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1

In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.  

PubMed

A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (?H) and entropy changes (?S) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1). PMID:23375483

Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

2013-03-01

2

Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.  

PubMed

Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate containing table sweeteners. PMID:12623659

Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

2003-02-01

3

Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.  

PubMed

A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame. PMID:24481880

Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

2014-05-01

4

Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume during Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... debate about the safety of artificial sweeteners, especially aspartame and saccharin, but most health care professionals believe ... that is clear is that you should avoid aspartame if you have the hereditary disease phenylketonuria, or ...

5

Modified High-Density Lipoproteins by Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame, and Saccharin, Showed Loss of Anti-atherosclerotic Activity and Toxicity in Zebrafish.  

PubMed

Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2014-08-21

6

Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.  

PubMed

A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. PMID:24177861

Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

2014-01-01

7

Artificial Sweeteners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update, from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Purdue University psychologist Susie Swithers about new research suggesting that artificial sweeteners may promote overeating. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLink lessons and other related resources.

Science Update;

2004-08-02

8

Artificial sweeteners - a review.  

PubMed

Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

2014-04-01

9

Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

2012-12-01

10

Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage.  

PubMed

In the present study, artificial sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K and binary sweetener blend of aspartame x acesulfame-K were assessed for stability during storage in whey lemon beverage. A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of aspartame, acesulfame-K and their degradation products in whey lemon beverage. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized over C18 column for simultaneous separation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in sample isolates. Storage studies revealed that increase in acidity and viscosity and decrease in pH and ascorbic acid content of artificially sweetened whey lemon beverage samples were similar to the changes occurring in control samples during storage. Analysis using HPLC showed that aspartame (added either singly or in a blend) and acesulfame-K (added in a blend) were stable in whey lemon beverage under refrigerated condition for 15 days. PMID:24425980

Arora, Sumit; Shendurse, Ashish M; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, Balbir K; Singh, Ashish K

2013-08-01

11

Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was

Kevin Huvaere; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Moez Hasni; Christine Vinkx; Joris Van Loco

2011-01-01

12

Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was

Kevin Huvaere; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Moez Hasni; Christine Vinkx; Joris Van Loco

2012-01-01

13

Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K and sodium saccharin) by ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector is reported. The four artificial sweeteners were separated using KOH eluent generator. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of sweeteners has been greatly

Yan Zhu; Yingying Guo; Mingli Ye; Frits S. James

2005-01-01

14

Aspartame : artifice and the science of sweet  

E-print Network

Aspartame has become an extremely popular artificial sweetener since its entry into the American market in 1981. Humans have an evolutionary preference for sweet tastes, and artificial sweeteners became a mainstream ...

MacLachlan, Allison (Allison Stollery)

2011-01-01

15

Stability and degradation of the high?intensity sweeteners: Aspartame, Alitame, and Sucralose  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 170 million Americans consume low?calorie foods and beverages. The interest of the consumer in low?calorie foods that contain alternative sweeteners has grown. Currently, non?nutritive high?intensity sweeteners, aspartame and sucralose have been approved for use in the United States. Another sweetener, alitame, used in other countries such as Australia and China has not been granted approval for use in

Sheryl A. Hutchinson; Gregory S. Ho

1999-01-01

16

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for the determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. Caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, which are often added to soft drinks, can also be determined with this procedure. The artificial sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, alitame and dulcin, and the other food additives are well

Catherine O. Thompson; V. Craige Trenerry; Bridget Kemmery

1995-01-01

17

Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.  

PubMed

Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame. PMID:24763213

Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

18

Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener  

PubMed Central

Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame. PMID:24763213

Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

19

Assessment of Intakes of Artificial Sweeteners in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the mean and maximum intake levels of the artificial sweeteners acesul- fame potassium, aspartame, cyclamate and sucralose in chil- dren with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to compare each intake level to respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of foods consumed by 56 children (age: 2 years to

Lisa Devitt; Denis Daneman; Jennifer Buccino

2004-01-01

20

The capsaicin receptor participates in artificial sweetener aversion.  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and cyclamate produce at high concentrations an unpleasant after-taste that is generally attributed to bitter and metallic taste sensations. To identify receptors involved with the complex perception of the above compounds, preference tests were performed in wild-type mice and mice lacking the TRPV1 channel or the T1R3 receptor, the latter being necessary for the perception of sweet taste. The sweeteners, including cyclamate, displayed a biphasic response profile, with the T1R3 mediated component implicated in preference. At high concentrations imparting off-taste, omission of TRPV1 reduced aversion. In a heterologous expression system the Y511A point mutation in the vanilloid pocket of TRPV1 did not affect saccharin and aspartame responses but abolished cyclamate and acesulfame-K activities. The results rationalize artificial sweetener tastes and off-tastes by showing that at low concentrations, these molecules stimulate the gustatory system through the hedonically positive T1R3 pathway, and at higher concentrations, their aversion is partly mediated by TRPV1. PMID:18804451

Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; Damak, Sami; le Coutre, Johannes

2008-11-28

21

Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. PMID:23891579

Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

2013-10-01

22

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food...145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the...

2010-04-01

23

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food...145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the...

2011-04-01

24

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

... false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food...145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the...

2014-04-01

25

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food...145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the...

2012-04-01

26

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126 Section 145.126 Food...145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the...

2013-04-01

27

Separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners and citric acid by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, sodium cyclamate and acesulfame-K) and citric acid in a single injection is proposed. The separation was performed by an anion-exchange gradient program and determination by ultraviolet absorbance detection for sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K in combination with conductivity detection for sodium saccharin, sodium

Qing-chuan Chen; Shi-fen Mou; Ke-na Liu; Zu-ying Yang; Zhe-ming Ni

1997-01-01

28

The Potential Toxicity of Artificial Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their discovery, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been controversial. Artificial sweeteners provide the sweet - ness of sugar without the calories. As public health attention has turned to reversing the obesity epidemic in the united States, more individuals of all ages are choosing to use these products. These choices may be beneficial for those who cannot tolerate sugar

Christina R. Whitehouse; Joseph Boullata; Linda A. Mccauley

2008-01-01

29

Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings  

PubMed Central

America’s obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed [1,2]. While people often choose “diet” or “light” products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale’s Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

Yang, Qing

2010-01-01

30

Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.  

PubMed

America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

Yang, Qing

2010-06-01

31

In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame  

PubMed Central

Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester) is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol) was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350?mg/kg body weight). Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI). However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration. PMID:20689731

AlSuhaibani, Entissar S.

2010-01-01

32

Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.  

PubMed

Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents. PMID:18850355

Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

2008-01-01

33

Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using

M.-S. Chung; H.-J. Suh; W. Yoo; S.-H. Choi; Y.-J. Cho; Y.-H. Cho; C.-J. Kim

2005-01-01

34

Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes. PMID:20078374

Brown, Rebecca J.; De Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I.

2010-01-01

35

Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40°C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v\\/v) acetonitrile as eluent,

Qing-Chuan Chen; Jing Wang

2001-01-01

36

Role of nitrification in the biodegradation of selected artificial sweetening agents in biological wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of the six artificial sweetening agents including acesulfame (ACE), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), neohesperidindihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC) by nitrifying activated sludge was first examined. Experimental results showed that ASP and NHDC were the most easily degradable compounds even in the control tests. CYC and SAC were efficiently biodegraded by the nitrifying activated sludge, whereas ACE and SUC were poorly removed. However, the biodegradation efficiencies of the ASs were increased with the increase in initial ammonium concentrations in the bioreactors. The association between nitrification and co-metabolic degradation was investigated and a linear relationship between nitrification rate and co-metabolic biodegradation rate was observed for the target artificial sweeteners (ASs). The contribution of heterotrophic microorganisms and autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in biodegradation of the ASs was elucidated, of which autotrophic ammonia oxidizers played an important role in the biodegradation of the ASs, particularly with regards to ACE and SUC. PMID:24681682

Tran, N H; Nguyen, V T; Urase, T; Ngo, H H

2014-06-01

37

Fate of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants in New York State, U.S.A.  

PubMed

Very few studies describe the fate of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of sucralose, saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame were determined based on the concentrations measured in wastewater influent, primary effluent, effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs in the Albany area of New York State, U.S.A. All ASWs were detected at a mean concentration that ranged from 0.13 (aspartame) to 29.4 ?g/L (sucralose) in wastewater influent, 0.49 (aspartame) to 27.7 ?g/L (sucralose) in primary influent, 0.11 (aspartame) to 29.6 ?g/L (sucralose) in effluent, and from 0.08 (aspartame) to 0.65 ?g/g dw (sucralose) in sludge. Aspartame was found in 92% of influent SPM samples at a mean concentration of 444 ng/g dw, followed by acesulfame (92 ng/g) and saccharin (49 ng/g). The fraction of the total mass of ASWs sorbed to SPM was in the rank order: aspartame (50.4%) > acesulfame (10.9%) > saccharin and sucralose (0.8%). The sorption coefficients of ASWs ranged from 4.10 (saccharin) to 4540 L/kg (aspartame). Significant removal of aspartame (68.2%) and saccharin (90.3%) was found in WWTPs; however, sucralose and acesulfame were less efficiently removed (<2.0%). The total mass loading of sucralose, saccharin, and acesulfame in the WWTP that served a smaller population (?15,000) was 1.3-1.5 times lower than that in another WWTP that served a larger population (?100,000). The average daily loading of sucralose in both WWTPs (18.5 g/d/1000 people) was ?2 times higher than the average loading of saccharin. The daily discharge of sucralose from the WWTPs was the highest (17.6 g/d/1000 people), followed by acesulfame (1.22 g/d/1000 people), and saccharin (1.07 g/d/1000 people). Approximately, 1180 g of saccharin and 291 g of acesulfame were transformed in or removed daily from the two WWTPs. This is the first study to describe the fate of ASWs, including the fraction found in SPM and in sludge, in addition to the aqueous portion of wastewater in WWTPs. PMID:25365516

Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-12-01

38

Bladder cancer: smoking, beverages and artificial sweeteners  

PubMed Central

A matched patient-control study of bladder cancer examined the relationship of the disease to occupation, smoking and intake of tea, coffee, cola, alcohol and artificial sweeteners. There was no association of disease with occupation for these patients. Heavy smoking gave relative risks of 6.37 and 4.36 for men and women respectively; there was evidence of a dose-response relationship. Tea and coffee intake did not increase the risk of disease nor did prolonged use of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol and cola intake increased the relative risk of bladder cancer among male smokers. There is some suggestion that smoking interacts with both alcohol and cola intake in the production of bladder cancer. PMID:4429932

Morgan, Robert W.; Jain, Meera G.

1974-01-01

39

A review of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of aspartame: does it safe or not?  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to review genotoxicologic and carcinogenic profile of the artificial sweetener aspartame. Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide, nearly 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose. It is the most widely used artificial sweetener especially in carbonated and powdered soft drinks, beverages, drugs and hygiene products. There is a discussion ongoing for many years whether aspartame posses genotoxic and carcinogenic risk for humans. This question led to many studies to specify the adverse effects of aspartame. Therefore, we aimed to review the oldest to latest works published in major indices to gather information within this article. With respect to published data, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aspartame is still confusing. So, consumers should be aware of the potential side effects of aspartame before they consume it. PMID:24510317

Y?lmaz, Serkan; Uçar, Asl?

2014-12-01

40

Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

2012-02-01

41

The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.  

PubMed

This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

2014-01-01

42

Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements  

PubMed Central

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

Swithers, Susan E.

2013-01-01

43

Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.  

PubMed

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

Swithers, Susan E

2013-09-01

44

Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of sweeteners on cancer risk has been widely debated over the last few decades. To provide additional information on saccharin and other sweeteners (mainly aspartame), we considered data from a large network of case-control studies. Methods: An integrated network of case-control studies has been conducted between 1991 and 2004 in Italy. Cases were 598 patients with incident,

S. Gallus; L. Scotti; E. Negri; R. Talamini; S. Franceschi; M. Montella; A. Giacosa; L. Dal Maso; C. La Vecchia

2007-01-01

45

Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.  

PubMed

Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. PMID:24036324

Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

2013-10-01

46

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both

Guido K. W. Frank; Tyson A. Oberndorfer; Alan N. Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Julie L. Fudge; Tony T. Yang; Walter H. Kaye

2008-01-01

47

Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.  

PubMed

Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50?mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. PMID:24700203

Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

2014-06-01

48

Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10{sup -7} M to 10{sup -2} M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p < 0.01). The atropine-resistant response to EFS was marginally increased by acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M, aspartame 10{sup -7} M and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the maximum contractile response to {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP by 35% ({+-} 9.6%) (p < 0.05) and to KCl by 12% ({+-} 3.1%) (p < 0.01). Sodium saccharin also increased the response to KCl by 37% ({+-} 15.2%) (p < 0.05). These sweeteners shifted the calcium concentration-response curves to the left. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the log EC{sub 5} from -2.79 ({+-} 0.037) to -3.03 ({+-} 0.048, p < 0.01) and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M from -2.74 ({+-} 0.03) to 2.86 ({+-} 0.031, p < 0.05). The sweeteners had no significant effect on the contractile response to carbachol but they did increase the amplitude of spontaneous bladder contractions. Discussion: These results suggest that low concentrations of artificial sweeteners enhanced detrusor muscle contraction via modulation of L-type Ca{sup +2} channels.

Dasgupta, Jaydip [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom); Elliott, Ruth A. [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rae5@leicester.ac.uk; Doshani, Angie [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom); Tincello, Douglas G. [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom)

2006-12-01

49

Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.  

PubMed

Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. PMID:24872471

Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

2014-05-28

50

Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.  

PubMed

Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1. PMID:24120730

Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

2013-12-01

51

Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.  

PubMed

Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (p-PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 ?g/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPAR?, FABP4, and C/EBP? mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPAR?, PPAR?, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity. PMID:24961835

Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

2014-10-01

52

Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

2013-11-15

53

Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners  

PubMed Central

It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

2013-01-01

54

Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk.  

PubMed

The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. PMID:25398745

Pereira, Mark A

2014-11-01

55

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener.  

PubMed

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both sucrose and sucralose activate functionally connected primary taste pathways; (2) taste pleasantness predicts left insula response; (3) sucrose elicits a stronger brain response in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, striatum and anterior cingulate, compared to sucralose; (4) only sucrose, but not sucralose, stimulation engages dopaminergic midbrain areas in relation to the behavioral pleasantness response. Thus, brain response distinguishes the caloric from the non-caloric sweetener, although the conscious mind could not. This could have important implications on how effective artificial sweeteners are in their ability to substitute sugar intake. PMID:18096409

Frank, Guido K W; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Simmons, Alan N; Paulus, Martin P; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Kaye, Walter H

2008-02-15

56

Effects of artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in rat pancreatic islets.  

PubMed

Beta-L-glucose pentaacetate, but not alpha-D-galactose pentaacetate, was recently reported to taste bitter and to stimulate insulin release. This finding led, in the present study, to the investigation of the effects of both bitter and non-bitter artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Sodium saccharin (1.0-10.0 mM), sodium cyclamate (5.0-10.0 mM), stevioside (1.0 mM) and acesulfame-K (1.0-15.0 mM), all of which display a bitter taste, augmented insulin release from islets incubated in the presence of 7.0 mM D-glucose. In contrast, aspartame (1.0-10.0 mM), which is devoid of bitter taste, failed to affect insulin secretion. A positive secretory response to acesulfame-K was still observed when the extracellular K+ concentration was adjusted to the same value as that in control media. No major changes in 86Rb and 45Ca outflow from pre-labelled perifused islets could be attributed to the saccharin, cyclamic or acesulfame anions. It is proposed that the insulinotropic action of some artificial sweeteners and, possibly, that of selected hexose pentaacetate esters may require G-protein-coupled receptors similar to those operative in the recognition of bitter compounds by taste buds. PMID:9884024

Malaisse, W J; Vanonderbergen, A; Louchami, K; Jijakli, H; Malaisse-Lagae, F

1998-11-01

57

[A rapid dialysis method for analysis of artificial sweeteners in food].  

PubMed

A simple and rapid dialysis method was developed for the extraction and purification of four artificial sweeteners, namely, sodium saccharin (Sa), acesulfame potassium (AK), aspartame (APM), and dulcin (Du), which are present in various foods. Conventional dialysis uses a membrane dialysis tube approximately 15 cm in length and is carried out over many hours owing to the small membrane area and owing to inefficient mixing. In particular, processed cereal products such as cookies required treatment for 48 hours to obtain satisfactory recovery of the compounds. By increasing the tube length to 55 cm and introducing efficient mixing by inversion at half-hour intervals, the dialysis times of the four artificial sweeteners, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in the cookie, were shortened to 4 hours. Recovery yields of 88.9-103.2% were obtained by using the improved method, whereas recovery yields were low (65.5-82.0%) by the conventional method. Recovery yields (%) of Sa, AK, APM, and Du, spiked at 0.1 g/kg in various foods, were 91.6-100.1, 93.9-100.1, 86.7-100.0 and 88.7-104.7 using the improved method. PMID:24598222

Tahara, Shoichi; Fujiwara, Takushi; Yasui, Akiko; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Uematsu, Yoko

2014-01-01

58

The paradox of artificial sweeteners in managing obesity.  

PubMed

The role of artificial sweeteners in the management of obesity is controversial. Observational data have suggested that nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) may promote weight gain through poorly understood mechanisms of cravings, reward phenomenon, and addictive behavior via opioid receptors. Interventional studies suggest the opposite that substitution of NNS for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) results in reduced caloric intake and modest degrees of weight loss. Whether the use of NNS provides benefit toward weight reduction in the individual patient may depend on the characteristics of their baseline diet, associated changes, or dietary compensation involved with ingestion of NNS, and the degree of compliance with a more complete weight loss program. PMID:25609450

Roberts, Jason R

2015-01-01

59

Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers in groundwater in urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThere is little information available on the prevalence of artificial sweeteners in groundwater, though these compounds may prove to be useful tracers of human wastewater, especially in urban settings with complex hydrology. In this study, the artificial sweetener acesulfame was detected in groundwater at all eight urban sites investigated (from five different urban areas in Canada), often at high concentrations (i.e., ?g/L-scale). In a municipal wastewater plume at Jasper, Alberta, acesulfame was strongly correlated with chloride and was positively correlated with other wastewater-related contaminants indicating that this sweetener has potential to be a good tracer of young wastewater (<20 years residence time) in Canada. Three other artificial sweeteners were detected in urban groundwater: saccharin at six of the sites, sucralose at three sites, and cyclamate at five of seven sites where it was analyzed. The occurrence of sucralose may have been affected by its detection limit, which was much higher than for the other sweeteners. These results, and those of a parallel study, are the first reported detections of saccharin and cyclamate in groundwater, and suggest that these sweeteners may be more common than previously anticipated. In general, fewer samples from each site contained these other three sweeteners compared to acesulfame. At Barrie, Ontario, adjacent to an old landfill, the concentration of saccharin was higher than acesulfame in many samples. These results suggest that analyses of multiple sweeteners, rather than just acesulfame, may provide useful information on contaminant sources and groundwater conditions in urban settings. Further work is needed to address this potential use.

Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Roy, James W.; Brown, Susan J.; Bickerton, Greg

2011-04-01

60

Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.  

PubMed

An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 ?g/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products. PMID:22543693

Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

2012-07-01

61

Artificial sweetener use among individuals with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Women,with eating disorders report using large quantities of artificially sweetened products, but this has not been quanti- fied. Objective: The authors,assessed,the use of selected artificially sweetened,low- calorie products among,women,with eat- ing disorders compared,with controls. Method: Thirty women,with,anorexia nervosa,(18 with,the,restricting sub- type,[AN-R] and,12 with,the,binge\\/ purge subtype [AN-B\\/P]), 48 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 32 healthy,control,women,completed,a survey of frequency,and,amount,of con-

Diane A. Klein; Gillian S. Boudreau; Michael J. Devlin; B. Timothy Walsh

2006-01-01

62

Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners  

E-print Network

Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners Christopher J. Musto-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has optoelectronic approach using simple colorimetric sensor arrays for the detection and identification of a wide

Suslick, Kenneth S.

63

Robust scientific evidence demonstrates benefits of artificial sweeteners  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Artificial sweeteners (AS) have not been found to have a negative impact on health in humans. They have been recommended as a safe alternative for individuals who are seeking to lose or maintain weight. However, unnecessary alarm has been raised regarding the potential health risks of AS. This is of...

64

Analytical methodologies for determination of artificial sweeteners in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial high-intensity sweeteners are used increasingly frequently for food production. The food industry tends to highlight beneficial aspects of their use (e.g., tooth friendliness, increasing the quality of life of those suffering from different forms of diabetes and the possibility of weight control without anyone sacrificing their favorite “unhealthy” drinks or snacks). However, some consumers are deeply concerned about the

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

65

Artificial sweetener reduces nociceptive reaction in term newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sucrose has been shown to have an analgesic effect in preterm and term neonates. Sucrose, however, has a high osmolarity and may have deleterious effects in infants with fructose intolerance. Furthermore, it may favour caries. We therefore investigated the effects of a commercially available artificial sweetener (10 parts cyclamate and 1 part saccharin), glycine (sweet amino acid) or breast

H. U. Bucher; R. Baumgartner; N. Bucher; M. Seiler; J. C. Fauchère

2000-01-01

66

Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new

Ravi Kant

2005-01-01

67

Molecular Structure of Aspartame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartame was discovered by accident in 1965 while trying to create an ulcer treatment drug, it was approved in 1981. Aspartame is produced artificially by combining methanol, phenylalanine, and aspartic acid. Also known as NutraSweet, Aspartame is found in beverages of several types and in many foods. NutraSweet is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, which is common table sugar.

2002-08-13

68

Consumption of artificial sweetener– and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite safety reports of the artificial sweetener aspartame, health-related concerns remain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether the consumption of aspartame- and sugar-containing soda is associated with risk of hematopoetic cancers. Design: We repeatedly assessed diet in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Over 22 y, we identified 1324 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), 285 multiple myelomas, and 339 leukemias. We calculated incidence RRs and 95% CIs by using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: When the 2 cohorts were combined, there was no significant association between soda intake and risks of NHL and multiple myeloma. However, in men, ?1 daily serving of diet soda increased risks of NHL (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) and multiple myeloma (RR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.40) in comparison with men who did not consume diet soda. We observed no increased risks of NHL and multiple myeloma in women. We also observed an unexpected elevated risk of NHL (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.51) with a higher consumption of regular, sugar-sweetened soda in men but not in women. In contrast, when sexes were analyzed separately with limited power, neither regular nor diet soda increased risk of leukemia but were associated with increased leukemia risk when data for men and women were combined (RR for consumption of ?1 serving of diet soda/d when the 2 cohorts were pooled: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.02). Conclusion: Although our findings preserve the possibility of a detrimental effect of a constituent of diet soda, such as aspartame, on select cancers, the inconsistent sex effects and occurrence of an apparent cancer risk in individuals who consume regular soda do not permit the ruling out of chance as an explanation. PMID:23097267

Schernhammer, Eva S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

2012-01-01

69

Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by\\u000a pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive\\u000a nanoporous pigments that are comprised of indicators immobilized in an\\u000a organic-ally modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to\\u000a detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at\\u000a millimolar concentrations, as well as commonly used individual-serving\\u000a sweetener packets. The array

Christopher J. Musto; Sung H. Lim; Kenneth S. Suslick

2009-01-01

70

Colorimetric detection and identification of natural and artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments that are comprised of indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations, as well as commonly used individual-serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime. PMID:20337402

Musto, Christopher J; Lim, Sung H; Suslick, Kenneth S

2009-08-01

71

Amygdala response to sucrose consumption is inversely related to artificial sweetener use  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether exposure to artificial sweeteners degrades the predictive relationship between sweet taste and its post-ingestive consequences. Here we tested whether brain response to caloric sucrose is influenced by individual differences in self-reported artificial sweetener use. Twenty-six subjects participated in fMRI scanning while consuming sucrose solutions. A negative correlation between artificial sweetener use and amygdala response to sucrose ingestion was observed. This finding supports the hypothesis that artificial sweetener use may be associated with brain changes that could influence eating behavior. PMID:22178008

Rudenga, KJ; Small, DM

2011-01-01

72

Artificial sweeteners and salts producing a metallic taste sensation activate TRPV1 receptors.  

PubMed

Throughout the world many people use artificial sweeteners (AS) for the purpose of reducing caloric intake. The most prominently used of these molecules include saccharin, aspartame (Nutrasweet), acesulfame-K, and cyclamate. Despite the caloric advantage they provide, one key concern in their use is their aversive aftertaste that has been characterized on a sensory level as bitter and/or metallic. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of particular T2R bitter taste receptors is partially involved with the bitter aftertaste sensation of saccharin and acesulfame-K. To more fully understand the biology behind these phenomena we have addressed the question of whether AS could stimulate transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors, as these receptors are activated by a large range of structurally different chemicals. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors and/or their variants are found in taste receptor cells and in nerve terminals throughout the oral cavity. Hence, TRPV1 activation could be involved in the AS aftertaste or even contribute to the poorly understood metallic taste sensation. Using Ca(2+) imaging on TRPV1 receptors heterologously expressed in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and on dissociated primary sensory neurons, we find that in both systems, AS activate TRPV1 receptors, and, moreover, they sensitize these channels to acid and heat. We also found that TRPV1 receptors are activated by CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeSO(4), three salts known to produce a metallic taste sensation. In summary, our results identify a novel group of compounds that activate TRPV1 and, consequently, provide a molecular mechanism that may account for off tastes of sweeteners and metallic tasting salts. PMID:17567713

Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; le Coutre, Johannes

2007-08-01

73

The effect of five artificial sweeteners on Caco-2, HT-29 and HEK-293 cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Artificial sweeteners (AS) have been associated with tumor development (including colon cancer) in both animals and humans although evidence has been conflicting. Objectives: Additional research was thus conducted by studying the effects of 5 AS on the morphology, cell proliferation and DNA in cells by utilizing Caco-2, HT-29 (colon) and HEK-293 (kidney) cell lines. Materials and methods: Cells were exposed to sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, sucralose and acesulfame-K (0-50?mM) and aspartame (0-35?mM) over 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological changes were presented photographically and % cell viability was determined by using the MTT cell viability assay. Possible DNA damage (comet assay) induced by the AS (0.1, 1 and 10?mM, treated for 24, 48 and 72 hours) was studied. The appearance of "comets" was scored from no damage to severe damage (0-4). Results: Cells became flatter and less well defined at higher AS concentrations (>10?mM). At concentrations >10?mM, decreased cell viability was noted with both increasing concentration and increasing incubation time for all cell lines tested. In general, HEK-293 cells seemed to be less affected then the colon cancer cells. Sucralose and sodium saccharin seemed to elicit the greatest degree of DNA fragmentation of all the sweeteners tested in all the cell lines used. Discussion: Morphological cell alterations, cell viability and DNA fragmentation seemed to be more in the colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Further studies have to be performed to clarify mechanisms involved causing these alterations in mammalian cells. PMID:25317478

van Eyk, Armorel Diane

2014-10-15

74

A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

2007-01-01

75

The effect of frequency of consumption of artificial sweeteners on sweetness liking by women.  

PubMed

Research into sweetness perception and preference thus far has demonstrated that sweetness preference is related not to the total sugar consumed by an individual but the amount of refined sugar ingested. Research has yet to be conducted, however, to determine whether a diet high in artificial sweeteners contributes to sweetness liking and preference with the same result as a diet high in sugar. The purpose of this research was to determine if such a relationship exists with regard to diets high in artificially sweetened beverages. Seventy-one female participants were recruited and screened for sweetener consumption in beverages. Sixty-four of these individuals were selected for sensory testing. All participants evaluated orange juice samples (ranging from 0% added sucrose to 20% added sucrose) for liking of sweetness using a 9-point hedonic scale. Based on screening survey data, participants were categorized according to sweetener consumption group (artificial sweetener consumers and natural sweetener consumers) and by overall sweetened beverage intake (low or high, regardless of sweetener type normally consumed). Sensory data were analyzed to compare sweetness liking in each of these groups. Significant differences in liking were observed, with individuals in the high sweetened beverage intake group preferring sweeter orange juice than those in the low-intake group. Categorization by sweetener type resulted in no significant differences between the groups, indicating that regardless of the type of sweetener consumed in a beverage, liking of sweetness will be influenced in the same manner. PMID:18034758

Mahar, A; Duizer, L M

2007-11-01

76

Determination of the artificial sweetener Sucralose® by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial intense sweetener 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-?-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-?-D-galactopyranose (Sucralose®) was determined by capillary electrophoresis with indirect ultraviolet absorption in a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid buffer at pH 12.1. The method allowed determination of Sucralose in low-calorie soft drinks, without any sample clean-up over a linear range of 42–1000 mg l (r=0.9991). The limits of detection and determination were 28 and 42 mg l, respectively, and

J. Stroka; N. Dossi; E. Anklam

2003-01-01

77

Reaction kinetics and efficiencies for the hydroxyl and sulfate radical based oxidation of artificial sweeteners in water.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, the increased use of artificial sweeteners as dietary supplements has resulted in rising concentrations of these contaminants being detected in influent waters entering treatment facilities. As conventional treatments may not quantitatively remove these sweeteners, radical-based advanced oxidation and reduction (AO/RP) treatments could be a viable alternative. In this study, we have established the reaction kinetics for both hydroxyl ((•)OH) and sulfate (SO(4)(•-)) radical reaction with five common artificial sweeteners, as well as their associated reaction efficiencies. Rate constants for acesulfame K, aspartame, rebaudioside A, saccharin, and sucralose were <2 × 10(7), (2.28 ± 0.02) × 10(9), (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10(8), <2 × 10(7), and (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for the sulfate radical, and (3.80 ± 0.27) × 10(9), (6.06 ± 0.05) × 10(9), (9.97 ± 0.12) × 10(9), (1.85 ± 0.01) × 10(9), and (1.50 ± 0.01) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the hydroxyl radical, respectively. These latter values have to be combined with their corresponding reaction efficiencies of 67.9 ± 0.9, 52.2 ± 0.7, 43.0 ± 2.5, 52.7 ± 2.9, and 98.3 ± 3.5% to give effective rate constants for the hydroxyl radical reaction that can be used in the modeling of the AOP based removal of these contaminants. PMID:22900636

Toth, Janie E; Rickman, Kimberly A; Venter, Andre R; Kiddle, James J; Mezyk, Stephen P

2012-10-11

78

Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men123  

PubMed Central

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. Results: There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, including multivitamins, family history, high triglycerides at baseline, high blood pressure, diuretics, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, total energy, and body mass index, the HR was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.40; P for trend < 0.01). Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend < 0.01) but not in the multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.21; P for trend = 0.13). The replacement of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (?237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index. PMID:21430119

de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

2011-01-01

79

Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

2005-11-01

80

Water-compatible 'aspartame'-imprinted polymer grafted on silica surface for selective recognition in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted polymers selective for aspartame have been prepared using N-[2-ammonium-ethyl-piperazinium) maleimidopropane sulfonate copolymer bearing zwitterionic centres along the backbone via a surface-confined grafting procedure. Aspartame, a dipeptide, is commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Polymerisation on the surface was propagated by means of Michael addition reaction on amino-grafted silica surface. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (aspartame) and the imprinted surface led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up aspartame from aqueous solution and certain pharmaceutical samples quantitatively. Hence, a facile, specific and selective technique using surface-grafted specific molecular contours developed for specific and selective uptake of aspartame in the presence of various interferrants, in different kinds of matrices is presented. PMID:23430187

Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Abhishek; Tarannum, Nazia

2013-05-01

81

Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.  

PubMed

In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose. PMID:21255472

Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

2011-05-01

82

Occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment and precipitation of Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

Seventy water samples, including wastewaters, tap waters, fresh surface waters, coastal waters, groundwaters, and precipitation samples, from Tianjin, China, were analyzed for seven commonly used artificial sweeteners (ASs). The concentrations of the investigated ASs were generally in the order of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent > WWTP effluent > surface water > tap water > groundwater ? precipitation, while the composition profiles of ASs varied in different waters. Acesulfame, sucralose, cyclamate, and saccharin were consistently detected in surface waters and ranged from 50 ng/L to 0.12 mg/L, while acesulfame was the dominant AS in surface and tap waters. Aspartame was found in all of the surface waters at a concentration up to 0.21 ?g/L, but was not found in groundwaters and tap waters. Neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone were less frequently detected and the concentrations were low. The concentrations of the ASs in some of the surface waters were of the same order with those in the WWTP influents, but not with the effluents, indicating there are probably untreated discharges into the surface waters. The ASs were detected in precipitation samples with high frequency, and acesulfame, saccharin, and cyclamate were the predominant ASs, with concentrations ranging from 3.5 ng/L to 1.3 ?g/L. A gross estimation revealed that precipitation may act as a source for saccharin and cyclamate in the surface environment of Tianjin city. Moreover, the presence of ASs in the atmosphere was primarily assessed by taking 4 air samples to evaluate their potential source in precipitation. PMID:23866151

Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Feng, Biting; Wang, Ruonan; Zhang, Yanwei

2013-09-15

83

Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This review summarizes the existing literature pertaining to the epidemiology and current recommendations for pediatric artificial sweetener use and presents the results of studies investigating metabolic responses to artificial sweeteners among children. Observational and interventional studies testing the effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, short-term satiety, glycemia, and glucoregulatory hormones are described. In addition, this review touches on the growing body of literature about taste, craving, and addiction to sweet taste. Gaining an understanding of the research previously conducted and the gaps that remain will inform future clinical and translational research, in order to develop evidence-based recommendations for artificial sweetener use in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. PMID:22093863

Sylvetsky, Allison; Rother, Kristina I.; Brown, Rebecca

2011-01-01

84

Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.  

PubMed

Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 ?g/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 ?g/capita/day), acesulfame (90 ?g/capita/day), and saccharin (66?g/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 ?g/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 ?g/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-07-01

85

Potentiometric determination of saccharin in commercial artificial sweeteners using a silver electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, precise, rapid and low-cost potentiometric method for saccharin determination in commercial artificial sweeteners is proposed. Saccharin present in several samples of artificial sweeteners is potentiometrically titrated with silver nitrate solution using a silver wire as the indicator electrode, coupled to a titroprocessor. The best pH range was from 3.0 to 3.5 and the detection limit of sodium saccharin

João Carloni Filho; Alberto Oppermann Santini; Ana Lúcia M Nasser; Helena Redigolo Pezza; José Eduardo de Oliveira; Cristo Bladimiros Melios; Leonardo Pezza

2003-01-01

86

Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense status in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three groups as follows: The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively, in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water. Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame, whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group. Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the 1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats. The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the glutathione-dependent system. PMID:22385158

Abhilash, M; Sauganth Paul, M V; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

2013-04-01

87

Transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by UV light.  

PubMed

The transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by direct photolysis was investigated at various pH values, in different water types and at various concentration levels. Main photodegradation products of acesulfame were elucidated and analyzed both in laboratory experiments and in a full-scale waterworks using UV treatment for disinfection purposes. The degradation of acesulfame was found to be independent of the pH (range 5-11) and followed pseudo first order kinetics in a concentration range between 1 ?g?L(-1) and 10 mg?L(-1). Calculated rate constants were in the range between 5.4·10(-3)s(-1) and 7.4·10(-3)s(-1). The main photodegradation products of acesulfame were separated by ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and were identified as hydroxylated acesulfame and iso-acesulfame by high resolution mass spectrometry and fragmentation experiments. In the case of iso-acesulfame an intramolecular rearrangement is assumed as the transformation product has a higher polarity and different product ions after MS fragmentation compared to acesulfame. Minor transformation products were identified as amidosulfonic acid and sulfate by comparison with analytical standards. The transformation pathway was found to be transferable to drinking water production as the identified transformation products were also detected to a similar extent in fortified tap water. In a Swiss full-scale waterworks acesulfame concentrations were reduced by approximately 30% and one of the main UV transformation products could be qualitatively detected. PMID:24631604

Scheurer, Marco; Schmutz, Beat; Happel, Oliver; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Wülser, Richard; Storck, Florian Rüdiger

2014-05-15

88

Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.  

PubMed

The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study. PMID:23247016

Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

2013-01-30

89

Analysis of sucralose and other sweeteners in water and beverage samples by liquid chromatography\\/time-of-flight mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for the chromatographic separation and analysis of three of the most popular artificial sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose) in water and beverage samples was developed using liquid chromatography\\/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC\\/TOF-MS). The sweeteners were extracted from water samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Furthermore, several beverages were analyzed by a rapid and simple method without SPE, and the

Imma Ferrer; E. Michael Thurman

2010-01-01

90

Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of artificial sweeteners in body-weight reg- ulation is still unclear. Objective: We investigated the effect of long-term supplementa- tion with drinks and foods containing either sucrose or artificial sweeteners on ad libitum food intake and body weight in over- weight subjects. Design: For 10 wk, overweight men and women consumed daily supplements of either sucrose (n =

Anne Raben; Tatjana H Vasilaras; A Christina Møller; Arne Astrup

91

Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and

K. Elfhag; P. Tynelius; F. Rasmussen

2007-01-01

92

SuperSweet—a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents  

PubMed Central

A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/. PMID:20952410

Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L.; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

2011-01-01

93

Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.  

PubMed

The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 1·20/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·12, 1·29, P< 0·001) and 1·13/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, P= 0·02), respectively. The association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association. PMID:24932880

Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

2014-09-14

94

Determination of artificial sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection optimized by hydrodynamic pumping.  

PubMed

The common sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K were determined by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. In order to obtain the best compromise between separation efficiency and analysis time hydrodynamic pumping was imposed during the electrophoresis run employing a sequential injection manifold based on a syringe pump. Band broadening was avoided by using capillaries of a narrow 10 ?m internal diameter. The analyses were carried out in an aqueous running buffer consisting of 150 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid and 400 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 9.1 in order to render all analytes in the fully deprotonated anionic form. The use of surface modification to eliminate or reverse the electroosmotic flow was not necessary due to the superimposed bulk flow. The use of hydrodynamic pumping allowed easy optimization, either for fast separations (80s) or low detection limits (6.5 ?mol L(-1), 5.0 ?mol L(-1), 4.0 ?mol L(-1) and 3.8 ?mol L(-1) for aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K respectively, at a separation time of 190 s). The conditions for fast separations not only led to higher limits of detection but also to a narrower dynamic range. However, the settings can be changed readily between separations if needed. The four compounds were determined successfully in food samples. PMID:23830447

Stojkovic, Marko; Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C

2013-07-17

95

Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.  

PubMed

There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-?g/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. PMID:24156949

Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

2014-01-01

96

Modified Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by Artificial Sweetener Causes Severe Premature Cellular Senescence and Atherosclerosis with Impairment of Functional and Structural Properties of apoA-I in Lipid-Free and Lipid-Bound State  

PubMed Central

Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which have atheroprotective effects. Long-term treatment of apoA-I with the sweetener at physiological concentration (3 mM for 168 h) resulted in loss of antioxidant and phospholipid binding activities with modification of secondary structure. The AS treated apoA-I exhibited proteolytic cleavage to produce 26 kDa-fragment. They showed pro-atherogenic properties in acetylated LDL phagocytosis of macrophages. Each sweetener alone or sweetener-treated apoA-I caused accelerated senescence in human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that long-term consumption of AS might accelerate atherosclerosis and senescence via impairment of function and structure of apoA-I and HDL. PMID:21533907

Jang, Wookju; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2011-01-01

97

Modified apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by artificial sweetener causes severe premature cellular senescence and atherosclerosis with impairment of functional and structural properties of apoA-I in lipid-free and lipid-bound state.  

PubMed

Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which have atheroprotective effects. Long-term treatment of apoA-I with the sweetener at physiological concentration (3 mM for 168 h) resulted in loss of antioxidant and phospholipid binding activities with modification of secondary structure. The AS treated apoA-I exhibited proteolytic cleavage to produce 26 kDa-fragment. They showed pro-atherogenic properties in acetylated LDL phagocytosis of macrophages. Each sweetener alone or sweetener-treated apoA-I caused accelerated senescence in human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that long-term consumption of AS might accelerate atherosclerosis and senescence via impairment of function and structure of apoA-I and HDL. PMID:21533907

Jang, Wookju; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2011-05-01

98

Aspartame and risk of cancer: A meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Aspartame (APM) is the most commonly used artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer in the world. There is a rise in concern that APM is carcinogenic due to a variation in the findings of the previous APM carcinogenic bioassays. This article conducts a meta-analytic review of all previous APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents that were conducted before 31(st) December 2012. Our search yielded 10 original APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents. The aggregate effect sizes suggest that APM consumption has no significant carcinogenic effect in rodents. PMID:24965331

Mallikarjun, Sreekanth; Sieburth, Rebecca McNeill

2013-08-01

99

UV Resonance Raman Detection of Artificial Sweetener in Soda Pop-  

E-print Network

. In this correspondance, the UVRR spectra of two soft drinks, Diet Coke and New Coke, are reported. UV ex- citation enhances phenylalanine ring modes in the ar- tifical sweetener Nutrasweet in Diet Coke. This artifical spectra of Diet Coke clearly shows scattering from the four resonantly enhanced phenylalanine ring

Asher, Sanford A.

100

Occurrence of the artificial sweetener sucralose in coastal and marine waters of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first concentration data for the artificial sweetener sucralose (Splenda®) is presented for North American coastal and open ocean waters. Large volume water samples were collected and pre-concentrated using solid phase extraction followed by GC\\/MS analysis. The concentration of sucralose varied over several orders of magnitude in these environmental samples with the greatest abundance in a waste water treatment plant

Ralph N. Mead; Jeremy B. Morgan; G. Brooks Avery Jr.; Robert J. Kieber; Aleksandra M. Kirk; Stephan A. Skrabal; Joan D. Willey

2009-01-01

101

Effects of the artificial sweetener sucralose on Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia survival, growth and reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial sweetener sucralose has been detected in municipal wastewater effluent and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng\\/L to low ?g\\/L. Few chronic ecotoxicological data are available in the peer reviewed literature with respect to sucralose. To address this data gap, 21 d Daphnia magna and 28 d Americamysis bahia (mysid shrimp) studies were conducted to assess the effects

D. B. Huggett; K. I. Stoddard

2011-01-01

102

A bitter aftertaste: unintended effects of artificial sweeteners on the gut microbiome.  

PubMed

Intestinal microbial communities regulate a range of host physiological functions, from energy harvest and glucose homeostasis to immune development and regulation. Suez et al. (2014) recently demonstrated that artificial sweeteners alter gut microbial communities, leading to glucose intolerance in both mice and humans. PMID:25440050

Bokulich, Nicholas A; Blaser, Martin J

2014-11-01

103

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose  

E-print Network

introduced into commonly consumed foods such as diet sodas, cereals and sugar-free desserts, and are being Elinav1 Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide for providing sweet taste to foods without the associated high energy content of caloric sugars. NAS consumption

Gleeson, Joseph G.

104

Tracking artificial sweeteners and pharmaceuticals introduced into urban groundwater by leaking sewer networks.  

PubMed

There is little quantitative information on the temporal trends of pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds, including artificial sweeteners, in urban groundwater and their suitability as tracers to inform urban water management. In this study, pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners were monitored over 6 years in a shallow urban groundwater body along with a range of conventional sewage tracers in a network of observation wells that were specifically constructed to assess sewer leakage. Out of the 71 substances screened, 24 were detected at above the analytical detection limit. The most frequent compounds were the iodinated X-ray contrast medium amidotrizoic acid (35.3%), the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (33.3%) and the artificial sweetener acesulfame (27.5%), while all other substances occurred in less than 10% of the screened wells. The results from the group of specifically constructed focus wells within 10 m of defective sewers confirmed sewer leaks as being a major entrance pathway into the groundwater. The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners corresponds well with predictions by pipeline leakage models, which operate on optical sewer condition monitoring data and hydraulic information. Correlations between the concentrations of carbamazepine, iodinated X-ray contrast media and artificial sweeteners were weak to non-existent. Peak concentrations of up to 4130 ng/l of amidotrizoic acid were found in the groundwater downstream of the local hospital. The analysis of 168 samples for amidotrizoic acid, taken at 5 different occasions, did not show significant temporal trends for the years 2002-2008, despite changed recommendations in the medical usage of amidotrizoic acid. The detailed results show that the current mass balance approaches for urban groundwater bodies must be adapted to reflect the spatially distributed leaks and the variable wastewater composition in addition to the lateral and horizontal groundwater fluxes. PMID:22609959

Wolf, Leif; Zwiener, Christian; Zemann, Moritz

2012-07-15

105

Evaluating the environmental impact of artificial sweeteners: a study of their distributions, photodegradation and toxicities.  

PubMed

While having a long tradition as safe food additives, artificial sweeteners are a newly recognized class of environmental contaminants due to their extreme persistence and ubiquitous occurrence in various aquatic ecosystems. Resistant to wastewater treatment processes, they are continuously introduced into the water environments. To date however, their environmental behavior, fate as well as long term ecotoxicological contributions in our water resources still remain largely unknown. As a first step in the comprehensive study of artificial sweeteners, this work elucidates the geographical/seasonal/hydrological interactions of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in an open coast system at an estuarine/marine junction. Higher occurrence of acesulfame (seasonal average: 0.22 ?g L(-1)) and sucralose (0.05 ?g L(-1)) was found in summer while saccharin (0.11  ?g L(-1)) and cyclamate (0.10 ?g L(-1)) were predominantly detected in winter. Seasonal observations of the four sweeteners suggest strong connections with the variable chemical resistance among different sweeteners. Our photodegradation investigation further projected the potential impact of persistent acesulfame and sucralose compounds under prolonged exposure to intensive solar irradiation. Real-time observation by UPLC-ESI/MS of the degradation profile in both sweeteners illustrated that formation of new photo by-products under prolonged UV irradiation is highly viable. Interestingly, two groups of kinetically behaved photodegradates were identified for acesulfame, one of which was at least six times more persistent than the parent compound. For the first time, acute toxicity for the degradates of both sweeteners were arbitrarily measured, revealing photo-enhancement factors of 575 and 17.1 for acesulfame and sucralose, respectively. Direct comparison of photodegradation results suggests that the phototoxicity of acesulfame degradation products may impact aquatic ecosystems. In an attempt to neutralize this prolonged environmental threat, the feasibility of UV/TiO2 as an effective mineralization process in wastewater treatment was evaluated for both sweeteners. Under an environmental and technical relevant condition, a >84% removal rate recorded within 30 min and complete photomineralization was achieved within 2 h and delivering the best cost efficiency comparing to existing removal methods. A compilation of distribution, degradation, toxicity and attenuation results presented in this paper will go through critical discussions to explore some current issues and to pinpoint solutions for a better control in the emergent contamination of artificial sweeteners. PMID:24289948

Sang, Ziye; Jiang, Yanan; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

2014-04-01

106

Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

1999-03-01

107

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

108

Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n = 3) and rivers (n = 12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000 ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source. PMID:24100049

Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

2014-01-01

109

Artificial Sweeteners Stimulate Adipogenesis and Suppress Lipolysis Independently of Sweet Taste Receptors*  

PubMed Central

G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut, and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame potassium, enhanced adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as cAMP-response element-binding protein and FOXO1; however, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? was not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr-308 occurred within 5 min, was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurred in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of Ser-473 occurred more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor Thr-308 phosphorylation was dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although Ser-473 phosphorylation was impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knock-out precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppressed lipolysis even in the presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses were correlated with phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes was also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. PMID:24068707

Simon, Becky R.; Parlee, Sebastian D.; Learman, Brian S.; Mori, Hiroyuki; Scheller, Erica L.; Cawthorn, William P.; Ning, Xiaomin; Gallagher, Katherine; Tyrberg, Björn; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.; Evans, Charles R.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

2013-01-01

110

Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the relationship between artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption and long-term weight gain in the San Antonio Heart Study. From 1979 to 1988, height, weight, and ASB consumption were measured among 5,158 adult residents of San Antonio, Texas. Seven to eight years later, 3,682 participants (74% of survivors) were re-examined. Outcome measures were incidence of overweight\\/obesity (OW\\/OBinc) and

Sharon P. Fowler; Ken Williams; Roy G. Resendez; Kelly J. Hunt; Helen P. Hazuda; Michael P. Stern

2008-01-01

111

Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on Insulin Release and Cationic Fluxes in Rat Pancreatic Islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-l-Glucose pentaacetate, but not ?-d-galactose pentaacetate, was recently reported to taste bitter and to stimulate insulin release. This finding led, in the present study, to the investigation of the effects of both bitter and non-bitter artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Sodium saccharin (1.0–10.0 mM), sodium cyclamate (5.0–10.0 mM), stevioside (1.0 mM) and

Willy J. Malaisse; Anne Vanonderbergen; Karim Louchami; Hassan Jijakli; Francine Malaisse-Lagae

1998-01-01

112

Effects of an artificial sweetener on health, performance, and dietary preference of feedlot cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the effects of a saccharin-based artificial sweetener (Sucram) on health, performance, and dietary preference of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 200 steer calves (initial BW = 190.4 ± 1.47 kg) were fed a 65% concentrate diet supplemented with or without 200 mg of Sucram\\/kg (DM basis) during a 56-d receiving-growing period. Feeding Sucram did not affect overall

J. P. McMeniman; J. D. Rivera; P. Schlegel; W. Rounds; M. L. Galyean

2006-01-01

113

Artificial sweeteners stimulate adipogenesis and suppress lipolysis independently of sweet taste receptors.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut, and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame potassium, enhanced adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as cAMP-response element-binding protein and FOXO1; however, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? was not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr-308 occurred within 5 min, was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurred in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of Ser-473 occurred more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor Thr-308 phosphorylation was dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although Ser-473 phosphorylation was impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knock-out precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppressed lipolysis even in the presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses were correlated with phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes was also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. PMID:24068707

Simon, Becky R; Parlee, Sebastian D; Learman, Brian S; Mori, Hiroyuki; Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Ning, Xiaomin; Gallagher, Katherine; Tyrberg, Björn; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M; Evans, Charles R; MacDougald, Ormond A

2013-11-01

114

Artificial Sweeteners in a Large Canadian River Reflect Human Consumption in the Watershed  

PubMed Central

Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (0.88 µg/L), and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown. PMID:24349342

Spoelstra, John; Schiff, Sherry L.; Brown, Susan J.

2013-01-01

115

Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.  

PubMed

Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 60 s). The sensory evaluation of Shankarpoli prepared using refined wheat flour revealed that there was no significant difference in typical attributes of the snack; Aspartame and Acesulfame K had same sweetness intensity where as Sucralose had higher intensity of sweetness. Consumer acceptance study revealed that 53 % of the consumers liked the snack with Sucralose, which is highest compared to other two sweeteners namely Aspartame and Acesulfame K (47 %). Thus sweeteners can be used as sweetening agents in traditional food preparations. PMID:25477687

Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

2014-12-01

116

Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.  

PubMed

The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. PMID:25543075

von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

2015-04-01

117

Consumption of Artificially-Sweetened Soft Drinks in Pregnancy and Risk of Child Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Background Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. Objective To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. Results At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring allergic disease development. PMID:23460835

Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

2013-01-01

118

Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.  

PubMed

Sugar consumption, especially in the form of fructose, has been hypothesized to cause kidney disease. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic evidence that sugar consumption increases CKD risk. Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors, including increasing serum uric acid levels, diabetes, and obesity. Sugar may also harm the kidney via other mechanisms. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition. To date, 5 epidemiologic studies have directly evaluated the relationship between sugar consumption (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and CKD. Although most studies suggest that the risk of CKD is elevated among consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages, only 2 studies report statistically significant associations. Three studies have also examined diet soda consumption, with two reporting positive and significant associations. Confounding by unmeasured lifestyle factors may play a role in the positive results whereas poor measurement of sugar and artificial sweetener intake could explain null results. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that sugar causes kidney disease remains plausible, and alternative research designs may be needed. PMID:23439375

Karalius, Vytas P; Shoham, David A

2013-03-01

119

Synthesis of Aspartame by Thermolysin: An X-ray Structural Study.  

PubMed

Protease mediated peptide synthesis (PMPS) was first described in the 1930s but remains underexploited today. In most PMPS, the reaction equilibrium is shifted toward synthesis by the aqueous insolubility of product generated. Substrates and proteases are selected by trial and error, yields are modest, and reaction times are slow. Once implemented, however, PMPS reactions can be simple, environmentally benign, and readily scalable to a commercial level. We examined the PMPS of a precursor of the artificial sweetener aspartame, a multiton peptide synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme thermolysin. X-ray structures of thermolysin in complex with aspartame substrates separately, and after PMPS in a crystal, rationalize the reaction's substrate preferences and reveal an unexpected form of substrate inhibition that explains its sluggishness. Structure guided optimization of this and other PMPS reactions could expand the economic viability of commercial peptides beyond current high-potency, low-volume therapeutics, with substantial green chemistry advantages. PMID:24944748

Birrane, Gabriel; Bhyravbhatla, Balaji; Navia, Manuel A

2014-06-12

120

Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.  

PubMed

Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain. PMID:25009784

Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

2014-01-01

121

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

122

Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796

Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

2014-01-01

123

Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

2014-01-01

124

Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the

Marco Scheurer; Florian R. Storck; Heinz-J. Brauch; Frank T. Lange

2010-01-01

125

Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.  

PubMed

Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed. PMID:24687789

Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

2014-07-01

126

Implicit media frames: Automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners  

E-print Network

The framing of issues in the mass media plays a crucial role in the public understanding of science and technology. This article contributes to research concerned with diachronic analysis of media frames by making an analytical distinction between implicit and explicit media frames, and by introducing an automated method for analysing diachronic changes of implicit frames. In particular, we apply a semantic maps method to a case study on the newspaper debate about artificial sweeteners, published in The New York Times (NYT) between 1980 and 2006. Our results show that the analysis of semantic changes enables us to filter out the dynamics of implicit frames, and to detect emerging metaphors in public debates. Theoretically, we discuss the relation between implicit frames in public debates and codification of information in scientific discourses, and suggest further avenues for research interested in the automated analysis of frame changes and trends in public debates.

Hellsten, Iina; Leydesdorff, Loet

2010-01-01

127

Potential New Artificial Sweetener from Study of Structure-Taste Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-(Methoxymethyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde syn-oxime is a new sweetening agent developed by systematic synthesis and taste evaluation of 80 new oximes analogous to the little-used oxime sweetener, perillartine.

E. M. Acton; H. Stone

1976-01-01

128

HPLC analysis of aspartame and saccharin in pharmaceutical and dietary formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed suitable for a reliable quality control of pharmaceutical and dietary formulations containing the synthetic sweeteners aspartame and saccharin. The proposed method is able to separate acesulfame, aspartame and saccharin, and their impurities such as 5-benzyl-3,6-dioxo-2-piperazineacetic acid (the major degradation product of aspartame) and 4-sulphamoylbenzoic acid,o- andp-toluenesulphonamides (the synthesis impurities of saccharin). A convenient

A. M. Di Pietra; V. Cavrini; D. Bonazzi; L. Benfenati

1990-01-01

129

Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener. PMID:17828671

Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

2007-01-01

130

The synthesis of artificial sweeteners (phenylglycine-analogues of aspartame) in order to evaluate changes in the ?-glycophore component  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the role and function of the third component (X, or ?) in the AH, B glycophore that is a prerequisite for sweet taste, its identity and position in a series of dipeptides was studied. Four isomers of aspartyl-?-phenylglycine methyl ester 4 (isomers 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d) were synthesised and their taste reveals (1) the effect

Sabine C Ebeling

1998-01-01

131

Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and colours in soft drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid capillary electrophoresis method was developed simultaneously to determine artificial sweeteners, preservatives and colours used as additives in carbonated soft drinks. Resolution between all additives occurring together in soft drinks was successfully achieved within a 15-min run-time by employing the micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode with a 20 mM carbonate buffer at pH 9.5 as the aqueous phase and 62

Richard A Frazier; Elizabeth L Inns; Nicolo Dossi; Jennifer M Ames; Harry E Nursten

2000-01-01

132

Determination of artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge samples using pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2?g/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw. PMID:24210305

Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

2013-12-13

133

Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Moaddel, Ruin

2013-01-01

134

Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Moaddel, Ruin; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

2013-01-01

135

Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 ?S/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 ?g/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely occurs at uniquely high concentrations in domestic wastewater. As such, it holds considerable promise as a powerful new tracer of wastewater impact in groundwater.

Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

2013-01-01

136

Ubiquitous occurrence of the artificial sweetener acesulfame in the aquatic environment: an ideal chemical marker of domestic wastewater in groundwater.  

PubMed

Artificial low-calorie sweeteners are consumed in considerable quantities with food and beverages. After ingestion, some sweeteners pass through the human metabolism largely unaffected, are quantitatively excreted via urine and feces, and thus reach the environment associated with domestic wastewater. Here, we document the widespread occurrence of four sweeteners in the aquatic environment and show that one of these compounds, acesulfame, meets all of the criteria of an ideal marker for the detection of domestic wastewater in natural waters, particularly groundwater. Acesulfame was consistently detected in untreated and treated wastewater (12-46 microg/L), in most surface waters, in 65% of the investigated groundwater samples, and even in several tap water samples (up to 2.6 microg/L) from Switzerland. The sweetener was not eliminated in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and was quite persistent in surface waters, where concentrations increased with population in the catchment area and decreased with water throughflow. The highest concentrations in groundwater, up to 4.7 microg/L, were observed in areas with significant infiltration of river water, where the infiltrating water received considerable discharges from WWTPs. Given the currently achieved detection limit of approximately 0.01 microg/L, it is possible to trace the presence of > or = 0.05% wastewater in groundwater. PMID:19603650

Buerge, Ignaz J; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Kahle, Maren; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

2009-06-15

137

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 220 ... bodies are unable to metabolize one of the amino acids in aspartame, phenylalanine. Benefits of aspartame Does not ...

138

Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption.  

PubMed

Absorption of glucose from the lumen of the intestine into enterocytes is accomplished by sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the majority of mammalian species, expression (this includes activity) of SGLT1 is upregulated in response to increased dietary monosaccharides. This regulatory pathway is initiated by sensing of luminal sugar by the gut-expressed sweet taste receptor. The objectives of our studies were to determine (1) if the ruminant intestine expresses the sweet taste receptor, which consists of two subunits [taste 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3)], and other key signaling molecules required for SGLT1 upregulation in nonruminant intestines, and (2) whether T1R2-T1R3 sensing of artificial sweeteners induces release of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and enhances SGLT1 expression. We found that the small intestine of sheep and cattle express T1R2, T1R3, G-protein gustducin, and GLP-2 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Maintaining 110-d-old ruminating calves for 60d on a diet containing a starter concentrate and the artificial sweetener Sucram (consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) enhances (1) Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake by over 3-fold, (2) villus height and crypt depth by 1.4- and 1.2-fold, and (3) maltase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activity by 1.5-fold compared to calves maintained on the same diet without Sucram. No statistically significant differences were observed for rates of intestinal glucose uptake, villus height, crypt depth, or enzyme activities between 50-d-old milk-fed calves and calves maintained on the same diet containing Sucram. When adult cows were kept on a diet containing 80:20 ryegrass hay-to-concentrate supplemented with Sucram, more than a 7-fold increase in SGLT1 protein abundance was noted. Collectively, the data indicate that inclusion of this artificial sweetener enhances SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth in ruminant animals. Exposure of ruminant sheep intestinal segments to saccharin or neohesperidin dihydrochalcone evokes secretion of GLP-2, the gut hormone known to enhance intestinal glucose absorption and mucosal growth. Artificial sweeteners, such as Sucram, at small concentrations are potent activators of T1R2-T1R3 (600-fold>glucose). This, combined with oral bioavailability of T1R2-T1R3 and the understanding that artificial sweetener-induced receptor activation evokes GLP-2 release (thus leading to increased SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth), make this receptor a suitable target for dietary manipulation. PMID:24881785

Moran, A W; Al-Rammahi, M; Zhang, C; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

2014-08-01

139

An Artificial Sweetener Stimulates the Sweet Taste in Insect: Dual Effects of Glycyrrhizin in Phormia regina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycyrrhizin, found in the root of licorice (Glycyrrhizia glabra), has been used extensively as a non-sugar sweetener for humans and also as a medicine. As far as we know, the present work is the first report describing that a non-sugar sweetener for humans induces a sweet taste in insects. In behavioural experiments, we found that glycyrrhizin induced the feeding response,

Arifa Ahamed; Seiji Tsurumi; Mamiko Ozaki; Taisaku Amakawa

2001-01-01

140

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

141

Re-engineering an artificial sweetener: transforming sucralose residuals in water via advanced oxidation.  

PubMed

Sucralose is an artificial sweetener persistently present in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environments impacted by human activity. It has a potential to accumulate in the water cycle due to its resistance to common water and wastewater treatment processes. This study examined UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and found that hydroxyl substitution of the chlorine atoms on the sucralose molecule can form a carbohydrate consisting of fructose and sugar alcohol, very similar to environmentally benign sucrose. The second-order reaction rate constant for loss of parent molecule via reaction with hydroxyl radical was determined to be (1.56 ± 0.03)·10(9) M(-1)s(-1). The degradation pathway involves substitution of a single chlorine by a hydroxyl group, with cyclic moiety being a preferential site for initial dechlorination. Further reaction leads to full dechlorination of the molecule, presumably via hydroxyl group substitution as well. No direct photolysis by UV wavelengths above 200 nm was observed. Because of its photostability when exposed to UV wavelengths ?200 nm, known stability with ozone, limits of quantification by mass spectrometry close to or below environmental concentrations (<5 ?g/L) without preconcentration, and otherwise stable nature, sucralose can be used as an in situ hydroxyl radical probe for UV-based and ozone-based AOP processes. As a compound safe for human consumption, sucralose makes a suitable full scale hydroxyl radical probe fit even for drinking water treatment plant applications. Its main drawback as a probe is lack of UV detection and as a result a need for mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:23410009

Keen, Olya S; Linden, Karl G

2013-07-01

142

Nonnutritive Sweeteners as Inhibitors of Acid Formation by Oral Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic acid formation from sucrose by S. mutans NCTC 10449, Lactobacillus casei LSB No. 132 and A. viscosus Ny 1 No. 30 was inhibited by acesulfame K, cyclamate, and saccharin but not by aspartame. When inhibitory sweeteners were combined, strong synergism of their effect was observed. Inhibitory effects of such a sweetener mix were further enhanced by fluoride or xylitol

S. C. Ziesenitz; G. Siebert

1986-01-01

143

Saccharin and other artificial sweeteners in soils: estimated inputs from agriculture and households, degradation, and leaching to groundwater.  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners are consumed in substantial quantities as sugar substitutes and were previously shown to be ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. The sweetener saccharin is also registered as additive in piglet feed. Saccharin fed to piglets was largely excreted and, consequently, found in liquid manure at concentrations up to 12 mg/L, where it was stable during 2 months of storage. Saccharin may thus end up in soils in considerable quantities with manure. Furthermore, other studies showed that saccharin is a soil metabolite of certain sulfonylurea herbicides. Sweeteners may also get into soils via irrigation with wastewater-polluted surface water, fertilization with sewage sludge (1-43 ?g/L), or through leaky sewers. In soil incubation experiments, cyclamate, saccharin, acesulfame, and sucralose were degraded with half-lives of 0.4-6 d, 3-12 d, 3-49 d, and 8-124 d, respectively. The relative importance of entry pathways to soils was compared and degradation and leaching to groundwater were evaluated with computer simulations. The data suggest that detection of saccharin in groundwater (observed concentrations, up to 0.26 ?g/L) is most likely due to application of manure. However, elevated concentrations of acesulfame in groundwater (up to 5 ?g/L) may result primarily from infiltration of wastewater-polluted surface water through stream beds. PMID:21142066

Buerge, Ignaz J; Keller, Martina; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

2011-01-15

144

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine artificial sweeteners in environmental waters.  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners are food additives employed as sugar substitutes which are now considered to be emerging organic contaminants. In the present study, a method is developed for the determination of a group of artificial sweeteners in environmental waters. Considering the polar and hydrophilic character of these compounds, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is proposed for their separation as an alternative to traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Two stationary phases with different chemistry were compared for this purpose. For the detection of the analytes, high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was employed to take advantage of its benefits in terms of reliable quantification and confirmation for the measurement of accurate masses. Solid-phase extraction was chosen as the sample treatment, in which the extract in a mixture of NH4OH:MeOH:ACN (1:4:15) was directly injected into the chromatographic system, simplifying the analytical procedure. The optimized method was validated on river and waste water samples. For example, in the case of effluent water samples, limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.7 ?g/L and limits of quantification ranged from 0.004 to 1.5 ?g/L. Apparent (whole method) recoveries ranged from 57 to 74 % with intra-day precision (%RSD, n?=?5) ranging from 6 to 25 %. The method was successfully applied to water samples from different rivers in Catalonia and different waste water treatment plants in Tarragona. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine and sucralose were found in several samples. PMID:25428455

Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

2014-11-27

145

Effect of the Artificial Sweetener, Acesulfame Potassium, a Sweet Taste Receptor Agonist, on Glucose Uptake in Small Intestinal Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Sweet taste receptors may enhance glucose absorption. AIM To explore the cell biology of sweet taste receptors on glucose uptake. HYPOTHESIS Artificial sweeteners increase glucose uptake via activating sweet taste receptors in the enterocyte to translocate GLUT2 to the apical membrane through the PLC ?II pathway. METHODS Caco-2, RIE-1, and IEC-6 cells, starved from glucose for 1 h were pre-incubated with 10 mM acesulfame potassium (AceK). Glucose uptake was measured by incubating cells for 1 to 10 min with 0.5–50 mM glucose with or without U-73122, chelerythrine, and cytochalasin B. RESULTS In Caco-2 and RIE-1 cells, 10 mM AceK increased glucose uptake by 20~30% at glucose ? 25 mM, but not in lesser glucose concentrations (?10 mM), nor at 1 min or 10 min incubations. U-73122 inhibited uptake at glucose ? 25 mM and for 5 min incubation; chelerythrine and cytochalasin B had similar effects. No effect occurred in IEC-6 cells. SUMMARY Activation of sweet taste receptors had no effect on glucose uptake in low (<25 mM) glucose concentrations but increased uptake at greater concentrations (? 25 mM). CONCLUSIONS Role of artificial sweeteners on glucose uptake appears to act in part by effects on the enterocyte itself. PMID:22948835

Zheng, Ye; Sarr, Michael G.

2012-01-01

146

Review of present and future use of nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

In response to growing consumer demand for better tasting, low-calorie, sugar-free food products, the number of food items containing nonnutritive sweeteners has grown markedly in recent years. In this paper, present sweetener consumption is reviewed; the history, properties, uses, advantages, and safety of approved sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame-K are presented, as well as those of sweeteners such as cyclamate, sucralose, and alitame that are awaiting FDA approval; the role of sweeteners in the dietary management of persons with diabetes is discussed; and counseling guidelines for safe consumption are given. PMID:2202574

Bertorelli, A M; Czarnowski-Hill, J V

1990-01-01

147

Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial sweetener, aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation ?, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of ? by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 ? 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 ?m or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

1993-10-01

148

Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (?2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (?80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

2011-01-01

149

Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature. PMID:19275236

Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

2009-04-22

150

Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.  

PubMed

Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24632416

Zheng, Jolene; Greenway, Frank L; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, William D; King, Jason F; King, Michael J; Gao, Chenfei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Finley, John W

2014-05-25

151

Habitual high and low consumers of artificially-sweetened beverages: Effects of sweet taste and energy on short-term appetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of sweet taste and energy on subsequent short-term appetite in female habitual high and low consumers of artificially-sweetened beverages. The study was based on the proposal that effects of sweet taste on appetite may differ as a result of the habitual experience of sweetness with or without energy. Following a repeated measures design, 10 female

K. M. Appleton; J. E. Blundell

2007-01-01

152

Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7 %, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1 %. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks. PMID:25471292

Kubica, Pawe?; Namie?nik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

2014-12-01

153

Female Rats show a Bimodal Preference Response to the Artificial Sweetener Sucralose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preference of female Sprague-Dawley rats for sucralose, a non-nutritive sweetener derived from sucrose, was evaluated in 23 h two-bottle tests with water or saccharin. Overall, the rats displayed weak or no preferences for sucralose (0.25-4 g\\/l) over water but strong preferences for saccharin (0.5-8 g\\/l) over water and saccharin (1 g\\/l) over sucralose (0.5 g\\/l). The rats also preferred

Anthony Sclafani; Richard A. Clare

2004-01-01

154

[The use of low-calorie sweeteners].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the type of sweeteners and their impact on the human body. There have been described in details the sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sugar alcohols, fructose, D-tagatose, steviol glycosides and maple syrup which are present in currently available food products. According to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), aspartame and steviol glycosides were found to be safe for consumption. Whereas fructose, a component representing a large number of component products, according to the Polish Diabetes Association from 2012, should not be consumed by diabetics. The increase of popularity of products containing sweeteners causes that the search for new resources is constantly current and is the subject of research. PMID:23894781

Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Kurzawa, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

2013-05-01

155

Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and colours in soft drinks.  

PubMed

A rapid capillary electrophoresis method was developed simultaneously to determine artificial sweeteners, preservatives and colours used as additives in carbonated soft drinks. Resolution between all additives occurring together in soft drinks was successfully achieved within a 15-min run-time by employing the micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode with a 20 mM carbonate buffer at pH 9.5 as the aqueous phase and 62 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as the micellar phase. By using a diode-array detector to monitor the UV-visible range (190-600 nm), the identity of sample components, suggested by migration time, could be confirmed by spectral matching relative to standards. PMID:10823516

Frazier, R A; Inns, E L; Dossi, N; Ames, J M; Nursten, H E

2000-04-21

156

The metabolism of intense sweeteners.  

PubMed

Three organic acids (saccharin, acesulfame-K and cyclamate) are used or have been used extensively as intense sweeteners. Once absorbed from the gut they are eliminated, largely in the urine, without undergoing metabolism. Early studies using radiolabelled saccharin indicated the existence of limited metabolism, but this was not confirmed by later more extensive studies using highly purified compound. Metabolism could not be induced by a variety of pretreatments. Following an initial report of the presence of traces of cyclohexylamine in the urines of subjects given cyclamate, it was shown that chronic administration of the sweetener caused the induction of extensive metabolism. The metabolism, which showed wide inter- and intra-individual variability was performed the gut microflora. The peptide sweeteners (aspartame and thaumatin) are metabolized to their constituent amino acids in the gastro intestinal tract, prior to absorption. As such they are incorporated into normal intermediary metabolism and their low-calorie applications derive from their intense sweetness. PMID:3541395

Renwick, A G

1986-01-01

157

Body weight, body-weight concerns and eating styles in habitual heavy users and non-users of artificially sweetened beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated reported body weight, concerns about body weight and eating styles in habitual heavy users (consume>825ml\\/day) and habitual non-users of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Groups of habitual heavy users (N=51) and non-users (N=69) were compared on measures of weight using self-reported body mass index (BMI), and measures of weight concern and eating style using the Dutch Eating Behaviors

K. M. Appleton; M. T. Conner

2001-01-01

158

The lipophilicity of artificial and natural sweeteners estimated by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and computed by various methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromatographic behavior of some artificial and natural sweeteners was established by reverse phase high performance thin-layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC) on RP-18, RP-18W, RP-8, CN and NH2 stationary phases. The mobile phases were mixtures of acetonitrile–water in different proportions of volume, chosen to create a suitable migration during the chromatographic process. The lipophilicity was described through different chromatographic descriptors such as

Rodica Domnica Briciu; Agata Kot-Wasik; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik; Costel Sârbu

2010-01-01

159

Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.  

PubMed

The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI. PMID:23802660

Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

2013-01-01

160

Sweet taste of aspartame and sucrose: effects on diet-induced thermogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among factors that affect diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) are the sensory characteristics of food. The aim of this study was to test whether the sweet flavour obtained with a low-energy sweetener (aspartame) or with sucrose have a different effect on DIT. Following a standardized breakfast, 24 healthy male subjects were served three test lunches in a randomized fashion. Lunch contained soft

L. Prat-Larquemin; J.-M. Oppert; F. Bellisle; B. Guy-Grand

2000-01-01

161

Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. PMID:23561080

Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

2013-08-15

162

Distribution of artificial sweeteners in dust and soil in China and their seasonal variations in the environment of Tianjin.  

PubMed

A nationwide investigation on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASs) was conducted by collecting 98 paired outdoor dust and soil samples from mainland China. The ASs were widely detected in Chinese atmospheric dry deposition and soil samples, at concentrations up to 6450 and 1280 ng/g, respectively. To give a picture on AS distribution and source in the whole environment, the concentrations and seasonal variations of ASs in Tianjin were studied, including atmosphere, soil, and water samples. The AS levels were significantly higher in Haihe river at TJW (a sampling site in central city) in winter, while no obviously seasonal trends were obtained at BYL (close to a AS factory) and the site at a wastewater treatment plant. Saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame were the dominant ASs in both gas and particulate phase, with concentrations varying from 0.02 to 1940 pg/m(3). Generally, gas phase concentrations of the ASs were relatively higher in summer, while opposite results were acquired for particulate phase. Wet and dry deposition fluxes were calculated based on the measured AS levels. The results indicated that both wet and dry deposition could efficiently remove ASs in the atmosphere and act as important pollutant sources for the ASs in surface environment. PMID:24830929

Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Yao, Yiming; Zhao, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yanwei; Hu, Hongwei; Wang, Ruonan

2014-08-01

163

Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the effectiveness of single treatment steps in laboratory experiments and in waterworks. Six full-scale waterworks using surface water influenced raw water were sampled up to ten times to study the fate of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose. For the most important treatment technologies the results were confirmed by laboratory batch experiments. Saccharin and cyclamate proved to play a minor role for drinking water treatment plants as they were eliminated by nearly 100% in all waterworks with biologically active treatment units like river bank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge. Acesulfame and sucralose were not biodegraded during RBF and their suitability as wastewater tracers under aerobic conditions was confirmed. Sucralose proved to be persistent against ozone and its transformation was < 20% in lab and field investigations. Remaining traces were completely removed by subsequent granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. Acesulfame readily reacts with ozone (pseudo first-order rate constant k = 1.3 x 10(-3) s(-1) at 1 mg L(-1) ozone concentration). However, the applied ozone concentrations and contact times under typical waterworks conditions only led to an incomplete removal (18-60%) in the ozonation step. Acesulfame was efficiently removed by subsequent GAC filters with a low throughput of less than 30 m(3) kg(-1), but removal strongly depended on the GAC preload. Thus, acesulfame was detected up to 0.76 microg L(-1) in finished water. PMID:20462625

Scheurer, Marco; Storck, Florian R; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

2010-06-01

164

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrate for...lemonade. 146.121 Section 146.121 Food...established pursuant to section 409 of the act...of the food is “Frozen concentrate for artificially...purchase. (e) Frozen concentrate for...promulgated pursuant to section 403(j) of...

2010-04-01

165

Relationship between artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened cola beverage consumption during pregnancy and preterm delivery in a multi-ethnic cohort: analysis of the Born in Bradford cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the intake of sugar-sweetened (SS) and artificially sweetened (AS) cola beverages during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery (PTD). At baseline (2007-2010), 8914 pregnant women were recruited to the Born in Bradford birth cohort study at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Women completed a questionnaire describing their health and lifestyle behaviours, including their consumption of AS and SS cola beverages reported as cups per day, which were then linked to maternity records. The relationship between SS and AS cola beverage consumption was examined using logistic regression analyses. No relationship was observed between daily AS cola beverage consumption and PTD. Women who drank four cups per day of SS cola beverages had higher odds of a PTD when compared with women who did not consume these beverages daily. We conclude that high daily consumption of SS cola beverages during pregnancy is associated with increases in the rate of PTD. PMID:24398641

Petherick, E S; Goran, M I; Wright, J

2014-03-01

166

Anticonvulsant activity of artificial sweeteners: a structural link between sweet-taste receptor T1R3 and brain glutamate receptors.  

PubMed

A virtual screening campaign based on application of a topological discriminant function capable of identifying novel anticonvulsant agents indicated several widely-used artificial sweeteners as potential anticonvulsant candidates. Acesulfame potassium, cyclamate and saccharin were tested in the Maximal Electroshock Seizure model (mice, ip), showing moderate anticonvulsant activity. We hypothesized a probable structural link between the receptor responsible of sweet taste and anticonvulsant molecular targets. Bioinformatic tools confirmed a highly significant sequence-similarity between taste-related protein T1R3 and several metabotropic glutamate receptors from different species, including glutamate receptors upregulated in epileptogenesis and certain types of epilepsy. PMID:22579423

Talevi, Alan; Enrique, Andrea V; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E

2012-06-15

167

Aspartame and Its Analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

1981-04-01

168

Examination of the potential for adaptive chirality of the nitrogen chiral center in aza-aspartame.  

PubMed

The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the ?-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors. PMID:24288001

Bouayad-Gervais, Samir H; Lubell, William D

2013-01-01

169

Aspartame-stabilized gold-silver bimetallic biocompatible nanostructures with plasmonic photothermal properties, antibacterial activity, and long-term stability.  

PubMed

Gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles stabilized with a common sweetener, aspartame (AuNP@Ag@Asm), combine the antimicrobial properties of silver with the photoinduced plasmon-mediated photothermal effects of gold. The particles were tested with several bacterial strains, while biocompatibility was verified with human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25487127

Fasciani, Chiara; Silvero, M Jazmin; Anghel, Maria Alexandra; Argüello, Gerardo A; Becerra, Maria Cecilia; Scaiano, Juan C

2014-12-17

170

Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. PMID:24612793

Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-05-01

171

The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.  

PubMed

Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. PMID:24436139

Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

2014-04-01

172

Overview of Sweeteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The techniques for assessing the relative sweetness of different compounds are discussed. The search for new, sweet compounds continues to be of interest to the food industry. In addition to sugars, sweet compounds with a variety of structures are surveyed and range from small inorganic molecules to large proteins. Emphasis is placed on artificial sweeteners and their current status in the marketplace. The recent theories of sweetness are briefly covered.

Ellis, Jerry W.

1995-08-01

173

A differential kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of three sulphanilamide artificial sweeteners with the aid of chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and saccharin sodium sweeteners in foodstuff samples has been researched and developed. This analytical method relies on the different kinetic rates of the analytes in their oxidative reaction with KMnO4 to produce the green manganate product in an alkaline solution. As the kinetic rates of acesulfame-K,

Yongnian Ni; Weiqiang Xiao; Serge Kokot

2009-01-01

174

Aspartame demand in rhesus monkeys: effects of volume and concentration manipulations.  

PubMed

Three rhesus monkeys' lever presses produced aspartame-sweetened water according to a fixed-ratio schedule. The response requirement was increased across sessions and a demand-function analysis was used to assess the reinforcing effectiveness of different magnitudes of aspartame by manipulating reinforcer duration (1 and 3s) in Phase 1 and concentration (0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0mg/ml) in Phase 2. When duration was manipulated, the number of aspartame deliveries was mainly a function of the response requirement rather than unit price (responses/duration), suggesting that changes in duration did not significantly affect the reinforcing effectiveness of aspartame. When concentration was manipulated and the lowest concentration excluded, consumption was best described by unit price (responses/concentration) in two monkeys and by the response requirement in the third. Although results from the concentration manipulation provide some evidence that consumption was modulated by unit price, the results overall suggest that scalar equivalence does not exist between the components of unit price; specifically, the response requirement exerted a larger influence than duration or concentration on total consumption. Finally, a normalized demand analysis revealed that aspartame is a more elastic commodity than food and drug reinforcers. PMID:17095168

Wade-Galuska, Tammy; Galuska, Chad M; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H

2007-01-10

175

Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

2013-01-01

176

Nonnutritive sweeteners are not supernormal stimuli.  

PubMed

Background:It is often claimed that nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are 'sweeter than sugar', with the implicit implication that high-potency sweeteners are supernormal stimuli that encourage exaggerated responses. This study aimed to investigate the perceived sweetness intensity of a variety of nutritive sweeteners (sucrose, maple syrup and agave nectar) and NNS (acesulfame-K (AceK), rebaudioside A (RebA), aspartame and sucralose) in a large cohort of untrained participants using contemporary psychophysical methods.Methods:Participants (n=401 total) rated the intensity of sweet, bitter and metallic sensations for nutritive sweeteners and NNS in water using the general labeled magnitude scale.Results:Sigmoidal dose-response functions were observed for all stimuli except AceK. That is, sucrose follows a sigmoidal function if the data are not artifactually linearized via prior training. More critically, there is no evidence that NNS have a maximal sweetness (intensity) greater than sucrose; indeed, the maximal sweetness for AceK, RebA and sucralose were significantly lower than that for concentrated sucrose. For these sweeteners, mixture suppression due to endogenous dose-dependent bitter or metallic sensations appears to limit maximal perceived sweetness.Conclusions:In terms of perceived sweetness, NNS cannot be considered supernormal stimuli. These data do not support the view that NNS hijack or overstimulate sweet receptors to produce elevated sweet sensations.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.109. PMID:24942868

Antenucci, R G; Hayes, J E

2014-06-10

177

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2010-04-01

178

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2011-04-01

179

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2012-04-01

180

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2013-04-01

181

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2014-04-01

182

Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

2014-01-01

183

Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

2014-05-01

184

Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. Methods As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka®). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. Results All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1–9.2 kg (p?=?0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p?=?0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37–44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35–43) (p?=?0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Conclusion Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects. PMID:25069603

2014-01-01

185

Simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs, and artificial sweeteners in environmental water samples using a single-step SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution.  

PubMed

A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 24 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) was developed. The method was based on a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution. In this study, a single-step SPE procedure was optimized for simultaneous extraction of all target analytes. Good recoveries (? 70%) were observed for all target analytes when extraction was performed using Chromabond(®) HR-X (500 mg, 6 mL) cartridges under acidic condition (pH 2). HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for the simultaneous analysis of 24 PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in a single injection. Quantification was performed by using 13 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS), which allows correcting efficiently the loss of the analytes during SPE procedure, matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most of the target analytes was below 10 ng/L in all water samples. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples collected in a local catchment area in Singapore. In conclusion, the developed method provided a valuable tool for investigating the occurrence, behavior, transport, and the fate of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in the aquatic environment. PMID:23708627

Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

2013-09-15

186

Lack of DNA-damaging activity of five non-nutritive sweeteners in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay.  

PubMed

The non-nutritive sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose were tested for DNA damaging activity in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay. Using hepatocytes from F344 and Sprague-Dawley male rats, all were inactive despite strong responses for the positive control, 2-aminofluorene. PMID:10722887

Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

2000-04-01

187

Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners to promote eating enjoyment, optimal nutrition, and health. PMID:14760578

2004-02-01

188

Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.  

PubMed

With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. PMID:24679934

Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

2014-06-01

189

Marked Caries Inhibition in the Sucrose-Challenged Rat by a Mixture of Nonnutritive Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of acesulfame K, aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin on cariogenesis caused by a diet containing 30% sucrose were studied in orally superinfected Cara rats. The addition of any individual sweetener had no appreciable effect on fissure caries development in this animal model. However, a 1.00:1.67:0.10 combination of acesulfame K, cyclamate, and saccharin, which was found previously to effectively inhibit

G. Siebert; S. C. Ziesenitz; J. Lotter

1987-01-01

190

Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety.  

PubMed

Aspartame has been previously shown to increase satiety. This study aimed to investigate a possible role for the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in this effect. The effects of the constituents of aspartame, phenylalanine and aspartic acid, were also examined. Six subjects consumed an encapsulated preload consisting of either 400 mg aspartame, 176 mg aspartic acid+224 mg phenylalanine, or 400 mg corn flour (control), with 1.5 g paracetamol dissolved in 450 ml water to measure gastric emptying. A 1983-kJ liquid meal was consumed 60 min later. Plasma CCK, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, and insulin were measured over 0-120 min. Gastric emptying was measured from 0 to 60 min. Plasma GLP-1 concentrations decreased following the liquid meal (60-120 min) after both the aspartame and amino acids preloads (control, 2096.9 pmol/l min; aspartame, 536.6 pmol/l min; amino acids, 861.8 pmol/l min; incremental area under the curve [AUC] 60-120 min, P<.05). Desire to eat was reduced from 60 to 120 min following the amino acids preload (control, -337.1 mm min; aspartame, -505.4 mm min; amino acids, -1497.1 mm min; incremental AUC 60-120 min, P<.05). However, gastric emptying rates, plasma CCK, GIP, insulin, and glucose concentrations were unaffected. There was a correlation between the increase in plasma phenylalanine and decrease in desire to eat after the liquid meal following the constituent amino acids (r=-.9774, P=.004). In conclusion, it is unlikely that aspartame increases satiety via CCK- or GLP-1-mediated mechanisms, but small changes in circulating phenylalanine concentrations may influence appetite. PMID:12782208

Hall, W L; Millward, D J; Rogers, P J; Morgan, L M

2003-04-01

191

Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

2012-01-01

192

Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.  

PubMed

The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-12-01

193

Sweeteners in the Spotlight Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups New Resource Sweeteners in the Spotlight  

E-print Network

Council shows that just over half of Americans (51%) are trying to limit or avoid sugars and 44 % are trying to limit or avoid high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in particular. Of those who say they pay attention to carbohydrates and sugars when they are buying food and beverages, almost half (47%) choose products based on the type of sweetener and nearly the same proportion (46%) consider whether the products they buy contain low-calorie sweeteners such as Aspartame. About 1/3 of consumers agreed that low-calorie sweeteners can be part of an overall healthful diet. So what do the experts say about carbohydrates, sugars, and low-calorie (non-nutritive) sweeteners? An updated position paper from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) was published in May, 2012. After a thorough review, the Academy author and review panel summarized their findings with the following position statement: It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed with an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary

Susan Nitzke

2012-01-01

194

Sweeteners - sugar substitutes  

MedlinePLUS

... 519. Wiebe N, Padwal R,Field C, Marks S, Jacobs R, Tonelli M: A systematic review of the ... FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes ...

195

Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. PMID:23765203

Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

2014-07-01

196

Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.  

PubMed

A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90?±?6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method. PMID:24590107

Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz

2014-05-01

197

Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p < 0.001). In addition, in vivo rat model of skin wound-healing study showed that aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p < 0.05. There was a slight proliferative effect of aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. PMID:24925367

Yesildal, F; Aydin, Fn; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, Ch; Ozgurtas, T

2014-06-12

198

Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6?J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50?mg/Kgbw/day) caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) P?Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6?J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species. PMID:22697049

2012-01-01

199

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

2012-05-01

200

Sweetness and intensity of artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments, groups of Os judged either the sweetness or the entire taste intensity of solutions of sucrose, cyclamate\\u000a salts, cyclamate-saccharin mixtures, and sodium saccharin. The sensory functions obtained by magnitude estimation suggest\\u000a that over the middle range of concentration the sweetness and intensity of the foregoing substances grow as power functions\\u000a of concentration. As a first approximation, the

Howard R. Moskowitz

1970-01-01

201

Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)  

MedlinePLUS

... AHA strongly recommends limiting added sugars . Too much sugar can lead to weight gain, and those extra pounds can lead to a string of health problems. In addition to obesity, it can increase triglyceride levels, a risk factor ...

202

An attempt to use sweeteners as a material for accident dosimetry.  

PubMed

In case of a radiological accident, it is important to determine the exposure to radiation of the general population. Several materials can be used to reconstruct the exposed dose. Tooth enamel has been studied for a long time, and now the procedures to determine the dose are well established for in vitro measurements. Many materials have been investigated by different techniques: sugar, wall bricks, roof tiles, plastics, watch glass, ruby present in watches, medicines carried by persons and shell button, among others. In this work an attempt is made to use sweeteners as a possible accident dosimeter material because they are becoming increasingly common. Sweeteners based on saccharine, cyclamate, stevia, and aspartame were acquired in local stores, and ESR spectrum was recorded before and after gamma irradiation. Spectrum simulation demonstrated that there are two main radicals with g = 2.0063, A = 1.6 mT, and g = 2.0048, A = 5 mT due to lactose. For the better characterization of spectroscopic and dosimetric properties of these materials, higher microwave frequency (K-band, nu approximately 24 GHz) was also employed. Experiments in X-band (nu approximately 9 GHz) showed that low dose levels of 500 mGy can be measured with this material, demonstrating the potential use of sweeteners for retrospective dosimetry. PMID:20065713

Kinoshita, Angela; José, Flávio A; Baffa, Oswaldo

2010-02-01

203

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development for Biological &  

E-print Network

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development Processing (see Phytochemicals, Advanced Artificial Intelligence) Canning Technology ­ Ted Labuza Cheese-Paul Schirle-Keller Food Additives ­ Artificial Sweeteners ­ Ted Labuza Food Analysis Chromatographic

Amin, S. Massoud

204

Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

1990-03-01

205

Sweetened beverage consumption is associated with increased risk of stroke in women and men.  

PubMed

The consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks has been associated with adverse effects on markers of cardiovascular risk. We examined the hypothesis that high consumption of sweetened beverages increases the risk of stroke. We followed 32,575 women aged 49-83 y and 35,884 men aged 45-79 y without cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. The consumption of sweetened beverages, including sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and juice drinks, was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Stroke cases were ascertained by linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. The data were analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. We ascertained 3510 incident cases of stroke, including 2588 cerebral infarctions, 349 intracerebral hemorrhages, 156 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 417 unspecified strokes, during a mean follow-up of 10.3 y. Sweetened beverage consumption was significantly positively associated with risk of total stroke and cerebral infarction but not with hemorrhagic stroke. The multivariable RRs comparing ?2 (median: 2.1) servings/d (200 mL/serving) with 0.1 to <0.5 (median: 0.3) servings/d were 1.19 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.36) for total stroke and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) for cerebral infarction. These findings suggest that sweetened beverage consumption is positively associated with the risk of stroke. PMID:24717367

Larsson, Susanna C; Akesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

2014-06-01

206

Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.  

PubMed

For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized. PMID:22224551

DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

2012-01-01

207

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2011-09-01

208

Alzheimer's Myths  

MedlinePLUS

... dementia . Myth 2: Alzheimer’s disease is not fatal. Reality: Alzheimer's disease has no survivors. It destroys brain ... any threat. Myth 5: Aspartame causes memory loss. Reality: This artificial sweetener, marketed under such brand names ...

209

Sweetened Plain and Flavored Carbonated Yogurt Beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetened plain and strawberry- flavored carbonated yogurt beverages without free whey were developed. Yogurts, after blending with a 12% suc- rose solution and additionally with flavor extract, were carbonated under .5 kg\\/cm 2 at 4°C. Sweetened flavored yogurt bever- ages contained 15.5% total solids, 2.8% protein, 1.5% fat, .5% ash, and 10.7% carbohydrates. Carbonation of chilled sweetened plain yogurt beverages

H. S. Choi; F. V. Kosikowski

1985-01-01

210

The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

Stein, Paul J.

1997-09-01

211

Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

Çak?r, S.; Co?kun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, ?.; ?çbudak, H.; Çak?r, O.

2002-08-01

212

The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the procedures used in an experiment that reinforces the universality of the concepts of saturation using the binding of the ligand aspartame to the protein receptor that determines taste. Illustrates the hyperbolic nature of protein binding. (DDR)

Stein, Paul J.

1997-01-01

213

7 CFR 58.925 - Sweetened condensed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the sweetened condensed product should be cooled rapidly to about 85 °F to induce crystallization of the oversaturated lactose. When the desired crystallization is reached further cooling is resumed to 68°-70...

2011-01-01

214

7 CFR 58.925 - Sweetened condensed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the sweetened condensed product should be cooled rapidly to about 85 °F to induce crystallization of the oversaturated lactose. When the desired crystallization is reached further cooling is resumed to 68°-70...

2010-01-01

215

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2013-04-01

216

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2011-04-01

217

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2014-04-01

218

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2010-04-01

219

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2012-04-01

220

Can Children Discriminate Sugar-Sweetened from Non-Nutritively Sweetened Beverages and How Do They Like Them?  

PubMed Central

Background Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. Methods 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. Results Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39±0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39±0.6 (P?=?0.9) on a scale running from 1 (disgusting) to 5 (delicious). The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P?=?0.000). Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. Conclusion We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children. PMID:25551758

de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kas, Rosa; Olthof, Margreet R.

2014-01-01

221

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2011-04-01

222

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2012-04-01

223

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2014-04-01

224

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2010-04-01

225

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2013-04-01

226

Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.  

PubMed

The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs. PMID:25126667

Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

2014-10-28

227

Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.  

PubMed

Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20?mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way. PMID:23786206

Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

2014-03-01

228

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened...

2011-04-01

229

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

...2014-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened...

2014-04-01

230

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened...

2013-04-01

231

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened...

2010-04-01

232

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened...

2012-04-01

233

Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

234

Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.  

PubMed

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

235

Exposure to non-nutritive sweeteners during pregnancy and lactation: Impact in programming of metabolic diseases in the progeny later in life.  

PubMed

The nutritional environment during embryonic, fetal and neonatal development plays a crucial role in the offspring's risk of developing diseases later in life. Although non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) provide sweet taste without contributing to energy intake, animal studies showed that long-term consumption of NSS, particularly aspartame, starting during the perigestational period may predispose the offspring to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life. In this paper, we review the impact of NNS exposure during the perigestational period on the long-term disease risk of the offspring, with a particular focus on metabolic diseases. Some mechanisms underlying NNS adverse metabolic effects have been proposed, such as an increase in intestinal glucose absorption, alterations in intestinal microbiota, induction of oxidative stress and a dysregulation of appetite and reward responses. The data reviewed herein suggest that NNS consumption by pregnant and lactating women should be looked with particular caution and requires further research. PMID:25263228

Araújo, João Ricardo; Martel, Fátima; Keating, Elisa

2014-09-28

236

Reprinted from THE JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, SI. Louis Vol. 109. No.4, PP. 668-671, October, 1986 (Printed in the U. S. A.)  

E-print Network

. The Children's Hospital. Boston Aspartame (N-aspartyl-phenylalanine methyl ester), a widely used artificial sweetener, is hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to methanol and to its constituent amino .acids phenylalanine and aspartic acid. Ingestion of this sweetener causes a sharp increase in plasma phenylalanine I

Wurtman, Richard

237

Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults  

PubMed Central

Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ?4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

2014-01-01

238

Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis  

PubMed Central

A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h?1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 ?M for methanol and 0.2 ?M for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

2014-01-01

239

Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h?¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

2014-01-01

240

Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo.  

PubMed

Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame 14C-labelled in the methanol carbon. At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several organs was investigated. Most of the radioactivity found (>98% in plasma, >75% in liver) was bound to protein. Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time. Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12 to 1/10th of that of liver. In all, the rat retained, 6 hours after administration about 5% of the label, half of it in the liver. The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform. The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to labelled formaldehyde. DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base, different from the normal bases present in DNA. The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures. The administration of labelled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde formation from aspartame and binding to biological components. The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labelled aspartame during 10 days resulted in the accumulation of even more label when given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be cumulative. It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID:9714421

Trocho, C; Pardo, R; Rafecas, I; Virgili, J; Remesar, X; Fernández-López, J A; Alemany, M

1998-01-01

241

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2011-04-01

242

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2010-04-01

243

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2010-04-01

244

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2010-04-01

245

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2011-04-01

246

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2010-04-01

247

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2011-04-01

248

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2011-04-01

249

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2011-04-01

250

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent...thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of...

2010-04-01

251

Do Artificial Sweeteners ingested in Pregnancy affect the Offspring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATS treated with approximately 20 mg\\/kg of cyclamate each day have been found to behave abnormally1 and it is believed that the behavioural changes may be induced during meiosis and embryonic development2. The offspring are hyperactive and slow to develop a response to food reward and, once trained, they are deficient, in comparison with controls, in tasks requiring response inhibition.

David Stone; Edward Matalka; Barbara Pulaski

1971-01-01

252

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2013-04-01

253

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. [42 FR 14414, Mar. 15,...

2014-04-01

254

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2012-04-01

255

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2012-04-01

256

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2014-04-01

257

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2014-04-01

258

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2013-04-01

259

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. [42 FR 14414, Mar. 15,...

2010-04-01

260

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2013-04-01

261

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. [42 FR 14414, Mar. 15,...

2012-04-01

262

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2013-04-01

263

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2012-04-01

264

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2014-04-01

265

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. [42 FR 14414, Mar. 15,...

2013-04-01

266

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. [42 FR 14414, Mar. 15,...

2011-04-01

267

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2012-04-01

268

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2014-04-01

269

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2013-04-01

270

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2014-04-01

271

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid...

2012-04-01

272

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of this section. Water may be added...tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate... (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium...calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium...

2011-04-01

273

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of this section. Water may be added...tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate... (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium...calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium...

2010-04-01

274

Effects of Sweetness and Energy in Drinks on Food Intake Following Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K

Neil A King; Katherine Appleton; Peter J Rogers; John E Blundell

1999-01-01

275

Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg\\/kg aspartame 14C-labelled in the methanol carbon. At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several organs was investigated. Most of the radioactivity found (> 98 % min plasma, > 75 % min liver) was bound to protein. Label present in liver, plasma and kidney

C. Trocho; R. Pardo; I. Rafecas; J. Virgili; X. Remesar; J. A. Fernández-López; M. Alemany

1998-01-01

276

New fluorinating reagents from acesulfam sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxathiazinone dioxides, a group of well known sweetening agents, have been used for the synthesis of a new type of heterocyclic N-F reagents. Benz-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3F)-one 2,2-dioxide (1c), for example, is a stable crystalline compound, which can be used for the electrophilic fluorination of a variety of organic compounds under very mild conditions.

Ivan Cabrera; Wolfgang K. Appel

1995-01-01

277

A novel strategy for selection of allosteric ribozymes yields RiboReporter™ sensors for caffeine and aspartame  

PubMed Central

We have utilized in vitro selection technology to develop allosteric ribozyme sensors that are specific for the small molecule analytes caffeine or aspartame. Caffeine- or aspartame-responsive ribozymes were converted into fluorescence-based RiboReporter™ sensor systems that were able to detect caffeine or aspartame in solution over a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 mM. With read-times as short as 5 min, these caffeine- or aspartame-dependent ribozymes function as highly specific and facile molecular sensors. Interestingly, successful isolation of allosteric ribozymes for the analytes described here was enabled by a novel selection strategy that incorporated elements of both modular design and activity-based selection methods typically used for generation of catalytic nucleic acids. PMID:15026535

Ferguson, Alicia; Boomer, Ryan M.; Kurz, Markus; Keene, Sara C.; Diener, John L.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Wilson, Charles; Cload, Sharon T.

2004-01-01

278

Cactus pear fruit: A new source for a natural sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 ° Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 °Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: aw; reducing

C. Sáenz; A. M. Estévez; E. Sepúlveda; P. Mecklenburg

1998-01-01

279

Exploring the Use of Stevia rebaudiana as a Sweetener in Comparison with Other Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevia extract was prepared by boiling stevia leaf powder in water. Sweetness equivalence was tested by comparing sweetness of extract with sugar and other sweeteners like sugar free, equals, natura, sugar free natura and saccharine. Eleven recipes viz milk, coffee, tea, gajar halwa, milk shake, kheer, curd, lemon water, custard, halwa and lapsi were prepared using stevia extract and other

Renu Mogra; Versha Dashora

280

Metabolic studies with the nonnutritive sweetener cycloheptylsulfamate.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweetener cycloheptylsulfamate was administered orally to rabbits and rats. The urine of each species was separately collected for 3 days and examined for the metabolites cycloheptylamine, cycloheptanone, and cycloheptanol and for cycloheptylsulfamate. A previously tested GLC method was adapted for the determination of the metabolites. Cycloheptylsulfamate was assayed by hydrolysis and subsequent measurement of the absorbance of the product formed (lambdamax=489 nm) by the liberated amine with p-benzoquinone. The conversions to the metabolites were 0.276, 0.390, and 0.170%, respectively, in rabbits and 0.064, 0.022, and 0.017%, respectively, in rats. PMID:874797

Benson, G A; Spillane, W J

1977-06-01

281

Research report The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and  

E-print Network

to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences reserved. Introduction The incidence of overweight and obesity in the U.S. and the rest of the world has

Cooper, Brenton G.

282

Time to maximum sweetness intensity of binary and ternary blends of sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to determine what effect, if any, the blending of sweeteners has on the time to maximum sweetness intensity of sweeteners. In this study that is comprised of three separate experiments, trained panelists evaluated the time to maximum sweetness intensity of sweeteners tested in both binary and ternary combinations. Sixteen sweeteners that varied widely

Susan S. Schiffman; Elizabeth A. Sattely-Miller; Ihab E. Bishay

2007-01-01

283

Corrosion profile in a gas sweetening plant  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to assess the corrosion rate in a gas sweetening plant using electrochemical methods. The tests were performed by using samples of the amine in service. Coupons made of A-106 carbon steel were tested, as this material is typically used in most vessels. The variables studied included the actual temperature of different plant units at both rich and lean amine conditions, and the degree of CO{sub 2} saturation. The results show an increase of the uniform corrosion rate with temperature, which reflects the effect of heat stable salts in the corrosivity of the amine ovrrheated. Also, from the analysis of the potentiodynamic carves at different conditions, the risk for Alkaline Stress Corrosion Cracking (ASCC) was assessed. The association of this risk with actual plant conditions shows which vessels are susceptible to both amine corrosion and ASCC which allowed to develop a corrosion profile for both the lean and rich amine parts of the circuit,

Case, R.; Viloria, A. [Intevep, S.A. Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. Materials Technology; Luciani, B. [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela). Corrosion and Metallurgy Dept.

1998-12-31

284

Structure-activity studies on sulfamate sweeteners.  

PubMed

The structure-activity relationships governing sulfamate sweeteners are reviewed under the headings: size of the reduced ring, changes in the sulfamate function, substitution of hydrogen in the ring, and substitution of carbon in the ring and open-chain compounds. Fifteen compounds have been synthesized with a view to testing the limitations on structural changes which may be made within these categories without loss of sweetness. The presence of the grouping greater than CHN(R)SO3- is suggested as a necessary but not a sufficient condition for a compound to be sweet-tasting. Thus, the B center of the Shallenberger A-H,B theory of sweetness is best regarded as being -SO3- rather than -SO2- for sulfamates. Threshold levels and relative sweetness have been determined for seven sulfamates. PMID:940105

Benson, G A; Spillane, W J

1976-07-01

285

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?  

E-print Network

of these words on the list of ingredients:sugar,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,corn sweetener,corn syrup,dextrose,fruit juice concentrates,glucose,honey,invert sugar, molasses,sucrose,syrup or cane sugar

Rosen, Jay

286

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: a review.  

PubMed

Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners, Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are more likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients, those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories and is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar. PMID:19961353

Goyal, S K; Samsher; Goyal, R K

2010-02-01

287

The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.  

PubMed

Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats. PMID:24970110

Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

2014-09-01

288

Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.  

PubMed

Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

2007-07-01

289

Nonnutritive sweeteners, energy balance and glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review recent work on potential mechanisms underlying a paradoxical positive association between the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) and weight gain. Recent findings Several potential mechanism, not mutually exclusive, are hypothesized. First, by dissociating sweetness from calories, NNS could interfere with physiological responses that control homeostasis. Second, by changing the intestinal environment, NNS could affect the microbiota and in turn trigger inflammatory processes that are associated with metabolic disorders. Third, by interacting with novel sweet-taste receptors discovered in the gut, NNS could affect glucose absorptive capacity and glucose homeostasis. This last is the mechanism that has received the most attention recently. Some animal studies, but not all, found that NNS activate gut sweet taste-pathways that control incretin release and up-regulate glucose transporters. Human studies found that, at least for healthy fasted subjects, the sole interaction of NNS with sweet-taste gut receptors is insufficient to elicit incretin responses. The reasons for discrepancy between different studies is unknown but could be related to the species of mammal tested and the dose of NNS used. Summary Whether NNS are metabolically inactive, as previously assumed, is unclear. Further research on the potential effects of NNS on human metabolism is warranted. PMID:21505330

Pepino, M. Yanina; Bourne, Christina

2012-01-01

290

Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

2000-10-01

291

Quantitative determination of caffeine in carbonated beverages by an HPLC method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to adapt and use the HPLC method proposed by SR EN 12856\\/2001 standard for the determination of some artificial sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin) for the quantification, in a single run, of the caffeine too. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity range, reproducibility, repeatability, analytical recovery and robustness. In this paper

Nour Violeta; Ionica Mir

292

Formulation and evaluation of dry dessert mix containing sweetener combinations using mixture response methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced calorie foods are an important area for product development. Foods formulated for diabetics and\\/or weight reduction tend to replace bulk caloric sweeteners with high intensity sweeteners. A mixture experimental design was used to model the acceptability of a low calorie dessert mix sweetened with single, binary and tertiary combinations of saccharin, cyclamate and stevioside. The design included constraints to

S. C. F Iop; R. S. F Silva; A. P Beleia

1999-01-01

293

Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

2013-01-01

294

Compatibility of a corrosion inhibitor with gas sweetening agents  

SciTech Connect

A methodology to establish the effect of a corrosion inhibitor on the behavior of two gas sweetening agents namely an amine (A) and a solid product constituted by iron oxides (B), has been developed. This information will be useful in case of traces of inhibitor passing through these two sweetening systems. Tests conducted in a static autoclave tester in gas sweetening conditions were made to determine the sour gas absorption power of the two agents, A and B, in presence or absence of inhibitor. Additionally, the effect of the inhibitor on the foaming power of agent A was evaluated, at room conditions. According to the results obtained, in the range of conditions considered in this study, neither does the inhibitor affect the sour gas absorption power nor the foaming power of agent A. Nevertheless, the anticorrosive product diminished by 12.5% the sour gas removal capability of agent B.

Ramkez, M.; Morales, J.L.; Afonso, M.E.; Viloria, A. [Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1998-12-31

295

Hydrogen-bonding and the sweet taste mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tripartite glucophores (AH-B,?) of some natural (sugars) and artificial (Aspartame, Acesulfame, Saccharin, NHDHC and Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweeteners are proposed. These propositions are based on the molecular structure and infrared spectra of the studied molecules. The role of water in the sweet taste mechanism of small carbohydrates and artificial sweeteners was derived from the Raman spectra of their aqueous solutions. Comparison of the intensities and frequencies of the calculated components of the experimental Raman band of water on the one hand and of aqueous solutions of sweeteners on the other permitted interpretation of the role of water in the sweetness mechanism.

Mathlouthi, M.; Portmann, M. O.

1990-09-01

296

Preference for sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners in young beagles.  

PubMed

Two-bowl choice tests were used to examined preference of puppies aged two to four months for compounds tasting sweet to humans. Puppies found many, but not all of the compounds highly palatable, and were sensitive to both type and amount of sugar or nonnutritive sweetener contained in a semi-moist dog food recipe. Lactose, fructose, and sucrose were well accepted, whereas maltose elicited indifference or rejection. Sodium cyclamate, but not sodium saccharin, was preferred at some concentrations to 15 percent sucrose sweetened semi-moist food used as the standard. Solutions of lactose, fructose, glucose and galactose were preferred to plain tap water. PMID:6205334

Ferrell, F

1984-01-01

297

Canadian gas plant uses amine unit to sweeten liquid ethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that treating liquid ethane with amine to remove COâ has proven successful at Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd's Fort Saskatchewan gas plant. Experience at the plant indicates that, if recommended operating procedures and guidelines are followed, an amine contactor tower is economical and reliable for sweetening liquid hydrocarbons. The Fort Saskatchewan COâ-removal facility is unique, in that

Wesch

1992-01-01

298

What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

2014-01-01

299

2008 Cable News Network Sweet! Researchers' device 'tastes' sweeteners  

E-print Network

© 2008 Cable News Network Powered by Sweet! Researchers' device 'tastes' sweeteners Story interested in better methods than taste-testing Scientists hope to find ways to measure other tastes By Andy Rose CNN (CNN) -- A handheld device the size of a business card can be used to "taste" the sweetness

Suslick, Kenneth S.

300

Discovery of terpenoid and phenolic sweeteners from plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant-derived compounds of the terpenoid and phenolic types have com- mercial use as sweeteners. In our research program directed toward the discovery of additional sweet compounds of these chemical classes, candidate sweet plants for laboratory investiga- tion may be selected after scrutiny of the available literature, as a result of making inquiries in the field, and\\/or from a limited

A. Douglas Kinghorn; Djaja Djendoel Soejarto

2002-01-01

301

Price behaviour in the US sweetener market: a cointegration approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweetener market in the United States is complicated because of the substitution possibilities between high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sugar. This study focuses on the relationship between raw sugar prices and the prices for high fructose corn syrup. Sugar and HFCS are imperfect substitutes for several industrial uses. Sugar can be used for all industrial uses, but HFCS

Charles B. Moss; Andrew Schmits

2002-01-01

302

IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SWEETENED BEVERAGES AND ADIPOSITY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four mechanisms were reviewed to explain the possible association between sweetened beverages and increased overweight or obesity: excess caloric intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, lack of effect of liquid calories on satiety, and displacement of milk. The findings were inconsistent across st...

303

Use of fructose, xylitol, or sorbitol as a sweetener in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners have been utilized in the diet of diabetic patients an an agent to replace glucose and sucrose. Since saccharin might be removed from the marketplace, the nutritive sweeteners fructose, xylitol, and sorbitol are being considered as possible alternatives for glucose and sucrose. This review considers the effects of these nutritive sweeteners on the main dietary concerns in the diabetic diet--control of blood glucose levels, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The potential side effects of these agents are also reviewed. PMID:400132

Brunzell, J D

1978-01-01

304

Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream: Interactions Between Sweeteners and Stabilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recrystallization in ice creams that were made with various combinations of four sweeteners (20 DE (dextrose equivalent) corn syrup solids, 42 DE corn syrup solids, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup), and four stabilizers (gelatin, locust bean gum, xan- than gum, and carrageenan) was investigated. Ice creams were stored at three different temperatures (-5.2, -9.5, and -15°C). For a given

Talia Miller-Livney; Richard W. Hartel

1997-01-01

305

The Sweetening of the World’s Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Using data from many countries in the world combined with in-depth U.S. dietary data, we explored trends in caloric sweetener intake, the role of urbanization and income changes in explaining these trends, and the contribution of specific foods to these changes.Research Methods and Procedures: Food disappearance data from 103 countries in 1962 and 127 in 2000 were coupled with

Barry M. Popkin; Samara Joy Nielsen

2003-01-01

306

In-silico prediction of sweetness of sugars and sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three quantitative models for the prediction of sweetness of 103 compounds were developed. These compounds include 29 sugars and 74 common sweeteners, whose sweetness is in the range of 22–300,000 and the molecular weight is from 122 to 1287. The molecules were represented by three descriptors. On the basis of the Kohonen’s Self-Organising Neural Network (KohNN) map, the whole data

Xiaoying Yang; Yang Chong; Aixia Yan; Jinchun Chen

2011-01-01

307

Effects of lactose-containing stevioside sweeteners on dental biofilm acidogenicity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial lactose-containing stevioside sweetener on biofilm acidogenicity in vivo. Nine volunteers refrained from brushing their teeth for 3 days in five phases. On the 4th day of each phase, the pH of the biofilm was measured by the "Strip method". Interproximal plaque pH was measured before and up to 60 minutes after a 10 mL mouthrinse for 1 minute with the test solutions: I - sweetener with 93% lactose and 7% stevioside; II - sweetener with 6.8% saccharin, 13.6% cyclamate, and 0.82% stevioside; III - 18% sucrose solution (positive control); IV - mineral water (negative control); and V- 93% lactose solution. The results revealed that the most pronounced pH fall was found with sucrose (positive control), followed by the 93% lactose solution, the sweetener with lactose + stevioside, the sweetener with saccharin + cyclamate + stevioside, and finally water (negative control). According to the area under the curve, the two sweeteners containing stevioside were significantly different, and the sweetener with lactose + stevioside was significantly different from water but not from sucrose. The critical pH for dentin demineralization (pH ? 6.5) was reached by all volunteers after rinsing with sucrose solution, lactose solution, and the stevioside + lactose sweetener. Analysis of the data suggests that lactose-containing stevioside sweeteners may be cariogenic, especially to dentin. PMID:25098824

Giongo, Fernanda Cristina Mendes de Santana; Mua, Bruna; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Carlén, Anette; Maltz, Marisa

2014-01-01

308

Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (1960–2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans. PMID:22679063

Rother, Kristina I.

2012-01-01

309

Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 ± 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. PMID:22153513

Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

2011-12-01

310

A hydro/organo/hybrid gelator: a peptide lipid with turning aspartame head groups.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel bola-type peptide lipid which can gelate water, organic solvents, and water/organic-solvent mixtures. In its molecular structure, an amphiphilic dipeptide aspartame (L-?-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is connected at both ends of an alkylene linker. The different morphologies in the hydrogel (helical nanotapes) and the organogel (tape-like nanostructures) were visualized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and energy-filtering scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the molecular arrangement was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Possessing a hydrophilic aspartic acid group and a (relatively) hydrophobic phenylalanine methyl ester group, the dipeptide head group can turn about in response to solvent polarity. As a consequence, the solvent condition changed the molecular packing of the gelator and affected the overall supramolecular structure of the gel. It is noted that the peptide lipid gelated mixed solvents of water and organic solvents such as dichloromethane, liquid-paraffin, olive-oil, silicone-oils, and so on. The present hybrid gel can simultaneously hold hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional materials. PMID:23394806

Mukai, Masaru; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Asakawa, Masumi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Kogiso, Masaki

2013-04-01

311

-News Home Help EU offers 'sweetener' to Japan to let France host nuclear project  

E-print Network

-News Home Help EU offers 'sweetener' to Japan to let France host nuclear project Wed Nov 10, 9 to host a revolutionary nuclear fusion project. news web sites "I cannot elaborate on the sweetener, but I Wednesday after talks in Vienna on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). news web

312

Sweetening Android Lemon Markets: Measuring and Curbing Malware in Application Marketplaces  

E-print Network

vector of software distri- bution. For instance, Apple's flagship MacOS X operating system is, sinceSweetening Android Lemon Markets: Measuring and Curbing Malware in Application Marketplaces Timothy Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 #12;Sweetening Android Lemon Markets: Measuring and Curbing

Tague, Patrick

313

Paste Particle and Bean Size as Related to Sweetened Azuki Paste Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(1):122-128 Influences of the amount of sugar, particle size of unsweetened paste, and bean size on sweetened paste quality were evaluated in two types of azuki. Increased sugar resulted in darker, less red, and less yellow sweet- ened paste and decreased hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness of sweet- ened paste. Sweetened paste produced from larger particles was less red

Byung-Kee Baik; Zuzanna Czuchajowska

1999-01-01

314

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

1985-01-01

315

The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.  

PubMed

Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake. PMID:25128835

Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

2014-12-01

316

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults -- 18 states, 2012.  

PubMed

Reducing consumption of calories from added sugars is a recommendation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and an objective of Healthy People 2020. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are major sources of added sugars in the diets of U.S. residents. Daily SSB consumption is associated with obesity and other chronic health conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. U.S. adults consumed an estimated average of 151 kcal/day of SSB during 2009-2010, with regular (i.e., nondiet) soda and fruit drinks representing the leading sources of SSB energy intake. However, there is limited information on state-specific prevalence of SSB consumption. To assess regular soda and fruit drink consumption among adults in 18 states, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among the 18 states surveyed, 26.3% of adults consumed regular soda or fruit drinks or both ?1 times daily. By state, the prevalence ranged from 20.4% to 41.4%. Overall, consumption of regular soda or fruit drinks was most common among persons aged 18?34 years (24.5% for regular soda and 16.6% for fruit drinks), men (21.0% and 12.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (20.9% and 21.9%), and Hispanics (22.6% and 18.5%). Persons who want to reduce added sugars in their diets can decrease their consumption of foods high in added sugars such as candy, certain dairy and grain desserts, sweetened cereals, regular soda, fruit drinks, sweetened tea and coffee drinks, and other SSBs. States and health departments can collaborate with worksites and other community venues to increase access to water and other healthful beverages. PMID:25121711

Kumar, Gayathri S; Pan, Liping; Park, Sohyun; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M

2014-08-15

317

Experimental apparatus for simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas  

E-print Network

Plot of solvent pump flowrate versus pressure 56 LIST OF FIGURES (continued) FIGURE Page 20 H~S response plot for shakedown run ? I, 21 H 2 S response plot for shakedown run ? 2. 59 . 61 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Characteristics of amine process... of these solvents are more selective for H&S or CO&. Table 2 describes the characteristics of some popular gas sweetening processes. Table 2. Characteristics of some o ular as sweetenin rocesses. ' Characteristic MEA DEA DGA ~ph s. Solv. KtCO3 Product gas H:S...

Pace, Christopher Lee

2012-06-07

318

Aspartame Administration and Insulin Treatment Altered Brain Levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates that aspartame consumption and insulin treatment in a juvenile diabetic rat model leads to increase in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and CYP3A2 isozymes in brain. Diabetes mellitus was induced in postweaned 21-day-old Wistar male rat by streptozotocin. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: untreated control, diabetic (D), D-insulin, D-aspartame, or the D-insulin + aspartame-treated group. Brain and liver tissue samples were used to analyze the activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 and protein levels. Our results indicate that combined treatment with insulin and aspartame in juvenile diabetic rats significantly induced CYP2E1 in the cerebrum and cerebellum without modifying it in the liver, while CYP3A2 protein activity increased both in the brain and in the liver. The induction of CYP2E1 in the brain could have important in situ toxicological effects, given that this CYP isoform is capable of bioactivating various toxic substances. Additionally, CYP3A2 induction in the liver and brain could be considered a decisive factor in the variation of drug response and toxicity. PMID:25038063

Nosti-Palacios, Rosario; Gómez-Garduño, Josefina; Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Calzada-León, Raúl; Dorado-González, Víctor Manuel; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

2014-07-17

319

Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues  

PubMed Central

Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

2013-01-01

320

Biological sweetening of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters.  

PubMed

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from waste and energy-rich gases is required, not only because of environmental health and safety reasons, but also because of operational reasons if such gases have to be used for energy generation. A biotrickling filter for the removal of ultra-high concentrations of H2S from oxygen-poor gases is proposed and studied in this work. Two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were used to study the startup period and to determine the long-term performance of the gas sweetening process. The inlet H2S concentration ranged from 900 to 12000ppmv and two different packing materials were investigated. There was no toxicity effect observed even at a the highest H2S concentration, and maximum elimination capacities of 280 and 250g H2Sm(-3)h(-1) were obtained at gas contact times of 167 and 180s, respectively. Elemental sulfur and sulfate were found to be the most abundant end-products of the biological oxidation of sulfide when operated under microaerophilic conditions. The biotrickling filter was able to quickly recover its nominal performance after different load increases and system shutdowns simulating field operation. The results reported here show that biotreatment can be an interesting alternative to conventional gas sweetening systems normally used for such applications. PMID:18096204

Fortuny, Marc; Baeza, Juan A; Gamisans, Xavier; Casas, Carles; Lafuente, Javier; Deshusses, Marc A; Gabriel, David

2008-03-01

321

The influence of sweeteners in probiotic Petit Suisse cheese in concentrations equivalent to that of sucrose.  

PubMed

As in the case of probiotic functional foods in recent years, demand has increased notably for light or diet foods with added sweeteners. However, little is known about the effect of different sweeteners on the microorganisms present. Thus, the objective of the current study was to establish the ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of different sweeteners and to determine, by microbiological analyses, the influence of these compounds on the viability of the starter and probiotic cultures used in the production of strawberry-flavored Petit Suisse cheese during its shelf life. The ideal sucrose concentration was determined using the just-about-right (JAR) scale, and the equivalent concentrations of the sweeteners were subsequently determined by the magnitude estimation method. Microbiological analyses were also carried out to check the viability of the cultures during the product's shelf life. The results showed that the compounds Neotame (NutraSweet, Chicago, IL) and stevia presented, respectively, the greatest and least sweetening power of the sweeteners tested. None of the sweeteners used in this study exerted a negative effect on the viability of the starter or probiotic cultures, and thus we were able to obtain a probiotic, functional food with reduced calorie content. PMID:23810599

Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Pereira, E P R; Rodrigues, J B; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

2013-09-01

322

DEA retrofit at Montana Power gas-sweetening plant ends corrosion, sludge problems  

SciTech Connect

The Telstad sweetening plant of Montana Power Co. (MPC) is located in North Central Montana, 40 miles south of the Canadian border. The overall gas processing system (Fig. 1) consists of gas production, gathering, purification, transmission, and distribution. The sweetening plant was built in 1952. The initial solvent was a mixture of 45% monoethanolamine (MEA), 10% diethanolamine (DEA), 40% diethylene glycol (DEG), and 5% H/sub 2/O. It was used to simultaneously sweeten and dehydrate the gas in a single unit. Unfortunately, the combination solvent did not initially perform as efficiently as expected. Excessive corrosion as well as solid sludge accumulation were continuing serious problems.

Waterman, J.; Butwell, K.F.; Kosseim, A.J.

1984-02-06

323

Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora.  

PubMed

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

2009-01-01

324

Artificially sweetened low sugar watermelon found acceptable by Native American consumer groups  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelons are a rich source of lycopene, a compound that may have health functional properties to protect against some cancers and cardiovascular disease. However, intake of watermelon may be restricted for individuals who have diabetes or those who limit carbohydrate intake. Recently, a low-sugar...

325

Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca 2+ influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionConsumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69–77]. We evaluated the

Jaydip Dasgupta; Ruth A. Elliott; Angie Doshani; Douglas G. Tincello

2006-01-01

326

Artificially Sweetened Versus Regular Mixers Increase Gastric Emptying and Alcohol Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMixed alcoholic drinks are increasingly being consumed in “diet” varieties, which could potentially empty more rapidly from the stomach and thereby increase the rate of alcohol absorption when compared with “regular” versions containing sugar.

Keng-Liang Wu; Reawika Chaikomin; Selena Doran; Karen L. Jones; Michael Horowitz; Christopher K. Rayner

2006-01-01

327

Structural studies on artificial sweeteners: itN-(4-(1-propyloxy)-phenyl)-urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C 10N 2O 2H 14, M r=194.23, triclinic, itP1. At T=298 K: a=7.0292 (12), b=7.0394 (14), c=21.761 (2) Å, ?=97.637 (13), ?=97.326 (12), ?=96.14 (2)°, V=1050.0 (3) Å 3, Z=4, Dx=1.229 Mg m -3, ?(Cu K?)=1.54184 Å, ?=6.7 cm -1, F(000)=416 and R=0.037 for 4268 unique observed diffractometer data (itI? 2.5?(itI)). At T=100 K: a=6.8724 (4), b=6.8748 (6), c=21.773 (3) Å, ?=96.680 (8), ?=97.010 (7), ?=94.558 (6)°, V= 1009.5 (2) Å 3, Z=4, Dx=1.278 Mg m -3, ?(Mo K?)=0.71073 Å, ?=0.8cm -1, F(000)=416 and R=0.056 for 3765 unique observed diffractometer data (itI?2.5?(itI)). At room temperature the methyl group C atoms have a high thermal motion which is possibly librational. The molecules form N?H⋯0-type hydrogen-bonded networks, each oxygen accepting three hydrogen bonds. A systematic search for the so-called A?H⋯B moieties which are thought to be responsible for the sweet taste revealed a number of possible candidates.

Hooft, Rob W. W.; Kanters, Jan A.; Kroon, Jan

1991-12-01

328

Implicit media frames: Automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framing of issues in the mass media plays a crucial role in the public\\u000aunderstanding of science and technology. This article contributes to research\\u000aconcerned with diachronic analysis of media frames by making an analytical\\u000adistinction between implicit and explicit media frames, and by introducing an\\u000aautomated method for analysing diachronic changes of implicit frames. In\\u000aparticular, we apply

Iina Hellsten; James Dawson; Loet Leydesdorff

2010-01-01

329

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2013-04-01

330

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2012-04-01

331

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2011-04-01

332

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2014-04-01

333

Male rats show an indifference-avoidance response for increasing concentrations of the artificial sweetener sucralose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucralose is a nonnutritive halogenated sucrose derivative that has been described by humans as tasting predominately sweet with little or no aftertaste. In this study we examined the preference for sucralose in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A standard 24-hour 2-bottle test was used to compare a wide range of sucralose concentrations (0.0003-10 g\\/L; 0.8 ?mol\\/L-25 mmol\\/L) with water. The rats

Nicholas T. Bello; Andras Hajnal

2005-01-01

334

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with or without water and a jelling...tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate... (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium...calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium...

2011-04-01

335

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with or without water and a jelling...tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate... (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium...calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium...

2010-04-01

336

Artificial blood  

PubMed Central

Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone. PMID:19742251

Sarkar, Suman

2008-01-01

337

Metabolic studies with nonnutritive sweeteners cyclooctylsulfamate and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweeteners cyclooctylsulfamate and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate were fed separately to female Wistar albino rats, and the urine was examined for the possible metabolites cyclooctylamine, cyclooctanone, cyclooctanol, 4-methylcyclohexylamine, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and cis- and trans-4-methylcyclohexanols. The average percent conversions to cyclooctylamine, cyclooctanone, and cyclooctanol were 0.127, 0.08, and 0.092, respectively. The average percent conversions to 4-methylcyclohexylamine and 4-methylcyclohexanone were 0.007 and 0.0013, respectively. No cis- or trans-4-methylcyclohexanol metabolites were found. With cyclooctylsulfamate, 42% was recovered unchanged from the urine. Cyclooctyl- and cycloheptylsulfamates were metabolized to a greater extent than cyclopentylsulfamate, which, in turn, was metabolized to a greater extent than cyclohexylsulfamate (cyclamate) and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate. PMID:423133

Spillane, W J; Benson, G A; McGlinchey, G

1979-03-01

338

Converting to DEA/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity  

SciTech Connect

Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine (DEA) to a DEA/MDEA (methyl DEA) mixture after analysis by TSWEET, a process-simulation program. After conversion, CO{sub 2} levels in the sales gas fell to less than pipeline specifications. Data were taken for the absorber at a constant amine circulation of 120 gpm. A comparison of the performance data to the values calculated by the program proved the accuracy of TSWEET. The conversion and performance of the plant are described.

Spears, M.L. [Union Pacific Resources, Bryan, TX (United States); Hagan, K.M. [Union Pacific Resources, Ft. Worth, TX (United States); Bullin, J.A.; Michalik, C.J. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Bryan, TX (United States)

1996-08-12

339

Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors  

E-print Network

This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults...

Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

2013-01-01

340

Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children .  

E-print Network

??Background: During the nutrition transition in Chile, dietary changes were marked by increased consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor products, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Obesity is now… (more)

Albala, Cecilia

2008-01-01

341

Assessment of the carcinogenicity of the nonnutritive sweetener cyclamate.  

PubMed

The weight of the evidence from metabolic studies, short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies indicates that cyclamate (CHS) is not carcinogenic by itself; however, there is evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies in animals that implies it may have cancer-promoting or cocarcinogenic activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (CHS and saccharin) has not resulted in a measurable overall increase in the risk of bladder cancer in individuals who have ever used these products. No epidemiological information exists on the possible associations of these sweeteners and cancers other than those of the urinary tract. It is recommended that (1) no further studies on the metabolism of CHS to evaluate its carcinogenicity are required since no potentially hazardous metabolites have been appreciably detected in humans; (2) no further animal bioassays to test for the carcinogenicity of CHS by itself are necessary; (3) the studies in rodents that suggest a promotional or cocarcinogenic effect of CHS should be repeated because they cannot be ruled out; (4) because the significance to human health of a positive outcome of such studies is uncertain, additional research aimed at understanding the predictive value for human health of such results and more generic studies to develop well-validated systems that can be relied on in the assessment of cancer-promoting agents are recommended; (5) in populations where CHS continues to be used, epidemiological monitoring should be continued to determine whether there is an increased risk of cancer in humans who are heavy or long-term users or for those observed long after first exposure. In such monitoring, other cancer sites--in addition to the bladder--should be considered. PMID:1510820

Ahmed, F E; Thomas, D B

1992-01-01

342

Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and in- volvement) are associated with adolescents' con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n 5 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength,

Klazine van der Horst; Stef Kremers; Isabel Ferreira; Amika Singh; Anke Oenema; Johannes Brug

2006-01-01

343

Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength, food-related parenting practices

Horst van der K; S. Kremers; A. Ferreira; A. Singh; A. Oenema; J. Brug

2007-01-01

344

Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2012-01-01

345

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

346

Artificial noses.  

PubMed

The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

2011-08-15

347

A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34) compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ?10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806). One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively). No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are needed to determine the role of hypocaloric sweeteners in a wider population health strategy to prevent, reduce and manage obesity and its consequences. PMID:22093544

2011-01-01

348

Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have reported that, compared with glucose- sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the pre- dominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. Objective: We

Kimber L Stanhope; Steven C Griffen; Brandi R Bair; Michael M Swarbrick; Nancy L Keim; Peter J Havel

349

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)  

PubMed Central

Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ?2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04–2.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (Ptrend?=?0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR?=?2.22; 95% CI, 1.29–3.81, Ptrend?=?0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24937507

Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

350

Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

351

Paternal modeling, household availability, and paternal intake as predictors of fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption among African American children.  

PubMed

The current study examined how African American fathers' dietary practices were associated with their children's dietary consumption. The sample consisted of one hundred and two African American fathers, who had children between the ages of three and thirteen. The fathers provided self-reports of their consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugar sweetened beverages; modeling of healthy eating; household availability of foods and beverages; and their children's previously mentioned consumption. Sweetened beverages are considered to be any beverage that contains added sweeteners, high-fructose corn syrup, and/or fruit juice concentrates. Paternal modeling and household availability of food and beverages were measured using subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Three separate hierarchical regressions were performed to reveal that child fruit and vegetable consumption was only predicted by parental intake. Child sweetened beverage consumption, however, was predicted by paternal intake and household availability. Modeling did not significantly predict children's consumption of fruits, vegetables, or sweetened beverages. The findings suggest that paternal intake of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages predicts child consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. Family efforts should be made toward increasing father's consumption of healthy foods while decreasing the consumption and availability of sweetened beverages. PMID:25447009

Harris, Toni S; Ramsey, Michael

2015-02-01

352

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

353

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged .2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to mod- erate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population.

Richard D Mattes; Barry M Popkin

354

Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft-drink and fruit juice beverages differentially associated with glucose-related measures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Impaired insulin sensitivity is a key metabolic abnormality associated with these conditions and high-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in sodas, has bee...

355

The Relationships between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiometabolic Markers in Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated as a major contributor to the development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Objective To evaluate the relationships between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiometabolic markers in young children. Design A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Participants A total of 4,880 individuals aged 3 to 11 years from nationally representative samples of US children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2004 were studied. Main outcome measures Concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein as well as waist circumference and body mass index percentile for age–sex. Statistical analyses performed Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine independent associations between each outcome variable and the number of serving equivalents of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed after adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty status, physical activity, and energy intake. Results Increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased C-reactive protein concentrations (P=0.003), increased waist circumference (P=0.04), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P=0.001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated differences in the association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake with metabolic markers and anthropometric measurements among age ranges, sex, and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis of children's dietary data, sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with alterations in lipid profiles, increased markers of inflammation, and increased waist circumference in children. Prospective studies are needed, but awareness of these trends is essential in combating the growing metabolic and cardiovascular disease burden in the pediatric population. PMID:23351625

Kosova, Ethan C.; Auinger, Peggy; Bremer, Andrew A.

2014-01-01

356

Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.  

PubMed

The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5?mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250?mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5?mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2?h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. PMID:24684500

Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

2014-05-01

357

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-11

358

Sweeten Your JavaScript: Hygienic Macros for ES5 UC Santa Cruz  

E-print Network

Sweeten Your JavaScript: Hygienic Macros for ES5 Tim Disney UC Santa Cruz Nathan Faubion Flow Corp hygienic macro systems for such languages. JavaScript in particular presents unique challenges for macro systems due to ambiguities in the lexing stage that force the JavaScript lexer and parser

Flanagan, Cormac

359

Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2012-01-01

360

SWEETENED BEVERAGE SOURCES OF 7TH AND 8TH GRADE YOUTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: Sweetened beverage (SB) consumption may impact energy balance and weight. For middle school youth, major SB sources include home, school snack bars and vending, and restaurants. Policies have attempted to reduce student access to SB in schools, and concerns about restaurant SB consumption h...

361

An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level.

Charles Rhodes

2012-01-01

362

Spectroscopic characterization of the chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil was characterized using spectral methods. It was demonstrated that Vartamil is a mixture of saccharose chloro derivatives, the main one of which is 4,1',6'-trichloro-4,1',6'-trideoxygalactosaccharose (Sucralose).

Kolosova, T. E.; Prokhodchenko, L. K.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Suboch, V. P.

2008-03-01

363

Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

2012-01-01

364

Sugar-sweetened beverages and prevalence of the metabolically abnormal phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the...

365

Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

366

The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

Harrington, Susan

2008-01-01

367

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

2014-01-01

368

The possible role of sugar-sweetened beverages in obesity etiology: a review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the second half of the last century, soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have assumed an increasingly significant proportion of total energy intake in the US and most ‘westernized’ populations. These beverages are heavily marketed to youth and adults. As such, obesity researchers and public health activists and officials have targeted SSB as one of the primary culprits

M A Pereira

2006-01-01

369

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, temporal patterns in SSB intake have shown a close parallel between the upsurge in obesity and rising levels of SSB consumption. SSBs are beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit-juice concentrates, all of which result in similar metabolic effects. They include the full spectrum of soft drinks, carbonated soft drinks,

Frank B. Hu; Vasanti S. Malik

2010-01-01

370

Effect of Repeated Presentation on Sweetness Intensity of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of repeated presentation of the same sweet stimulus on sweetness intensity ratings. The sweet stimuli tested in this study were binary and ternary blends of 14 sweeteners that varied widely in chemical structure. A trained panel evaluated the sweetness intensity over four sips of a given mixture presented at

Susan S. Schiffman; Elizabeth A. Sattely-Miller; Brevick G. Graham; Jennifer Zervakis; Harriett H. Butchko; W. Wayne Stargel

2003-01-01

371

Multi-Targeted Mechanisms Underlying the Endothelial Protective Effects of the Diabetic-Safe Sweetener  

E-print Network

-Safe Sweetener Erythritol Danie¨lle M. P. H. J. Boesten1 *. , Alvin Berger2.¤ , Peter de Cock3 , Hua Dong4 the polyol erythritol to be a hydroxyl radical scavenger preventing endothelial cell dysfunction onset in diabetic rats. To unravel mechanisms, other than scavenging of radicals, by which erythritol mediates

Hammock, Bruce D.

372

Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).  

PubMed

In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23341001

Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

2013-05-01

373

Canadian Diabetes Association National Nutrition Committee Technical Review: Nonnutritive Intense Sweeteners in Diabetes Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada state that up to 10% of daily calories can be derived from sugars. However, individuals with diabetes may also be relying on alternative, low-calorie sweetening agents (providing little or no calories along with sweet taste) to con- trol carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, weight

Réjeanne Gougeon; Mark Spidel; Kristy Lee; Catherine J. Field

2004-01-01

374

Partial versus General Equilibrium Calorie and Revenue Effects of a Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current obesity crisis in the United States is generating numerous alternative policy options for combating the problem. One alternative that has been widely proposed is an excise or sales tax on sugar-sweetened non-alcoholic beverages. This literature started out within a very simple partial equilibrium framework. Not considering the feedback effects (or general equilibrium effects) across interrelated market is a

Senarath Dharmasena; George C. Davis; Oral Capps Jr.

2011-01-01

375

Germplasm release: Tetraploid clones with resistance to cold-induced sweetening  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term cold storage is necessary to supply potatoes to the processing industry and potato products to consumers throughout the year. Cold-induced sweetening limits the potential for existing potato cultivars to produce acceptable chips after cold storage. Genes for resistance to cold-induced swee...

376

Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cold induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers due to cold storage. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Potato varieties vary in resistance to CIS. Research efforts have focused on enzymes that contribute to the accumulation of reducing s...

377

Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers at cold temperatures prevents sprouting and minimizes losses due to disease. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening (CIS). High-temperature processing of potato tubers wit...

378

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: Impact on weight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 years. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary p...

379

A mouse model for binge-like sucrose overconsumption: Contribution of enhanced motivation for sweetener consumption.  

PubMed

Behavioral and neural features of binge-like sugar overconsumption have been studied using rat models. However, few mouse models are available to examine the interaction between neural and genetic underpinnings of bingeing. In the present study, we first aim to establish a simple mouse model of binge-like sucrose overconsumption using daytime limited access training in food-restricted male mice. Trained mice received 4-h limited access to both 0.5M sucrose solution and chow for 10days. Three control groups received (1) 4-h sucrose and 20-h chow access, (2) 20-h sucrose and 4-h, or (3) 20-h chow access, respectively. Only the trained group showed progressively increased sucrose consumption during brief periods of time and developed binge-like excessive behavior. Next, we examined whether the present mouse model mimicked a human feature of binge eating known as "eating when not physically hungry." Trained mice consumed significantly more sucrose or non-caloric sweetener (saccharin) during post-training days even after they nocturnally consumed substantial chow prior to daytime sweetener access. In other trained groups, both a systemic administration of glucose and substantial chow consumption prior to the daytime limited sucrose access failed to reduce binge-like sucrose overconsumption. Our results suggest that even when caloric consumption is not necessarily required, limited access training shapes and triggers binge-like overconsumption of sweetened solution in trained mice. The binge-like behavior in trained mice may be mainly due to enhanced hedonic motivation for the sweetener's taste. The present study suggests that our mouse model for binge-like sugar overconsumption may mimic some human features of binge eating and can be used to investigate the roles of neural and genetic mechanisms in binge-like overconsumption of sweetened substances in the absence of physical hunger. PMID:25446199

Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

2015-01-01

380

Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2014-01-01

381

Artificial Hydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases. PMID:20356731

Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

2010-01-01

382

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

383

Association of ? 13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added-Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added-sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related comorbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners,

Brenda M. Davy; A. Hope Jahren; Valisa E. Hedrick; Dana L. Comber

2011-01-01

384

Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats  

PubMed Central

The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared to diets high in energy, fat and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared to those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a “Westernized” diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively-bred Crl:OP[CD] rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (DIO rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a “Westernized” diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Davidson, T.L.

2014-01-01

385

Mutagenicity and human chromosomal effect of stevioside, a sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

PubMed Central

Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni have been popularly used as a sweetener in foods and beverages for diabetics and obese people due to their potent sweetener stevioside. In this report, stevioside and steviol were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 and for chromosomal effects on cultured human lymphocytes. Stevioside was not mutagenic at concentrations up to 25 mg/plate, but showed direct mutagenicity to only TA98 at 50 mg/plate. However, steviol did not exhibit mutagenicity in either TA98 or TA100, with or without metabolic activation. No significant chromosomal effect of stevioside and steviol was observed in cultured blood lymphocytes from healthy donors (n = 5). This study indicates that stevioside and steviol are neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in vitro at the limited doses; however, in vivo genotoxic tests and long-term effects of stevioside and steviol are yet to be investigated. PMID:8143647

Suttajit, M; Vinitketkaumnuen, U; Meevatee, U; Buddhasukh, D

1993-01-01

386

Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?  

PubMed

The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

2011-04-01

387

Artificial symbiogenesis.  

PubMed

Symbiosis is the phenomenon in which organisms of different species live together in close association, resulting in a raised level of fitness for one or more of the organisms. Symbiogenesis is the name given to the process by which symbiotic partners combine and unify-forming endosymbioses and then potentially transferring genetic material-giving rise to new morphologies and physiologies evolutionarily more advanced than their constitutents. In this article we begin by using the NKC model of coevolution to examine endosymbiosis and its effect on the evolutionary performance of the partners involved. We are then able to suggest the conditions under which endosymbioses are more likely to occur and why; we find they emerge between organisms within a window of their respective "chaotic gas regimes" and hence that the association represents a more stable state for the partners. The conditions under which gene transfer is more likely to represent an advantage for such endosymbionts are then examined within the same model. We find that, providing a suitable pathway exists, such a process can lead to a more efficient genetic configuration for the symbionts within a window that overlaps that in which endosymbioses occur. Finally, the results are used as grounds for implementing symbiogenesis within artificial evolutionary multiagent systems. PMID:8925499

Bull, L; Fogarty, T C

1995-01-01

388

Artificial Intelligence Daniel Polani  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Daniel Polani Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/26 Is it AI? 1. text editor 2 12. Turing test contenders Artificial Intellige The Turing Test: is partner human or not? See: e.g. [Saygin et al., 2000] Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 The Turing Test II

Polani, Daniel

389

Artificial Intelligence Adversarial Search  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Adversarial Search Readings: Chapter 6 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Rybka. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/25 Games vs. Search problems "Unpredictable" opponent: Solution, poker, scrabble nuclear war Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/25 Tic-Tac-Toe XX XX X X X XX MAX (X) MIN (O

Srinivasan, Padmini

390

Effect of Sweetener, Stabilizer, and Storage Temperature on Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In ice cream manufacturing, control of ice crystal growth,through,proper formulation,and storage tem- perature is important,for stability during storage. The objective of this study was,to investigate the influence of sweetener (sucrose, 20 dextrose equivalent corn syrup, 42 dextrose equivalent corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup), with and without stabilizer, on ice recrystallization in ice cream,at three storage temperatures.

Tadashi Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartelt

1996-01-01

391

Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages  

PubMed Central

Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94–104% recovery) and precision (RSD<2%). Result: Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.51–55.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01–0.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology. PMID:24798032

White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

2015-01-01

392

A Simple and Reliable HPTLC Method for the Quantification of the Intense Sweetener Sucralose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simple and fast thin layer chromatography (TLC) method for the monitoring of the relatively new intense sweetener Sucralose in various food matrices. The method requires little or no sample preparation to isolate or concentrate the analyte. The Sucralose extract is separated on amino?TLC?plates, and the analyte is derivatized “reagent?free” by heating the developed plate for 20 min

Bernd Spangenberg; Jörg Stroka; Isabel Arranz; Elke Anklam

2003-01-01

393

Sucralose sweetener does not modify radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of sucralose on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC) were evaluated. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with sweetener, and the labeling of blood constituents with (99mTc) was performed. Radioactivity in blood constituents was counted, and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI)\\u000a was determined. Blood smears were

Gabrielle de Souza Rocha; Marcia de Oliveira Pereira; Monica de Oliveira Benarroz; Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman; Vanessa Câmara da Rocha; Mário José Pereira dos Santos; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Mario Bernardo-Filho

394

Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.  

PubMed

Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not receiving treatment for eating disorders. PMID:24949566

Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

2014-10-01

395

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat  

PubMed Central

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5–15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight. PMID:19815021

Figlewicz, D.P.; Ioannou, G.; Jay, J. Bennett; Kittleson, S.; Savard, C.; Roth, C.L.

2009-01-01

396

Food labeling: health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the provisions of the interim final rule that amended the regulation authorizing a health claim on noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries, i.e., tooth decay, to include isomaltulose as a substance eligible for the health claim. FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule. PMID:18605406

2008-05-27

397

Chinchón declaration; decalogue on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS).  

PubMed

Multidisciplinary experts in the areas of nutrition and health met in Chinchón, Madrid, on November 25-26, 2013 under the auspices of the Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation) and with the collaboration of the Madrid Regional Government's Health Ministry, the International Sweeteners Association and the Carlos III Health Institute CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition. They analyzed the current status of scientific knowledge on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and developed a consensus Decalogue on their use; this constitutes the Chinchón Declaration. Sweeteners, including sugar, represent a subject of undeniable interest and are currently a popular topic, although areas relating to their safety and benefits remain unknown to segments of academia and the general public. The nature of LNCS makes them vulnerable to biased and even contradictory information. They are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements when non-nutritional or non-caloric alternatives are needed. The Chinchón Decalogue is the outcome of a meeting for reflection and consensus by a group of experts with backgrounds in different scientific disciplines (toxicology, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, physiology, food science, public health, pediatrics, endocrinology and nutrition, nursing, pharmaceutical care and food legislation). The Decalogue includes different aspects of LNCS related to regulation, use, benefits and safety. In general, benefits of LNCS have been traditionally neglected in comparison with the tendency for emphasising unexisting or unproven possible risks. The need to strengthen research on LNCS in Spain was emphasized, as well as the need to educate both professionals and the public. PMID:24679013

Serra-Majem, Lluís; Riobó Serván, Pilar; Belmonte Cortés, Susana; Anadón Navarro, Arturo; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Franco Vargas, Eladia; García-Closas, Reina; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Herrero Sancho, Elvira; La Vecchia, Carlo; López Díaz-Ufano, M Luisa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Vázquez Castro, Jesús; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Alcaraz-Cebrián, Francisca; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; González-Gomis, Mercedes; González-Gross, Marcela; Granado de la Orden, Susana; López-Sobaler, Ana María; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Polanco Allué, Isabel; Urrialde de Andrés, Rafael

2014-01-01

398

Dietary variety via sweetening and voluntary feed intake of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The effects of choice of diets on feed intake were studied using 12 lactating Holstein cows. A switchback design was used that had three periods and two sequential blocks. Diets were 1) a control total mixed ration (TMR), which consisted of alfalfa haylage, corn silage, and a concentrate mixture based on ground corn and soybean meal (25:25:50 on a dry matter basis) and 2) a sweetened TMR in which a brown sugar food product constituted 1.5% of the dietary dry matter. Treatments consisted of the control TMR fed on both sides of divided feed bunks, the sweetened TMR fed on both sides of divided feed bunks, or both TMR fed on alternating (daily) sides of divided feed bunks in tie stalls. Periods were 2 wk in duration, and cows averaged 67 and 53 d of lactation at the start of blocks 1 and 2, respectively. The dry matter intake, body weight, milk yield, and percentages of milk fat, protein, and solids not fat were similar when either TMR was fed alone. A choice of control TMR or sweetened TMR did not affect any of these variables. The dry matter intake, body weight, milk yield, and milk protein percentage were affected by block; however, these effects were probably caused by differences between the blocks in environment and stage of lactation. The results of this experiment might have been affected by the composition of the control TMR, its similarity to the sweetened TMR, availability of both diets simultaneously when a choice was offered, and use of a TMR instead of separate feeds or simpler mixtures. PMID:9178129

Murphy, M R; Geijsel, A W; Hall, E C; Shanks, R D

1997-05-01

399

Obesity and Sugar-sweetened Beverages in African-American Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3–5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002–2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score

Sungwoo Lim; Jamie M. Zoellner; Joyce M. Lee; Brian A. Burt; Anita M. Sandretto; Woosung Sohn; Amid I. Ismail; James M. Lepkowski

2009-01-01

400

Self-Reported Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize sugar-sweetened beverage intake of college students.Research Methods and Procedures: Undergraduates in an urban southern community campus were surveyed anonymously about sugared beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, sweet ice tea) in the past month.Results: Two hundred sixty-five undergraduates responded (66% women, 46% minority, 100% of volunteers solicited). Most students (95%) reported sugared beverage intake

Delia Smith West; Zoran Bursac; Donna Quimby; T. Elaine Prewitt; Thea Spatz; Creshelle Nash; Glen Mays

2006-01-01

401

Greater Consumption of Sweetened Beverages and Added Sugars Is Associated with Obesity among US Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This study sought to examine the associations of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and of added sugars with total and abdominal obesity in American adults aged 20–39 years who participated in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the U.S. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a sample of 947 adults (aged 20–39 years): 424

Odilia I. Bermudez; Xiang Gao

2010-01-01

402

Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the influence of ingestion of beverages with sucrose or with intense sweeteners on food intake (FI) and on hunger ratings in before and after a month of daily consumption of beverages.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Department of Physiology, University Hospital, Dijon, France.Subjects: In all, 12 men and 12 women, aged 20–25 y.Interventions: Four beverages contained either sucrose (E+:100 g\\/l,

V Van Wymelbeke; M-E Béridot-Thérond; V de La Guéronnière; M Fantino

2004-01-01

403

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

404

Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to certain conventional separation processes now in use in the corn-sweetener industry. Three applications of membranes were studied during the program: the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; the concentration of dilute wastes, called ''sweetwater,'' by a combination of reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis; and the enrichment of corn syrup in fructose by a process involving selective complexation of fructose by membrane filtration. Laboratory experiments were conducted for all three applications, and the results were used to conduct technical and economic analyses of the process. Calculations indicate that the use of reverse osmosis in combination with conventional mechanical-vapor-recompression evaporation to concentrate steep water, offers savings of a factor of 2.5 in capital costs and a factor of 4.5 in operating costs over currently used evaporation alone. In the concentration of sweetwater by reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis, capital costs would be about the same as those for evaporation, but operating costs would only be about one-half those of evaporation. For the fructose-enrichment scheme, preliminary results indicate that the savings in energy alone for the membrane process would be about $0.01/lb of sweetener produced by the process, or about $20 million annually, for the corn-sweetener industry.

Ray, R.J.

1986-02-14

405

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms123  

PubMed Central

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

406

Body Weight Gain in Rats Consuming Sweetened Liquids: Effects of Caffeine and Diet Composition  

PubMed Central

Previous studies show that high-intensity sweeteners can stimulate weight gain in rats. The present studies examined whether caffeine, a stimulant commonly added to beverages consumed by humans, influences intake of saccharin- or glucose-sweetened solutions or body weight gain in rats and whether the nature of the maintenance diet influences the effects of caffeine. In two experiments, rats received glucose or saccharin solution mixed with 0.125 mg/g caffeine or no caffeine. Rats consumed significantly more caffeinated than noncaffeinated solutions when they were maintained on a low-fat chow diet (Experiment 1) and when maintained on a sweet, high-fat, high calorie chow diet (Experiment 2). Consumption of saccharin resulted in higher body weight gain in both experiments. Caffeine reversed this effect in Experiment 1 (low-fat diet) but not Experiment 2 (sweet, high-fat diet). The findings extend what is known about the conditions under which consumption of high intensity sweeteners promote energy dysregulation. PMID:20851725

Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely M.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Davidson, T. L.

2010-01-01

407

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

408

Incretin release from gut is acutely enhanced by sugar but not by sweeteners in vivo.  

PubMed

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released during meals from endocrine cells located in the gut mucosa and stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. Although the gut epithelium senses luminal sugars, the mechanism of sugar sensing and its downstream events coupled to the release of the incretin hormones are not clearly elucidated. Recently, it was reported that sucralose, a sweetener that activates the sweet receptors of taste buds, triggers incretin release from a murine enteroendocrine cell line in vitro. We confirmed that immunoreactivity of alpha-gustducin, a key G-coupled protein involved in taste sensing, is sometimes colocalized with GIP in rat duodenum. We investigated whether secretion of incretins in response to carbohydrates is mediated via taste receptors by feeding rats the sweet-tasting compounds saccharin, acesulfame potassium, d-tryptophan, sucralose, or stevia. Oral gavage of these sweeteners did not reduce the blood glucose excursion to a subsequent intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Neither oral sucralose nor oral stevia reduced blood glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Finally, whereas oral glucose increased plasma GIP levels approximately 4-fold and GLP-1 levels approximately 2.5-fold postadministration, none of the sweeteners tested significantly increased levels of these incretins. Collectively, our findings do not support the concept that release of incretins from enteroendocrine cells is triggered by carbohydrates via a pathway identical to the sensation of "sweet taste" in the tongue. PMID:19106249

Fujita, Yukihiro; Wideman, Rhonda D; Speck, Madeleine; Asadi, Ali; King, David S; Webber, Travis D; Haneda, Masakazu; Kieffer, Timothy J

2009-03-01

409

Experience with Sugar Modifies Behavioral but not Taste-Evoked Medullary Responses to Sweeteners in Mice  

PubMed Central

Dietary exposure to sugars increases the preference for and intake of sugar solutions in mice. We used brief-access lick tests and multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) to investigate the role of taste in diet-induced changes in sucrose responsiveness. We exposed C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice to either a sucrose diet (chow, water, and a 500mM sucrose solution) or a control diet (chow and water) for 3 days. In B6 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet decreased the appetitive response (i.e., number of trials initiated) but had no effect on the consummatory response (i.e., rate of licking) to 500mM sucrose and 20mM saccharin. In 129 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet increased the appetitive response but had no effect on the consummatory response to the sweetener solutions. In the NST recordings, the B6 mice exhibited larger multiunit responses to sweeteners than 129 mice, but there was no effect of the sucrose diet in either strain. Our results indicate that sucrose exposure alters the appetitive response of B6 and 129 mice to sweeteners in diametrically opposed ways and that these changes are mediated by structures in the gustatory neuraxis above the NST (e.g., ventral forebrain). PMID:24084168

2013-01-01

410

Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

2012-01-01

411

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios predict intake of sweeteners in a Yup'ik study population.  

PubMed

The carbon isotope ratio (?¹³C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated ?¹³C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (?¹?N), can control for confounding dietary effects on ?¹³C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup'ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC ?¹³C and ?¹?N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both ?¹³C and ?¹?N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only ?¹³C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate "covariate" isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest. PMID:23256142

Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

2013-02-01

412

A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.) PMID:22998339

Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.

2012-01-01

413

Use of artificial sweeteners and fat-modified foods in weight loss maintainers and always-normal weight individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary strategies, and use of fat- and sugar-modified foods and beverages in a weight loss maintainer group (WLM) and an always-normal weight group (NW).Subjects:WLM (N=172) had maintained ?10% weight loss for 11.5 years, and had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.0 kg m?2. NW (N=131) had a BMI of 21.3

S Phelan; W Lang; D Jordan; R R Wing

2009-01-01

414

[Importance of taste in maintaining homeostasis and pathological impact of orosensory reflexes distraction in relation to sweet taste after non-caloric sweeteners consumption].  

PubMed

Taste signals and their reflexes have important signalling function in nature. They protect organism against toxic substances in food with help of taste aversion, they help to cope nutrition deficiencies through taste preferences, on the other hand, they act in many postprandial reflexes to maintain energy homeostasis. It is well-known that sweet taste is important oro-sensory stimulus for mammals. It acts as predictor of caloric food intake even before its entry into stomach and circulation. Taste and other oro-sensory signals from oral cavity affect not only the intake regulation, but also influence hormonal, neural and metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. The aim is to utilize effectively food energy and prevent energy instability of organism. Oro-sensory reflexes mediated by taste cells develop naturally from the first contact with sweet breast milk in infancy. It has been proven that the attenuation of reflexes due to the use of artificial sweeteners that don´t bring any caloric value to human body leads to hormonal and energetic dysregulation of organism and may contribute to metabolic syndrome. PMID:24974748

Neuwirthová, Jana; Gál, B?etislav; Smilek, Pavel; Kost?ica, Rom

2014-01-01

415

Surrogate markers of insulin resistance associated with consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fruit juice in the Framingham Offspring Cohort  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. High-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in so...

416

Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: Influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in...

417

The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague–Dawley rats on bone mass and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of sugar beverages has increased among adolescents. Additionally, the replacement of sucrose with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as the predominant sweetener has resulted in higher fructose intake. Few studies have investigated the effect of drinking different sugar-sweetened beverages on bone, despite suggestions that sugar consumption negatively impacts mineral balance. The objective of this study was to determine the

Embedzayi Tsanzi; Heather R. Light; Janet C. Tou

2008-01-01

418

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

419

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

Timmis, Jon

420

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics  

E-print Network

Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a central role in Robotics if the connection is to be intelligent. Artificial Intelligence addresses ...

Brady, Michael

1984-02-01

421

The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

Fernandez, Thomas

422

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of artificial intelligence / Juan Ramon Rabunal Dopico, Julian Dorado de la Calle, and Alejandro Pazos Sierra) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

Liang, Faming

423

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: ENGINEERING, SCIENCE,  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: ENGINEERING, SCIENCE, OR SLOGAN? Nils J. Nilsson Artificial Intelligence that artificial intelligence (AI) is primarily concerned with propositional languages for representing knowledge and motor activities (analogous to low-level animal or human vision and muscle control) seems to be quite

Pratt, Vaughan

424

Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. Design We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean±SD age of 21±2 y and BMI of 21.5±1.7 kg/m2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Results Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Conclusion Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks. PMID:24312382

Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Smeets, Paul A. M.; Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; van Rijn, Inge; van den Bosch, Iris; de Graaf, Cees

2013-01-01

425

By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal. PMID:25414517

Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F; Ruff, Ryan R

2014-07-01

426

By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal. PMID:25414517

Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F.; Ruff, Ryan R.

2014-01-01

427

Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages.  

PubMed

Objective:The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards.Design:A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R(2)>0.99), accuracy (94-104% recovery) and precision (RSD<2%).Result:Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.51-55.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01-0.54%).Conclusions:Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 3 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.73. PMID:24798032

White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

2014-05-01

428

The development and applications of sucralose, a new high-intensity sweetener.  

PubMed

Sucralose is a new sweetener discovered during a collaborative research program between Tate & Lyle and Queen Elizabeth College of the University of London. It is made by selective substitution of sucrose hydroxyl groups by chlorine, resulting in a highly intense (600x) sugarlike sweetness and exceptional stability at both high temperature and low pH. The research leading to the discovery of sweetness in differently halogenated sucrose is described, as well as the development of sucralose and the process of safety testing and government approval. Finally, sucralose properties and applications in Canada's food and beverage industries are discussed. PMID:7922876

Knight, I

1994-04-01

429

Amine-degradation products play no part in corrosion at gas-sweetening plants  

SciTech Connect

Gas-sweetening units using diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are occasionally subject to corrosion. Discounting the basic degradation products of DEA as the cause, researchers (1) confirmed the presence of formic, oxalic, and acetic acids in used amine solutions, (2) defined oxygen's role in forming these carboxylic acids, and (3) demonstrated that the acid contents of different units are about the same order of magnitude for both DEA and MDEA. In most cases, oxygen can be easily excluded from gas-treating units, especially in storage tanks, thereby limiting the formation of acid products.

Blanc, C.; Grall, M.; Demarais, G.

1982-11-15

430

[Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].  

PubMed

It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels. PMID:12125470

Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

2002-01-01

431

What Parents Think about Giving Nonnutritive Sweeteners to Their Children: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate parental attitudes toward providing foods and beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) to their children and to explore parental ability to recognize NNS in packaged foods and beverages. Methods. 120 parents of children ? 1 and ?18 years of age completed brief questionnaires upon entering or exiting a grocery store. Parental attitudes toward NNS were assessed using an interviewer-assisted survey. Parental selection of packaged food and beverages (with and without NNS) was evaluated during a shopping simulation activity. Parental ability to identify products with NNS was tested with a NNS recognition test. Results. Most parents (72%) disagreed with the statement “NNS are safe for my child to consume.” This was not reflected during the shopping simulation activity because about one-quarter of items selected by parents contained NNS. Parents correctly identified only 23% of NNS-containing items presented as foods or beverages which were sweetened with NNS. Conclusions. The negative parental attitudes toward providing NNS to their children raise the question whether parents are willing to replace added sugars with NNS in an effort to reduce their child's calorie intake. Our findings also suggest that food labeling should be revised in order for consumers to more easily identify NNS in foods and beverages. PMID:25435883

Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Greenberg, Mitchell; Zhao, Xiongce; Rother, Kristina I.

2014-01-01

432

What Parents Think about Giving Nonnutritive Sweeteners to Their Children: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate parental attitudes toward providing foods and beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) to their children and to explore parental ability to recognize NNS in packaged foods and beverages. Methods. 120 parents of children ? 1 and ?18 years of age completed brief questionnaires upon entering or exiting a grocery store. Parental attitudes toward NNS were assessed using an interviewer-assisted survey. Parental selection of packaged food and beverages (with and without NNS) was evaluated during a shopping simulation activity. Parental ability to identify products with NNS was tested with a NNS recognition test. Results. Most parents (72%) disagreed with the statement "NNS are safe for my child to consume." This was not reflected during the shopping simulation activity because about one-quarter of items selected by parents contained NNS. Parents correctly identified only 23% of NNS-containing items presented as foods or beverages which were sweetened with NNS. Conclusions. The negative parental attitudes toward providing NNS to their children raise the question whether parents are willing to replace added sugars with NNS in an effort to reduce their child's calorie intake. Our findings also suggest that food labeling should be revised in order for consumers to more easily identify NNS in foods and beverages. PMID:25435883

Sylvetsky, Allison C; Greenberg, Mitchell; Zhao, Xiongce; Rother, Kristina I

2014-01-01

433

Uptake of saccharin and related intense sweeteners by Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449.  

PubMed

In a 1-octanol/phosphate buffer system, saccharin was much more lipophilic than would be inferred from its dissociation constant which, however, determined the partition behavior of acesulfame and cyclamate. The uptake of saccharin into Streptococcus mutans led to a 30 to 40-fold higher concentration of this intense sweetener within cells than in the incubation medium. Acesulfame and cyclamate were distributed between cells and medium essentially in a diffusion-controlled manner. The uptake of saccharin into S. mutans was found to depend strongly on simultaneous sugar fermentation, and in addition, on external pH, sweetener concentrations, and cell densities. Without glycolysis, caused, for example, by an exhaustion of added sucrose, too acidic external pH, or the addition of glycolysis inhibitors, the uptake of saccharin was diffusion-controlled as in the case of acesulfame and cyclamate. The uptake of saccharin was inhibited by a reversal of the direction of the lactate gradient from in----out to out----in. The activation energy of saccharin uptake into glycolyzing S. mutans was near 18 kJ/mol, while glycolysis itself required 82-98 kJ/mol as activation energy, depending somewhat on experimental conditions. Up to 100 attomol of saccharin per bacterial cell was observed. It was concluded that the cytomembrane of S. mutans was involved in mediating the inhibitory effects of saccharin by an antiport of saccharin into cells in exchange for lactate. PMID:2467446

Ziesenitz, S C; Siebert, G

1988-09-01

434

Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2010-01-01

435

Piloting "Sodabriety": A School-Based Intervention to Impact Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Rural Appalachian High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the largest source of added sugar in the US diet. In adolescents aged 12-19, these drinks account for 13% to 28% of total daily calories. Compared with other adolescents, those residing in Appalachia have the highest consumption rates of SSBs. Methods: Using a Teen Advisory Council (TAC), a…

Smith, Laureen H.; Holloman, Christopher

2014-01-01

436

Relationship between Nutritional Knowledge and the Amount of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumed in Los Angeles County  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with many negative health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the relationship between consumer nutritional knowledge and the amount consumed is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge of…

Gase, Lauren N.; Robles, Brenda; Barragan, Noel C.; Kuo, Tony

2014-01-01

437

Assessing the evidence for sugar-sweetened beverages in the aetiology of obesity, a question of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periera reviews the literature concerning the role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in the aetiology of obesity. There is currently a limited evidence base on which to assess this association. The majority of data published to date relates to cross-sectional and prospective epidemiological studies, which makes clear interpretation of the likely relative impact of SSB on the development of obesity difficult.

P Morris

2006-01-01

438

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean

D. E. Smith; A. S. Bakshi; S. A. Gay

1985-01-01

439

Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

2014-01-01

440

Differential expression of the enzymes associated with cold-induced sweetening in long term cold stored potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of high levels of reducing sugars during cold storage (4-6°C) known as cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a major post-harvest disorder and is one of the most significant concerns for the potato processing industry. The biochemical process of reducing sugar accumulation during cold stora...

441

Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

442

An artificial muscle computer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

2013-03-01

443

Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats  

PubMed Central

Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety. PMID:22561130

Swithers, Susan E.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T.L.

2012-01-01

444

Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in children? A systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose or glucose intolerance, high lipid levels, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, and overweight/obesity. The occurrence of intermediate outcomes during childhood increases the risk of disease in adulthood. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case–control studies, and nested case–control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to determine the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009641. PMID:25192945

2014-01-01

445

Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adults is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control studies, and nested case-control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used for determining the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009638 PMID:25248499

2014-01-01

446

Artificial Vision INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision INTRODUCTION Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;2011 Prof. Micheloni Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision The origins of vision · People of the ancient world have tried to understand the nature of the light

447

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 301 Mark S. Fox Intelligent Systems Laboratory and future applicationsof Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufactur- ing is taking a systemic view of manufacturing. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing, Knowl- edge

Fox, Mark S.

448

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Information Theory  

E-print Network

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Information Theory Daniel Polani School of Computer Science referenced. Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Coin Weighing Problem (after Denker 2004) Problem Given (minimax principle) Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Considerations Note in a measurement, left

Polani, Daniel

449

Sweetened beverages  

MedlinePLUS

Coffee drinks you have on the way to work and during coffee breaks can add plenty of extra calories, especially ... Order regular coffee and add only nonfat or 2% milk. Use a sugar substitute if you like your coffee sweet. If ...

450

Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.  

PubMed

Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

2009-04-01

451

DFT and experimental study on the IR spectra and structure of acesulfame sweetener  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-intensity non-nutritive sweetener 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3K)-on-2,2-dioxide (Acesulfame-potassium, Additive E-950) and its neutral molecule have been studied by both quantum chemical calculations and infrared spectra. Density functional theory has been exploited to calculate structural parameters and relative stability of lactim and lactam tautomers of acesulfame in different environment. Theoretical results agree very well with the experimental findings and suggested that the lactam tautomer may be the most stable form in the gas phase and nonpolar solvents, while in polar DMSO one the lactim form dominates. The detailed IR spectra of both tautomers of acesulfame molecule and acesulfame anion were reported. In addition, the changes in both spectra and structures (steric and electronic), caused by the conversion of molecule into corresponding anion are discussed.

Popova, Angelina D.; Velcheva, Evelina A.; Stamboliyska, Bistra A.

2012-02-01

452

Sugar-sweetened and diet beverages in relation to visceral adipose tissue  

PubMed Central

Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been consistently associated with increased adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk, whereas the association with diet beverages is more mixed. We examined how these beverages associate with regional abdominal adiposity measures, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In a cross-sectional analysis of 791 non-Hispanic white men and women aged 18-70 we examined how beverage consumption habits obtained from a food frequency questionnaire associate with overall and abdominal adiposity measures from MRI. With increasing frequency of SSB intake we observed increases in waist circumference (WC) and the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (VAT%), with no change in total body fat (TBF %) or BMI. Greater frequency of diet beverage intake was associated with greater WC, BMI and TBF %, but was not associated with variation in visceral adiposity We conclude that increased frequency of SSB consumption is associated with a more adverse abdominal adipose tissue deposition pattern. PMID:21901024

Odegaard, Andrew O; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W

2012-01-01

453

Gaseous response to ingestion of a poorly absorbed fructo-oligosaccharide sweetener.  

PubMed

Fructo-oligosaccharides are naturally occurring sweet substances that are poorly absorbed and have the potential to be clinically useful nonnutritive sweeteners. Because most nonabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented yielding gas, we assessed flatulent symptoms and H2 excretion during ingestion of fructo-oligosaccharide (5 g tid) for 12 d. Ten subjects had significantly greater flatulence while taking the oligosaccharide than did five subjects taking sucrose (5 g tid). Breath H2 after 10 g fructo-oligosaccharide was similar to that of 10 g lactulose, suggesting near total malabsorption of the fructo-oligosaccharide. Although previous studies found a marked diminution in breath H2 after prolonged exposure to lactulose, breath H2 response increased by 50% after a 12-d period on the oligosaccharide and gaseous symptoms did not improve. We conclude that adaptation of colonic bacteria to carbohydrate malabsorption is variable and may depend upon quantity or nature of the carbohydrate. PMID:3604970

Stone-Dorshow, T; Levitt, M D

1987-07-01

454

Metabolic studies of the nonnutritive sweeteners cyclopentylmethylsulfamate and cyclopentylsulfamate: determination of metabolites in rat urine.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweetener sodium cyclopentylmethyl-sulfamate was fed to Wistar albino rats. The urine was collected for 3 days, combined, and examined (GLC) for the metabolites cyclopentyl-methylamine and cyclopentylmethanol. The percent conversion to these metabolites was 0.077 and 0.0102, respectively. The percent conversion to these to cyclopentylmethylamine was the lowest conversion to amine observed when compared to the metabolism of three other sweet sulfamates, cyclopentylsulfamate, cycloheptylsulfamate, and cyclooctylsulfamate, previously administered to rats. The average excretion of unmetabolized sulfamate was 15.4%. Sodium cyclopentylsulfamate was fed to rats over 9 days, and an analysis was carried out for the metabolites cyclopentylamine, cyclopentanone, and cyclopentanol. A decrease in the level of metabolites occurred after the first 3 days. PMID:621643

Spillane, W J; Benson, G A

1978-02-01

455

Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato  

PubMed Central

Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers at low storage temperatures. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Our study evaluated the relationship between genetic resistance to CIS and two starch parameters, amylose content and starch granule size. We found that the amylose content in four CIS-resistant varieties was higher than that in five susceptible varieties. Amylose content was influenced not only by variety but also storage, production year, and field location. However, interactions between amylose content and environmental variables were not detected. In contrast, starch granule size was not associated with CIS resistance. No effect of storage on starch granule size was detected, and interactions among variety, production year, and field location were observed. Tuber starch amylose content should be considered a source of variability for CIS. PMID:25493178

Jansky, Shelley H; Fajardo, Diego A

2014-01-01

456

Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato.  

PubMed

Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers at low storage temperatures. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Our study evaluated the relationship between genetic resistance to CIS and two starch parameters, amylose content and starch granule size. We found that the amylose content in four CIS-resistant varieties was higher than that in five susceptible varieties. Amylose content was influenced not only by variety but also storage, production year, and field location. However, interactions between amylose content and environmental variables were not detected. In contrast, starch granule size was not associated with CIS resistance. No effect of storage on starch granule size was detected, and interactions among variety, production year, and field location were observed. Tuber starch amylose content should be considered a source of variability for CIS. PMID:25493178

Jansky, Shelley H; Fajardo, Diego A

2014-11-01

457

Instituting a sugar-sweetened beverage ban: experience from a children's hospital.  

PubMed

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to increased weight and obesity in children and remains the major source of added sugar in the typical US diet across all age groups. In an effort to improve the nutritional offerings for patients and employees within our institution, Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, implemented an SSB ban in 2011 in all food establishments within the hospital. In this report, we describe how the ban was implemented. We found that an institutional SSB ban altered beverage sales without revenue loss at nonvending food locations. From a process perspective, we found that successful implementation requires excellent communication and bold leadership at several levels throughout the hospital environment. PMID:25121811

Eneli, Ihuoma U; Oza-Frank, Reena; Grover, Kathryn; Miller, Rick; Kelleher, Kelly

2014-10-01

458

Effect of consumption of different sugar-sweetened beverages on the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders in young female rats.  

E-print Network

??The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages particularly, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), by adolescents has increased. The substitution of sucrose (50:50 glucose: fructose) by HFCS-55 (45:55… (more)

Light, Heather.

2007-01-01

459

Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation  

PubMed Central

Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

2012-01-01

460

Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink  

PubMed Central

Background Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions are engaged by the stimulation of sweet taste receptors by sucrose and by non-nutrient sweeteners and (ii) during visual food-related cues, obese subjects show greater brain responses to sucrose compared with lean controls. Methods In a double-blind, crossover design, 10 obese and 10 lean healthy females received a sucrose or a non-nutrient sweetened beverage prior to viewing food or neutral images. BOLD signal was measured using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Key Results Viewing food images after ingestion of either drink was associated with engagement of similar brain regions (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, anterior insula). Obese differed from lean subjects in behavioral and brain responses rating both beverages as less tasteful and satisfying, yet demonstrating greater brain responses. Obese subjects also showed engagement of an additional brain network (including anterior insula, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and amygdala) only after sucrose ingestion. Conclusions & Inferences Obese subjects had a reduced behavioral hedonic response, yet a greater engagement of affective brain networks, particularly after sucrose ingestion, suggesting that in obese subjects, lingual and gut-derived signaling generate less central hedonic effects than food-related memories in response to visual cues, analogous to response patterns implicated in food addiction. PMID:23566308

Connolly, L.; Coveleskie, K.; Kilpatrick, L. A.; Labus, J. S.; Ebrat, B.; Stains, J.; Jiang, Z.; Tillisch, K.; Raybould, H. E.; Mayer, E. A.

2014-01-01

461

Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States123  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-calorie and no-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) have emerged as alternatives to added sugars. Research suggests that consumption among all Americans is increasing, yet it is unknown whether consumption trends differ among population subgroups. Objective: Our study aimed to assess recent national trends in LCS consumption among children and other demographic subgroups in the United States. Design: We used NHANES data collected in five 2-y cycles from 1999–2000 to 2007–2008. Consumption of foods and beverages with LCSs was estimated by using one 24-h dietary recall. Estimates of the proportion of the population consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs (prevalence of consumption) were weighted to obtain nationally representative results. Trends in prevalence of LCS consumption and mean intake of beverages sweetened with LCSs were tested by using chi-square tests for trend and F tests. Results: In 2007–2008, the percentage of children and adults consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs increased. The prevalence of consuming beverages with LCSs increased from 6.1% to 12.5% among children (P-trend < 0.0001) and from 18.7% to 24.1% among adults (P < 0.001). Increases in the prevalence of consumption of calorie-containing beverages with LCSs were observed among all weight, age, socioeconomic, and race-ethnicity subgroups in both children and adults. However, little change in consumption of no-calorie beverages with LCSs or LCS-containing foods was found. Conclusions: The consumption of LCS-containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Further research is needed to understand the health effects of this trend. PMID:22854409

Welsh, Jean A; Brown, Rebecca J; Vos, Miriam B

2012-01-01

462

[Safety assessment of stevia rebaudiana bertoni grown in southeastern Mexico as food sweetener].  

PubMed

Stevia rebaudiana leaves and their glycosides have been recently and significantly used so important as sweeteners. However, it has been reported an antihyperglycemic effect of the extract and a glycoside. The aim of this study was to quantify S. rebaudiana glycosides, assess cytotoxicity of the extract and its acute and chronic effect on blood glucose in animal models and in human. The glycosides of the Morita II and Criolla extract were quantified by HPLC, using a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm and particle size of 5 uM) with UV detection at 210 nm, mobile phase of acetonitrile/sodium phosphate buffer 10 mmol/L, pH 2.6 (32:68 v/v). Cytotoxicity study was performed in Vero cells, whereas an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a chronic consumption assay (4 weeks) were executed in an animal model of diabetes; finally the glycemic index (G.I.) was determined in healthy individuals. The glycoside content is higher in the Morita variety II although both had a CC50 >300 ?g/mL. The areas under the curve of the IPGTT and fasting glucose of the animals were not significantly different (p> 0.05) and the I.G. extract was 11.11 %, which classifies the extract as low I.G. The extract of S. rebaudiana Morita II has a low glycemic index and, in the doses tested, is not cytotoxic nor has acute or chronic effect on blood sugar, which makes it a safe sweetener. PMID:25238836

Aranda-González, Irma; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

2014-01-01

463

From Artificial Intelligence to Artificial Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, cognitive sciences in general and artificial intelligence in particular have had little to say about human culture. However, if the modest success of nascent field of cognitive science of culture in explaining aspects of culture is any indication, further contributions from cognitive scientists may be needed to develop a predictive computational science of culture. This paper outlines a number

M. Afzal Upal

464

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

465

Artificial Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet...and the most threatened. Artificial reefs may help stem the loss of these valuable and beautiful habitats, with shipwrecks, old subway cars, and other structures taking the place of living coral or rocky outcrops. The following Web sites introduce artificial reefs, reef ecology, and some ongoing efforts to establish reef communities in the U.S. and beyond. PBS's NATURE offers a fascinating look at the artificial reefs created by the thousands of shipwrecks and downed planes from World War II that riddle the South Pacific (1). This is the companion Web site to the documentary War Wrecks of the Coral Seas, and it includes some great multimedia features. The next site comes from the National Oceani