examining the effects on knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Paloski, William; Baldwin, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (AG) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) group (n = 7) and 2) an AG group (n = 8), which was subjected to 21 days of 6° head-down tilt bed rest plus daily 1-h exposures to AG (2.5 G at the feet). Centrifugation was produced using a short-arm centrifuge with the foot plate ∼220 cm from the center of rotation. The torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre- and posttreatment. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were used for a series of gene expression analyses (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic vs. catabolic state of the muscle. Post/pre torque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the BR vs. AG group (P < 0.04). The plantar flexors of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in the torque-velocity relationship, whereas in the BR group, the responses declined (AG vs. BR, P < 0.001). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased by ∼20% in the BR group, whereas no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers were elevated in the BR group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. We conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading. PMID:19286573

  2. Relative performances of artificial neural network and regression mapping tools in evaluation of spinal loads and muscle forces during static lifting.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, N; Ekrami, O; Shirazi-Adl, A; Plamondon, A; Parnianpour, M

    2013-05-31

    Two artificial neural networks (ANNs) are constructed, trained, and tested to map inputs of a complex trunk finite element (FE) model to its outputs for spinal loads and muscle forces. Five input variables (thorax flexion angle, load magnitude, its anterior and lateral positions, load handling technique, i.e., one- or two-handed static lifting) and four model outputs (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) for spinal loads and 76 model outputs (forces in individual trunk muscles) are considered. Moreover, full quadratic regression equations mapping input-outputs of the model developed here for muscle forces and previously for spine loads are used to compare the relative accuracy of these two mapping tools (ANN and regression equations). Results indicate that the ANNs are more accurate in mapping input-output relationships of the FE model (RMSE= 20.7 N for spinal loads and RMSE= 4.7 N for muscle forces) as compared to regression equations (RMSE= 120.4 N for spinal loads and RMSE=43.2 N for muscle forces). Quadratic regression equations map up to second order variations of outputs with inputs while ANNs capture higher order variations too. Despite satisfactory achievement in estimating overall muscle forces by the ANN, some inadequacies are noted including assigning force to antagonistic muscles with no activity in the optimization algorithm of the FE model or predicting slightly different forces in bilateral pair muscles in symmetric lifting activities. Using these user-friendly tools spine loads and trunk muscle forces during symmetric and asymmetric static lifts can be easily estimated. PMID:23541615

  3. Artificial gravity as a countermeasure to microgravity: a pilot study examining the effects on knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Caiozzo, V J; Haddad, F; Lee, S; Baker, M; Paloski, William; Baldwin, K M

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (AG) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) group (n = 7) and 2) an AG group (n = 8), which was subjected to 21 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest plus daily 1-h exposures to AG (2.5 G at the feet). Centrifugation was produced using a short-arm centrifuge with the foot plate approximately 220 cm from the center of rotation. The torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre- and posttreatment. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were used for a series of gene expression analyses (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic vs. catabolic state of the muscle. Post/pre torque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the BR vs. AG group (P < 0.04). The plantar flexors of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in the torque-velocity relationship, whereas in the BR group, the responses declined (AG vs. BR, P < 0.001). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased by approximately 20% in the BR group, whereas no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers were elevated in the BR group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. We conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading. PMID:19286573

  4. Experimental characterization and modeling of ionic polymer-metal composites as biomimetic actuators, sensors, and artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongxian

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are soft bending actuators and sensors. A typical IPMC consists of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane, noble metal electrodes plated on both faces, and is neutralized with the necessary amount of cations. They respond to electric stimulus by generating large bending motions and produce electric signals upon sudden bending deformations. These actuation and sensing responses, which result from the coupled chemo-electro-mechanical interactions at the nano-scale level, depend on the structure of the ionomer, the morphology of the metal electrodes, the nature of the cations, and the degree of the hydration. IPMCs have been considered for potential applications in artificial muscles, robotic systems, medical devices, and other biomimetic applications. A series of systematic experimental characterizations are performed on both Nafion- and Flemion-based IPMCs in various cation forms. Compared with Nafion-based IPMCs, Flemion-based IPMCs with fine dendritic gold electrodes have higher ion-exchange capacity, better surface conductivity, higher hydration capacity, and higher longitudinal stiffness. Flemion-based IPMCs show a greater bending deformation towards the anode without back relaxation under a DC voltage. This displacement towards the anode is linearly related to the charge accumulation at the cathode. In contrast, Nafion-based IPMCs in alkali-metal cations initially have a fast bending towards the anode, followed by a slow relaxation in the opposite direction as charges continue to move towards the cathode boundary layer. Based on the understanding of the factors that affect IPMCs' performance, novel methods to tailor the IPMCs' electro-mechanical responses are developed. By modifying the associated cations, i.e., introducing various single cations (including alkali-metal, alkyl-ammonium, or multivalent metal cations) and cation combinations, diverse actuation behaviors can be obtained and optimized. The actuation motions of

  5. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-05-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  6. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  7. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  8. Extended Healing Validation of an Artificial Tendon to Connect the Quadriceps Muscle to the Tibia: 180-day Study

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan J.; Litsky, Alan S.; Mayerson, Joel L.; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to nonliving materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contra lateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1400± 93N (vs. 1179± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p = 0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p = 0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930

  9. Alternate Realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Two identical learners, observing different example input, or the same examples, but in different order, can form different categories and so judge newer/later input differently. (Machine Learning, T. Mitchell, McGraw Hill, 1997 and Asa H., R. Jones, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 109, # 3/4, pg 159, 2006) It seems certain that each of us experiences a somewhat different reality, the question is just how widely these realities can vary one from another. Perhaps 4% of people exhibit synesthesia, perceiving letters or numbers as colored, numbers and dates as having personalities or occupying locations in space. (Synesthesia, R. Cytowic, MIT Press, 2002) The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis claims that a speakers language influences his category structure and the way he thinks. (Language, thought, and reality, B. Whorf, MIT Press, 1956) Those who are skillful at mathematics may know an additional language and be able to think thoughts that the layman can not. The philosophers Plato and Descartes claimed to have had, at certain moments in their lives, a new view of the world, its basic constituents, and its rules which were totally different from our conventional view of reality. (Reflections on Kurt Godel, H. Wang, MIT Press, 1987, pg. 46) Fairly large scale differences are experienced by those who believe in (make use of) concepts like spirit(s), soul(s), god(s), life after death, platonism or Everett's many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (The Physics of Immortality, F. Tipler, Doubleday, 1994, pg. 176) )

  10. Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  11. Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dockery, John; Littman, David

    1992-01-01

    The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.

  12. Virtual reality and hallucination: a technoetic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slattery, Diana R.

    2008-02-01

    Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMDs), navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines the experiential aspect of VR. Putting "virtual" in front of "reality" modifies the ontological status of a class of experience-that of "reality." Reality has also been modified [by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers] as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered, and enhanced. Modifications of reality are closely tied to modifications of perception. Media theorist Roy Ascott creates a model of three "VR's": Verifiable Reality, Virtual Reality, and Vegetal (entheogenically induced) Reality. The ways in which we shift our perceptual assumptions, create and verify illusions, and enter "the willing suspension of disbelief" that allows us entry into imaginal worlds is central to the experience of VR worlds, whether those worlds are explicitly representational (robotic manipulations by VR) or explicitly imaginal (VR artistic creations). The early rhetoric surrounding VR was interwoven with psychedelics, a perception amplified by Timothy Leary's presence on the historic SIGGRAPH panel, and the Wall Street Journal's tag of VR as "electronic LSD." This paper discusses the connections-philosophical, social-historical, and psychological-perceptual between these two domains.

  13. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  14. Morphine: Myths and Reality

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Families Take the Quiz Morphine: Myths and Reality February, 2013 The mere mention of “Morphine” can ... due to misinformation and lack of training. The reality is that Morphine (and other opiates that work ...

  15. Virtual Reality as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Raymond, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that virtual reality technology has become popular because it is a miniaturization, a model, of something that already exists. Compares virtual reality to the news media, which centers on the gory, the sensational, and the distorted. (PA)

  16. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  17. Rhetoric as Reality Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.

    This essay provides an analytic development of a philosophy of rhetoric which focuses its concern on social reality. According to this philosophy, the activity of the human mind invents symbolic constructions of reality. Primary socialization is interpreted as a rhetorical process which tends to maintain prevailing reality constructions.…

  18. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  20. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  1. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  3. Food and water: symbol and reality.

    PubMed

    Caspar, R

    1988-05-01

    The act of giving food and water to the needy and helpless is a reality that reflects the communitarian aspect of the human family and our commitment to nurture our more vulnerable members. The technology that delivers artificial nutrition and hydration to an irreversibly comatose patient is, some would say, a symbol of that reality. As a symbol, what does it communicate, to whom, and for whose benefit? The critical examination of the ethics surrounding this issue requires the careful navigation of one of the busiest intersections, where ethics, law, technology, medicine, and the Church enter, converge, and exit--each with its own preoccupation and destination. Symbols are a type of representation that point beyond themselves to something else. If the act of giving food and water is symbolic, to what reality does it point? Surely this reality is care--that most human and humane attention that we give to one another at the most basic level of need. But is this care realized when a patient who is dying is tethered to the technology of artificial nutrition and hydration against his or her will? The meaning communicated by this symbol in such a case is intended only for the care givers and society. For patients who have lived in the spirit of Christian faith, the message may be a death-denying one, out of keeping with the hope of resurrection and eternal life. PMID:10315753

  4. Key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun; Wu, Xueling

    2008-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a growing research area in virtual reality and generates a composite view for the user. It is combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. About 80 percent information in the real world is related with spatial location. The combination of Geographical information system (GIS) and AR technologies would promote the development of outdoor AR systems, and also would explore a new research direction for GIS. The key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS, including basic tracking methods, display devices, typical applications and registration processes, are discussed. In indoor augmented reality's closed environments the tracking of position and head orientation as well as the presentation of information is much more unproblematic than the same task in an outdoor environment. The main application task of outdoor augmented reality GIS is the presentation of information to a user while moving through an unknown region. The system helps to detect automatically objects in sight of a person who need its information. It compares the conventional solutions of 3D registration with, while it discusses their algorithm procedure to basic parameters to give out their advantages and disadvantages at different condition. While affine transformation approach uses the idea of computer graphics and vision technology for reference. Its accuracy is mainly based on the precision and speed of scene feature point extracted from natural or artificial feature.

  5. All-silicone prestrain-locked interpenetrating polymer network elastomers: free-standing silicone artificial muscles with improved performance and robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, P.; Stoyanov, H.; Niu, X.; Pei, Q.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel all-silicone prestrain-locked interpenetrating polymer network (all-S-IPN) elastomer for use as a muscle-like actuator. The elastomer is fabricated using a combination of two silicones: a soft room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone that serves as the host elastomer matrix, and a more rigid high temperature vulcanizing (HTV) silicone that acts to preserve the prestrain in the host network. In our novel S-IPN fabrication procedure we co-dissolve the RTV and HTV silicones in a common solvent, cast thin films, and allow the RTV silicone to cure before applying prestrain and finally curing the HTV silicone to lock in the prestrain. The free-standing prestrain-locked silicones show a performance improvement over standard free-standing silicone films, with a linear strain of 25% and an area strain of 45% when tested in a diaphragm configuration. We show that the process can also be used to improve electrode adhesion and stability as well as improve the interlayer adhesion in multilayer actuators. We demonstrate that, when coupled with carbon nanotube electrodes, fault-tolerance through self-clearing can be observed. We use the fault-tolerance and improved interlayer adhesion to demonstrate stable long-life (>30 000 cycles at >20% strain) actuation and repeated high-performance actuation (>500 cycles at ∼40% strain) of prestrained free-standing multilayer actuators driving a load.

  6. Illusion and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Virginia

    The fiction writer uses language to create the illusion of reality. A work of fiction is an illusion of life in which characters attempt to transform basic reality by casting their desires and views upon it, thus creating internal conflict between elements of the real and the unreal. Characters must sort out through experiences that enable them to…

  7. Learning in Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricken, William

    The essence of the computer revolution is yet to come, for computers are essentially generators of realities. Virtual reality (VR) is the next step in the evolutionary path; the user is placed inside the image and becomes a participant within the computational space. A VR computer generates a direct experience of the computational environment. The…

  8. The Reality of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrishko, Gail

    This paper outlines the principles of Reality Therapy and Choice Theory, which provide a practical foundation for understanding and influencing human behavior, and relate them to experiential learning. Choice Theory is an explanation of human behavior developed by Dr. William Glasser (1965, 1985); Reality Therapy is the application of Choice…

  9. Virtual Reality: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchi, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  11. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

  12. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  13. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  14. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  15. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  16. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  17. Virtual Reality as Treatment for Fear of Flying: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure has recently emerged as an important tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of fear of flying. There have been numerous empirical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure as compared to other treatments including in vivo exposure, progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive therapy,…

  18. Artificial urushi.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  19. Thermodynamics in 'Manifest Reality'

    SciTech Connect

    Hankey, Alex

    2010-12-22

    D'Espagnat's proof that the universe is not a 'strongly objective reality' demands that all physical processes are reconsidered in that light. D'Espagnat suggests a 'Veiled Reality' as a suitable alternative. The most economical way to achieve that is to demand that 'information production' at a quantum level creates the basis for self-consistent perception of a world of macroscopic, 'manifest' entities, as opposed to self-existent objects. Such a 'manifest reality' fulfils both Wheeler's attempt at an 'IT-from-BIT' programme, and Zeilinger's suggestion that 'information is primary'.

  20. Environmental Reality Check.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educational facilities conducting "reality check" self-audits to uncover the real truth behind underlying environmental problems. An environmental compliance multimedia checklist is included. (GR)

  1. Better than reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Can you learn optics better using a simulation than you can in real life? Jon Cartwright explores how scientists are forgoing reality by replacing mirrors and lenses with virtual facilities and classrooms.

  2. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  3. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  4. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  5. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  6. Artificial noses.

    PubMed

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  7. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs of a muscle disorder, tests such as an electromyogram , ...

  8. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  9. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  10. Optimal haptic feedback control of artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel; Besier, Thor; Anderson, Iain; McKay, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    As our population ages, and trends in obesity continue to grow, joint degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are becoming increasingly prevalent. With no cure currently in sight, the only effective treatments for OA are orthopaedic surgery and prolonged rehabilitation, neither of which is guaranteed to succeed. Gait retraining has tremendous potential to alter the contact forces in the joints due to walking, reducing the risk of one developing hip and knee OA. Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are being explored as a potential way of applying intuitive haptic feedback to alter a patient's walking gait. The main challenge with the use of DEAs in this application is producing large enough forces and strains to induce sensation when coupled to a patient's skin. A novel controller has been proposed to solve this issue. The controller uses simultaneous capacitive self-sensing and actuation which will optimally apply a haptic sensation to the patient's skin independent of variability in DEAs and patient geometries.

  11. Extending applications of dielectric elastomer artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Seiki; Waki, Mikio; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron

    2007-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated high energy density and high strains as well as high electromechanical efficiency and fast speeds of response. These properties, combined with their projected low cost make them attractive for a variety of actuator applications including linear actuators, diaphragm pumps, rotary motors, and haptic displays. Dielectric elastomers have also been shown to offer high energy density, high efficiency, and large strains when operated as generators. Dielectric elastomers have reached a stage of development where standardized products can be applied to new applications. In some cases, dielectric elastomer devices are improvements over existing devices. In other cases, however, dielectric elastomers can enable new types of devices that cannot be made with existing technologies, such as new types of loudspeakers and power generating devices. A new dipole loudspeaker system was developed using a commercially available push-pull diaphragm configuration. This same transducer configuration was used to develop a new power generating system. This generator system enables a power generation of 0.06 to 0.12 W by manually displacing the device by 5 to 6 mm once a second. By introducing a voltage step-down conversion circuit, the device was able to power wireless communications, allowing the control of devices separated by a distance of a few meters. These two devices are examples of the new applications that are enabled as the dielectric elastomer technology commercially emerges. Future improvements to dielectric elastomers could enable new capabilities in clean electrical power generation from ocean waves, for example.

  12. EAP as artificial muscles - progress and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade and a half new polymers have emerged that respond to electrical stimulation with a significant shape or size change. This capability of electroactive polymer (EAP) materials is attracting the attention of engineers and scientists from many different disciplines.

  13. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  14. Virtual reality systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.

  15. Summary of the 1st International Workshop on Networked Reality in Telecommunication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T.

    1994-05-01

    s of workshop papers are presented. Networked reality refers to the array of technologies and services involved in collecting a representation of reality at one location and using it to reconstruct an artificial representation of that reality at a remote location. The term encompasses transmission of the required information between the sites, and also includes the psychological, cultural, and legal implications of introducing derived communication systems. Networked reality is clearly derived from the emerging virtual reality technology base but is intended to go beyond the latter to include its integration with the required telecommunication technologies. A noteworthy feature of the Networked Reality '94 technical program is the extent of emphasis on social (particularly medical) impacts of the technology.

  16. Factory of Realities: On the Emergence of Virtual Spatiotemporal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapatrin, Romàn R.

    The ubiquitous nature of modern Information Retrieval (IR) and Virtual World give rise to new realities. To what extent are these `realities' real? Which `physics' should be applied to quantitatively describe them? In this chapter, I dwell on few examples. The first is adaptive neural networks, which are not networks and not neural, but still provide service similar to classical artificial neural networks (ANNs) in extended fashion. The second is the emergence of objects looking like Einsteinian space-time, which describe the behavior of an Internet surfer like geodesic motion. The third is the demonstration of nonclassical and even stronger-than-quantum probabilities in IR, their use...

  17. Feasibility of using combined EMG and kinematic signals for prosthesis control: A simulation study using a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Blana, Dimitra; Kyriacou, Theocharis; Lambrecht, Joris M; Chadwick, Edward K

    2016-08-01

    Transhumeral amputation has a significant effect on a person's independence and quality of life. Myoelectric prostheses have the potential to restore upper limb function, however their use is currently limited due to lack of intuitive and natural control of multiple degrees of freedom. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel transhumeral prosthesis controller that uses a combination of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from the person's proximal humerus. Specifically, we trained a time-delayed artificial neural network to predict elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination from six proximal EMG signals, and humeral angular velocity and linear acceleration. We evaluated this scheme with ten able-bodied subjects offline, as well as in a target-reaching task presented in an immersive virtual reality environment. The offline training had a target of 4° for flexion/extension and 8° for pronation/supination, which it easily exceeded (2.7° and 5.5° respectively). During online testing, all subjects completed the target-reaching task with path efficiency of 78% and minimal overshoot (1.5%). Thus, combining kinematic and muscle activity signals from the proximal humerus can provide adequate prosthesis control, and testing in a virtual reality environment can provide meaningful data on controller performance. PMID:26190031

  18. Orbitofrontal Reality Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Schnider, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research have deepened our understanding of how the brain forms memories and uses them to build our mental past and future. But how does it determine whether an evoked memory refers to the present and can be acted upon? The study of patients who confuse reality, as evident from confabulation and disorientation, has opened ways to explore this vital capacity. Results indicate that the brain recurs to a phylogenetically old faculty of the orbitofrontal cortex – extinction – and structures of the reward system to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. PMID:23772208

  19. Virtual reality for emergency training

    SciTech Connect

    Altinkemer, K.

    1995-12-31

    Virtual reality is a sequence of scenes generated by a computer as a response to the five different senses. These senses are sight, sound, taste, touch, smell. Other senses that can be used in virtual reality include balance, pheromonal, and immunological senses. Many application areas include: leisure and entertainment, medicine, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, and training. Virtual reality is especially important when it is used for emergency training and management of natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, tornados and other situations which are hard to emulate. Classical training methods for these extraordinary environments lack the realistic surroundings that virtual reality can provide. In order for virtual reality to be a successful training tool the design needs to include certain aspects; such as how real virtual reality should be and how much fixed cost is entailed in setting up the virtual reality trainer. There are also pricing questions regarding the price per training session on virtual reality trainer, and the appropriate training time length(s).

  20. Curriculum: Managed Visual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueulette, David G.

    This paper explores the association between the symbolized and the actualized, beginning with the prehistoric notion of a "reality double," in which no practical difference exists between pictorial representations, visual symbols, and real-life events and situations. Alchemists of the Middle Ages, with their paradoxical vision of the universe…

  1. JFK: Image and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, James N.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between the reality of the John F. Kennedy White House, its portrayal in the press, and its reception by the public. The manipulated press coverage accurately caught the charm, work ethic, and idealism of the young president but failed to record the sexual escapades, ill health, and marital discord. (MJP)

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  3. Constructing Meaning with Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaonnou-Georgiou, Sophie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a constructivist rationale for introducing virtual reality in language learning and teaching and describes various virtual reality environments that are available. Ways of implementing constuctivist learning through virtual reality are suggested as well as basic guidelines for successful implementation in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  4. Enhancement of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, R; Heintz, C

    1994-09-01

    We have studied the effect of adding extra satellite cells or soluble factors from crushed muscle on regeneration of minced fragments from rat tibialis muscle. The muscle mince was wrapped in an artificial epimysium to prevent adhesions and cell immigration from adjacent muscles. Regeneration was quantitatively assessed by electrophoretic determination of the muscle-specific form of creatine kinase. Control minces exhibited three periods of change in creatine kinase activity during a 7-week regeneration period. Activity fell rapidly during the first week, then rose gradually from 1-3 weeks and increased more rapidly from 3-7 weeks. To augment the original complement of myogenic cells, satellite cells were isolated from the contralateral muscle, purified by density gradient centrifugation, and expanded in culture for 3 days before adding to the muscle mince. The added cells resulted in a 3-fold enhancement of creatine kinase activity throughout the regeneration period. Soluble muscle extract incorporated into a collagen matrix also stimulated regeneration when added to muscle mince. The extract accelerated the rate of creatine kinase increase during the 1-3 week period beyond that observed in the control or cell augmented mince, suggesting that factors in the extract may facilitate revascularization or reinnervation. The specific activity of creatine kinase was increased in regenerates augmented with both cells and extract, indicating that the effects enhance primarily myogenic processes. PMID:7803846

  5. Artificial halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmke, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  6. Experiments in mixed reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krum, David M.; Sadek, Ramy; Kohli, Luv; Olson, Logan; Bolas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Institute for Creative Technologies and the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, the Mixed Reality lab develops technologies and techniques for presenting realistic immersive training experiences. Such experiences typically place users within a complex ecology of social actors, physical objects, and collections of intents, motivations, relationships, and other psychological constructs. Currently, it remains infeasible to completely synthesize the interactivity and sensory signatures of such ecologies. For this reason, the lab advocates mixed reality methods for training and conducts experiments exploring such methods. Currently, the lab focuses on understanding and exploiting the elasticity of human perception with respect to representational differences between real and virtual environments. This paper presents an overview of three projects: techniques for redirected walking, displays for the representation of virtual humans, and audio processing to increase stress.

  7. The Fabric of Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Andrew

    David Deutsch, The Fabric of Reality (London: Allen Lane, 1997), x+390 pp., ISBN 0-713-990619, hardback. David Deutsch's popular book, The Fabric of Reality, has already won acclaim as a sustained and comprehensible explanation of his own worldview, which encompasses his four main strands of quantum physics, epistemology, computation and evolution, as well as the many connections between them. Deutsch is a strong opponent of reductionism, and the latter three strands are 'high level' theories compared to quantum physics; but all four are to be regarded as fundamental because they are the theories that provide the deepest explanations. Deutsch considers that his worldview may be called the first genuine Theory of Everything; it would stand in strong contrast to the reductionist theories given that title at present. In fact he believes his approach may enable us to unify and explain not just science, but philosophy, logic, mathematics, ethics, politics and aesthetics.

  8. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  9. LOCALITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    1980-02-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The, theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohr.' s pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed.

  10. Models of Reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-06-02

    Conscious awareness of our environment is based on a feedback loop comprised of sensory input transmitted to the central nervous system leading to construction of our ''model of the world,'' (Lewis et al, 1982). We then assimilate the neurological model at the unconscious level into information we can later consciously consider useful in identifying belief systems and behaviors for designing diverse systems. Thus, we can avoid potential problems based on our open-to-error perceived reality of the world. By understanding how our model of reality is organized, we allow ourselves to transcend content and develop insight into how effective choices and belief systems are generated through sensory derived processes. These are the processes which provide the designer the ability to meta model (build a model of a model) the user; consequently, matching the mental model of the user with that of the designer's and, coincidentally, forming rapport between the two participants. The information shared between the participants is neither assumed nor generalized, it is closer to equivocal; thus minimizing error through a sharing of each other's model of reality. How to identify individual mental mechanisms or processes, how to organize the individual strategies of these mechanisms into useful patterns, and to formulate these into models for success and knowledge based outcomes is the subject of the discussion that follows.

  11. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the muscles (such as trichinosis or toxoplasmosis ) Muscle disorders such as muscular dystrophy or congenital ... nodosa Polymyalgia rheumatica Polymyositis - adult Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Toxoplasmosis Trichinosis Update Date 9/8/2014 Updated by: ...

  12. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. Causes of muscle disorders include Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some ... muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  13. Achieving Presence through Evoked Reality

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jayesh S.; Schmidt, Colin; Richir, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The sense of “Presence” (evolving from “telepresence”) has always been associated with virtual reality research and is still an exceptionally mystifying constituent. Now the study of presence clearly spans over various disciplines associated with cognition. This paper attempts to put forth a concept that argues that it’s an experience of an “Evoked Reality (ER)” (illusion of reality) that triggers an “Evoked Presence (EP)” (sense of presence) in our minds. A Three Pole Reality Model is proposed to explain this phenomenon. The poles range from Dream Reality to Simulated Reality with Primary (Physical) Reality at the center. To demonstrate the relationship between ER and EP, a Reality-Presence Map is developed. We believe that this concept of ER and the proposed model may have significant applications in the study of presence, and in exploring the possibilities of not just virtual reality but also what we call “reality.” PMID:23550234

  14. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  15. Nylon-muscle-actuated robotic finger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lianjun; Jung de Andrade, Monica; Rome, Richard S.; Haines, Carter; Lima, Marcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tadesse, Yonas

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the design and experimental analysis of novel artificial muscles, made of twisted and coiled nylon fibers, for powering a biomimetic robotic hand. The design is based on circulating hot and cold water to actuate the artificial muscles and obtain fast finger movements. The actuation system consists of a spring and a coiled muscle within a compliant silicone tube. The silicone tube provides a watertight, expansible compartment within which the coiled muscle contracts when heated and expands when cooled. The fabrication and characterization of the actuating system are discussed in detail. The performance of the coiled muscle fiber in embedded conditions and the related characteristics of the actuated robotic finger are described.

  16. Artificial Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases. PMID:20356731

  17. Artificial rheotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Pine, David J.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes. PMID:26601175

  18. Artificial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes. PMID:26601175

  19. Muscle contraction as a polymer-gel phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Gerald H.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper I argue that the mechanism of muscle contraction is similar to the mechanism of contraction in most artificial muscles. Artificial muscles typically contract by a phase- transition. Muscle is thought to contract by a sliding- filament mechanism in which one set of filaments is driven past another by the action of cyclically rotating cross- bridges -- much like the mechanism of rowing. However, the evidence is equally consistent with a mechanism in which the filaments themselves contract, much like the collapse of polymers during a phase-transition. Muscle contains three principal polymer types, organized neatly within a framework. There is evidence that all three can contract. It appears that the relative contributions of each filament are designed to confer strength, speed and versatility on this natural machine. The principles of natural contraction may be useful in establishing optimal design principles for artificial muscles.

  20. From Paradox to Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    1989-08-01

    Preface; Part I. At the Roof of the Endeavor: 1. Human limitations; 2. Theory and the role of mathematics; 3. Scientific objectivity; 4. The aim of scientific theory; Part II. The World of Relativity: 5. Space and time: from absolute to relative; 6. Imposed consistency: special relativity; 7. Gravitation as geometry: general relativity; 8. Revolutions without revolutions; Part III. The Quantum World: 9. The limits of the classical world; 10. Concepts of the quantum world; 11. From apparent paradox to a new reality; 12. The present state of the art; Epilogue; Notes; Glossary of technical terms; Name index; Subject index.

  1. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  2. Artificial Respiration and Artificial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Joseph; Brook, Morris H.; Lopez, Jose F.

    1965-01-01

    A training program in the newer methods of treatment of acute cardiopulmonary emergencies which was developed at the University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, is reported. Artificial respiration by the chance rescuer, primary and secondary resuscitation, and post-resuscitation measures involving the use of special drugs and equipment by trained personnel are described. Figures and tables designed for wall-mounting and ready reference in an emergency situation are presented. Firstaid ventilatory adjuncts for use by trained personnel are classified and critically appraised, and the propriety of their use is emphasized. A plea is made to the medical profession and allied agencies to assume the responsibility of spreading knowledge of the new techniques more widely. Unless effective treatment is instituted early enough to prevent death or permanent anoxic damage to heart and brain, follow-through therapy will often be fruitless. PMID:14339303

  3. About Television Reality and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brice

    The author presents the argument that television reality is a new kind of performance in our environment: we don't respond to it and it doesn't acknowledge our presence. The images and sounds of television reality are "its", and our human organisms must be disconcerted by these "its" occuring in the privacy of our homes. We are being taught to…

  4. Virtual Reality, Combat, and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, Emily Austin; Bodary, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Presents a brief examination of the evolution of virtual reality devices that illustrates how the development of this new medium is influenced by emerging technologies and by marketing pressures. Notes that understanding these influences may help prepare for the role of technical communicators in building virtual reality applications for education…

  5. Phenomenalistic Reality: The Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbotsky, Eugene

    2000-01-01

    Extends William James' classification of phenomenalistic reality (PR) and analyzes PR using empirical data available in developmental psychology; focuses on the relation of PR to a human subject; to rational constructions; and to the idea of truth. Concludes that the development of phenomenalistic reality is qualitatively different from the…

  6. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate…

  7. Artificial intelligence in medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Szolovits, P; Patil, R S; Schwartz, W B

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to overcome limitations inherent in conventional computer-aided diagnosis, investigators have created programs that simulate expert human reasoning. Hopes that such a strategy would lead to clinically useful programs have not been fulfilled, but many of the problems impeding creation of effective artificial intelligence programs have been solved. Strategies have been developed to limit the number of hypotheses that a program must consider and to incorporate pathophysiologic reasoning. The latter innovation permits a program to analyze cases in which one disorder influences the presentation of another. Prototypes embodying such reasoning can explain their conclusions in medical terms that can be reviewed by the user. Despite these advances, further major research and developmental efforts will be necessary before expert performance by the computer becomes a reality. PMID:3276267

  8. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  9. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  10. Virtual reality at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Frederick P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of virtual reality computer graphics in telepresence applications is not hard to grasp and promises to be great. When the virtual world is entirely synthetic, as opposed to real but remote, the utility is harder to establish. Vehicle simulators for aircraft, vessels, and motor vehicles are proving their worth every day. Entertainment applications such as Disney World's StarTours are technologically elegant, good fun, and economically viable. Nevertheless, some of us have no real desire to spend our lifework serving the entertainment craze of our sick culture; we want to see this exciting technology put to work in medicine and science. The topics covered include the following: testing a force display for scientific visualization -- molecular docking; and testing a head-mounted display for scientific and medical visualization.

  11. Spatial orientation and dynamics in virtual reality systems - Lessons from flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Michael E.; Sharkey, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial representations of virtual worlds are becoming more common due to advances in the technology of image generation and display systems. Application areas include flight simulation, mission rehearsal, teleoperator systems, and virtual reality systems. System developers should be forewarned that some proportion of users will experience perceptual anomalies and symptoms of motion sickness as a result of travel through virtual space.

  12. Muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy M; Layzer, Robert B

    2005-10-01

    Muscle cramps are a common problem characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscle. These true cramps, which originate from peripheral nerves, may be distinguished from other muscle pain or spasm. Medical history, physical examination, and a limited laboratory screen help to determine the various causes of muscle cramps. Despite the "benign" nature of cramps, many patients find the symptom very uncomfortable. Treatment options are guided both by experience and by a limited number of therapeutic trials. Quinine sulfate is an effective medication, but the side-effect profile is worrisome, and other membrane-stabilizing drugs are probably just as effective. Patients will benefit from further studies to better define the pathophysiology of muscle cramps and to find more effective medications with fewer side-effects. PMID:15902691

  13. Ultimate realities: deterministic and evolutionary.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  14. Construction Management Meets Today's Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    1979-01-01

    Construction management--the control of cost and time from concept through construction--grew out of a need to meet the realities of today's economy. A checklist of services a construction manager provides is presented. (Author/MLF)

  15. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  16. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  17. Ultimate Realities: Deterministic and Evolutionary

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A

    2007-01-01

    References to ultimate reality commonly turn up in the behavioral literature as references to determinism. However, this determinism is often difficult to interpret. There are different kinds of determinisms as well as different kinds of ultimate realities for a behaviorist to consider. To clarify some of the issues involved, the views of ultimate realities are treated as falling along a continuum, with extreme views of complete indeterminism and complete determinism at either end and various mixes in between. Doing so brings into play evolutionary realities and the movement from indeterminism to determinism, as in Peirce's evolutionary cosmology. In addition, this framework helps to show how the views of determinism by B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists have shifted over time. PMID:22478489

  18. Some views of psychic reality.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, R H

    1996-02-01

    This paper is based on the Presidential Address given at the end of the San Francisco Congress in August 1995. The author concentrates on discussing the three main Panel presentations on psychic reality from the technical, clinical and theoretical perspectives and in the context of the life cycle. Referring to Grinberg's introduction to the Congress, he reiterates that psychic reality forms the central point from which psychoanalysis can be contemplated. A special mention is given to the Panel on multidisciplinary perspectives of psychic reality, which includes contributions from two well-known philosophers, in connection with the current epistemological status of psychoanalysis in the context of the Congress's main theme. The author concludes by quoting a sonnet, which he feels illustrates the complex dialectic between reality and fantasy, between truth and lies. PMID:8737346

  19. Surgery applications of virtual reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.

  20. Science and Ultimate Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    This preview of the future of physics comprises contributions from recognized authorities inspired by the pioneering work of John Wheeler. Quantum theory represents a unifying theme within the book, as it relates to the topics of the nature of physical reality, cosmic inflation, the arrow of time, models of the universe, superstrings, quantum gravity and cosmology. Attempts to formulate a final unification theory of physics are also considered, along with the existence of hidden dimensions of space, hidden cosmic matter, and the strange world of quantum technology. John Archibald Wheeler is one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century. His extraordinary career has spanned momentous advances in physics, from the birth of the nuclear age to the conception of the quantum computer. Famous for coining the term "black hole," Professor Wheeler helped lay the foundations for the rebirth of gravitation as a mainstream branch of science, triggering the explosive growth in astrophysics and cosmology that followed. His early contributions to physics include the S matrix, the theory of nuclear rotation (with Edward Teller), the theory of nuclear fission (with Niels Bohr), action-at-a-distance electrodynamics (with Richard Feynman), positrons as backward-in-time electrons, the universal Fermi interaction (with Jayme Tiomno), muonic atoms, and the collective model of the nucleus. His inimitable style of thinking, quirky wit, and love of the bizarre have inspired generations of physicists.

  1. Virtual reality via photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrt, John D.; Papcun, George; Childers, Randy A.; Rubin, Naama

    1996-03-01

    We wish to walk into a photograph just as Alice walked into the looking glass. From a mathematical perspective, this problem is exceedingly ill-posed (e.g. Is that a large, distant object or a small, nearby object?). A human expert can supply a large amount of a priori information that can function as mathematical constraints. The constrained problem can then be attacked with photogrammetry to obtain a great deal of quantitative information which is otherwise only qualitatively apparent. The user determines whether the object to be analyzed contains two or three vanishing points, then selects an appropriate number of points from the photon to enable the code to compute the locations of the vanishing points. Using this information and the standard photogrammetric geometric algorithms, the location of the camera, relative to the structure, is determined. The user must also enter information regarding an absolute sense of scale. As the vectors from the camera to the various points chosen from the photograph are determined, the vector components (coordinates) are handed to a virtual reality software package. Once the objects are entered, the appropriate surfaces of the 3D object are `wallpapered' with the surface from the photograph. The user is then able to move through the virtual scene. A video will demonstrate our work.

  2. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes. PMID:26357208

  3. 100 Years of Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpher, Nancy L.; Wright Ron, D.

    2006-01-01

    One may have heard of reality TV, but what about reality learning? The latter is probably a term one hasn't seen much, although it is in many ways a clearer and more concise name for a concept that in 2006 marks its 100th anniversary: cooperative education, or "co-op." Co-op, a break-through idea pioneered at the University of Cincinnati by Herman…

  4. Muscle cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common cause of muscle cramps during sports activity is not getting enough fluids. Often, drinking ... alone does not always help. Salt tablets or sports drinks, which also replenish lost minerals, can be ...

  5. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done include: Complete blood count (CBC) Other blood tests to look at muscle enzymes (creatine kinase) and possibly a test for Lyme disease or a connective tissue disorder Physical therapy may be helpful.

  6. Polymer-based actuators for virtual reality devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzmacher, Christian; Hafez, Moustapha; Benali Khoudja, Mohamed; Bernardoni, Paul; Dubowsky, Steven

    2004-07-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is gaining more importance in our society. For many years, VR has been limited to the entertainment applications. Today, practical applications such as training and prototyping find a promising future in VR. Therefore there is an increasing demand for low-cost, lightweight haptic devices in virtual reality (VR) environment. Electroactive polymers seem to be a potential actuation technology that could satisfy these requirements. Dielectric polymers developed the past few years have shown large displacements (more than 300%). This feature makes them quite interesting for integration in haptic devices due to their muscle-like behaviour. Polymer actuators are flexible and lightweight as compared to traditional actuators. Using stacks with several layers of elatomeric film increase the force without limiting the output displacement. The paper discusses some design methods for a linear dielectric polymer actuator for VR devices. Experimental results of the actuator performance is presented.

  7. Development of software for human muscle force estimation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gang; Qian, Li-wei; Wei, Gao-feng; Wang, Hong-sheng; Wang, Cheng-tao

    2012-01-01

    Muscle force estimation (MFE) has become more and more important in exploring principles of pathological movement, studying functions of artificial muscles, making surgery plan for artificial joint replacement, improving the biomechanical effects of treatments and so on. At present, existing software are complex for professionals, so we have developed a new software named as concise MFE (CMFE). CMFE which provides us a platform to analyse muscle force in various actions includes two MFE methods (static optimisation method and electromyographic-based method). Common features between these two methods have been found and used to improve CMFE. A case studying the major muscles of lower limb of a healthy subject walking at normal speed has been presented. The results are well explained from the effect of the motion produced by muscles during movement. The development of this software can improve the accuracy of the motion simulations and can provide a more extensive and deeper insight in to muscle study. PMID:21607886

  8. Inflatable artificial sphincter

    MedlinePlus

    ... works well. When you need to urinate, the cuff of the artificial sphincter can be relaxed so ... pain. An artificial sphincter has three parts: A cuff, which fits around your urethra, the tube that ...

  9. Geological myths and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  10. Colour gamuts in polychromatic dielectric elastomer artificial chromatophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Cerruto, Antonio; Winters, Amy; Roke, Calum

    2014-03-01

    Chromatophores are the colour changing organelles in the skins of animals including fish and cephalopods. The ability of cephalopods in particular to rapidly change their colouration in response to environmental changes, for example to camouflage against a new background, and in social situations, for example to attract a mate or repel a rival, is extremely attractive for engineering, medical, active clothing and biomimetic robotic applications. The rapid response of these chromatophores is possible by the direct coupling of fast acting muscle and pigmented saccules. In artificial chromatophores we are able to mimic this structure using electroactive polymer artificial muscles. In contrast to prior research which has demonstrated monochromatic artificial chromatophores, here we consider a novel multi-colour, multi-layer, artificial chromatophore structure inspired by the complex dermal chromatophore unit in nature and which exploits dielectric elastomer artificial muscles as the electroactive actuation mechanism. We investigate the optical properties of this chromatophore unit and explore the range of colours and effects that a single unit and a matrix of chromatophores can produce. The colour gamut of the multi-colour chromatophore is analysed and shows its suitability for practical display and camouflage applications. It is demonstrated how, by varying actuator strain and chromatophore base colour, the gamut can be shifted through colour space, thereby tuning the artificial chromatophore to a specific environment or application.

  11. [Metabolic processes in rat skeletal muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Nosova, E A; Veresotskaia, N A; Kolchina, E V; Kurkina, L M; Belitskaia, R A

    1981-01-01

    The study of skeletal muscles of rats flown on Cosmos-936 demonstrated different metabolic reactions in muscle fibers of different function and type to weightlessness and Earth gravity. The data obtained gave evidence that artificial gravity may considerably prevent metabolic changes in muscles developing in response to specific effects of weightlessness. PMID:7289569

  12. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  13. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. ||; Papp, A.L. III |

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one`s application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  14. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Cancer Center, Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Davis, CA ); Papp, A.L. III Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one's application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  15. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  16. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  17. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  18. Virtual Reality: The Promise of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Jaron

    1992-01-01

    Defines virtual reality and describes the equipment or clothing necessary to achieve the illusion of being in a virtual world. Recent developments with this technology and current virtual reality applications are discussed, including experiential prototyping, telepresence, and educational applications. (MES)

  19. Ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of a moving visual target.

    PubMed

    Domkin, Dmitry; Forsman, Mikael; Richter, Hans O

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown an association of visual demands during near work and increased activity of the trapezius muscle. Those studies were conducted under stationary postural conditions with fixed gaze and artificial visual load. The present study investigated the relationship between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity across individuals during performance of a natural dynamic motor task under free gaze conditions. Participants (N=11) tracked a moving visual target with a digital pen on a computer screen. Tracking performance, eye refraction and trapezius muscle activity were continuously measured. Ciliary muscle contraction force was computed from eye accommodative response. There was a significant Pearson correlation between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity on the tracking side (0.78, p<0.01) and passive side (0.64, p<0.05). The study supports the hypothesis that high visual demands, leading to an increased ciliary muscle contraction during continuous eye-hand coordination, may increase trapezius muscle tension and thus contribute to the development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area. Further experimental studies are required to clarify whether the relationship is valid within each individual or may represent a general personal trait, when individuals with higher eye accommodative response tend to have higher trapezius muscle activity. PMID:26746010

  20. Information Management. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    A number of misconceptions or "myths" about information management have arisen since the beginning of the Information Age. One misconception is that the problem of information overload stems from too much information. In reality, the greater problem may be an explosion of noninformation. Many people believe that they must try to stay on top of…

  1. Virtual Reality: Ready or Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Joan E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development and current status of virtual reality (VR) and VR research. Market potentials for VR are discussed, including the entertainment industry, health care and medical training, flight and other simulators, and educational possibilities. A glossary of VR-related terms is included. (LRW)

  2. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  3. Telemedicine, virtual reality, and surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percival D.; Charles, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Two types of synthetic experience are covered: virtual reality (VR) and surgery, and telemedicine. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: geometric models; physiological sensors; surgical applications; virtual cadaver; VR surgical simulation; telesurgery; VR Surgical Trainer; abdominal surgery pilot study; advanced abdominal simulator; examples of telemedicine; and telemedicine spacebridge.

  4. Children's Perceptions of Television Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikken, Peter; Peeters, Allerd L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes study conducted with Dutch preschool and elementary school students to determine their perception of reality when watching Sesame Street on television. Variables studied include age, communication skills, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and data are analyzed using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. (13 references) (LRW)

  5. Bringing Reality into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Technology offers ample opportunities to bring reality into the classroom. Students and teachers nowadays have many tools to work in an authentic way with real data in mathematics and science education. However, much research and development are still needed to create a consistent learning trajectory out of the many exciting single activities.…

  6. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  7. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  8. Virtual reality and stereoscopic telepresence

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, E.P.

    1994-12-01

    Virtual reality technology is commonly thought to have few, if any, applications beyond the national research laboratories, the aerospace industry, and the entertainment world. A team at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is developing applications for virtual reality technology that make it a practical, viable, portable, and cost-effective business and training tool. The technology transfer is particularly applicable to the waste management industry and has become a tool that can serve the entire work force spectrum, from industrial sites to business offices. For three and a half years, a small team of WHC personnel has been developing an effective and practical method of bringing virtual reality technology to the job site. The applications are practical, the results are repeatable, and the equipment costs are within the range of present-day office machines. That combination can evolve into a competitive advantage for commercial business interests. The WHC team has contained system costs by using commercially available equipment and personal computers to create effective virtual reality work stations for less than $20,000.

  9. Professional Development Schools: Confronting Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauter, Nancy J., Ed.

    This collection of articles discusses the realities of Professional Development Schools (PDS) from the perspectives of school teachers, college faculty, college administrators, and other educational administrators. The articles focus on the five dimensions of PDS work (institutionalization, equity, standards and quality, inquiry, and financing).…

  10. Education Hell: Rhetoric vs. Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    Are America's schools broken? "Education Hell: Rhetoric vs. Reality" seeks to address misconceptions about America's schools by taking on the credo "what can be measured matters." To the contrary, Dr. Bracey makes a persuasive case that much of what matters cannot be assessed on a multiple choice test. The challenge for educators is to deal…

  11. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed. PMID:21086871

  12. Perceived Reality in Television Effects Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, W. James

    1988-01-01

    Reviews literature dealing with perceived reality in the television effects process from a construct validation perspective. Topics discussed include variables that influence the degree to which individuals perceive reality in televised messages, relationships with attribute variables, influence of reality perception on viewers' behavior and…

  13. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  14. Electromyographic correlates of learning during robotic surgical training in virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Suh, Irene H; Mukherjee, Mukul; Schrack, Ryan; Park, Shi-Hyun; Chien, Jung-Hung; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscle activation and the muscle frequency response of the dominant arm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and extensor digitorum) and hand muscles (abductor pollicis and first dorsal interosseous) during robotic surgical skills training in a virtual environment. The virtual surgical training tasks consisted of bimanual carrying, needle passing and mesh alignment. The experimental group (n=5) was trained by performing four blocks of the virtual surgical tasks using the da Vinci™ surgical robot. During the pre- and post-training tests, all subjects were tested by performing a suturing task on a "life-like" suture pad. The control group (n=5) performed only the suturing task without any virtual task training. Differences between pre- and post-training tests were significantly greater in the virtual reality group, as compared to the control group in the muscle activation of the hand muscle (abductor pollicis) for both the suture tying and the suture running (p<0.05). In conclusion, changes in electrographic activity shows that training in virtual reality leads to specific changes in neuromotor control of robotic surgical tasks. PMID:21335869

  15. Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, B J; Koopman, H F; Grootenboer, H J; Huijing, P A

    1998-04-01

    Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force-length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple geometric models such as a planimetric model and three-dimensional versions of this model. The capabilities of such models to adequately calculate muscle geometry and force-length characteristics were investigated. The planimetric model with elastic aponeurosis predicted GM muscle geometry well: maximal differences are 6, 1, 4 and 6% for fiber length, aponeurosis length, fiber angle and aponeurosis angle respectively. A slanted cylinder model with circular fiber cross-section did not predict muscle geometry as well as the planimetric model, whereas the geometry results of a second slanted cylinder model were identical to the planimetric model. It is concluded that the planimetric model is capable of adequately calculating the muscle geometry over the muscle length range studied. However, for modelling of force-length characteristics more complex models are needed, as none of the models yielded results sufficiently close to experimental data. Modelled force-length characteristics showed an overestimation of muscle optimum length by 2 mm with respect to experimental data, and the force at the ascending limb of the length force curve was underestimated. The models presented neglect important aspects such as non-linear geometry of muscle, certain passive material properties and mechanical interactions of fibers. These aspects may be responsible for short-comings in the modelling. It is argued that, considering the inability to adequately model muscle length-force characteristics for an isolated maximally activated (in situ) muscle, it is to be expected that prediction will fail for muscle properties in conditions of complex movement with many interacting factors. Therefore

  16. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  17. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems. PMID:27220918

  18. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  19. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems. PMID:27220918

  20. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  1. Capillary muscle.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-05-19

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This "hyperbolic" force-velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136-195]. Hill's heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973-976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971-973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928-935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill's equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  2. Computer aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Swasdison, Somporn; Karlisch, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Complex mechanical forces generated in the growing embryo play an important role in organogenesis. Computerized application of similar forces to differentiating skeletal muscle myoblasts in vitro generate three dimensional artificial muscle organs. These organs contain parallel networks of long unbranched myofibers organized into fascicle-like structures. Tendon development is initiated and the muscles are capable of performing directed, functional work. Kinetically engineered organs provide a new method for studying the growth and development of normal and diseased skeletal muscle.

  3. Hybrid Reality Lab Capabilities - Video 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; Noyes, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Our Hybrid Reality and Advanced Operations Lab is developing incredibly realistic and immersive systems that could be used to provide training, support engineering analysis, and augment data collection for various human performance metrics at NASA. To get a better understanding of what Hybrid Reality is, let's go through the two most commonly known types of immersive realities: Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality. Virtual Reality creates immersive scenes that are completely made up of digital information. This technology has been used to train astronauts at NASA, used during teleoperation of remote assets (arms, rovers, robots, etc.) and other activities. One challenge with Virtual Reality is that if you are using it for real time-applications (like landing an airplane) then the information used to create the virtual scenes can be old (i.e. visualized long after physical objects moved in the scene) and not accurate enough to land the airplane safely. This is where Augmented Reality comes in. Augmented Reality takes real-time environment information (from a camera, or see through window, and places digitally created information into the scene so that it matches with the video/glass information). Augmented Reality enhances real environment information collected with a live sensor or viewport (e.g. camera, window, etc.) with the information-rich visualization provided by Virtual Reality. Hybrid Reality takes Augmented Reality even further, by creating a higher level of immersion where interactivity can take place. Hybrid Reality takes Virtual Reality objects and a trackable, physical representation of those objects, places them in the same coordinate system, and allows people to interact with both objects' representations (virtual and physical) simultaneously. After a short period of adjustment, the individuals begin to interact with all the objects in the scene as if they were real-life objects. The ability to physically touch and interact with digitally created

  4. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  5. Equine artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Merkt, H

    1976-07-24

    The use and techniques of artificial insemination for horses in Germany over the last 30 years is described. Artificial insemination appears to produce pregnancy percentages equal to those from normal breeding methods and its continued availability under veterinary supervision is recommended in conditions where disease, disability or distance debar normal service. PMID:960520

  6. Augmented reality building operations tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  7. Virtual Reality: You Are There

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Telepresence or "virtual reality," allows a person, with assistance from advanced technology devices, to figuratively project himself into another environment. This technology is marketed by several companies, among them Fakespace, Inc., a former Ames Research Center contractor. Fakespace developed a teleoperational motion platform for transmitting sounds and images from remote locations. The "Molly" matches the user's head motion and, when coupled with a stereo viewing device and appropriate software, creates the telepresence experience. Its companion piece is the BOOM-the user's viewing device that provides the sense of involvement in the virtual environment. Either system may be used alone. Because suits, gloves, headphones, etc. are not needed, a whole range of commercial applications is possible, including computer-aided design techniques and virtual reality visualizations. Customers include Sandia National Laboratories, Stanford Research Institute and Mattel Toys.

  8. Simulated maintenance a virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Lirvall, P.

    1995-10-01

    The article describes potential applications of personal computer-based virtual reality software. The applications are being investigated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited`s (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories for the Canadian deuterium-uranium (Candu) reactor. Objectives include: (1) reduction of outage duration and improved safety, (2) cost-effective and safe maintenance of equipment, (3) reduction of exposure times and identification of overexposure situations, (4) cost-effective training in a virtual control room simulator, (5) human factors evaluation of design interface, and (6) visualization of conceptual and detailed designs of critical nuclear field environments. A demonstration model of a typical reactor control room, the use of virtual reality in outage planning, and safety issues are outlined.

  9. Virtual Reality Enhanced Instructional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachimuthu, K.; Vijayakumari, G.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a creation of virtual 3D world in which one can feel and sense the world as if it is real. It is allowing engineers to design machines and Educationists to design AV [audiovisual] equipment in real time but in 3-dimensional hologram as if the actual material is being made and worked upon. VR allows a least-cost (energy…

  10. Toy models and stylized realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, M.

    2007-01-01

    I discuss the role of toy models as theoretical tools for understanding complex systems of interacting agents. I review some concrete examples, in order to illustrate how this approach is able to capture, though in an admittedly stylized way, the interactions and non-linearities which are responsible for the rich phenomenology observed in reality. This allows one to interpret the system's behavior in terms of phase transitions and critical phenomena.

  11. Typological Asymmetries in Round Vowel Harmony: Support from Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Providing evidence for the universal tendencies of patterns in the world's languages can be difficult, as it is impossible to sample all possible languages, and linguistic samples are subject to interpretation. However, experimental techniques, such as artificial grammar learning paradigms, make it possible to uncover the psychological reality of…

  12. Virtual reality applied to teletesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Thomas J.; Smeenk, Roland J. M.; Mazy, Alain; Jacques, Patrick; Arguello, Luis; Mills, Simon

    2003-05-01

    The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company costs. This can accomplished by increasing the automation and remote testing ("teletesting") capabilities of the test centre. Main problems related to teletesting are a lack of situational awareness and the separation of control over the test environment. The objective of the activity is to evaluate the use of distributed computing and Virtual Reality technology to support the teletesting of a payload under vacuum conditions, and to provide a unified man-machine interface for the monitoring and control of payload, vacuum chamber and robotics equipment. The activity includes the development and testing of a "Virtual Reality Teletesting System" (VRTS). The VRTS is deployed at one of the ESA certified test centres to perform an evaluation and test campaign using a real payload. The VRTS is entirely written in the Java programming language, using the J2EE application model. The Graphical User Interface runs as an applet in a Web browser, enabling easy access from virtually any place.

  13. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  14. Neural models and physiological reality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barry B

    2008-01-01

    Neural models of retinal processing provide an important tool for analyzing retinal signals and their functional significance. However, it is here argued that in biological reality, retinal connectivity is unlikely to be as specific as ideal neural models might suggest. The retina is thought to provide functionally specific signals, but this specificity is unlikely to be anatomically complete. This is illustrated by examples of cone connectivity to macaque ganglion cells. For example, cells of the magnocellular pathway appear to avoid short-wavelength cone input, so that such input is negligible under normal conditions. However, there is anatomical, physiological, and psychophysical evidence that under special conditions, weak input may be revealed. Second, ideal models of how retinal information is centrally utilized have to take into account the biological reality of retinal signals. The stochastic nature of impulse trains modifies signal-to-noise ratio in unexpected ways. Also, non-linearities in cell responses make, for example, multiplexing of luminance and chromatic signals in the parvocellular pathway impracticable. The purpose of this analysis is to show than ideal neural models must confront an often more complex and nuanced physiological reality. PMID:18321399

  15. Muscle-like actuators? A comparison between three electroactive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Marc S.; Full, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    Muscles fulfill several functions within an animal's body. During locomotion they propel and control the limbs in unstructured environments. Therefore, the functional workspace of muscle needs to be represented by variables describing energy management (i.e. power output, efficiency) as well as control aspects (i.e. stiffness, damping). Muscles in the animal kingdom vary greatly with respect to those variables. To study if ElectroActive Polymer's (EAP) can be considered as artificial muscles we are making a direct comparison between the contractile properties of EAP's and biological muscle. We have measured the functional workspace of EAP actuators using the same setup and techniques that we use to test biological muscle. We evaluated the properties of three different EAP materials; the acrylic and silicone dielectric elastomers developed at SRI International and the high-energy electron-irradiated co-polymers (p(VDF-TrFE)) developed at the MRL laboratory at Penn State University. Initial results indicate that the EAP materials partly capture the functional workspace of natural muscle and sometimes even exceed the capabilities of muscle. Based on the data we have collected it seems that both EAP technologies have characteristics that could qualify them as artificial muscles.

  16. Muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chang-Yong

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common severe childhood form of muscular dystrophy, is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by out-of-frame mutations of the dystrophin gene. Thus, it is classified asa dystrophinopathy. The disease onset is before age 5 years. Patients with DMD present with progressive symmetrical limb-girdle muscle weakness and become wheelchair dependent after age 12 years. (2)(3). On the basis of some research evidence,cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure are usually seen in the late teens in patients with DMD. Progressive scoliosis and respiratory in sufficiency often develop once wheelchair dependency occurs. Respiratory failure and cardiomyopathy are common causes of death, and few survive beyond the third decade of life. (2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7). On the basis of some research evidence, prednisone at 0.75 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 40 mg/d) or deflazacort at 0.9 mg/kg daily (maximum dose, 39 mg/d), a derivative of prednisolone (not available in the United States), as a single morning dose is recommended for DMD patients older than 5 years, which may prolong independent walking from a few months to 2 years. (2)(3)(16)(17). Based on some research evidence, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, b-blockers, and diuretics has been reported to be beneficial in DMD patients with cardiac abnormalities. (2)(3)(5)(18). Based on expert opinion, children with muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase levels may be associated with either genetic or acquired muscle disorders (Tables 1 and 3). (14)(15) PMID:24488829

  17. Direct control of paralysed muscles by cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chet T; Perlmutter, Steve I; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2008-12-01

    A potential treatment for paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury is to route control signals from the brain around the injury by artificial connections. Such signals could then control electrical stimulation of muscles, thereby restoring volitional movement to paralysed limbs. In previously separate experiments, activity of motor cortex neurons related to actual or imagined movements has been used to control computer cursors and robotic arms, and paralysed muscles have been activated by functional electrical stimulation. Here we show that Macaca nemestrina monkeys can directly control stimulation of muscles using the activity of neurons in the motor cortex, thereby restoring goal-directed movements to a transiently paralysed arm. Moreover, neurons could control functional stimulation equally well regardless of any previous association to movement, a finding that considerably expands the source of control signals for brain-machine interfaces. Monkeys learned to use these artificial connections from cortical cells to muscles to generate bidirectional wrist torques, and controlled multiple neuron-muscle pairs simultaneously. Such direct transforms from cortical activity to muscle stimulation could be implemented by autonomous electronic circuitry, creating a relatively natural neuroprosthesis. These results are the first demonstration that direct artificial connections between cortical cells and muscles can compensate for interrupted physiological pathways and restore volitional control of movement to paralysed limbs. PMID:18923392

  18. Artificial Gravity and the Architecture of Orbital Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, T. W.

    This paper examines the rationale, requirements, limitations and implications of artificial gravity in the design of orbital habitats. Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to a chain-reaction of undesirable physiological adaptations. There is both theoretical and experimental evidence that artificial gravity can substitute for natural gravity to maintain health in orbit. Aerospace medical scientists have conducted many studies during the past forty years to determine the comfort boundaries for artificial gravity. They express comfort in terms of centripetal acceleration, head-to-foot gravity gradient, angular velocity, tangential velocity, cross-coupled head rotations and the Coriolis effects of relative motion in rotating environments. A review of the literature reveals the uncertainty in these boundaries and suggests that “comfort” in artificial gravity depends as well on other aspects of environmental design, beyond the basic rotational parametres. Artificial gravity is distinct from both Earth-normal gravity and weightlessness. The goal of architectural design for artificial gravity is not to mimic Earth but rather to help the inhabitants adapt to the realities of their rotating environment.

  19. Artificial ecosystem selection.

    PubMed

    Swenson, W; Wilson, D S; Elias, R

    2000-08-01

    Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy. PMID:10890915

  20. Is Artificial Intelligence Intelligent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Janni

    In order for information to be stored and processed in a computer, it must be reduced to data and organized and systematized in accordance with the rules and principles of formal logic. Reducing manifold reality to data for use by the computer results in loss of information because an arbitrary screening of data eliminates that gathered by the…

  1. REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 25 untreated urban living schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feighner et al., having Schneiderian auditory hallucination were studied with the aim of examining the experienced reality of auditory hallucination and the influence on this reality of certain variables. It was found that the hallucinations were more real than unreal. Duration of illness, presence of anxiety prior to hallucination, reality testing ability, duration of each episode of hallucination, and socio-economic status scores influenced the reality negatively. The number of hallucinating days per mouth, position of voice outside sensory range, psychotocism scores, insight scores (higher scores for poorer insight) and duration of hallucination influenced the reality positively. The variables explained 72% of the variations in reality of hallucinations. Findings are discussed and suggestions for future studies are offered. PMID:21965885

  2. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  3. Extraocular muscle function testing

    MedlinePlus

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  4. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  5. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  6. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1987-09-01

    The author discusses the development of artificial intelligence (AI). He explains the basic elements of AI: Heuristic search, knowledge representation, AI languages and tools, Natural Language Processing, computer vision, expert systems and problem solving and planning.

  7. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  8. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... artificial sweeteners and cancer? Saccharin Studies in laboratory rats during the early 1970s linked saccharin with the ... cause cancer in laboratory animals .” Subsequent studies in rats showed an increased incidence of urinary bladder cancer ...

  9. Muscle contraction and polymer-gel phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, Gerald H.

    2000-06-01

    Artificial muscles typically contrast by a phase-transition. Muscle is thought to contract by a different mechanism - a filament-sliding mechanism in which one set of filaments is driven past another by the action of cyclically rotating cross-bridges. The concept is much like the mechanism of rowing. The evidence, however, is equally consistent with a mechanism in which the filaments themselves contract, much like the condensation of polymers during a phase-transition. Muscle contains three principal polymer types organized neatly into a characteristic framework All three polymers can shorten. The contributions of each filament may be designed to confer versatility, as well as sped and strength, on this biological machine. The principles of natural contraction may be useful in establishing optimal design principles for artificial muscles.

  10. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  11. Artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T F

    1986-04-01

    A wide variety of artificial light sources exists for use in the diagnosis and treatment of photosensitivity disorders. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of these light sources (including gas discharge arcs, fluorescent lamps, and other apparatus) illustrates the importance of matching the emission spectrum of the light source, the spectral response of the radiometer, and the photobiologic action spectrum. Environmental and occupational exposure to artificial light sources may contribute to photosensitivity disorders. PMID:3955892

  12. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  13. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Ames is intensively developing virtual-reality (VR) capabilities that can extend and augment computer-generated and remote spatial environments. VR is envisioned not only as a basis for improving human/machine interactions involved in planetary exploration, but also as a medium for the more widespread sharing of the experience of exploration, thereby broadening the support-base for the lunar and planetary-exploration endeavors. Imagery representative of Mars are being gathered for VR presentation at such terrestrial sites as Antarctica and Death Valley.

  14. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  15. Virtual reality in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, Selman; Yanik, Mustafa; Bretthauer, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Although the many advantages of laparoscopic surgery have made it an established technique, training in laparoscopic surgery posed problems not encountered in conventional surgical training. Virtual reality simulators open up new perspectives for training in laparoscopic surgery. Under realistic conditions in real time, trainees can tailor their sessions with the VR simulator to suit their needs and goals, and can repeat exercises as often as they wish. VR simulators reduce the number of experimental animals needed for training purposes and are suited to the pursuit of research in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:15747974

  16. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  17. Augmented reality for wafer prober

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenkrantz, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    The link between wafer manufacturing and wafer test is often weak: without common information system, Test engineers have to read locations of test structures from reference documents and search them on the wafer prober screen. Mask Data Preparation team is ideally placed to fill this gap, given its relationship with both design and manufacturing sides. With appropriate design extraction scripts and design conventions, mask engineers can provide exact wafer locations of all embedded test structures to avoid a painful camera search. Going a step further, it would be a great help to provide to wafer probers a "map" of what was build on wafers. With this idea in mind, mask design database can simply be provided to Test engineers; but the real added value would come from a true integration of real-wafer camera views and design database used for wafer manufacturing. As proven by several augmented reality applications, like Google Maps' mixed Satellite/Map view, mixing a real-world view with its theoretical model is very useful to understand the reality. The creation of such interface can only be made by a wafer prober manufacturer, given the high integration of these machines with their control panel. But many existing software libraries could be used to plot the design view matching the camera view. Standard formats for mask design are usually GDSII and OASIS (SEMI P39 standard); multiple free software and commercial viewers/editors/libraries for these formats are available.

  18. Drawing Realities: The Themes of Children's Story Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brent; Wilson, Marjorie

    1979-01-01

    Drawing on the Kreilters' work with the psychology of adult artists, the authors show how children's story drawings develop the same four types of realities: origins, everyday experiences, normative realities (rules), and prophetic (anticipatory) realities. Illustrations are included. (SJL)

  19. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Application in Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milheim, William D.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is provided of current trends in virtual reality research and development, including discussion of hardware, types of virtual reality, and potential problems with virtual reality. Implications for education and training are explored. (Author/JKP)

  20. Homopolar artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmar, M.

    2010-05-01

    Space exploration is linked in many ways to the generation and challenges of artificial gravity. Space stations and drag-free satellite platforms are used to provide microgravity environments for scientific experiments. On the other hand, microgravity or reduced gravity environments such as on Moon and Mars are known to put limits for long-term human presence. Large centrifuges in space may provide Earth-like gravity environments during long-term travels, however, such technology certainly has its limits to provide similar environments for human outposts on other moons and planets. One can imagine a different technology using a prediction out of Einstein's general relativity theory which is called frame-dragging. In principle, frame-dragging might be used to generate artificial gravitational fields similar to electric fields generated by time-varying or moving magnetic fields. We will show that it is also possible to generate constant artificial gravitational fields that could provide microgravity or artificial gravity environments. Although such technology is possible in principle, the field strengths calculated from Einstein's theory are too small to be useful so far. However, recently detected anomalies around low-temperature spinning matter as well as fly-by anomalies point to possible enhancement mechanisms that might make an artificial gravity generator based on frame-dragging a reality in the future.

  1. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  2. Virtual Reality--Learning by Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of virtual reality in educational software. Topics include CAVE (Computer-Assisted Virtual Environments); cost-effective virtual environment tools including QTVR (Quick Time Virtual Reality); interactive exercises; educational criteria for technology-based educational tools; and examples of screen displays. (LRW)

  3. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  4. "Madame Bovary": Illusion and Reality. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carangelo, Audrey

    Based on Gustave Flaubert's novel "Madame Bovary," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students explore the theme of "illusion versus reality" in the novel; identify and list alternate themes in the novel; and cite specific examples of illusion versus reality from the novel. It includes objectives, materials, procedures,…

  5. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  6. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  7. Exploring the Realities of Television with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morison, Patricia; And Others

    A study proposing reality and fantasy discrimination of television content as a classificatory ability sought to identify differences between subjects who were able to make sophisticated reality-fantasy judgements and those who were not, and factors which might contribute to a subject's sophistication in discrimination. Open-ended and structured…

  8. Children and the Perceived Reality of Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Reeves, Byron

    1976-01-01

    Childrens' perceptions of reality in television are examined as an intervening variable between exposure to the medium and the effect of TV messages. Among the findings of this study are that perceptions of the reality of TV increase as the specificity of content increases. (Author/AM)

  9. Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steuer, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Defines virtual reality as a particular type of experience (in terms of "presence" and "telepresence") rather than as a collection of hardware. Maintains that media technologies can be classified and studied in terms of vividness and interactivity, two attributes on which virtual reality ranks very high. (SR)

  10. Sweaty Palms! Virtual Reality Applied to Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiber, Karin

    A qualitative case study approach was used to identify the psychosocial effects of the high-fidelity, virtual reality simulation provided in the college-level air traffic control (ATC) training program offered at the Minnesota Air Traffic Control Training Center and to evaluate the applicability of virtual reality to academic/training situations.…

  11. Teaching: The Question of Personal Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    1978-01-01

    An existential approach to teaching looks for meaning in the social and individual realities of being human. Personal reality involves the possibility of self-consciousness, of choosing, and of unpredictability integrated with the individual's motivation to produce a successful approach to action. (JMF)

  12. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  13. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  14. Kirigami artificial muscles with complex biologically inspired morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present bio-inspired smart structures which exploit the actuation of flexible ionic polymer composites and the kirigami design principle. Kirigami design is used to convert planar actuators into active 3D structures capable of large out-of-plane displacement and that replicate biological mechanisms. Here we present the burstbot, a fluid control and propulsion mechanism based on the atrioventricular cuspid valve, and the vortibot, a spiral actuator based on Vorticella campanula, a ciliate protozoa. Models derived from biological counterparts are used as a platform for design optimization and actuator performance measurement. The symmetric and asymmetric fluid interactions of the burstbot are investigated and the effectiveness in fluid transport applications is demonstrated. The vortibot actuator is geometrically optimized as a camera positioner capable of 360° scanning. Experimental results for a one-turn spiral actuator show complex actuation derived from a single degree of freedom control signal.

  15. Electroactive Polymers as Artificial Muscles: Capabilities, Potentials and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2000-01-01

    The low density and the relative ease of shaping made polymers highly attractive materials and they are increasingly being chosen for aerospace applications. Polymer matrix composite materials significantly impacted the construction of high performance aircraft components and structures. In recent years, the resilience characteristics of polymers made them attractive to the emerging field of inflatable structures. Balloons were used to cushion the deployment of the Mars Pathfinder lander on July 4, 1997, paving the way for the recent large number of related initiatives. Inflatable structures are now being used to construct a rover, aerial vehicles, telescopes, radar antennas, and others. Some of these applications have reached space flight experiments, whereas others are now at advanced stages of development.

  16. Ionic electroactive polymer artificial muscles in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punning, Andres; Kim, Kwang J.; Palmre, Viljar; Vidal, Frédéric; Plesse, Cédric; Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Asaka, Kinji; Sugino, Takushi; Alici, Gursel; Spinks, Geoff; Wallace, Gordon; Must, Indrek; Põldsalu, Inga; Vunder, Veiko; Temmer, Rauno; Kruusamäe, Karl; Torop, Janno; Kaasik, Friedrich; Rinne, Pille; Johanson, Urmas; Peikolainen, Anna-Liisa; Tamm, Tarmo; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-11-01

    A large-scale effort was carried out to test the performance of seven types of ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators in space-hazardous environmental factors in laboratory conditions. The results substantiate that the IEAP materials are tolerant to long-term freezing and vacuum environments as well as ionizing Gamma-, X-ray, and UV radiation at the levels corresponding to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions. The main aim of this material behaviour investigation is to understand and predict device service time for prolonged exposure to space environment.

  17. Ionic electroactive polymer artificial muscles in space applications.

    PubMed

    Punning, Andres; Kim, Kwang J; Palmre, Viljar; Vidal, Frédéric; Plesse, Cédric; Festin, Nicolas; Maziz, Ali; Asaka, Kinji; Sugino, Takushi; Alici, Gursel; Spinks, Geoff; Wallace, Gordon; Must, Indrek; Põldsalu, Inga; Vunder, Veiko; Temmer, Rauno; Kruusamäe, Karl; Torop, Janno; Kaasik, Friedrich; Rinne, Pille; Johanson, Urmas; Peikolainen, Anna-Liisa; Tamm, Tarmo; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale effort was carried out to test the performance of seven types of ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators in space-hazardous environmental factors in laboratory conditions. The results substantiate that the IEAP materials are tolerant to long-term freezing and vacuum environments as well as ionizing Gamma-, X-ray, and UV radiation at the levels corresponding to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions. The main aim of this material behaviour investigation is to understand and predict device service time for prolonged exposure to space environment. PMID:25372857

  18. Androids: application of EAP as artificial muscles to entertainment industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, David F.; Pioggia, Giovanni; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; De Rossi, Danilo

    2001-07-01

    The classic movie Metropolis (1926), which is nowadays considered a cinema milestone, has shown the possibility to build robots called androids that are science and fiction run together to realize a dream: the human-like robot. In that movie, Dr. Rotwang transforms a simple and cold calculating robot into the body of a beautiful woman. Robots have often been depicted as metal creatures with cold steel bodies, but there is no reason why metals should be the only kind of material for construction of robots. The authors examined the issues related to applying electroactive polymers materials (EAP) to the entertainment industry. EAP are offering attractive characteristics with the potential to produce more realistic models of living creatures at significantly lower cost. This paper seeks to elucidate how EAP might infiltrate and ultimately revolutionize entertainment, showing some applicative examples.

  19. Biomimetic robots using EAP as artificial muscles - progress and challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2004-01-01

    Biology offers a great model for emulation in areas ranging from tools, computational algorithms, materials science, mechanisms and information technology. In recent years, the field of biomimetics, namely mimicking biology, has blossomed with significant advances enabling the reverse engineering of many animals' functions and implementation of some of these capabilities.

  20. Androids: application of EAP as artificial muscles to entertainment industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Pioggia, G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; de Rossi, D.

    2001-01-01

    The classic movie Metropolis (1926), which is nowadays considered a cinema milestone, has shown the possibility to build robots called androids that are science and fiction run together to realize a dream: the human-like robot. In that movie, Dr. Rotwang transforms a simple and cold calculating robot into the body of a beautiful woman. Robots have often been depicted as metal creatures with cold steel bodies, but there is no reason why metals should be the only kind of material for construction of robots. The authors examined the issues related to applying electroactive polymers materials (EAP) to the entertainment industry. EAP are offering attractive characteristics with the potential to produce more realistic models of living creatures at significantly lower cost. This paper seeks to elucidate how EAP might infiltrate and ultimately revolutionize entertainment, showing some applicative examples.

  1. Artificial muscles harvesting sensational power using self-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Gisby, Todd A.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer Generator(s) (DEG) are highly suited to harvesting from environmental sources because they are light weight, low cost, and can be coupled directly to rectilinear motions and harvest energy efficiently over a wide frequency range. Because of these benefits, simple and low cost generators could be enabled using DEG. Electrical energy is produced on relaxation of a stretched, charged DEG: like-charges are compressed together and opposite-charges are pushed apart, resulting in an increased voltage. The manner in which the DEG charge state is controlled greatly influences the amount of energy that is produced. For instance, the highest energy density ever demonstrated for DEG is 550 mJ/g, whereas the theoretical energy density of DEG has been reported as high as 1700 mJ/g if driven close to their failure limits. The discrepancy between realised and theoretical energy production highlights that large performance gains can be achieved through smarter charge control that drives the generator close to its failure limits. To do so safely, we need to be able to monitor the real-time electromechanical state of the DEG. This paper discusses the potential of self-sensing for providing feedback on the generator's electromechanical state. Then we discuss our capacitive self-sensing method which we have demonstrated to track the displacement of a Danfoss Polypower generator as it was cyclically stretched and harvested energy.

  2. I'm Not a Real Doctor, but I Play One in Virtual Reality: Implications of Virtual Reality for Judgments about Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Michael A.; McDonald, Daniel G.

    1992-01-01

    Shows that communication and social psychology research in the past 100 years have identified 2 different aspects of reality evaluation. Outlines the critical elements to form a theory of media reality effects. Extends that theory to include virtual reality, and shows how virtual reality will be an important tool for investigating these effects.…

  3. Artificial consciousness, artificial emotions, and autonomous robots.

    PubMed

    Cardon, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Nowadays for robots, the notion of behavior is reduced to a simple factual concept at the level of the movements. On another hand, consciousness is a very cultural concept, founding the main property of human beings, according to themselves. We propose to develop a computable transposition of the consciousness concepts into artificial brains, able to express emotions and consciousness facts. The production of such artificial brains allows the intentional and really adaptive behavior for the autonomous robots. Such a system managing the robot's behavior will be made of two parts: the first one computes and generates, in a constructivist manner, a representation for the robot moving in its environment, and using symbols and concepts. The other part achieves the representation of the previous one using morphologies in a dynamic geometrical way. The robot's body will be seen for itself as the morphologic apprehension of its material substrata. The model goes strictly by the notion of massive multi-agent's organizations with a morphologic control. PMID:17016730

  4. Regeneration and Maintenance of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walthers, Christopher M.

    Tissue engineering is an emerging field of biomedical engineering that involves growing artificial organs to replace those lost to disease or injury. Within tissue engineering, there is a demand for artificial smooth muscle to repair tissues of the digestive tract, bladder, and vascular systems. Attempts to develop engineered smooth muscle tissues capable of contracting with sufficient strength to be clinically relevant have so far proven unsatisfactory. The goal of this research was to develop and sustain mature, contractile smooth muscle. Survival of implanted SMCs is critical to sustain the benefits of engineered smooth muscle. Survival of implanted smooth muscle cells was studied with layered, electrospun polycaprolactone implants with lasercut holes ranging from 0--25% porosity. It was found that greater angiogenesis was associated with increased survival of implanted cells, with a large increase at a threshold between 20% and 25% porosity. Heparan sulfate coatings improved the speed of blood vessel infiltration after 14 days of implantation. With these considerations, thicker engineered tissues may be possible. An improved smooth muscle tissue culture technique was utilized. Contracting smooth muscle was produced in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle tissue organization, specifically by sustaining intact smooth muscle strips rather than dissociating tissue in to isolated smooth muscle cells. Isolated cells showed a decrease in maturity and contained fewer enteric neural and glial cells. Muscle strips also exhibited periodic contraction and regular fluctuation of intracellular calclium. The muscle strip maturity persisted after implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds. A low-cost, disposable bioreactor was developed to further improve maturity of cultured smooth muscle cells in an environment of controlled cyclical stress.The bioreactor consistently applied repeated mechanical strain with controllable inputs for strain

  5. Doped Artificial Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Libal, Andras; Reichhardt, Charles

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloids is suppressed near the doping sites. These results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.

  6. An artificial molecular pump.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Schneebeli, Severin T; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration. PMID:25984834

  7. An artificial molecular pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  8. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Newton's Principia: Myth and Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, George

    2016-03-01

    Myths about Newton's Principia abound. Some of them, such as the myth that the whole book was initially developed using the calculus and then transformed into a geometric mathematics, stem from remarks he made during the priority controversy with Leibniz over the calculus. Some of the most persistent, and misleading, arose from failures to read the book with care. Among the latter are the myth that he devised his theory of gravity in order to explain the already established ``laws'' of Kepler, and that in doing so he took himself to be establishing that Keplerian motion is ``absolute,'' if not with respect to ``absolute space,'' then at least with respect to the fixed stars taken as what came later to be known as an inertial frame. The talk will replace these two myths with the reality of what Newton took himself to have established.

  11. Opening the mind to reality.

    PubMed

    Covington, C

    2000-01-01

    The author shows, through the use of clinical material, how an early failure in love can give rise to a severely crippling superego. The experience of a hateful relation with the mother is not simply internalized as a persecuting internal object, but is grafted onto the very roots of superego formation. As a result, the development of other parts of the psyche are affected--specifically the relation between the ago and self and the development of sexuality. The alienation between ego and self impairs thinking and the perception of external reality, which is modified and denied in the service of maintaining a pathological superego. By allowing the patient's hateful feelings to come out in the transference, without making him feel guilty, he is then able to risk expressing his loving feelings without the fear of rejection or abandonment. Through this process, the pathological superego can be dismantled and a more benign superego constructed. PMID:10697949

  12. Augmented Reality and Mobile Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwilt, Ian

    The combined notions of augmented-reality (AR) and mobile art are based on the amalgamation of a number of enabling technologies including computer imaging, emergent display and tracking systems and the increased computing-power in hand-held devices such as Tablet PCs, smart phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) which have been utilized in the making of works of art. There is much published research on the technical aspects of AR and the ongoing work being undertaken in the development of faster more efficient AR systems [1] [2]. In this text I intend to concentrate on how AR and its associated typologies can be applied in the context of new media art practices, with particular reference to its application on hand-held or mobile devices.

  13. Towards a separable ``empirical reality''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Espagnat, Bernard

    1990-10-01

    “To be” or “to be found”? Some contributions relative to this modern variant of Hamlet's question are presented here. They aim at better apprehending the differences between the points of view of the physicists who consider that present-day quantum measurement theories do reach their objective and those who deny they do. It is pointed out that these two groups have different interpretations of the verbs “to be” and “to have” and of the criterion for truth. These differences are made explicit. A notion of “empirical reality” is constructed within the representation of which the physicists of the first named group can consistently uphold their claim. A detailed way of sharpening this definition so as to make empirical reality free of nonlocal actions at a distance is also described.

  14. Marshall Engineers Use Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall Spce Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).

  15. Synergistic toughening of graphene oxide-molybdenum disulfide-thermoplastic polyurethane ternary artificial nacre.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sijie; Li, Yuchen; Peng, Jingsong; Hu, Han; Cheng, Qunfeng; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-27

    Inspired by the ternary structure of natural nacre, robust ternary artificial nacre is constructed through synergistic toughening of graphene oxide (GO) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The synergistic toughening effect from high mechanical properties of GO and lubrication of MoS2 nanosheets is successfully demonstrated. Meanwhile, the artificial nacre shows high electrical conductivity. This approach for constructing robust artificial nacre by synergistic effect from GO and MoS2 provides a creative opportunity for designing and fabricating integrated artificial nacre in the near future, and this kind of ternary artificial nacre has great potential applications in aerospace, flexible supercapacitor electrodes, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering. PMID:25559751

  16. Modelling muscle spindle dynamics for a proprioceptive prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ian; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    Muscle spindles are found throughout our skeletal muscle tissue and continuously provide us with a sense of our limbs' position and motion (proprioception). This paper advances a model for generating artificial muscle spindle signals for a prosthetic limb, with the aim of one day providing amputees with a sense of feeling in their artificial limb. By utilising the Opensim biomechanical modelling package the relationship between a joint's angle and the length of surrounding muscles is estimated for a prosthetic limb. This is then applied to the established Mileusnic model to determine the associated muscle spindle firing pattern. This complete system model is then reduced to allow for a computationally efficient hardware implementation. This reduction is achieved with minimal impact on accuracy by selecting key mono-articular muscles and fitting equations to relate joint angle to muscle length. Parameter values fitting the Mileusnic model to human spindles are then proposed and validated against previously published human neural recordings. Finally, a model for fusimotor signals is also proposed based on data previously recorded from reduced animal experiments. PMID:24110089

  17. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  18. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  19. Applications of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included the location of multiple faults by diagnostic expert systems, knowledge-based systems, natural language, image processing, computer vision, and identification systems.

  20. The Artificial Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, D. R.

    An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

  1. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  2. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  3. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  4. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  5. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices. PMID:26973294

  6. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  7. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices. PMID:26973294

  8. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  9. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  10. Artificial intelligence within AFSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  11. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions. PMID:23196603

  12. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  13. Physiological Considerations of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for the development of artificial gravity environments on spacecraft are outlined. The physiological effects of weightlessness on the human cardiovascular skeletal, and vestibular systems are enumerated. Design options for creating artificial gravity environments are shown.

  14. Myoelectric control of artificial limb inspired by quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomau, Michael; Jiang, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom represents a significant challenge to efficient rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump is a common way to initiate and control the different movements available to the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of prosthesis control reduces to one of pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, cannot provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that, in principle, quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.

  15. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  16. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  17. Physiological Considerations of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Weightlessness produces significant physiological changes. Whether these changes will stabilize or achieve medical significance is not clear. Artificial gravity is the physiological countermeasure, and the tether system represents an attractive approach to artificial gravity. The need for artificial gravity is examined.

  18. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  19. Perception of Gender Equality on Television and in Social Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemach, Tamar; Cohen, Akiba A.

    1986-01-01

    This study examined differential perceptions of men and women as they appear on television (symbolic reality) and in real life (social reality). The marked tendency of television viewers to regard symbolic reality as more stereotypic than social reality for most traits, roles, and occupations was especially true for heavier viewers. (Author/MBR)

  20. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  1. Exploring the Realities of Television with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morison, Patricia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)

  2. Reflective Teachers: Tensions between Abstractions and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Terry M.; Niles, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    The teacher as reflective practitioner of rhetoric of teacher education reform is balanced against the realities of promoting teacher reflection. Crucial conditions to promote reflection are identified. (Author/MT)

  3. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  4. Measurements on the reality of the wavefunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringbauer, M.; Duffus, B.; Branciard, C.; Cavalcanti, E. G.; White, A. G.; Fedrizzi, A.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum mechanics is an outstandingly successful description of nature, underpinning fields from biology through chemistry to physics. At its heart is the quantum wavefunction, the central tool for describing quantum systems. Yet it is still unclear what the wavefunction actually is: does it merely represent our limited knowledge of a system, or is it in direct correspondence to reality? Recent no-go theorems argued that if there was any objective reality, then the wavefunction must be real. However, that conclusion relied on debatable assumptions. Here we follow a different approach without these assumptions and experimentally bound the degree to which knowledge interpretations can explain quantum phenomena. Using single photons, we find that no knowledge interpretation can fully explain the limited distinguishability of non-orthogonal quantum states in three and four dimensions. Assuming that a notion of objective reality exists, our results thus strengthen the view that the wavefunction should directly correspond to this reality.

  5. STS-133 Crew Trains in Virtual Reality

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA "Behind the Scenes," STS-133 Pilot Eric Boe and space station Flight Director Royce Renfrew discuss how the virtual reality laboratory at the Johnson Space Center is helping...

  6. Augmented reality: past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzerillo, Laura

    2013-03-01

    A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the "Steri" in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research.

  7. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  8. Engineering applications of virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James R.; Grimes, Robert V.; Plant, Tony A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper addresses some of the practical applications, advantages and difficulties associated with the engineering applications of virtual reality. The paper tracks actual investigative work in progress on this subject at the BNR research lab in RTP, NC. This work attempts to demonstrate the actual value added to the engineering process by using existing 3D CAD data for interactive information navigation and evaluation of design concepts and products. Specifically, the work includes translation of Parametric Technology's Pro/ENGINEER models into a virtual world to evaluate potential attributes such as multiple concept exploration and product installation assessment. Other work discussed in this paper includes extensive evaluation of two new tools, VRML and SGI's/Template Graphics' WebSpace for navigation through Pro/ENGINEER models with links to supporting technical documentation and data. The benefits of using these tolls for 3D interactive navigation and exploration throughout three key phases of the physical design process is discussed in depth. The three phases are Design Concept Development, Product Design Evaluation and Product Design Networking. The predicted values added include reduced time to `concept ready', reduced prototype iterations, increased `design readiness' and shorter manufacturing introduction cycles.

  9. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie–Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  10. [Ketamine--dreams and realities].

    PubMed

    Arditti, J; Spadari, M; de Haro, L; Brun, A; Bourdon, J H; Valli, M

    2002-01-01

    Ketamine is an anaesthetic used in human medicine and veterinary practice, synthesised on 1962 and marketed on 1970 in France. Recreational uses were described during 1992 in the medical community and in 1996 in the dance settings. The chemical name of ketamine is 2--(2chlorophenyl)2-(methylamine)-cyclohexanone, an aryl cyclohexylamine, structurally related to phencyclidine. Ketamine is known under the following street names: Keta K, Kate, Special K, Vitamin K, la Golden, la Vétérinaire. Ketamine is used intranasally, orally and intramusculary in recreational use. Ketamine is manufactured by the chemical industry. Due to the complicated synthesis, it is sold illicitly for recreational use. Ketamine is a dissociative drug, and the user enters in a psychedelic dream with hallucinations, floating sensation, feeling of dissociation of the mind from the body. The dream is forgotten, the user full in reality with loss of self control, risk of acute intoxication. In long-term exposure, tolerance, dependence, withdrawal signs and flash back are described. Ketamine trademarks are subject to control in France through medicine legislation Ketamine and its salts are subject to control under the national legislation on narcotics and psychotropics substance. From September 2001, the theft of medical and veterinary trademarks have to be declared to police, care health authority Pharmacy control authority and French Health Products Safety Agency. PMID:11974440

  11. Engineering skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-10-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaired. In this article, we will describe current approaches to restore the function of diseased or injured muscle through combined use of myogenic stem cells, biomaterials, and functional tissue-engineered muscle. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for expanding the future use of human cell sources toward the development of cell-based clinical therapies and in vitro models of human muscle disease. PMID:23711735

  12. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  14. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... nervous system that cause muscle function loss include: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease) Bell's palsy Botulism ... of recent progress. Curr Opin Rheum Read More Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Botulism Broken bone Guillain-Barré syndrome Muscle cramps ...

  15. Impact of artificial "gummy" fingers on fingerprint systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Koji; Hoshino, Satoshi

    2002-04-01

    Potential threats caused by something like real fingers, which are called fake or artificial fingers, should be crucial for authentication based on fingerprint systems. Security evaluation against attacks using such artificial fingers has been rarely disclosed. Only in patent literature, measures, such as live and well detection, against fake fingers have been proposed. However, the providers of fingerprint systems usually do not mention whether or not these measures are actually implemented in emerging fingerprint systems for PCs or smart cards or portable terminals, which are expected to enhance the grade of personal authentication necessary for digital transactions. As researchers who are pursuing secure systems, we would like to discuss attacks using artificial fingers and conduct experimental research to clarify the reality. This paper reports that gummy fingers, namely artificial fingers that are easily made of cheap and readily available gelatin, were accepted by extremely high rates by 11 particular fingerprint devices with optical or capacitive sensors. We have used the molds, which we made by pressing our live fingers against them or by processing fingerprint images from prints on glass surfaces, etc. We describe how to make the molds, and then show that the gummy fingers, which are made with these molds, can fool the fingerprint devices.

  16. Artificial neural superposition eye.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-09-17

    We propose an ultra-thin imaging system which is based on the neural superposition compound eye of insects. Multiple light sensitive pixels in the footprint of each lenslet of this multi-channel configuration enable the parallel imaging of the individual object points. Together with the digital superposition of related signals this multiple sampling enables advanced functionalities for artificial compound eyes. Using this technique, color imaging and a circumvention for the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity of ultra-compact camera devices have been demonstrated in this article. The optical design and layout of such a system is discussed in detail. Experimental results are shown which indicate the attractiveness of microoptical artificial compound eyes for applications in the field of machine vision, surveillance or automotive imaging. PMID:19547555

  17. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  18. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

  19. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  20. Exercising with a Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: • cramping in muscles (probably related to insufficient energy supply for muscles) • pain in muscles • weakness of exercised muscles • dark urine that looks like cola, following exercise (seek ...

  1. Developing better artificial bones.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Edward D

    2003-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines are preparing the Space-DRUMS (Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix Systems) materials processing facility for transport to the International Space Station. The Space-DRUMS uses acoustic pressure beams to maintain the position of a suspended liquid or solid. Space-DRUMS will be used to extend experiments with tricalcium phosphate in the development of artificial bone material. PMID:12524712

  2. Artificial gravity Mars spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1989-01-01

    Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.

  3. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Mohan M.; Gilmore, John F.

    1986-03-01

    Intelligence evolves out of matter, so said the Sankhya philosophers of ancient India. The discipline of artificial intelligence (Al), which was established some 30 years ago, has confirmed the validity of the above assertion. Recently, a number of AI applications have been successfully demonstrated, generating a great deal of excitement and interest in scientific and technical circles. In this special issue of Optical Engineering a representative set of applications that incorporate Al principles is presented.

  4. Whither Artificial Reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Percival-Smith, Robin

    1985-01-01

    Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments. PMID:21274181

  5. Polish artificial heart program.

    PubMed

    El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

  6. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  7. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  8. Designed biomaterials to mimic the mechanical properties of muscles.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shanshan; Dudek, Daniel M; Cao, Yi; Balamurali, M M; Gosline, John; Li, Hongbin

    2010-05-01

    The passive elasticity of muscle is largely governed by the I-band part of the giant muscle protein titin, a complex molecular spring composed of a series of individually folded immunoglobulin-like domains as well as largely unstructured unique sequences. These mechanical elements have distinct mechanical properties, and when combined, they provide the desired passive elastic properties of muscle, which are a unique combination of strength, extensibility and resilience. Single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies demonstrated that the macroscopic behaviour of titin in intact myofibrils can be reconstituted by combining the mechanical properties of these mechanical elements measured at the single-molecule level. Here we report artificial elastomeric proteins that mimic the molecular architecture of titin through the combination of well-characterized protein domains GB1 and resilin. We show that these artificial elastomeric proteins can be photochemically crosslinked and cast into solid biomaterials. These biomaterials behave as rubber-like materials showing high resilience at low strain and as shock-absorber-like materials at high strain by effectively dissipating energy. These properties are comparable to the passive elastic properties of muscles within the physiological range of sarcomere length and so these materials represent a new muscle-mimetic biomaterial. The mechanical properties of these biomaterials can be fine-tuned by adjusting the composition of the elastomeric proteins, providing the opportunity to develop biomaterials that are mimetic of different types of muscles. We anticipate that these biomaterials will find applications in tissue engineering as scaffold and matrix for artificial muscles. PMID:20445626

  9. Glucocorticoids and Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Sue C; Furlow, J David

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, producing a catabolic effect that is opposite that of insulin. In many catabolic diseases, such as sepsis, starvation, and cancer cachexia, endogenous glucocorticoids are elevated contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function. Further, exogenous glucocorticoids are often given acutely and chronically to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in muscle atrophy. This chapter will detail the nature of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy and discuss the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on muscle. PMID:26215994

  10. Oxidative Metabolism in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, M.; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-06-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

  11. Evaluating Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Training for Industrial Maintenance and Assembly Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavish, Nirit; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Webel, Sabine; Rodríguez, Jorge; Peveri, Matteo; Bockholt, Uli; Tecchia, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) platforms, developed within the scope of the SKILLS Integrated Project, for industrial maintenance and assembly (IMA) tasks training. VR and AR systems are now widely regarded as promising training platforms for complex and highly demanding IMA tasks. However,…

  12. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  13. Student Interns' Socially Constructed Work Realities: Narrowing the Work Expectation-Reality Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    New employees, including college students, often experience expectation-reality gaps about work, making the assimilation process more difficult for all. This qualitative study explores the role of the internship in narrowing the work expectation-reality gap. This article addresses two research questions: (a) What do students learn about work…

  14. Virtual Reality: A Syllabus for a Course on Virtual Reality and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    This document contains a slightly-revised syllabus for a Virtual Reality course taught in spring 1994. The syllabus begins with an introduction which contains information on the software used in the course and examples of schools that have introduced virtual reality technology in the curriculum. The remainder of the document is composed of the…

  15. Regarding Reality: Some Consequences of Two Incapacities

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    By what empirical means can a person determine whether he or she is presently awake or dreaming? Any conceivable test addressing this question, which is a special case of the classical metaphysical doubting of reality, must be statistical (for the same reason that empirical science is, as noted by Hume). Subjecting the experienced reality to any kind of statistical test (for instance, a test for bizarreness) requires, however, that a set of baseline measurements be available. In a dream, or in a simulation, any such baseline data would be vulnerable to tampering by the same processes that give rise to the experienced reality, making the outcome of a reality test impossible to trust. Moreover, standard cryptographic defenses against such tampering cannot be relied upon, because of the potentially unlimited reach of reality modification within a dream, which may range from the integrity of the verification keys to the declared outcome of the entire process. In the face of this double predicament, the rational course of action is to take reality at face value. The predicament also has some intriguing corollaries. In particular, even the most revealing insight that a person may gain into the ultimate nature of reality (for instance, by attaining enlightenment in the Buddhist sense) is ultimately unreliable, for the reasons just mentioned. At the same time, to adhere to this principle, one has to be aware of it, which may not be possible in various states of reduced or altered cognitive function such as dreaming or religious experience. Thus, a subjectively enlightened person may still lack the one truly important piece of the puzzle concerning his or her existence. PMID:21716920

  16. Effects of innovative virtual reality game and EMG biofeedback on neuromotor control in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Dong Ryul; Sim, Yon Ju; You, Joshua H; Kim, Cheol J

    2014-01-01

    Sensorimotor control dysfunction or dyskinesia is a hallmark of neuromuscular impairment in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and is often implicated in reaching and grasping deficiencies due to a neuromuscular imbalance between the triceps and biceps. To mitigate such muscle imbalances, an innovative electromyography (EMG)-virtual reality (VR) biofeedback system were designed to provide accurate information about muscle activation and motivation. However, the clinical efficacy of this approach has not yet been determined in children with CP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined EMG biofeedback and VR (EMG-VR biofeedback) intervention system to improve muscle imbalance between triceps and biceps during reaching movements in children with spastic CP. Raw EMG signals were recorded at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz, band-pass filtered between 20-450 Hz, and notch-filtered at 60 Hz during elbow flexion and extension movements. EMG data were then processed using MyoResearch Master Edition 1.08 XP software. All participants underwent both interventions consisting of the EMG-VR biofeedback combination and EMG biofeedback alone. EMG analysis resulted in improved muscle activation in the underactive triceps while decreasing overactive or hypertonic biceps in the EMG-VR biofeedback compared with EMG biofeedback. The muscle imbalance ratio between the triceps and biceps was consistently improved. The present study is the first clinical trial to provide evidence for the additive benefits of VR intervention for enhancing the upper limb function of children with spastic CP. PMID:25227075

  17. Hiding the squid: patterns in artificial cephalopod skin

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Aaron; Rossiter, Jonathan; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods employ their chromomorphic skins for rapid and versatile active camouflage and signalling effects. This is achieved using dense networks of pigmented, muscle-driven chromatophore cells which are neurally stimulated to actuate and affect local skin colouring. This allows cephalopods to adopt numerous dynamic and complex skin patterns, most commonly used to blend into the environment or to communicate with other animals. Our ultimate goal is to create an artificial skin that can mimic such pattern generation techniques, and that could produce a host of novel and compliant devices such as cloaking suits and dynamic illuminated clothing. This paper presents the design, mathematical modelling and analysis of a dynamic biomimetic pattern generation system using bioinspired artificial chromatophores. The artificial skin is made from electroactive dielectric elastomer: a soft, planar-actuating smart material that we show can be effective at mimicking the actuation of biological chromatophores. The proposed system achieves dynamic pattern generation by imposing simple local rules into the artificial chromatophore cells so that they can sense their surroundings in order to manipulate their actuation. By modelling sets of artificial chromatophores in linear arrays of cells, we explore the capability of the system to generate a variety of dynamic pattern types. We show that it is possible to mimic patterning seen in cephalopods, such as the passing cloud display, and other complex dynamic patterning. PMID:26063823

  18. Research on a novel artificial anal sphincter for human incontinence.

    PubMed

    Zan, P; Yang, B; Zhang, J Y; Shao, Y

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel artificial anal sphincter with sensor feedback for controlling anal incontinence. The artificial anal sphincter system is a novel hydraulic-electric muscle which mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter, a wireless power supply subsystem, and a communication subsystem. High integration of all functional components and no wire linking to the outer device make surgical implantation easier and lower risk. The wireless power supply subsystem employs a Class-E power amplifier based on adaptive control technique, and the electromagnetic compatibility in biological tissue is analysed. With the goal of designing a reliable and safe instrument, the models of human colonic blood flow and rectum motion are developed, the biomechanical material properties of human rectum and tissue ischaemia are analysed. The results show that the deformation of the artificial anal sphincter can be controlled by the press of reservoir below the upper limit of human tissue ischaemia. In vitro experiments demonstrate the artificial anal sphincter system is a good cure for human anal incontinence problems. PMID:20653341

  19. Maintaining muscle mass during extended disuse: aestivating frogs as a model species.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Franklin, Craig E

    2002-08-01

    Prolonged muscle disuse in vertebrates can lead to a pathological change resulting in muscle wasting and a loss of muscle strength. In this paper, we review muscle disuse atrophy in the vertebrates and examine the factors that influence the magnitude of the atrophic response during extended periods of inactivity, both artificially imposed (e.g. limb immobilisation) and naturally occurring, such as the quiescence associated with dormancy (e.g. hibernation and aestivation). The severity of muscle atrophy is positively correlated with mass-specific metabolic rate, and the metabolic depression that occurs during dormancy would appear to have a protective role, reducing or preventing muscle atrophy despite periods of inactivity lasting 6-9 months. In the light of these findings, the role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants during muscle disuse is emphasised. PMID:12110663

  20. Generating artificial gravity onboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukley, Angie; Lawrence, Douglas; Clément, Gilles

    2007-02-01

    One of the most significant problems associated with long duration space missions is mitigating the harmful effects of microgravity on the human body. These effects include loss of bone, muscle mass, and red blood cells; fluid shifts; cardiovascular and sensory-motor deconditioning; and changes in the immune system. If the long-duration exploration missions currently envisioned are to be successfully achieved, countermeasures to address the deleterious effects of microgravity must be developed, tested, and proven. A possible experiment to determine what level of artificial gravity is required for human perception is explored in this paper and involves creating artificial gravity onboard the Space Shuttle. Two methods are examined using Matlab ® analysis and simulation studies. The first requires putting the Shuttle into an eccentric orbit about its nominal orbit that would generate the centripetal forces necessary to simulate a gravitational environment. The other is a tumble maneuver, similar to the standard maneuver performed prior to Shuttle re-entry. Results indicate that the later maneuver is well within the capability of the Space Shuttle orbital control system, while the former is not.

  1. Artificial intelligence in hematology.

    PubMed

    Zini, Gina

    2005-10-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems. PMID:16203606

  2. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  3. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  4. Artificial gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, Larry C.; Lindner, John F.

    Using computer algebra to run Einstein's equations "backward", from field to source rather than from source to field, we design an artificial gravity field for a space station or spaceship. Everywhere inside astronauts experience normal Earth gravity, while outside they float freely. The stress-energy that generates the field contains exotic matter of negative energy density but also relies importantly on pressures and shears, which we describe. The same techniques can be readily used to design other interesting spacetimes and thereby elucidate the connection between the source and field in general relativity.

  5. Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Brandl, Daniel W; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2007-01-01

    This Account describes a new paradigm for the relationship between the geometry of metallic nanostructures and their optical properties. While the interaction of light with metallic nanoparticles is determined by their collective electronic or plasmon response, a compelling analogy exists between plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles and wave functions of simple atoms and molecules. Based on this insight, an entire family of plasmonic nanostructures, artificial molecules, has been developed whose optical properties can be understood within this picture: nanoparticles (nanoshells, nanoeggs, nanomatryushkas, nanorice), multi-nanoparticle assemblies (dimers, trimers, quadrumers), and a nanoparticle-over-metallic film, an electromagnetic analog of the spinless Anderson model. PMID:17226945

  6. Effect of ski simulator training on kinematic and muscle activation of the lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jeheon; Koo, Dohoon; Kim, Kitae; Shin, Insik; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jinhae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an augmented reality-based ski simulator through analyzing the changes in movement patterns as well as the engagement of major muscles of the lower body. [Subjects] Seven subjects participated in the study. All were national team-level athletes studying at “K” Sports University in Korea who exhibited comparable performance levels and had no record of injuries in the preceding 6 months (Age 23.4 ± 3.8 years; Height 172.6 ± 12.1 cm; Weight 72.3 ± 16.2 kg; Experience 12.3 ± 4.8 years). [Methods] A reality-based ski simulator developed by a Korean manufacturer was used for the study. Three digital video cameras and a wireless electromyography system were used to perform 3-dimensional motion analysis and measure muscle activation level. [Results] Left hip angulation was found to increase as the frequency of the turns increased. Electromyography data revealed that the activation level of the quadriceps group’s extension muscles and the biceps femoris group’s flexing muscles had a crossing pattern. [Conclusion] Sustained training using an augmented reality-based ski simulator resulted in movements that extended the lower body joints, which is thought to contribute to increasing muscle fatigue. PMID:26357449

  7. The Effects of Augmented Reality-based Otago Exercise on Balance, Gait, and Falls Efficacy of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha-na; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were 21 elderly women, who were randomly divided into two groups: an augmented reality-based Otago exercise group of 10 subjects and an Otago exercise group of 11 subjects. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length), and falls efficacy. Within 12 weeks, Otago exercise for muscle strengthening and balance training was conducted three times, for a period of 60 minutes each, and subjects in the experimental group performed augmented reality-based Otago exercise. [Results] Following intervention, the augmented reality-based Otago exercise group showed significant increases in BBS, velocity, cadence, step length (right side), stride length (right side and left side) and falls efficacy. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of this augmented reality-based Otago exercise for elderly women. PMID:24259856

  8. Effectiveness of the Virtual Reality System Toyra on Upper Limb Function in People with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I.; Gil-Agudo, A.; Segura-Fragoso, A.; de los Reyes-Guzmán, A.; Trincado-Alonso, F.; Piazza, S.; Polonio-López, B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality program combined with conventional therapy in upper limb function in people with tetraplegia and to provide data about patients' satisfaction with the virtual reality system. Thirty-one people with subacute complete cervical tetraplegia participated in the study. Experimental group received 15 sessions with Toyra® virtual reality system for 5 weeks, 30 minutes/day, 3 days/week in addition to conventional therapy, while control group only received conventional therapy. All patients were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at three-month follow-up with a battery of clinical, functional, and satisfaction scales. Control group showed significant improvements in the manual muscle test (p = 0,043, partial η2 = 0,22) in the follow-up evaluation. Both groups demonstrated clinical, but nonsignificant, changes to their arm function in 4 of the 5 scales used. All patients showed a high level of satisfaction with the virtual reality system. This study showed that virtual reality added to conventional therapy produces similar results in upper limb function compared to only conventional therapy. Moreover, the gaming aspects incorporated in conventional rehabilitation appear to produce high motivation during execution of the assigned tasks. This trial is registered with EudraCT number 2015-002157-35. PMID:26885511

  9. Effectiveness of the Virtual Reality System Toyra on Upper Limb Function in People with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I; Gil-Agudo, A; Segura-Fragoso, A; de los Reyes-Guzmán, A; Trincado-Alonso, F; Piazza, S; Polonio-López, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality program combined with conventional therapy in upper limb function in people with tetraplegia and to provide data about patients' satisfaction with the virtual reality system. Thirty-one people with subacute complete cervical tetraplegia participated in the study. Experimental group received 15 sessions with Toyra(®) virtual reality system for 5 weeks, 30 minutes/day, 3 days/week in addition to conventional therapy, while control group only received conventional therapy. All patients were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at three-month follow-up with a battery of clinical, functional, and satisfaction scales. Control group showed significant improvements in the manual muscle test (p = 0,043, partial η (2) = 0,22) in the follow-up evaluation. Both groups demonstrated clinical, but nonsignificant, changes to their arm function in 4 of the 5 scales used. All patients showed a high level of satisfaction with the virtual reality system. This study showed that virtual reality added to conventional therapy produces similar results in upper limb function compared to only conventional therapy. Moreover, the gaming aspects incorporated in conventional rehabilitation appear to produce high motivation during execution of the assigned tasks. This trial is registered with EudraCT number 2015-002157-35. PMID:26885511

  10. Immersive virtual reality as a rehabilitative technology for phantom limb experience: a protocol.

    PubMed

    Murray, Craig D; Patchick, Emma; Pettifer, Stephen; Caillette, Fabrice; Howard, Toby

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes a study protocol to investigate the use of immersive virtual reality as a treatment for amputees' phantom limb pain. This work builds upon prior research using mirror box therapy to induce vivid sensations of movement originating from the muscles and joints of amputees' phantom limbs. The present project transposes movements of amputees' anatomical limbs into movements of a virtual limb presented in the phenomenal space of their phantom limb. It is anticipated that the protocol described here will help reduce phantom limb pain. PMID:16640472

  11. Theoretical Hill-type muscle and stability: numerical model and application.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Günther, M; Rupp, T; Bayer, A; Häufle, D

    2013-01-01

    The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator. PMID:24319495

  12. Theoretical Hill-Type Muscle and Stability: Numerical Model and Application

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, S.; Günther, M.; Rupp, T.; Bayer, A.; Häufle, D.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator. PMID:24319495

  13. The effect of glycerol treatment on crab muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Papir, Dalia

    1973-01-01

    1. Membrane constants of the closer muscle of the ghost crab, Ocypoda cursor, were determined before and after treatment in hypertonic glycerol solution and return to an artificial sea-water (A.S.W.) solution. 2. Muscle contraction was abolished after return of the muscle to A.S.W. 3. The membrane capacitance was reduced from 29·0 μF/cm2 to 10·5 μF/cm2. 4. Other passive properties of the muscle membrane, not dependent on capacitance, were not changed. 5. The presynaptic nerve, transmitter release, post-synaptic sensitivity to transmitter and ionic mechanisms of synaptic action were unaffected by glycerol treatment. 6. More than 60% of the membrane capacitance/unit area is contributed by the complex tubular system. 7. The tubular system in crustacea is necessary for excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:4708897

  14. Applicability of nonresonant artificial diamagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, L.; Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    Artificial diamagnetics are prominent for achieving extraordinarily strong diamagnetism in a wide frequency range. However, as far as the magnetic fields outside the artificial medium are concerned, bulk conductors show a very similar pattern. The question arises whether the complicated internal structure of artificial diamagnetics can, to this end, be replaced by a simpler object. We show that for an electrically small body, internal structuring is likely to make the effective diamagnetic response weaker than that of a simple conducting object.

  15. Unsupported standing with minimized ankle muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Mihelj, Matjaz; Munih, Marko

    2004-08-01

    In the past, limited unsupported standing has been restored in patients with thoracic spinal cord injury through open-loop functional electrical stimulation of paralyzed knee extensor muscles and the support of intact arm musculature. Here an optimal control system for paralyzed ankle muscles was designed that enables the subject to stand without hand support in a sagittal plane. The paraplegic subject was conceptualized as an underactuated double inverted pendulum structure with an active degree of freedom in the upper trunk and a passive degree of freedom in the paralyzed ankle joints. Control system design is based on the minimization of a cost function that estimates the effort of ankle joint muscles via observation of the ground reaction force position, relative to ankle joint axis. Furthermore, such a control system integrates voluntary upper trunk activity and artificial control of ankle joint muscles, resulting in a robust standing posture. Figures are shown for the initial simulation study, followed by disturbance tests on an intact volunteer and several laboratory trials with a paraplegic person. Benefits of the presented methodology are prolonged standing sessions and in the fact that the subject is able to maintain voluntary control over upper body orientation in space, enabling simple functional standing. PMID:15311817

  16. Development of artificial empathy.

    PubMed

    Asada, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed. PMID:25498950

  17. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  18. Dual Reality: Merging the Real and Virtual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Joshua; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    This paper proposes the convergence of sensor networks and virtual worlds not only as a possible solution to their respective limitations, but also as the beginning of a new creative medium. In such a "dual reality," both real and virtual worlds are complete unto themselves, but also enhanced by the ability to mutually reflect, influence, and merge by means of sensor/actuator networks deeply embedded in everyday environments. This paper describes a full implementation of a dual reality system using a popular online virtual world and a human-centric sensor network designed around a common electrical power strip. Example applications (e.g., browsing sensor networks in online virtual worlds), interaction techniques, and design strategies for the dual reality domain are demonstrated and discussed.

  19. Transportation planning: A virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.; Hefele, J.; Dolin, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    An important factor in the development of any base technology is generating it in such a way that these technologies will continue to be useful through systems upgrades and implementation philosophy metamorphoses. Base technologies of traffic engineering including transportation modeling, traffic impact forecasting, traffic operation management, emergency situation routing and re-routing, and signal systems optimization should all be designed with the future in mind. Advanced Traffic Engineering topics, such as Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, are designed with advanced engineering concepts such as rules-based design and artificial intelligence. All aspects of development of base technologies must include Total Quality Engineering as the primary factor in order to succeed. This philosophy for development of base technologies for the County of Los Alamos is being developed leveraging the resources of the Center for Advanced Engineering Technology (CAET) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the CAET is to develop next-generation engineering technology that supports the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s mission and to transfer that technology to industry and academia. The CAET`s goal is to promote industrial, academic, and government interactions in diverse areas of engineering technology, such as, design, analysis, manufacturing, virtual enterprise, robotics, telepresence, rapid prototyping, and virtual environment technology. The Center is expanding, enhancing, and increasing core competencies at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CAET has three major thrust areas: development of base technologies, virtual environment technology applications, and educational outreach and training. Virtual environment technology immerses a user in a nonexistent or augmented environment for research or training purposes. Virtual environment technology illustrates the axiom, ``The best way to learn is by doing.``

  20. Virtual reality and telepresence for military medicine.

    PubMed

    Satava, R M

    1995-03-01

    The profound changes brought about by technology in the past few decades are leading to a total revolution in medicine. The advanced technologies of telepresence and virtual reality are but two of the manifestations emerging from our new information age; now all of medicine can be empowered because of this digital technology. The leading edge is on the digital battlefield, where an entire new concept in military medicine is evolving. Using remote sensors, intelligent systems, telepresence surgery and virtual reality surgical simulations, combat casualty care is prepared for the 21st century. PMID:7554840

  1. The ethics of reality medical television.

    PubMed

    Krakower, Thalia Margalit; Montello, Martha; Mitchell, Christine; Truog, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    Reality medical television, an increasingly popular genre, depicts private medical moments between patients and healthcare providers. Journalists aim to educate and inform the public, while the participants in their documentaries-providers and patients-seek to heal and be healed. When journalists and healthcare providers work together at the bedside, moral problems precipitate. During the summer of 2010, ABC aired a documentary, Boston Med, featuring several Boston hospitals. We examine the ethical issues that arise when journalism and medicine intersect. We provide a framework for evaluating the potential benefits and harms of reality medical television, highlighting critical issues such as informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy. PMID:23631335

  2. Artificial urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods

    PubMed Central

    Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Incontinent urinary diversion using an ileal conduit is the most popular method used by urologists after bladder cystectomy resulting from muscle invasive bladder cancer. The use of gastrointestinal tissue is related to a series of complications with the necessity of surgical procedure extension which increases the time of surgery. Regenerative medicine together with tissue engineering techniques gives hope for artificial urinary conduit construction de novo without affecting the ileum. Material and methods In this review we analyzed history of urinary diversion together with current attempts in urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods. Based on literature and our own experience we presented future perspectives related to the artificial urinary conduit construction. Results A small number of papers in the field of tissue engineered urinary conduit construction indicates that this topic requires more attention. Three main factors can be distinguished to resolve this topic: proper scaffold construction along with proper regeneration of both the urothelium and smooth muscle layers. Conclusions Artificial urinary conduit has a great chance to become the first commercially available product in urology constructed by regenerative medicine methods. PMID:25914849

  3. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  4. Characterizing the Peano fluidic muscle and the effects of its geometry properties on its behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Allan Joshua; Xie, Sheng Quan; Anderson, Iain Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we explore the basic static and dynamic behavior of a hydraulically actuated Peano muscle and how its geometry affects key static and dynamic performance metrics. The Peano muscle, or pouch motor is a fluid powered artificial muscle. Similar to McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs), it has the ability to generate the high forces of biological muscles with the low threshold pressure of pleated PAMs, but in a slim, easily distributed form. We found that Peano muscles have similar characteristics to other PAMs, but produce lower free-strains. A test rig capable of measuring high-speed flow rates with a Venturi tube revealed that their efficiency peaks at about 40% during highly dynamic movements. Peano muscles with more tubes and of a greater size do not move faster. Also, their muscle tubes should have an aspect ratio of at least 1:3 and channel width greater than 20% to maximize performance. These findings suggest that finite element modeling be used to optimize more complex Peano muscle geometries.

  5. Artificial organs: recent progress in artificial hearing and vision.

    PubMed

    Ifukube, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Artificial sensory organs are a prosthetic means of sending visual or auditory information to the brain by electrical stimulation of the optic or auditory nerves to assist visually impaired or hearing-impaired people. However, clinical application of artificial sensory organs, except for cochlear implants, is still a trial-and-error process. This is because how and where the information transmitted to the brain is processed is still unknown, and also because changes in brain function (plasticity) remain unknown, even though brain plasticity plays an important role in meaningful interpretation of new sensory stimuli. This article discusses some basic unresolved issues and potential solutions in the development of artificial sensory organs such as cochlear implants, brainstem implants, artificial vision, and artificial retinas. PMID:19330498

  6. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  7. Modeling of the energy savings of variable recruitment McKibben muscle bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meller, Michael A.; Chipka, Jordan B.; Bryant, Matthew J.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    McKibben artificial muscles are often utilized in mobile robotic applications that require compliant and light weight actuation capable of producing large forces. In order to increase the endurance of these mobile robotic platforms, actuation efficiency must be addressed. Since pneumatic systems are rarely more than 30% efficient due to the compressibility of the working fluid, the McKibben muscles are hydraulically powered. Additionally, these McKibben artificial muscles utilize an inelastic bladder to reduce the energy losses associated with elastic energy storage in the usual rubber tube bladders. The largest energy losses in traditional valve-controlled hydraulic systems are found in the valving implementation to match the required loads. This is performed by throttling, which results in large pressure drops over the control valves and significant fluid power being wasted as heat. This paper discusses how these throttling losses are reduced by grouping multiple artificial muscles to form a muscle bundle where, like in skeletal muscle, more elements that make up the muscle bundle are recruited to match the load. This greatly lessens the pressure drops by effectively changing the actuator area, leading to much higher efficiencies over a broader operation envelope. Simulations of several different loading scenarios are discussed that reveal the benefits of such an actuation scheme.

  8. The Application of Virtual Reality on Distance Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zehui

    The features and classifications of Virtual Reality Techniques have been summarized and recommendation of applying Virtual Reality on distance education has been made. Future research is needed on the design and implementation of virtual classroom and courseware.

  9. The 'mad scientists': psychoanalysis, dream and virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, Marie

    2003-04-01

    The author explores the concept of reality-testing as a means of assessing the relationship with reality that prevails in dream and in virtual reality. Based on a model developed by Jean Laplanche, she compares these activities in detail in order to determine their respective independence from the function of reality-testing. By carefully examining the concept of hallucination in the writings of Freud and Daniel Dennett, the author seeks to pinpoint the specific modalities of interaction between perceptions, ideas, wishes and actions that converge in the 'belief' and in the 'sense of reality'. The paper's main thesis consists of the distinction that it draws between immediacy-testing and reality-testing, with the further argument that this distinction not only dissipates the conceptual vagueness that generally surrounds the latter of the two concepts but also that it promotes a more precise analysis of the function of reality in dream and in virtual reality. PMID:12856355

  10. Molecular artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Serena; Drouet, Samuel; Francàs, Laia; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Guttentag, Miguel; Richmond, Craig; Stoll, Thibaut; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-11-21

    The replacement of fossil fuels by a clean and renewable energy source is one of the most urgent and challenging issues our society is facing today, which is why intense research has been devoted to this topic recently. Nature has been using sunlight as the primary energy input to oxidise water and generate carbohydrates (solar fuel) for over a billion years. Inspired, but not constrained, by nature, artificial systems can be designed to capture light and oxidise water and reduce protons or other organic compounds to generate useful chemical fuels. This tutorial review covers the primary topics that need to be understood and mastered in order to come up with practical solutions for the generation of solar fuels. These topics are: the fundamentals of light capturing and conversion, water oxidation catalysis, proton and CO2 reduction catalysis and the combination of all of these for the construction of complete cells for the generation of solar fuels. PMID:24473472

  11. Artificial Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Balzani; Credi; Raymo; Stoddart

    2000-10-01

    The miniaturization of components used in the construction of working devices is being pursued currently by the large-downward (top-down) fabrication. This approach, however, which obliges solid-state physicists and electronic engineers to manipulate progressively smaller and smaller pieces of matter, has its intrinsic limitations. An alternative approach is a small-upward (bottom-up) one, starting from the smallest compositions of matter that have distinct shapes and unique properties-namely molecules. In the context of this particular challenge, chemists have been extending the concept of a macroscopic machine to the molecular level. A molecular-level machine can be defined as an assembly of a distinct number of molecular components that are designed to perform machinelike movements (output) as a result of an appropriate external stimulation (input). In common with their macroscopic counterparts, a molecular machine is characterized by 1) the kind of energy input supplied to make it work, 2) the nature of the movements of its component parts, 3) the way in which its operation can be monitored and controlled, 4) the ability to make it repeat its operation in a cyclic fashion, 5) the timescale needed to complete a full cycle of movements, and 6) the purpose of its operation. Undoubtedly, the best energy inputs to make molecular machines work are photons or electrons. Indeed, with appropriately chosen photochemically and electrochemically driven reactions, it is possible to design and synthesize molecular machines that do work. Moreover, the dramatic increase in our fundamental understanding of self-assembly and self-organizational processes in chemical synthesis has aided and abetted the construction of artificial molecular machines through the development of new methods of noncovalent synthesis and the emergence of supramolecular assistance to covalent synthesis as a uniquely powerful synthetic tool. The aim of this review is to present a unified view of the field

  12. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  13. Compact artificial hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

  14. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  15. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1987-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  16. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  17. In Pursuit of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watstein, Sarah; Kesselman, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Defines artificial intelligence and reviews current research in natural language processing, expert systems, and robotics and sensory systems. Discussion covers current commercial applications of artificial intelligence and projections of uses and limitations in library technical and public services, e.g., in cataloging and online information and…

  18. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

    The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

  20. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  1. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  2. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G; Hargens, A R; Lehman, S; Rempel, D M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue. PMID:11398857

  3. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  4. Click Here For Reality: Enhancing Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents three initiatives designed to advance undergraduate learning outcomes by enhancing student engagement through active, reality-based learning. The Team Challenge, Management Consultant Simulation, and Bookstore Adventure are described. This paper continues a stream of research conducted by its author in recent years to identify,…

  5. Cooperation and Collaboration: Reality or Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenni, Roger W.; Mauriel, John

    2004-01-01

    An eight-year study of 49 schools purporting to practice and apply Quality Management (QM) techniques and processes uncovered some revealing differences between what respondents thought "should be" happening in these schools and what they reported was happening. The gaps uncovered could be recognized as differences between rhetoric and reality, or…

  6. Surgery, Virtual Reality, and the Future*

    PubMed Central

    Vosburgh, Kirby G.; Golby, Alexandra; Pieper, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    MMVR has provided the leading forum for the multidisciplinary interaction and development of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) techniques in medicine, particularly in surgical practice. Here we look back at the foundations of our field, focusing on the use of VR in Surgery and similar interventional procedures, sum up the current status, and describe the challenges and opportunities going forward. PMID:23653952

  7. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  8. Models of Reality: Shaping Thought and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jacques, Ed.

    The 21 essays in this two-part book provide conceptual and operational understanding of the nature of models as representations of reality and as tools for description, analysis, interpretation, and forecasting. Topic areas addressed in part 1 (concept) include: the nature of models; the earth as a system; the determination of form; some…

  9. Evaluation of Virtual Reality Training Using Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Training designed to support and strengthen higher-order mental abilities now often involves immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) where dangerous real world scenarios can be safely replicated. However, despite the growing popularity of VR to train cognitive skills such as decision-making and situation awareness, methods for evaluating their use rely…

  10. New Realities: The Challenge to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, H. Spencer

    1981-01-01

    Due to the changing composition of the student body, college health services are becoming increasingly important and could play an active role in student retention. Realities which need to be faced by college health services include: (1) recession and budget cuts; (2) environmental health and safety activities; and (3) the impact of national…

  11. Marriage: The Dream and the Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano; L'Abate, Bess L.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major polarizations in marriages of workaholic husbands is their pursuit of the "Great American Dream" while their wives are left to pursue the "Petty Realities of Life." Couples must learn to negotiate realistic and functional objectives for themselves, without avoiding the issues. (JAC)

  12. Myths of Poverty--Realities for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Alice

    2010-01-01

    A full stomach and clear mind are prerequisites for learning. Many children who live in poverty have neither. And the number of children who might be considered "food challenged" is growing at an alarming rate. This economic reality translates into ever-growing challenges for the public education system, which already struggles to provide all the…

  13. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2004-01-01

    Most teachers appear to assume that the status of corporal punishment in their own school or state is a national standard--a perception that is far from contemporary reality. The author of this article asserts lawmakers and courts have failed to ensure that schools are safe places for the children entrusted to our care. Those children cannot…

  14. One-Room Schools: Myth and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stortz, Paul; Panayotidis, E. Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the myth and reality of the ubiquitous one-room school in Canada. A marker of civilization, it bespoke a desire to spread the merits of education to the rugged laborers and their families in even the most remote areas of rural Canada. This historical vestige, particularly in the early-to-mid 20th century, painted a…

  15. NASA employee utilizes Virtual Reality (VR) equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Bebe Ly of the Information Systems Directorate's Software Technology Branch at JSC gives virtual reality a try. The stero video goggles and headphones allow her to see and hear in a computer-generated world and the gloves allow her to move around and grasp objects.

  16. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  17. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  18. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  19. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  20. Introduction to augmented and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudell, Thomas P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper introduces the field of augmented reality as a prolog to the body of papers in the remainder of this session. I describe the use of head-mounted display technologies to improve the efficiency and quality of human workers in their performance of engineering design, manufacturing, construction, testing, and maintenance activities. This technology is used to `augment' the visual field of the wearer with information necessary in the performance of the current task. The enabling technology is head-up (see-through) display head sets (HUDsets) combined with head position sensing, real world registration systems, and database access software. A primary difference between virtual reality (VR) and `augmented reality' (AR) is in the complexity of the perceived graphical objects. In AR systems, only simple wire frames, template outlines, designators, and text is displayed. An immediate result of this difference is that augmented reality systems can be driven by standard and inexpensive microprocessors. Many research issues must be addressed before this technology can be widely used, including tracking and registration, human 3D perception and reasoning, and human task performance issues.

  1. Perception Is Reality: Your Strengths Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Donna V.

    2011-01-01

    Perception is reality. While you perceive yourself to be an effective leader even under stress, do your colleagues share this perception of you? Your perception of effective leadership may be shared by others who work with you. People in leadership may see a relationship between "leaders in title" and "leaders in action" from their own…

  2. Children and the Perceived Reality of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Reeves, Byron

    Based on previous research findings and original data from school children in grades 3-6, this study examines children's perceptions of reality in television as an intervening variable between exposure to the medium and the effect of television messages. The specific focus of the current research was to isolate and identify factors which have…

  3. Publicizing Public-School Realities for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    In characterizing urban public schools, the public does not appreciate that the complexities of urban education cannot be reduced to a few short facts. Instead, the public often works from perception based on nostalgia, rumor, and what is on the newspapers and on television. In this paper, the author discusses public school realities in an effort…

  4. Are Learning Styles Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Toh, Seong Chong; Ismail, Wan Mohd Fauzy Wan

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners with different learning styles. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the VR (guided exploration) mode, irrespective of their learning styles. This shows that the VR-based…

  5. Virtual Reality Calibration for Telerobotic Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality calibration technique of matching a virtual environment of simulated graphics models in 3-D geometry and perspective with actual camera views of the remote site task environment has been developed to enable high-fidelity preview/predictive displays with calibrated graphics overlay on live video.

  6. A Reality Rub Interview: "Out for Blood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecser, Frank A.; Martin, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the goals of Reality Rub Life Space Crisis Intervention, and provides the transcript of an interview with a troubled youth to illustrate the way the intervention techniques works. Goals include correcting interpersonal distortions and misperceptions; identifying defenses; and connecting behavior, feelings, stressful events, and…

  7. Strategic Retrieval in a Reality Monitoring Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosburg, Timm; Mecklinger, Axel; Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Strategic recollection refers to control processes that allow the retrieval of information that is relevant for a specific situation. These processes can be studied in memory exclusion tasks, which require the retrieval of particular kinds of episodic information. In the current study, we investigated strategic recollection in reality monitoring…

  8. Virtual Reality Training Environments: Contexts and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Stephen W.; Kenney, Patrick J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the contexts where virtual reality (VR) training environments might be appropriate; examines the advantages and disadvantages of VR as a training technology; and presents a case study of a VR training environment used at the NASA Johnson Space Center in preparation for the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. (AEF)

  9. Dystopian Reality, Utopian Thought and Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    The significance of utopian thought for education can be made evident through reconceptualizing utopia and approaching it alongside the notion of dystopia. Awareness of dystopian elements of reality radicalizes the kind of critique that assists utopian thought and makes engagement with it more pressing. Awareness of the lurking danger of future…

  10. Students Computer Literacy: Perception versus Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Students believe that they are computer literate. When asked, students perceive themselves as skilled in a variety of computer applications. This research compares students' perceptions with their reality. Students did not perform well on pretests of Microsoft Office, but improved their posttests scores with instruction. The study also examined…

  11. Virtual Reality: Is It for Real?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowding, Tim J.

    1994-01-01

    Defines virtual reality and describes its application to psychomotor skills training. A description of a system that could be used to teach a college course in physical therapy, including the use of miniature computer workstation, sensory gloves, a programmable mannequin, and other existing technology, is provided. (Contains 10 references.) (KRN)

  12. The Reality of Stress-Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Pardo, Dario

    2008-01-01

    According to some accounts, the linguistic reality of stress-timing in English is questionable and the existence of this type of language rhythm is rejected as a perceptual illusion. In this article, the temporal characteristics of English are re-analysed in the light of current linguistic research, and a range of implications for pronunciation…

  13. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  14. Virtual Reality: A New Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary; Loge, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Discusses virtual reality (VR) technology and its possible uses in military training, medical education, industrial design and development, the media industry, and education. Three primary applications of VR in the learning process--visualization, simulation, and construction of virtual worlds--are described, and pedagogical and moral issues are…

  15. Applications of Virtual Reality to Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.

    1998-11-03

    This paper explores two potential applications of Virtual Reality (VR) to international nuclear safeguards: training and information organization and navigation. The applications are represented by two existing prototype systems, one for training nuclear weapons dismantlement and one utilizing a VR model to facilitate intuitive access to related sets of information.

  16. Virtual Reality in Schools: The Ultimate Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert D.; Sykes, Wylmarie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of virtual reality as an educational tool. Highlights include examples of virtual reality in public schools that lead to a more active learning process, simulated environments, integrating virtual reality into any curriculum, benefits to teachers and students, and overcoming barriers to implementation. (LRW)

  17. Education Policy Rhetoric and Reality Gap: A Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Ng Pak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss why there is often a gulf of difference between policy rhetoric and reality. In particular, the paper seeks to explore issues with the policy rhetoric, implementation process and the lens through which reality is perceived, explaining why these issues can open up a policy rhetoric-reality gap. This article also…

  18. Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

  19. Virtual-reality-based system for controlled study of cataplexy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Camp, Jon J.; Krahn, Lois E.; Robb, Richard A.

    2002-05-01

    Cataplexy is a sudden loss of voluntary muscle control experienced by narcolepsy patients. It is usually triggered by strong, spontaneous emotions and is more common in times of stress. The Sleep Disorders Unit and the Biomedical Imaging Resource at Mayo Clinic are developing interactive display technology for reliably inducing cataplexy during clinical monitoring. The project is referred to as the Cataplexy/Narcolepsy Activation Program, or CatNAP. We have developed an automobile driving simulation that introduces humorous, surprising, and stress-inducing events and objects as the patient attempts to navigate a vehicle through a virtual town. The patient wears a head-mounted display and controls the vehicle via a driving simulator steering wheel and pedal cluster. As the patient attempts to drive through the town, various objects, sounds or conditions occur that distract, startle, frustrate or amuse. These responses may trigger a cataplectic episode, which can then be clinically evaluated. We believe CatNAP is a novel and innovative example of the effective application of virtual reality technology to study an important clinical problem that has resisted previous approaches. An evaluation phase with volunteer patients previously diagnosed with cataplexy has been completed. The prototype system is being prepared for a full clinical study.

  20. Virtual reality in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Algeri, Davide; Repetto, Claudia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder characterized by 6 months of "excessive anxiety and worry" about a variety of events and situations. Anxiety and worry are often accompanied by additional symptoms like restlessness, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension and disturbed sleep. GAD is usually treated with medications and/or psychotherapy. In particular, the two most promising treatments seem to be cognitive therapy and applied relaxation. In this study we integrated these approaches through the use of a biofeedback enhanced virtual reality (VR) system used both for relaxation and controlled exposure. Moreover, this experience is strengthened by the use of a mobile phone that allows patients to perform the virtual experience even in an outpatient setting. This paper describe the results of a controlled trial (NCT00602212) involving 20 GAD patients randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) the VR and Mobile group (VRMB) including biofeedback; (2) the VR and Mobile group (VRM) without biofeedback; (3) the waiting list (WL) group. The clinical data underlined that (a) VR can be used also in the treatment of GAD; (b) in a VR treatment, patients take advantage of a mobile device that delivers in an outpatient setting guided experiences, similar to the one experienced in VR. PMID:20543266

  1. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J.; Talbot, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A trophy of skeletal muscle; muscle a trophy associated with manned space flight; the nature, causes, and mechanisms of muscle atrophy associated with space flight, selected physiological factors, biochemical aspects, and countermeasures are addressed.

  2. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, ... shaped, and are also under involuntary control. Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the ...

  3. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow ...

  4. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery ...

  5. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  6. Autoimmune muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Patients with polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) present with the subacute onset of symmetric proximal muscle weakness, elevated muscle enzymes, myopathic findings on electromyography, and autoantibodies. DM patients are distinguished by their cutaneous manifestations. Characteristic features on muscle biopsy include the invasion of nonnecrotic muscle fibers by T cells in PM, perifascicular atrophy in DM, and myofiber necrosis without prominent inflammation in IMNM. Importantly, these are regarded as autoimmune diseases and most patients respond partially, if not completely, to immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) usually present with the insidious onset of asymmetric weakness in distal muscles (e.g., wrist flexors, and distal finger flexors), often when more proximal muscle groups are relatively preserved. Although IBM muscle biopsies usually have focal invasion of myofibers by lymphocytes, the majority of IBM biopsies also include rimmed vacuoles. While most IBM patients do have autoantibodies, treatment with immunosuppressive agents does not improve their clinical course. Along with the presence of abnormally aggregated proteins on muscle biopsy, the refractory nature and relentless course of IBM suggest that the underlying pathophysiology may include a dominant myodegenerative component. This chapter will focus on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of the autoimmune myopathies and IBM. An emphasis will be placed on recent advances, indicating that these are a diverse family of diseases and that each of more than a dozen myositis autoantibodies is associated with a distinct clinical phenotype. PMID:27112692

  7. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... nerves. This is directly related to the primary function of skeletal muscle, ... an impulse from a nerve cell. Generally, an artery and at least one vein ...

  8. Reality Check: How Reality Television Can Affect Youth and How a Media Literacy Curriculum Can Help.

    PubMed

    Peek, Holly S; Beresin, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    For the past decade, reality television programming has dominated the television market while inherently giving the impression that what occurs on the screen is in fact reality. Although mature audiences may be savvy about the differences between reality and reality television, for children and adolescents, these differences can be less clear. It is important to know what values youth are ascertaining from reality television, as studies have suggested that these media images may have a negative impact on adolescent values. Fortunately, media literacy education has shown promising results in counteracting the negative impact of some television programming. The goals of this paper are to show the potential benefits for the development of a media literacy curriculum for psychiatry residents, including critical media literacy skills, media history taking, and counseling concepts. Our hopes are that trained residents may learn to effectively teach these literacy skills to their patients, patients' families, educators, and other health professionals as a preventive measure against potential negative mental health effects of reality television. PMID:26108397

  9. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, P.R.; Canavan, S.V.; Nahum, L.; Appah, F.; Morgan, P.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors – a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. Methods. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Results. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. Conclusions. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness. PMID:25028078

  10. Designing micro- and nanostructures for artificial urinary sphincters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Florian M.; Deyhle, Hans; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

    2012-04-01

    The dielectric elastomers are functional materials that have promising potential as actuators with muscle-like mechanical properties due to their inherent compliancy and overall performance: the combination of large deformations, high energy densities and unique sensory capabilities. Consequently, such actuators should be realized to replace the currently available artificial urinary sphincters building dielectric thin film structures that work with several 10 V. The present communication describes the determination of the forces (1 - 10 N) and deformation levels (~10%) necessary for the appropriate operation of the artificial sphincter as well as the response time to master stress incontinence (reaction time less than 0.1 s). Knowing the dimensions of the presently used artificial urinary sphincters, these macroscopic parameters form the basis of the actuator design. Here, we follow the strategy to start from organic thin films maybe even monolayers, which should work with low voltages but only provide small deformations. Actuators out of 10,000 or 100,000 layers will finally provide the necessary force. The suitable choice of elastomer and electrode materials is vital for the success. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing worldwide, it becomes more and more important to reveal the sphincter's function under static and stress conditions to realize artificial urinary sphincters, based on sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  11. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  12. Amplification of large artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D R; Smyth, A P; Moir, D T

    1990-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosome cloning is an attractive technology for genomic mapping studies because very large DNA segments can be readily propagated. However, detailed analyses often require the extensive application of blotting-hybridization techniques because artificial chromosomes are normally present at only one copy per haploid genome. We have developed a cloning vector and host strain that alleviate this problem by permitting copy number amplification of artificial chromosomes. The vector includes a conditional centromere that can be turned on or off by changing the carbon source. Strong selective pressure for extra copies of the artificial chromosome can be applied by selecting for the expression of a heterologous thymidine kinase gene. When this system was used, artificial chromosomes ranging from about 100 to 600 kilobases in size were readily amplified 10- to 20-fold. The selective conditions did not induce obvious rearrangements in any of the clones tested. Reactivation of the centromere in amplified artificial chromosome clones resulted in stable maintenance of an elevated copy number for 20 generations. Applications of copy number control to various aspects of artificial chromosome analysis are addressed. Images PMID:2236036

  13. Space artificial gravity facilities - An approach to their construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, P. F.; Searby, N. D.; Tillman, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of adaptation to a space microgravity environment, humans experience cardiovascular deconditioning, loss of muscle mass, and loss of bone minerals. One possible solution to these space adaptation problems is to simulate earth's gravity using the centripetal acceleration created by a rotating system. The design and construction of rotating space structures pose many challenges. Before committing to the use of artificial gravity in future space missions, a man-rated Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF) should be developed in earth orbit as a gravitational research tool and testbed. This paper addresses the requirements and presents preliminary concepts for such a facility.

  14. Development of an artificial urethral valve using SMA actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonan, S.; Jiang, Z. W.; Tani, J.; Orikasa, S.; Tanahashi, Y.; Takagi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Tanikawa, J.

    1997-08-01

    The development of an artificial urethral valve for the treatment of urinary incontinence which occurs frequently in the aged is described. The prototype urethral valve is assembled in hand-drum form with four thin shape memory alloy (SMA) (nickel - titanium alloy) plates of 0.3 mm thickness. The shape memory effect in two directions is used to replace the urinary canal sphincter muscles and to control the canal opening and closing functions. The characteristic of the SMA is to assume the shape of a circular arc at normal temperatures and a flat shape at higher temperatures. Experiments have been conducted using a canine bladder and urinary canal.

  15. Artificial frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Y.; Chioar, I. A.; Nguyen, V. D.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Rougemaille, N.

    2015-09-01

    Complex architectures of nanostructures are routinely elaborated using bottom-up or nanofabrication processes. This technological capability allows scientists to engineer materials with properties that do not exist in nature, but also to manufacture model systems to explore fundamental issues in condensed matter physics. Two-dimensional frustrated arrays of magnetic nanostructures are one class of systems for which theoretical predictions can be tested experimentally. These systems have been the subject of intense research in the last few years and allowed the investigation of a rich physics and fascinating phenomena, such as the exploration of the extensively degenerate ground-state manifolds of spin ice systems, the evidence of new magnetic phases in purely two-dimensional lattices, and the observation of pseudoexcitations involving classical analogues of magnetic monopoles. We show here, experimentally and theoretically, that simple magnetic geometries can lead to unconventional, non-collinear spin textures. For example, kagome arrays of inplane magnetized nano-islands do not show magnetic order. Instead, these systems are characterized by spin textures with intriguing properties, such as chirality, coexistence of magnetic order and disorder, and charge crystallization. Magnetic frustration effects in lithographically patterned kagome arrays of nanomagnets with out-of-plane magnetization also lead to an unusal, and still unknown, magnetic ground state manifold. Besides the influence of the lattice geometry, the micromagnetic nature of the elements constituting the arrays introduce the concept of chiral magnetic monopoles, bringing additional complexity into the physics of artificial frustrated spin systems.

  16. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  17. Artificial polarization components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cescato, L.; Gluch, Ekkehard; Stork, Wilhelm; Streibl, Norbert

    1990-07-01

    High frequency surface relief structures are optically anisotropic and show interesting polarisation properties 1 . These properties can be used to produce polarizations components such as wave plates polarizers. polarizing beamsplitters etc. Our experimental results show that even gratings with relatively low spatial frequency ( periods A ) exhibit a strong phase retardation and can be used as quarter-wave plates. k INTRODUC11ON The artificial birefringence exhibited by ultrahigh frequency gratings of dielectric materials can be used to produce various polarization components2 . Such components have applications in integrated optics as well as in free space optics. In order to produce the high spatial frequencies complex processes such as electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching are needed. We show in this paper that sinusoidal holographic gratings in photoresist exhibit also a strong phase ret even at relatively long periods. L EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS To obtain the phase retardation of a lower frequency ( period A ) grating a simple setup as used by Enger and 2 can be applied. In our case however there are three measurements necessary to obtain the phase retardation because transmission of the two perpendicularly polarized beams is different from each other. I GRATING PRODUCTION grating 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 period (pmj 0. 74 0. 74 0. 61 0. 54 0. 46 0. 32 0. 54 0. 54 0. 54 ne (sec) 60

  18. Nanostructured artificial nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhiyong; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Magonov, Sergei; Ozturk, Birol

    2003-06-01

    Finding a synthetic pathway to artificial analogs of nacre and bones represents a fundamental milestone in the development of composite materials. The ordered brick-and-mortar arrangement of organic and inorganic layers is believed to be the most essential strength- and toughness-determining structural feature of nacre. It has also been found that the ionic crosslinking of tightly folded macromolecules is equally important. Here, we demonstrate that both structural features can be reproduced by sequential deposition of polyelectrolytes and clays. This simple process results in a nanoscale version of nacre with alternating organic and inorganic layers. The macromolecular folding effect reveals itself in the unique saw-tooth pattern of differential stretching curves attributed to the gradual breakage of ionic crosslinks in polyelectrolyte chains. The tensile strength of the prepared multilayers approached that of nacre, whereas their ultimate Young modulus was similar to that of lamellar bones. Structural and functional resemblance makes clay- polyelectrolyte multilayers a close replica of natural biocomposites. Their nanoscale nature enables elucidation of molecular processes occurring under stress.

  19. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

  20. Evolvable mathematical models: A new artificial Intelligence paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grouchy, Paul

    We develop a novel Artificial Intelligence paradigm to generate autonomously artificial agents as mathematical models of behaviour. Agent/environment inputs are mapped to agent outputs via equation trees which are evolved in a manner similar to Symbolic Regression in Genetic Programming. Equations are comprised of only the four basic mathematical operators, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as input and output variables and constants. From these operations, equations can be constructed that approximate any analytic function. These Evolvable Mathematical Models (EMMs) are tested and compared to their Artificial Neural Network (ANN) counterparts on two benchmarking tasks: the double-pole balancing without velocity information benchmark and the challenging discrete Double-T Maze experiments with homing. The results from these experiments show that EMMs are capable of solving tasks typically solved by ANNs, and that they have the ability to produce agents that demonstrate learning behaviours. To further explore the capabilities of EMMs, as well as to investigate the evolutionary origins of communication, we develop NoiseWorld, an Artificial Life simulation in which interagent communication emerges and evolves from initially noncommunicating EMM-based agents. Agents develop the capability to transmit their x and y position information over a one-dimensional channel via a complex, dialogue-based communication scheme. These evolved communication schemes are analyzed and their evolutionary trajectories examined, yielding significant insight into the emergence and subsequent evolution of cooperative communication. Evolved agents from NoiseWorld are successfully transferred onto physical robots, demonstrating the transferability of EMM-based AIs from simulation into physical reality.