Science.gov

Sample records for artificial sweetener aspartame

  1. Mutagenic activity of peptides and the artificial sweetener aspartame after nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Shephard, S E; Wakabayashi, K; Nagao, M

    1993-05-01

    Naturally occurring dipeptides, cholecystokinine (CCK, a tetrapeptide hormone) and the artificial sweetener aspartame were nitrosated for 10-30 min with 40 mM-nitrite (pH 3.5, 37 degrees C), and the resultant products examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Specific mutagenicities (net revertants per mumol precursor) spanned four orders of magnitude, with CCK being the most potent precursor (4700 revertants/mumol) followed by tryptophyl-tryptophan (Trp-Trp; 1000 revertants/mumol). Aspartame and glycyl-Trp (Gly-Trp) had intermediate activity (300 revertants/mumol), while Gly-Gly and methionyl-methionine were only weakly mutagenic (20 and 12 revertants/mumol, respectively). The dipeptides of aspartic acid, phenylalanine and tyrosine had no detectable mutagenicity (limits of detection 0.5, 40 and 5 revertants/mumol, respectively). Kinetic studies with aspartame and Gly-Trp suggested that the mutagenic products arose primarily from nitrosation of the primary amine rather than the amide or indole group. The mutagenicities of nitrosated aspartame and Gly-Trp were higher in TA100 than in TA98, and higher without than with enzymatic activation (S-9 mix) in both strains. The time-course study of Trp-Trp nitrosation showed the production of at least two mutagens: a potent but unstable mutagenicity was seen at very short nitrosation times and a more stable but weaker effect was obtained after more than 60 min of nitrosation. Not only the absolute specific mutagenicity but also the nitrite dependence of the nitrosation reaction and the stability of the nitroso product must be taken into account in determining the risk posed by endogenous nitrosation of foods in the human stomach. Under stomach conditions, nitrosation of the side-chains of certain Trp peptides would be expected to contribute more to the endogenous burden of nitrosated products than nitrosation of aspartame or Gly peptides. PMID:8505016

  2. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

  3. Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... debate about the safety of artificial sweeteners, especially aspartame and saccharin, but most health care professionals believe ... that is clear is that you should avoid aspartame if you have the hereditary disease phenylketonuria, or ...

  4. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    PubMed

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  5. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  6. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lymphoma, leukemia, or brain cancer ( 2 ). Acesulfame potassium, Sucralose, and Neotame In addition to saccharin and aspartame, ... sweetener (except in meat and poultry) in 2002. Sucralose (also known as Splenda®) was approved by the ...

  7. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  8. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

  9. Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (Artificial Sweeteners) Updated:Mar 18,2014 Got a sweet tooth? Heres the scoop on artificial sweeteners or non-nutritive sweeteners as we call them. ...

  10. Aspartame- or sugar-sweetened beverages: effects on mood in young women.

    PubMed

    Pivonka, E E; Grunewald, K K

    1990-02-01

    Young college women (no. = 120) received, on three different occasions, 12 oz water, aspartame-sweetened beverage, and sugar-sweetened beverage, separated by weekly intervals. Changes in mood were assessed by administering test questionnaires before and 1 hour after the beverages were drunk. Mood tests employed were the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Changes in mood were similar following consumption of water or the aspartame-sweetened beverage. However, the ingestion of the sugar-sweetened beverage was followed by increased sleepiness during the last half of the one-hour observation period (p less than .002). PMID:2303661

  11. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    PubMed Central

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame. PMID:24763213

  12. Comments on the purported generation of formaldehyde and adduct formation from the sweetener aspartame.

    PubMed

    Tephly, T R

    1999-01-01

    A recent paper by Trocho et al. (1) describes experiments meant to show that formaldehyde adducts are formed when rats are administered the sweetener aspartame. These authors assume that the methanol carbon of aspartame generates formaldehyde which then forms adducts with protein, DNA, and RNA. Doses employed range widely. In this letter, studies which have been published previously and which were not cited by these authors are reviewed in order to put into perspective the disposition of methanol and formaldehyde in monkeys and humans, species relevant to the toxicity of methanol and its toxic metabolite, formic acid. PMID:10503962

  13. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.

    PubMed

    Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. PMID:23891579

  14. Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  15. The potential toxicity of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Christina R; Boullata, Joseph; McCauley, Linda A

    2008-06-01

    Since their discovery, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been controversial. Artificial sweeteners provide the sweetness of sugar without the calories. As public health attention has turned to reversing the obesity epidemic in the United States, more individuals of all ages are choosing to use these products. These choices may be beneficial for those who cannot tolerate sugar in their diets (e.g., diabetics). However, scientists disagree about the relationships between sweeteners and lymphomas, leukemias, cancers of the bladder and brain, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and systemic lupus. Recently these substances have received increased attention due to their effects on glucose regulation. Occupational health nurses need accurate and timely information to counsel individuals regarding the use of these substances. This article provides an overview of types of artificial sweeteners, sweetener history, chemical structure, biological fate, physiological effects, published animal and human studies, and current standards and regulations. PMID:18604921

  16. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

  17. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents. PMID:18850355

  18. Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Are Artificial Sweeteners OK During Pregnancy? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&As > Pregnancy & Infants > Are Artificial Sweeteners OK During Pregnancy? Print A A A ...

  19. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  20. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  1. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  2. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  3. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  4. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; de Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes. PMID:20078374

  5. Role of nitrification in the biodegradation of selected artificial sweetening agents in biological wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Tran, N H; Nguyen, V T; Urase, T; Ngo, H H

    2014-06-01

    The biodegradation of the six artificial sweetening agents including acesulfame (ACE), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), neohesperidindihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC) by nitrifying activated sludge was first examined. Experimental results showed that ASP and NHDC were the most easily degradable compounds even in the control tests. CYC and SAC were efficiently biodegraded by the nitrifying activated sludge, whereas ACE and SUC were poorly removed. However, the biodegradation efficiencies of the ASs were increased with the increase in initial ammonium concentrations in the bioreactors. The association between nitrification and co-metabolic degradation was investigated and a linear relationship between nitrification rate and co-metabolic biodegradation rate was observed for the target artificial sweeteners (ASs). The contribution of heterotrophic microorganisms and autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in biodegradation of the ASs was elucidated, of which autotrophic ammonia oxidizers played an important role in the biodegradation of the ASs, particularly with regards to ACE and SUC. PMID:24681682

  6. Fate of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants in New York State, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-12-01

    Very few studies describe the fate of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of sucralose, saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame were determined based on the concentrations measured in wastewater influent, primary effluent, effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs in the Albany area of New York State, U.S.A. All ASWs were detected at a mean concentration that ranged from 0.13 (aspartame) to 29.4 μg/L (sucralose) in wastewater influent, 0.49 (aspartame) to 27.7 μg/L (sucralose) in primary influent, 0.11 (aspartame) to 29.6 μg/L (sucralose) in effluent, and from 0.08 (aspartame) to 0.65 μg/g dw (sucralose) in sludge. Aspartame was found in 92% of influent SPM samples at a mean concentration of 444 ng/g dw, followed by acesulfame (92 ng/g) and saccharin (49 ng/g). The fraction of the total mass of ASWs sorbed to SPM was in the rank order: aspartame (50.4%) > acesulfame (10.9%) > saccharin and sucralose (0.8%). The sorption coefficients of ASWs ranged from 4.10 (saccharin) to 4540 L/kg (aspartame). Significant removal of aspartame (68.2%) and saccharin (90.3%) was found in WWTPs; however, sucralose and acesulfame were less efficiently removed (<2.0%). The total mass loading of sucralose, saccharin, and acesulfame in the WWTP that served a smaller population (∼15,000) was 1.3-1.5 times lower than that in another WWTP that served a larger population (∼100,000). The average daily loading of sucralose in both WWTPs (18.5 g/d/1000 people) was ∼2 times higher than the average loading of saccharin. The daily discharge of sucralose from the WWTPs was the highest (17.6 g/d/1000 people), followed by acesulfame (1.22 g/d/1000 people), and saccharin (1.07 g/d/1000 people). Approximately, 1180 g of saccharin and 291 g of acesulfame were transformed in or removed daily from the two WWTPs. This is the first study to describe the fate of ASWs, including the fraction found in SPM and in sludge, in addition to the aqueous portion of wastewater in WWTPs. PMID:25365516

  7. Bladder cancer: smoking, beverages and artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert W.; Jain, Meera G.

    1974-01-01

    A matched patient-control study of bladder cancer examined the relationship of the disease to occupation, smoking and intake of tea, coffee, cola, alcohol and artificial sweeteners. There was no association of disease with occupation for these patients. Heavy smoking gave relative risks of 6.37 and 4.36 for men and women respectively; there was evidence of a dose-response relationship. Tea and coffee intake did not increase the risk of disease nor did prolonged use of artificial sweeteners. Alcohol and cola intake increased the relative risk of bladder cancer among male smokers. There is some suggestion that smoking interacts with both alcohol and cola intake in the production of bladder cancer. PMID:4429932

  8. Artificial sweeteners are not the answer to childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    While no single factor is responsible for the recent, dramatic increases in overweight and obesity, a scientific consensus has emerged suggesting that consumption of sugar-sweetened products, especially beverages, is casually linked to increases in risk of chronic, debilitating diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. One approach that might be beneficial would be to replace sugar-sweetened items with products manufactured with artificial sweeteners that provide sweet tastes but with fewer calories. Unfortunately, evidence now indicates that artificial sweeteners are also associated with increased risk of the same chronic diseases linked to sugar consumption. Several biologically plausible mechanisms may explain these counterintuitive negative associations. For example, artificial sweeteners can interfere with basic learning processes that serve to anticipate the normal consequences of consuming sugars, leading to overeating, diminished release of hormones such as GLP-1, and impaired blood glucose regulation. In addition, artificial sweeteners can alter gut microbiota in rodent models and humans, which can also contribute to impaired glucose regulation. Use of artificial sweeteners may also be particularly problematic in children since exposure to hyper-sweetened foods and beverages at young ages may have effects on sweet preferences that persist into adulthood. Taken as a whole, current evidence suggests that a focus on reducing sweetener intake, whether the sweeteners are caloric or non-caloric, remains a better strategy for combating overweight and obesity than use of artificial sweeteners. PMID:25828597

  9. Usefulness of artificial sweeteners for body weight control.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2003-06-01

    Artificial sweeteners provide lower calorie food products but have been thought to increase appetite and perhaps lead to increased body weight compared with high-sucrose foods. A recent trial demonstrated that subjects supplementing their diets with artificially sweetened foods lost weight, whereas those consuming high-sucrose foods gained weight. This review sheds some light on the controversy regarding the effects of artificial sweeteners in body weight control. PMID:12903832

  10. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... standards regulations (60 FR 67492; December 29, 1995). In that document, we sought comments on, inter alia... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time...

  11. [Artificial sweeteners and diabetes: friends or foes?].

    PubMed

    Tran, Christel; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-06-01

    Sugary drinks consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thereby, artificial sweeteners (AS) consumption became increasingly popular and were introduced largely in our diet in order to reduce calorie intake and normalise blood glucose levels without altering our taste for "sweetness". However, the results of published studies on health outcomes secondary to AS intake, including type 2 diabetes risk, are inconsistent. The aim of this article is to focus on the role of AS in glucose homeostasis and diabetes onset. PMID:26211286

  12. A review of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of aspartame: does it safe or not?

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Serkan; Uçar, Aslı

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this article is to review genotoxicologic and carcinogenic profile of the artificial sweetener aspartame. Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide, nearly 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose. It is the most widely used artificial sweetener especially in carbonated and powdered soft drinks, beverages, drugs and hygiene products. There is a discussion ongoing for many years whether aspartame posses genotoxic and carcinogenic risk for humans. This question led to many studies to specify the adverse effects of aspartame. Therefore, we aimed to review the oldest to latest works published in major indices to gather information within this article. With respect to published data, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aspartame is still confusing. So, consumers should be aware of the potential side effects of aspartame before they consume it. PMID:24510317

  13. Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

    2012-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

  14. The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.

    PubMed

    Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P<0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P<0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

  15. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  16. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  17. Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Stolte S; Steudte S; Schebb NH; Willenberg I; Stepnowski P

    2013-10-01

    Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary.

  18. Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. PMID:24036324

  19. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50?mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. PMID:24700203

  20. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Jaydip; Elliott, Ruth A. . E-mail: rae5@leicester.ac.uk; Doshani, Angie; Tincello, Douglas G.

    2006-12-01

    Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10{sup -7} M to 10{sup -2} M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p < 0.01). The atropine-resistant response to EFS was marginally increased by acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M, aspartame 10{sup -7} M and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the maximum contractile response to {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP by 35% ({+-} 9.6%) (p < 0.05) and to KCl by 12% ({+-} 3.1%) (p < 0.01). Sodium saccharin also increased the response to KCl by 37% ({+-} 15.2%) (p < 0.05). These sweeteners shifted the calcium concentration-response curves to the left. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the log EC{sub 5} from -2.79 ({+-} 0.037) to -3.03 ({+-} 0.048, p < 0.01) and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M from -2.74 ({+-} 0.03) to 2.86 ({+-} 0.031, p < 0.05). The sweeteners had no significant effect on the contractile response to carbachol but they did increase the amplitude of spontaneous bladder contractions. Discussion: These results suggest that low concentrations of artificial sweeteners enhanced detrusor muscle contraction via modulation of L-type Ca{sup +2} channels.

  1. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung

    2014-10-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity. PMID:24961835

  2. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-05-28

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. PMID:24872471

  3. Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozlia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed artificial sweeteners. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-nave animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

  4. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1. PMID:24120730

  5. Sweet proteins Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  6. Sweet proteins--potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  7. The paradox of artificial sweeteners in managing obesity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    The role of artificial sweeteners in the management of obesity is controversial. Observational data have suggested that nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) may promote weight gain through poorly understood mechanisms of cravings, reward phenomenon, and addictive behavior via opioid receptors. Interventional studies suggest the opposite that substitution of NNS for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) results in reduced caloric intake and modest degrees of weight loss. Whether the use of NNS provides benefit toward weight reduction in the individual patient may depend on the characteristics of their baseline diet, associated changes, or dietary compensation involved with ingestion of NNS, and the degree of compliance with a more complete weight loss program. PMID:25609450

  8. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days. PMID:26176574

  9. Sugar-Sweetened and Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Relation to Obesity Risk123

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. PMID:25398745

  10. Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. PMID:25398745

  11. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers in groundwater in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Roy, James W.; Brown, Susan J.; Bickerton, Greg

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThere is little information available on the prevalence of artificial sweeteners in groundwater, though these compounds may prove to be useful tracers of human wastewater, especially in urban settings with complex hydrology. In this study, the artificial sweetener acesulfame was detected in groundwater at all eight urban sites investigated (from five different urban areas in Canada), often at high concentrations (i.e., μg/L-scale). In a municipal wastewater plume at Jasper, Alberta, acesulfame was strongly correlated with chloride and was positively correlated with other wastewater-related contaminants indicating that this sweetener has potential to be a good tracer of young wastewater (<20 years residence time) in Canada. Three other artificial sweeteners were detected in urban groundwater: saccharin at six of the sites, sucralose at three sites, and cyclamate at five of seven sites where it was analyzed. The occurrence of sucralose may have been affected by its detection limit, which was much higher than for the other sweeteners. These results, and those of a parallel study, are the first reported detections of saccharin and cyclamate in groundwater, and suggest that these sweeteners may be more common than previously anticipated. In general, fewer samples from each site contained these other three sweeteners compared to acesulfame. At Barrie, Ontario, adjacent to an old landfill, the concentration of saccharin was higher than acesulfame in many samples. These results suggest that analyses of multiple sweeteners, rather than just acesulfame, may provide useful information on contaminant sources and groundwater conditions in urban settings. Further work is needed to address this potential use.

  12. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume a lot of sugar, primarily from sweeteners that are added to processed foods and beverages. Data from the US Department of Agriculture reveals that in 2013, Americans consumed 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day, which is significantly more than the American Heart Association’s recommendation. Artificial and alternative sweeteners have also been added to a plethora of foods. These sweeteners range from about 180 times sweeter to as much as 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. Consumption of both sugar and artificial sweeteners may be changing our palates or taste preferences over time, increasing our desire for sweet foods. Unfortunately, the data on this are lacking. In the summer of 2014, a group of 20 people from Kaiser Permanente facilities throughout California agreed to cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks and then complete a survey to determine whether their taste preferences had changed. After the 2-week challenge, 95% of participants (18 out of 19 respondents) found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% (15 out of 20 respondents) found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% (19 out of 20 respondents) said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants (13 out of 15 respondents) stopped craving sugar after 6 days. Although this was a small survey, the results suggest that using a 2-week sugar challenge can help to reset taste preferences and make consuming less or no sugar easier. Physicians should consider recommending a sugar and artificial sweetener challenge to all their patients, especially those with obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26176574

  13. Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 μg/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products. PMID:22543693

  14. Robust scientific evidence demonstrates benefits of artificial sweeteners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial sweeteners (AS) have not been found to have a negative impact on health in humans. They have been recommended as a safe alternative for individuals who are seeking to lose or maintain weight. However, unnecessary alarm has been raised regarding the potential health risks of AS. This is of...

  15. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... cocktail by § 145.135(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.135(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of...

  16. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  17. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may be...

  18. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  19. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  20. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  1. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... cocktail by § 145.135(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.135(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of...

  2. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may be...

  3. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  4. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  5. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  6. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  7. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  8. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may be...

  9. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  10. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may be...

  11. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  12. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may be...

  13. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  14. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  15. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... cocktail by § 145.135(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.135(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of...

  16. 21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  17. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits... in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of both. Such packing medium may...

  18. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... cocktail by § 145.135(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.135(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of...

  19. 21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned... cocktail by § 145.135(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.135(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially sweetened with saccharin, sodium saccharin, or a combination of...

  20. A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

  1. A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional

  2. Consumption of artificial sweetener and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women1234

    PubMed Central

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite safety reports of the artificial sweetener aspartame, health-related concerns remain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether the consumption of aspartame- and sugar-containing soda is associated with risk of hematopoetic cancers. Design: We repeatedly assessed diet in the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Over 22 y, we identified 1324 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), 285 multiple myelomas, and 339 leukemias. We calculated incidence RRs and 95% CIs by using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: When the 2 cohorts were combined, there was no significant association between soda intake and risks of NHL and multiple myeloma. However, in men, ?1 daily serving of diet soda increased risks of NHL (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) and multiple myeloma (RR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.40) in comparison with men who did not consume diet soda. We observed no increased risks of NHL and multiple myeloma in women. We also observed an unexpected elevated risk of NHL (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.51) with a higher consumption of regular, sugar-sweetened soda in men but not in women. In contrast, when sexes were analyzed separately with limited power, neither regular nor diet soda increased risk of leukemia but were associated with increased leukemia risk when data for men and women were combined (RR for consumption of ?1 serving of diet soda/d when the 2 cohorts were pooled: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.02). Conclusion: Although our findings preserve the possibility of a detrimental effect of a constituent of diet soda, such as aspartame, on select cancers, the inconsistent sex effects and occurrence of an apparent cancer risk in individuals who consume regular soda do not permit the ruling out of chance as an explanation. PMID:23097267

  3. Aspartame and phenylalanine do not enhance theophylline-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhi, J Q; Levy, G

    1989-10-01

    Oral administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame, 1 g/kg, or of an equimolar dose of its metabolite phenylalanine, to fasted rats 1 hour before slow i.v. infusion of theophylline until the onset of maximal seizures had no significant effect on the total dose and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of theophylline at the pharmacologic endpoint. These findings indicate that consumption of aspartame is not a potential risk factor for theophylline-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:2616898

  4. Artificially sweetened beverages--do they influence cardiometabolic risk?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark A; Odegaard, Andrew O

    2013-12-01

    The sweeteners in artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) are potent stimulators of sweetness on the palate, yet contain no energy. This "mismatch" between sweetness and energy in ASB has raised concern about metabolism and health. This article provides a review of the recent literature on the effect of ASB on cardiometabolic risk factors and disease. Physiologic mechanisms are discussed, as well as epidemiologic studies. Prospective studies of ASB intake and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have revealed inconsistent results. Higher-quality studies suggest either no effect of ASB or perhaps a protective effect through replacement of calorically dense alternatives. Although some studies have reported that ASB may increase risk, these observations appear to be an artifact of reverse causality. The limited experimental evidence does not support an effect of ASB on obesity or chronic disease. Indeed, experimental studies in humans suggest ASB may be effective for weight loss when replacing sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:24190652

  5. Aspartame: safety and stability in kalakand.

    PubMed

    Gawande, H M; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, B K

    2015-04-01

    Aspartame was used in the manufacture of kalakand instead of sucrose. Sensory evaluation revealed that aspartame when used in the preparation of kalakand at a level of 0.065 % scored the highest in terms of sweetness perception and resembled control. Aspartame sweetened kalakand possessed the same desirable sweetness, colour, body and texture/consistency and mouthfeel even after 7 days of storage at 6-8 °C. Significant increase in titratable acidity of control as well as aspartame sweetened kalakand was observed during storage. However, only a slight drop in pH was observed in all samples on storage. The titratable acidity was higher in aspartame sweetened products than the corresponding control samples. Lightness (L*) was less in control samples with sucrose than the aspartame sweetened kalakand during storage. Total plate counts were higher in aspartame sweetened kalakand than its corresponding control throughout the storage period. Total plate counts increased linearly for both aspartame sweetened kalakand and control. A solid phase extraction method was standardized for the isolation of aspartame in kalakand. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized for separation of aspartame and its degradation products diketopiperazine and L-phenylalanine. HPLC analysis revealed that aspartame did not degrade in kalakand during storage establishing its stability in these products. PMID:25829622

  6. Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison; Rother, Kristina I; Brown, Rebecca

    2011-12-01

    This review summarizes the literature pertaining to the epidemiology and current recommendations for pediatric artificial sweetener use and presents the results of studies investigating metabolic responses to artificial sweeteners among children. An understanding of the research previously conducted and the gaps that remain will inform future clinical and translational research, to develop evidence-based recommendations for artificial sweetener use in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. PMID:22093863

  7. A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

  8. A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous

  9. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Results Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Conclusion Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that acute ingestion of aspartame does not have any detectable psychological or metabolic effects in humans. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN39650237 PMID:25786106

  10. Effects of aspartame metabolites on astrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Rycerz, Karol; Jaworska-Adamu, Jadwiga Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aspartame, a widespread sweetener used in many food products, is considered as a highly hazardous compound. Aspartame was discovered in 1965 and raises a lot of controversy up to date. Astrocytes are glial cells, the presence and functions of which are closely connected with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this article is to demonstrate the direct and indirect role of astrocytes participating in the harmful effects of aspartame metabolites on neurons. The artificial sweetener is broken down into phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%) during metabolism in the body. The excess of phenylalanine blocks the transport of important amino acids to the brain contributing to reduced levels of dopamine and serotonin. Astrocytes directly affect the transport of this amino acid and also indirectly by modulation of carriers in the endothelium. Aspartic acid at high concentrations is a toxin that causes hyperexcitability of neurons and is also a precursor of other excitatory amino acid - glutamates. Their excess in quantity and lack of astrocytic uptake induces excitotoxicity and leads to the degeneration of astrocytes and neurons. The methanol metabolites cause CNS depression, vision disorders and other symptoms leading ultimately to metabolic acidosis and coma. Astrocytes do not play a significant role in methanol poisoning due to a permanent consumption of large amounts of aspartame. Despite intense speculations about the carcinogenicity of aspartame, the latest studies show that its metabolite - diketopiperazine - is cancirogenic in the CNS. It contributes to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. Glial cells are the main source of tumors, which can be caused inter alia by the sweetener in the brain. On the one hand the action of astrocytes during aspartame poisoning may be advantageous for neuro-protection while on the other it may intensify the destruction of neurons. The role of the glia in the pathogenesis of many CNS diseases is crucial. PMID:23553132

  11. Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a link to aspartame?

    PubMed

    Olney, J W; Farber, N B; Spitznagel, E; Robins, L N

    1996-11-01

    In the past two decades brain tumor rates have risen in several industrialized countries, including the United States. During this time, brain tumor data have been gathered by the National Cancer Institute from catchment areas representing 10% of the United States population. In the present study, we analyzed these data from 1975 to 1992 and found that the brain tumor increases in the United States occurred in two distinct phases, an early modest increase that may primarily reflect improved diagnostic technology, and a more recent sustained increase in the incidence and shift toward greater malignancy that must be explained by some other factor(s). Compared to other environmental factors putatively linked to brain tumors, the artificial sweetener aspartame is a promising candidate to explain the recent increase in incidence and degree of malignancy of brain tumors. Evidence potentially implicating aspartame includes an early animal study revealing an exceedingly high incidence of brain tumors in aspartame-fed rats compared to no brain tumors in concurrent controls, the recent finding that the aspartame molecule has mutagenic potential, and the close temporal association (aspartame was introduced into US food and beverage markets several years prior to the sharp increase in brain tumor incidence and malignancy). We conclude that there is need for reassessing the carcinogenic potential of aspartame. PMID:8939194

  12. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.

    PubMed Central

    Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

    1987-01-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research. PMID:3319565

  13. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Maher TJ; Wurtman RJ

    1987-11-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research.

  14. Aspartame: review of safety.

    PubMed

    Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Benninger, Christian; Blackburn, George L; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Geha, Raif S; Hertelendy, Zsolt; Koestner, Adalbert; Leon, Arthur S; Liepa, George U; McMartin, Kenneth E; Mendenhall, Charles L; Munro, Ian C; Novotny, Edward J; Renwick, Andrew G; Schiffman, Susan S; Schomer, Donald L; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Spiers, Paul A; Tephly, Thomas R; Thomas, John A; Trefz, Friedrich K

    2002-04-01

    Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use. PMID:12180494

  15. Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, U N; Dumoulin, G; Henriet, M T; Regnard, J

    1998-01-01

    Aspartame is the artificial sweetener most extensively used as a substitute for glucose or sucrose in the food industry, particularly in soft drinks. As glucose ingestion increases calciuria and oxaluria, the two main determinants of urinary calcium-oxalate saturation, we considered it worthwhile to determine whether aspartame ingestion also affects calcium-oxalate metabolism. Our study compares the effects of the ingestion of similarly sweet doses of aspartame (250 mg) and glucose (75 g) on calcium and oxalate metabolisms of seven healthy subjects. Urinary calcium excretion increased after the intake of both aspartame (+86%; P < 0.01) and glucose (+124%; P < 0.01). This may be due to the rise in calcemia observed after both aspartame (+2.2%; P < 0.05) and glucose ingestion (+1.8%; P < 0.05). The increased calcemia may be linked to the decrease in phosphatemia that occurred after both aspartame (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.01) load. Aspartame did not alter glycemia or insulinemia, whereas glucose intake caused striking increases in both glycemia (+59%; P < 0.001) and insulinemia (+869%; P < 0.01). Although insulin was considered the main calciuria-induced factor after glucose load, it is unlikely that this mechanism played a role with aspartame. Urinary oxalate excretion did not change after aspartame, whereas it increased (+27%; P < 0.05) after glucose load. Thus, as aspartame induced a similar increase in calciuria as did glucose but, conversely, no change in oxaluria, substituting glucose by aspartame in soft drinks may appear to be of some potential benefit. PMID:9435435

  16. Biosensor analysis of natural and artificial sweeteners in intact taste epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2014-04-15

    Sweeteners are commonly used as food additives in our daily life, which, however, have been causing a number of undesirable diseases since the last century. Therefore, the detection and quantification of sweeteners are of great value for food safety. In this study, we used a taste biosensor to measure and analyze different sweeteners, both natural and artificial sweeteners included. Electrophysiological activities from taste epithelium were detected by the multi-channel biosensors and analyzed with spatiotemporal methods. The longtime signal result showed different temporal-frequency properties with stimulations of individual sweeteners such as glucose, sucrose, saccharin, and cyclamate, while the multi-channel results in our study revealed the spatial expression of taste epithelium to sweet stimuli. Furthermore, in the analysis of sweetener with different concentrations, the result showed obvious dose-dependent increases in signal responses of the taste epithelium, which indicated promising applications in sweetness evaluation. Besides, the mixture experiment of two natural sweeteners with a similar functional unit (glucose and sucrose) presented two signal patterns, which turned out to be similar with responses of each individual stimulus involved. The biosensor analysis of common sweeteners provided new approaches for both natural and artificial sweeteners evaluation. PMID:24292144

  17. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 μg/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 μg/capita/day), acesulfame (90 μg/capita/day), and saccharin (66μg/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 μg/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 μg/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

  18. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... appear on the label, the acidity of the artificially sweetened lemonade, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, shall be not less than 0.70 gram per 100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe...

  19. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... appear on the label, the acidity of the artificially sweetened lemonade, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, shall be not less than 0.70 gram per 100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe...

  20. Subchronic effects of ochratoxin A on young adult rat brain and partial prevention by aspartame, a sweetener.

    PubMed

    Belmadani, A; Tramu, G; Betbeder, A M; Creppy, E E

    1998-07-01

    1. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several fungi, especially Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Many food and foodstuffs can be contaminated by ochratoxin A, which is consequently found in blood of animals and humans. 2. The distribution into the brain of young adult rats fed OTA for 1 to 6 weeks and some consequences have been investigated in the present study. 3. Our results on rats given OTA (289 microg/kg/48 h) indicated that OTA accumulated in the whole brain as function of time according to a regression curve, Y=-8.723 a+16.72 with a correlation coefficient of r=0.989, where Y-axis is the OTA concentration in ng/g of brain and X-axis is the duration of the treatment in weeks. The brain OTA contents was 11.95 +/- 2.2, 23.89 +/- 4.4, 39.9 +/- 4.5, 50.3 +/- 7.3, 78.8 +/- 6.3, 94 +/- 16 ng/g of brain in the mycotoxin-treated animals for respectively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6-weeks treatment. OTA induced modifications of free amino-acid concentrations in the brain, mainly, Tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe). Tyr decreased significantly as compared to control (p < 0.05). Phe increased significantly as compared to control (p < 0.05). 4. Aspartame, (25 mg/kg/48 h) a structural analogue of OTA largely modified the distribution and prevented the accumulation of OTA in the brain since the respective brain OTA contents decreased respectively to 9.6 +/- 7.9, 19.2 +/- 3.0, 26.8 +/- 4.2, 19.7 +/- 1.9, 13.7 /- 5.6 and 11.0 +/- 6.0 ng/g of tissue, for the same duration of treatment. It also prevented the modifications of Tyr and Phe levels. 5. The histological investigations showed several necrotic cells with pyknotic nucleus, detected in OTA treated animals with higher frequency as compared to the controls and Aspartame treated ones. Aspartame appeared to significantly prevent this nuclear effect as well, the meaning of which is discussed. PMID:9726534

  1. Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Sauganth Paul, M V; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense status in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three groups as follows: The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively, in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water. Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame, whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group. Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the 1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats. The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the glutathione-dependent system. PMID:22385158

  2. Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain.

    PubMed

    Humphries, P; Pretorius, E; Naudé, H

    2008-04-01

    The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate, asparagines and glutamine are formed from their precursor, aspartic acid. Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in the body to formate, which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde, diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic derivatives. Previously, it has been reported that consumption of aspartame could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals. Headaches, insomnia and seizures are also some of the neurological effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000) and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning. PMID:17684524

  3. Sorption and biodegradation of artificial sweeteners in activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gan, Jie; Nguyen, Viet Tung; Chen, Huiting; You, Luhua; Duarah, Ankur; Zhang, Lifeng; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-12-01

    There is limited information on the occurrence and removal of artificial sweeteners (ASs) in biological wastewater treatment plants, and in particular, the contribution of sorption and biodegradation to their removal. This study investigated the fate of ASs in both the aqueous and solid phases in a water reclamation plant (WRP). All the four targeted ASs, i.e. acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharine (SAC), were detected in both the aqueous and solid phases of raw influent and primary effluent samples. The concentrations of CYC and SAC in secondary effluent or MBR permeate were below their method detection limits. ACE and SUC were persistent throughout the WRP, whereas CYC and SAC were completely removed in biological treatment (>99%). Experimental results showed that sorption played a minor role in the elimination of the ASs due to the relatively low sorption coefficients (Kd), where Kd<500L/kg. In particular, the poor removal of ACE and SUC in the WRP may be attributed to their physiochemical properties (i.e. logKow<0 or logD<3.2) and chemical structures containing strong withdrawing electron functional groups in heterocyclic rings (i.e. chloride and sulfonate). PMID:26342347

  4. Transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by UV light.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Marco; Schmutz, Beat; Happel, Oliver; Brauch, Heinz-Jrgen; Wlser, Richard; Storck, Florian Rdiger

    2014-05-15

    The transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by direct photolysis was investigated at various pH values, in different water types and at various concentration levels. Main photodegradation products of acesulfame were elucidated and analyzed both in laboratory experiments and in a full-scale waterworks using UV treatment for disinfection purposes. The degradation of acesulfame was found to be independent of the pH (range 5-11) and followed pseudo first order kinetics in a concentration range between 1 ?g?L(-1) and 10 mg?L(-1). Calculated rate constants were in the range between 5.410(-3)s(-1) and 7.410(-3)s(-1). The main photodegradation products of acesulfame were separated by ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and were identified as hydroxylated acesulfame and iso-acesulfame by high resolution mass spectrometry and fragmentation experiments. In the case of iso-acesulfame an intramolecular rearrangement is assumed as the transformation product has a higher polarity and different product ions after MS fragmentation compared to acesulfame. Minor transformation products were identified as amidosulfonic acid and sulfate by comparison with analytical standards. The transformation pathway was found to be transferable to drinking water production as the identified transformation products were also detected to a similar extent in fortified tap water. In a Swiss full-scale waterworks acesulfame concentrations were reduced by approximately 30% and one of the main UV transformation products could be qualitatively detected. PMID:24631604

  5. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2014-10-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

  6. Artificial Sweeteners: A Systematic Review and Primer for Gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Marisa; Gupta, Amit; Dam, Lauren Van; Shannon, Carol; Menees, Stacy; Chey, William D

    2016-04-30

    Artificial sweeteners (AS) are ubiquitous in food and beverage products, yet little is known about their effects on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and whether they play a role in the development of GI symptoms, especially in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Utilizing the PubMed and Embase databases, we conducted a search for articles on individual AS and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, and GI tract. Standard protocols for a systematic review were followed. At the end of our search, we found a total of 617 eligible papers, 26 of which were included. Overall, there is limited medical literature available on this topic. The 2 main areas on which there is data to suggest that AS affect the GI tract include motility and the gut microbiome, though human data is lacking, and most of the currently available data is derived from in vivo studies. The effect on motility is mainly indirect via increased incretin secretion, though the clinical relevance of this finding is unknown as the downstream effect on motility was not studied. The specific effects of AS on the microbiome have been conflicting and the available studies have been heterogeneous in terms of the population studied and both the AS and doses evaluated. Further research is needed to assess whether AS could be a potential cause of GI symptoms. This is especially pertinent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, a population in whom dietary interventions are routinely utilized as a management strategy. PMID:26932837

  7. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds. PMID:11765085

  8. A chemiluminescence sensor array for discriminating natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Kong, Hao; Wang, He; Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array based on catalytic nanomaterials for the discrimination of ten sweeteners, including five natural sugars and five artificial sweeteners. The CL response patterns ("fingerprints") can be obtained for a given compound on the nanomaterial array and then identified through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Moreover, each pure sweetener was quantified based on the emission intensities of selected sensor elements. The linear ranges for these sweeteners lie within 0.05-100 mM, but vary with the type of sweetener. The applicability of this array to real-life samples was demonstrated by applying it to various beverages, and the results showed that the sensor array possesses excellent discrimination power and reversibility. PMID:21850423

  9. Behavioral assessment of the toxicity of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Holder, M D; Yirmiya, R

    1989-01-01

    Six experiments with rats assessed the toxicity of aspartame with behavioral measures. The first three experiments used a conditioned taste aversion procedure since taste aversions are typically observed after a taste is followed by a toxin. Thirty min after thirsty rats drank a sweet solution they were intraperitoneally injected (Experiment 1) or intragastrically intubated (Experiment 2) with saline or 176, 352, or 704 mg/kg of aspartame. Relative to rats given saline, rats injected with 704 and 352 mg/kg aspartame showed strong and mild aversions, respectively. Rats injected with 176 mg/kg of aspartame or intubated with any dose of aspartame did not show taste aversions. In Experiment 3, rats voluntarily consumed an aspartame solution sweetened with saccharin for 7 hr each day. Consumption of the taste paired with aspartame was not reduced. When 352 mg/kg aspartame was injected (Experiment 4), but not when intubated (Experiment 5), 5 min prior to access to a running wheel, running was reduced. Wheel running was not affected by the voluntary consumption of aspartame (Experiment 6). The route of administration effect (intraperitoneal vs. intragastric) on behavior corresponded with the amino acid levels in blood plasma (Experiment 7). Aspartate, phenylalanine, tyrosine and glutamate levels increased more after the injection, than the intubation, of aspartame (176 mg/kg). Overall, the results suggest that aspartame may have adverse effects when intraperitoneally injected but not when the route of administration is oral. PMID:2734328

  10. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    MedlinePLUS

    Artificial sweeteners are substances that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols . ... foods and drinks without adding extra calories. Using artificial sweeteners in place of sugar can also help ...

  11. Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Paul, M V Sauganth; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt.; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt.; and controls were given water freely. Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system. PMID:21376768

  12. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

    2014-09-14

    The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 120/330 ml per d (95 % CI 112, 129, P< 0001) and 113/330 ml per d (95 % CI 102, 125, P= 002), respectively. The association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association. PMID:24932880

  13. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. PMID:24156949

  14. Cytotoxic effects of methanol, formaldehyde, and formate on dissociated rat thymocytes: a possibility of aspartame toxicity.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Y; Sakai, H; Arata, T; Okano, Y; Akaike, N; Sakai, K; Noda, K

    2002-01-01

    Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener added to many soft beverages and its usage is increasing in health-conscious societies. Upon ingestion, this artificial sweetener produces methanol as a metabolite. In order to examine the possibility of aspartame toxicity, the effects of methanol and its metabolites (formaldehyde and formate) on dissociated rat thymocytes were studied by flow cytometry. While methanol and formate did not affect cell viability in the physiological pH range, formaldehyde at 1-3 mmol/L started to induce cell death. Further increase in formaldehyde concentration produced a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Formaldehyde at 1 mmol/L or more greatly reduced cellular content of glutathione, possibly increasing cell vulnerability to oxidative stress. Furthermore, formaldehyde at 3 mmol/L or more significantly increased intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. Threshold concentrations of formaldehyde, a metabolite of methanol, that affected the [Ca2+]i and cellular glutathione content were slightly higher than the blood concentrations of methanol previously reported in subjects administered abuse doses of aspartame. It is suggested that aspartame at abuse doses is harmless to humans. PMID:11991085

  15. [Abuse of artificial sweetener as differential diagnosis of lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Weglage, J; Weber, P; Fliedner, M; Grohmann, J; Zass, R; Rossi, R

    1996-01-01

    A two year old dystrophic boy with chronic diarrhea was described. At the age of 6 month the boy developed a severe gastroenteritis with a secundary lactase deficiency. Dietary treatment was however not successful and consequently the boy became dystrophic. At last, an abuse of sweetener was diagnosed. PMID:8851321

  16. Aspartame and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Sreekanth; Sieburth, Rebecca McNeill

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame (APM) is the most commonly used artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer in the world. There is a rise in concern that APM is carcinogenic due to a variation in the findings of the previous APM carcinogenic bioassays. This article conducts a meta-analytic review of all previous APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents that were conducted before 31 December 2012. The search yielded 10 original APM carcinogenic bioassays on rodents. The aggregate effect sizes suggest that APM consumption has no significant carcinogenic effect in rodents. PMID:24965331

  17. Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study123

    PubMed Central

    Englund-gge, Linda; Brantster, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Sengpiel, Verena; Khatibi, Ali; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kacerovsky, Marian; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. Objective: We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery. Design: This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Results: Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types. Conclusion: This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. PMID:22854404

  18. A bitter aftertaste: unintended effects of artificial sweeteners on the gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Blaser, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal microbial communities regulate a range of host physiological functions, from energy harvest and glucose homeostasis to immune development and regulation. Suez etal. (2014) recently demonstrated that artificial sweeteners alter gut microbial communities, leading to glucose intolerance in both mice and humans. PMID:25440050

  19. A bitter aftertaste: unintended effects of artificial sweeteners on the gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal microbial communities regulate a range of host physiological functions, from energy harvest and glucose homeostasis to immune development and regulation. Suez and colleagues (2014) recently demonstrated that artificial sweeteners alter gut microbial communities, leading to glucose intolerance in both mice and humans. PMID:25440050

  20. Evaluating the environmental impact of artificial sweeteners: a study of their distributions, photodegradation and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Jiang, Yanan; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2014-04-01

    While having a long tradition as safe food additives, artificial sweeteners are a newly recognized class of environmental contaminants due to their extreme persistence and ubiquitous occurrence in various aquatic ecosystems. Resistant to wastewater treatment processes, they are continuously introduced into the water environments. To date however, their environmental behavior, fate as well as long term ecotoxicological contributions in our water resources still remain largely unknown. As a first step in the comprehensive study of artificial sweeteners, this work elucidates the geographical/seasonal/hydrological interactions of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in an open coast system at an estuarine/marine junction. Higher occurrence of acesulfame (seasonal average: 0.22?gL(-1)) and sucralose (0.05?gL(-1)) was found in summer while saccharin (0.11?gL(-1)) and cyclamate (0.10?gL(-1)) were predominantly detected in winter. Seasonal observations of the four sweeteners suggest strong connections with the variable chemical resistance among different sweeteners. Our photodegradation investigation further projected the potential impact of persistent acesulfame and sucralose compounds under prolonged exposure to intensive solar irradiation. Real-time observation by UPLC-ESI/MS of the degradation profile in both sweeteners illustrated that formation of new photo by-products under prolonged UV irradiation is highly viable. Interestingly, two groups of kinetically behaved photodegradates were identified for acesulfame, one of which was at least six times more persistent than the parent compound. For the first time, acute toxicity for the degradates of both sweeteners were arbitrarily measured, revealing photo-enhancement factors of 575 and 17.1 for acesulfame and sucralose, respectively. Direct comparison of photodegradation results suggests that the phototoxicity of acesulfame degradation products may impact aquatic ecosystems. In an attempt to neutralize this prolonged environmental threat, the feasibility of UV/TiO2 as an effective mineralization process in wastewater treatment was evaluated for both sweeteners. Under an environmental and technical relevant condition, a >84% removal rate recorded within 30min and complete photomineralization was achieved within 2h and delivering the best cost efficiency comparing to existing removal methods. A compilation of distribution, degradation, toxicity and attenuation results presented in this paper will go through critical discussions to explore some current issues and to pinpoint solutions for a better control in the emergent contamination of artificial sweeteners. PMID:24289948

  1. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (population attributable fraction 8.7%, 95% confidence interval 3.9% to 12.9%); and of 2.6 million events in the UK (absolute event rate 5.8%), 79 000 would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (population attributable fraction 3.6%, 1.7% to 5.6%). Conclusions Habitual consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, independently of adiposity. Although artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juice also showd positive associations with incidence of type 2 diabetes, the findings were likely to involve bias. None the less, both artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juice were unlikely to be healthy alternatives to sugar sweetened beverages for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Under assumption of causality, consumption of sugar sweetened beverages over years may be related to a substantial number of cases of new onset diabetes. PMID:26199070

  2. Aspartame Attenuates 2, 4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Clinical Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Yong Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Jong; Cho, Jeong-Je; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common multifactorial chronic skin disease that has a multiple and complex pathogenesis. AD is gradually increasing in prevalence globally. In NC/Nga mice, repetitive applications of 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) evoke AD-like clinical symptoms similar to human AD. Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester) is a methyl ester of a dipeptide, which is used as an artificial non-nutritive sweetener. Aspartame has analgesic and anti-inflammatory functions that are similar to the function of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. We investigated whether aspartame can relieve AD-like clinical symptoms induced by DNFB treatment in NC/Nga mice. Sucrose did not relieve AD-like symptoms, whereas aspartame at doses of 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.5 mg kg(-1) inhibited ear swelling and relieved AD-like clinical symptoms. Aspartame inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophils, mast cells, and CD4(+) T cells, and suppressed the expression of cytokines including IL-4 and IFN-γ, and total serum IgE levels. Aspartame may have therapeutic value in the treatment of AD. PMID:26099025

  3. Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

    1999-03-01

    Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

  4. Biochemical and clinical effects of aspartame in patients with chronic, stable alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hertelendy, Z I; Mendenhall, C L; Rouster, S D; Marshall, L; Weesner, R

    1993-05-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener completely metabolized in the gut and absorbed as aspartate, phenylalanine, and methanol. Phenylalanine is thought to mediate or exacerbate hepatic encephalopathy, and an impaired liver may not be able to cope with the ammoniagenic properties of the amino acid constituents, or adequately metabolize methanol. Thus, we compared the clinical and biochemical effects of a single ingestion of aspartame (15 mg/kg) to skim milk (phenylalanine content equimolar to aspartame) and placebo in patients with chronic, alcoholic liver disease in a randomized, crossover study. Aspartame produced an elevation of plasma phenylalanine significantly greater than milk and placebo (Cmax 14.55 +/- 7.38, 10.95 +/- 4.95, 8.84 +/- 4.55 mumol/dl, respectively; p < 0.01). However, quantified encephalopathic changes were observed only with milk (p < 0.05). Plasma aspartate, methanol, formate, and ammonia levels remained unchanged after all treatments. The lack of clinical derangements in encephalopathic indices, methanol accumulation, or biochemical changes in liver status suggests that a single large dose of aspartame (representing 5 times the average daily intake of adults) may be used safely by patients with chronic, stable liver disease. PMID:8480740

  5. Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes δ18O, δ2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 μgL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 μgL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, δ2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

  6. Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

    2014-01-01

    The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n=3) and rivers (n=12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source. PMID:24100049

  7. What every dentist should know about artificial sweeteners and their effects.

    PubMed

    Starr, Zachary Aaron; Porter, Judith A; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are a ubiquitous commodity on the market. The idea that people can consume a sweet food or beverage with "zero" calories seems too good to be true, and perhaps it is. The longevity and abundance of these products on the market necessitate the study of their mechanisms and their relationships to health and disease, including possible links to obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. PMID:25945759

  8. Artificial Sweeteners Stimulate Adipogenesis and Suppress Lipolysis Independently of Sweet Taste Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Becky R.; Parlee, Sebastian D.; Learman, Brian S.; Mori, Hiroyuki; Scheller, Erica L.; Cawthorn, William P.; Ning, Xiaomin; Gallagher, Katherine; Tyrberg, Björn; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.; Evans, Charles R.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut, and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame potassium, enhanced adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as cAMP-response element-binding protein and FOXO1; however, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α was not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr-308 occurred within 5 min, was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurred in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of Ser-473 occurred more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor Thr-308 phosphorylation was dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although Ser-473 phosphorylation was impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knock-out precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppressed lipolysis even in the presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses were correlated with phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes was also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. PMID:24068707

  9. Artificial Sweeteners in a Large Canadian River Reflect Human Consumption in the Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Spoelstra, John; Schiff, Sherry L.; Brown, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (0.88 µg/L), and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown. PMID:24349342

  10. Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, John; Schiff, Sherry L; Brown, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 g/L), cyclamate (2.4 g/L) [corrected], and saccharin (7.2 g/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown. PMID:24349342

  11. Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the postmarketing period.

    PubMed

    Butchko, H H; Stargel, W W

    2001-12-01

    Prior to marketing, the safety of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer was demonstrated by the results of over 100 scientific studies in animals and humans. In the postmarketing period, the safety of aspartame was further evaluated through extensive monitoring of intake, postmarketing surveillance of anecdotal reports of alleged health effects, and additional research to evaluate these anecdotal reports and other scientific issues. The results of the extensive intake evaluation in the United States, which was done over an 8-year period, and the results of studies done in other countries demonstrated intakes which were well below the acceptable daily intakes set by the FDA and regulatory bodies in other countries, as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of the anecdotal reports of adverse health effects, the first such system for a food additive, revealed that the reported effects were generally mild and also common in the general population and that there was no consistent or unique pattern of symptoms that could be causally linked to consumption of aspartame. Finally, the results of the extensive scientific research done to evaluate these allegations did not show a causal relationship between aspartame and adverse effects. Thus, the weight of scientific evidence confirms that, even in amounts many times what people typically consume, aspartame is safe for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. PMID:11754527

  12. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    PubMed

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. PMID:25543075

  13. Conventional drinking water treatment and direct biofiltration for the removal of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners: A pilot-scale approach.

    PubMed

    McKie, Michael J; Andrews, Susan A; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-02-15

    The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and artificial sweeteners are of concern to water providers because they may be incompletely removed by wastewater treatment processes and they pose an unknown risk to consumers due to long-term consumption of low concentrations of these compounds. This study utilized pilot-scale conventional and biological drinking water treatment processes to assess the removal of nine PhACs and EDCs, and two artificial sweeteners. Conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, settling, non-biological dual-media filtration) was compared to biofilters with or without the addition of in-line coagulant (0.2-0.8mgAl(3+)/L; alum or PACl). A combination of biofiltration, with or without in-line alum, and conventional filtration was able to reduce 7 of the 9 PhACs and EDCs by more than 50% from river water while artificial sweeteners were inconsistently removed by conventional treatment or biofiltration. Increasing doses of PACl from 0 to 0.8mg/L resulted in average removals of PhACs, EDCs increasing from 39 to 70% and artificial sweeteners removal increasing from ~15% to ~35% in lake water. These results suggest that a combination of biological, chemical and physical treatment can be applied to effectively reduce the concentration of EDCs, PhACs, and artificial sweeteners. PMID:26657244

  14. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity. PMID:21855599

  15. Consumption of Artificially-Sweetened Soft Drinks in Pregnancy and Risk of Child Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. Objective To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. Results At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring allergic disease development. PMID:23460835

  16. Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Karalius, Vytas P; Shoham, David A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar consumption, especially in the form of fructose, has been hypothesized to cause kidney disease. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic evidence that sugar consumption increases CKD risk. Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors, including increasing serum uric acid levels, diabetes, and obesity. Sugar may also harm the kidney via other mechanisms. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition. To date, 5 epidemiologic studies have directly evaluated the relationship between sugar consumption (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and CKD. Although most studies suggest that the risk of CKD is elevated among consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages, only 2 studies report statistically significant associations. Three studies have also examined diet soda consumption, with two reporting positive and significant associations. Confounding by unmeasured lifestyle factors may play a role in the positive results whereas poor measurement of sugar and artificial sweetener intake could explain null results. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that sugar causes kidney disease remains plausible, and alternative research designs may be needed. PMID:23439375

  17. Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on sweetness intensity of Aspartame.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Xu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Wen-Rui; Wu, Zhai; Wang, Ren-Hai; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

    2014-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of Aspartame in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-L) and sodium alginate (SA) revealed that only CMC-L showed a suppression effect, while SA did not. By using an artificial taste receptor model, we found that the presence of SA or CMC-L resulted in a decrease in association constants. Further investigation of CMC-L solution revealed that the decrease in water mobility and diffusion also contribute to the suppression effect. In the case of SA, the decreased viscosity and comparatively higher amount of free water facilitated the diffusion of sweetener, which might compensate for the decreased binding constant between Aspartame and receptor. This may suppress the impact of SA on sweetness intensity. The results suggest that exploring the binding affinity of taste molecules with the receptor, along with water mobility and diffusion in hydrocolloidal structures, provide sufficient information for understanding the mechanism behind the effect of macromolecular hydrocolloids on taste. PMID:24996335

  18. Synthesis of Aspartame by Thermolysin: An X-ray Structural Study.

    PubMed

    Birrane, Gabriel; Bhyravbhatla, Balaji; Navia, Manuel A

    2014-06-12

    Protease mediated peptide synthesis (PMPS) was first described in the 1930s but remains underexploited today. In most PMPS, the reaction equilibrium is shifted toward synthesis by the aqueous insolubility of product generated. Substrates and proteases are selected by trial and error, yields are modest, and reaction times are slow. Once implemented, however, PMPS reactions can be simple, environmentally benign, and readily scalable to a commercial level. We examined the PMPS of a precursor of the artificial sweetener aspartame, a multiton peptide synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme thermolysin. X-ray structures of thermolysin in complex with aspartame substrates separately, and after PMPS in a crystal, rationalize the reaction's substrate preferences and reveal an unexpected form of substrate inhibition that explains its sluggishness. Structure guided optimization of this and other PMPS reactions could expand the economic viability of commercial peptides beyond current high-potency, low-volume therapeutics, with substantial green chemistry advantages. PMID:24944748

  19. Genotoxicity of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Renczo?ullari, Eyyp; Tyl, Berrin Ayaz; Topakta?, Mehmet; Ila, Hasan Basri; Kayraldiz, Ahmet; Arslan, Mehmet; Diler, Songl Budak

    2004-08-01

    In the present study, the genotoxic effects of the low-calorie sweetener aspartame (ASP), which is a dipeptide derivative, was investigated using chromosome aberration (CA) test, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test, micronucleus test in human lymphocytes and also Ames/Salmonella/ microsome test. ASP induced CAs at all concentrations (500, 1000 and 2000 microg/ml) and treatment periods (24 and 48 h) dose-dependently, while it did not induce SCEs. On the other hand, ASP decreased the replication index (RI) only at the highest concentration for 48 h treatment period. However, ASP decreased the mitotic index (MI) at all concentrations and treatment periods dose-dependently. In addition, ASP induced micronuclei at the highest concentrations only. This induction was also dose-dependent for 48 hours treatment period. ASP was not mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains in the absence and presence of S9 mix. PMID:15478947

  20. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain. PMID:25009784

  1. Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain. PMID:25009784

  2. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

  3. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796

  4. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML. PMID:26406785

  5. In vivo cytogenetic studies on blends of aspartame and acesulfame-K.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, M; Mukherjee, A; Chakrabarti, J

    2000-01-01

    Aspartame and acesulfame-K, non-nutritive sweeteners, are permitted individually in diets and beverages. These sweeteners of different classes, used in combination, have been found to possess a synergistic sweetening effect. Whether they also have a synergistic genotoxic effect is unknown. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to blends of aspartame (3.5, 35, 350mg/kg body weight) and acesulfame-K (1.5, 15 and 150mg/kg body weight) by gavage. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analysed for chromosome aberrations. Statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame in combination with acesulfame-K is not significantly genotoxic. PMID:10685017

  6. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  7. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group

  8. Impact of aspartame and saccharin on the rat liver: Biochemical, molecular, and histological approach.

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The current work was undertaken to settle the debate about the toxicity of artificial sweeteners (AS), particularly aspartame and saccharin. Twenty-five, 7-week-old male Wistar albino rats with an average body weight of 101 ± 4.8 g were divided into a control group and four experimental groups (n = 5 rats). The first and second experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame (250 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of aspartame (1000 mg/Kg BW). The third and fourth experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to ADI of saccharin (25 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of saccharin (100 mg/Kg BW). The experimental groups received the corresponding sweetener dissolved in water by oral route for 8 weeks. The activities of enzymes relevant to liver functions and antioxidants were measured in the blood plasma. Histological studies were used for the evaluation of the changes in the hepatic tissues. The gene expression levels of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the tumor suppressor gene (P27) were also evaluated. In addition to a significant reduction in the body weight, the AS-treated groups displayed elevated enzymes activities, lowered antioxidants values, and histological changes reflecting the hepatotoxic effect of aspartame and saccharin. Moreover, the overexpression of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene (P27) in all treated rat groups may indicate a potential risk of liver carcinogenesis, particularly on long-term exposure. PMID:26015492

  9. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health. PMID:25831243

  10. Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

    2014-01-01

    Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed. PMID:24687789

  11. Implicit media frames: automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Iina; Dawson, James; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-09-01

    The framing of issues in the mass media plays a crucial role in the public understanding of science and technology. This article contributes to research concerned with the analysis of media frames over time by making an analytical distinction between implicit and explicit media frames, and by introducing an automated method for the analysis of implicit frames. In particular, we apply a semantic maps method to a case study on the newspaper debate about artificial sweeteners, published in the New York Times between 1980 and 2006. Our results show that the analysis of semantic changes enables us to filter out the dynamics of implicit frames, and to detect emerging metaphors in public debates. Theoretically, we discuss the relation between implicit frames in public debates and the codification of meaning and information in scientific discourses, and suggest further avenues for research interested in the automated analysis of frame changes and trends in public debates. PMID:21553600

  12. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener. PMID:17828671

  13. Use of two artificial sweeteners, cyclamate and acesulfame, to identify and quantify wastewater contributions in a karst spring.

    PubMed

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias; Schiperski, Ferry; Nödler, Karsten; Scheytt, Traugott

    2016-03-15

    The identification and differentiation of different sources of contamination are crucial aspects of risk assessment in water resource protection. This is especially challenging in karst environments due to their highly heterogeneous flow fields. We have investigated the use of two artificial sweeteners, cyclamate and acesulfame, as an indicator set for contamination by wastewater within the rural catchment of a karst spring. The catchment was investigated in detail to identify the sources of artificial sweeteners and quantify their impact. Spring water was analysed following two different but typical recharge events: (1) a rain-on-snow event in winter, when no wastewater overflow from the sewer system was observed, and (2) an intense rainfall event in summer triggering an overflow from a stormwater detention basin. Acesulfame, which is known to be persistent, was quantified in all spring water samples. Its concentrations decreased after the winter event with no associated wastewater spillage but increased during the summer event following a recent input of untreated wastewater. Cyclamate, which is known to be degradable, was only detected following the wastewater inflow incident. The cyclamate signal matched very well the breakthrough of faecal indicator bacteria, indicating a common origin. Knowing the input function, cyclamate was used quantitatively as a tracer in transport modelling and the impact of 'combined sewer overflow' on spring water quality was quantified. Signals from artificial sweeteners were compared to those from bulk parameters (discharge, electrical conductivity and turbidity) and also to those from the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon, which indicate 'old' and 'fresh' flow components, respectively, both originating from croplands. High concentration levels of the artificial sweeteners in untreated wastewater (cyclamate and acesulfame) and in treated wastewater (acesulfame only) make them powerful indicators, especially in rural settings where wastewater input is relatively low, and in karst systems where dilution is often high. PMID:26795541

  14. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely occurs at uniquely high concentrations in domestic wastewater. As such, it holds considerable promise as a powerful new tracer of wastewater impact in groundwater.

  15. Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Moaddel, Ruin

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

  16. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Moaddel, Ruin; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

  17. Degradation of artificial sweetener saccharin in aqueous medium by electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng; Wu, Jie; Oturan, Nihal; Zhang, Hui; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-03-01

    The removal of artificial sweetener saccharin (SAC) in aqueous solution by electrochemical advanced oxidation using electro-Fenton process was performed. Experiments were carried out in an undivided cylindrical glass cell with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The removal of SAC by electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with both Pt and BDD anode. The absolute rate constant of the SAC hydroxylation reaction was determined for the first time using the competition kinetic method and found to be (1.85 ± 0.01) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The comparative study of TOC removal efficiency during electro-Fenton treatment indicated a higher mineralization rate with BDD than Pt anode. The identification and evolution of short-chain carboxylic acids and inorganic ions formed during oxidation process were monitored by ion-exchange chromatography and ion chromatography, respectively. The assessment of toxicity of SAC and/or its reaction by-products during treatment was performed using Microtox® method based on the Vibrio fischeri bacteria luminescence inhibition. Results showed that the process was able to efficiently detoxify the treated solution. PMID:26507727

  18. An artificial sweetener and pharmaceutical compounds as co-tracers of urban wastewater in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Van Stempvoort, D R; Roy, J W; Grabuski, J; Brown, S J; Bickerton, G; Sverko, E

    2013-09-01

    Groundwater in urban areas can be affected by numerous wastewater sources. Distinguishing these sources can facilitate better management of urban water resources and wastewater, and protection of urban aquatic environments. A single wastewater tracer, even if ideal (i.e. low background levels, non-reactive, low detection limits, etc.), would be unable to accomplish this task. Here, we investigated the potential advantages of using a suite of anthropogenic chemicals as co-tracers to distinguish wastewater sources that contribute to groundwater contamination at two urban sites. We considered both relatively ubiquitous and non-ubiquitous tracers in wastewater. At the Jasper (Alberta, Canada) site, concentrations of an artificial sweetener, two pharmaceutical compounds, and a degradate of nicotine in groundwater were strongly correlated as co-tracers. This evidence, along with the similar spatial distributions of these co-tracers could be used to delineate and distinguish a single municipal wastewater plume. At the Barrie (Ontario, Canada) site, there was moderate to strong correlation of the wastewater co-tracers, but local differences in their distributions and in the ratios of their concentrations could be used to infer that mixtures of two or more domestic septic plumes were present in the groundwater at this site. This study demonstrates the benefit of applying a suite of tracers to urban groundwater affected by wastewater contamination. This approach should be applicable at other urban sites. PMID:23738987

  19. Patterns of artificial sweetener use and weight change in an American Cancer Society prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stellman, S D; Garfinkel, L

    1988-01-01

    Extreme obesity and leanness are risk factors for many types of cancer. An earlier American Cancer Society study (1959-1972) found a nearly twofold increased risk for death from all causes in men and women who weighed 40% or more above average for their age and height, and found elevated cancer rates as well. A new (1982), ongoing ACS prospective study of 1.2 million men and women continues to find increased death rates from all causes and from cancer in the very heavy and the very lean. Artificial sweetener (AS) use is an important correlate of relative weight in this population. The relationship between weight change during the year preceding enrollment and AS usage was studied in a highly homogeneous subgroup of 78694 women ages 50-69 years. The percentage of users increased with body mass index (BMI) and was inversely related to age. Users were significantly more likely than non-users to gain weight, regardless of initial BMI. Among those who gained weight, the average number of lbs gained by AS users was higher (by 0.5-1.5 lb) than the amount gained by non-users. Within the entire cohort, AS users of both sexes ate chicken, fish and vegetables significantly more often than did non-users and consumed beef, butter, white bread, potatoes, ice cream and chocolate significantly less often, suggesting that our weight change results are not explicable by differences in food consumption patterns. PMID:3190221

  20. Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE at elevated concentrations in aquifer zones dominated by local recharge indicated another point-source of domestic waste water. The combined analysis of ACE and conventional hydrochemical data proved to be useful to identify different sources of waste water. It is shown that the combination of physicochemical parameters and artificial sweeteners allow for a clear delineation of infiltration areas in the investigated aquifer system.

  1. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frdric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

  2. RYGB progressively increases avidity for a low-energy, artificially sweetened diet in female rats.

    PubMed

    Geary, Nori; Bchler, Thomas; Whiting, Lynda; Lutz, Thomas A; Asarian, Lori

    2016-03-01

    Weight re-gain within 2y after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is significantly associated with increased intake of and cravings for sweet foods. Here we describe a novel model of this late increase in sweet appetite. Ovariectomized RYGB and Sham-operated rats, with or without estradiol treatment, were maintained on Ensure liquid diet and offered a low-energy, artificially sweetened diet (ASD) 2h/d. First, we tested rats more than six months after RYGB. ASD meals were larger in RYGB than Sham rats, whereas Ensure meals were smaller. General physical activity increased during ASD meals in RYGB rats, but not during Ensure meals. Second, new rats were adapted to ASD before surgery, and were then offered ASD again during 4-10wk following surgery. Estradiol-treated RYGB rats lost the most weight and progressively increased ASD intake to >20g/2h in wk 9-10 vs. ?3g/2h in Sham rats. Finally, the same rats were then treated with leptin or saline for 8d. Leptin did not affect body weight, Ensure intake, or activity during meals, but slightly reduced ASD intake in estradiol-treated RYGB rats. Food-anticipatory activity was increased in estradiol-treated RYGB rats during the saline-injection tests. Because increased meal-related physical activity together with larger meals is evidence of hunger in rats, these data suggest that (1) RYGB can increase hunger for a low-energy sweet food in rats and (2) low leptin levels contribute to this hunger, but are not its only cause. This provides a unique rat model for the increased avidity for sweets that is significantly associated with weight recidivism late after RYGB. PMID:26707654

  3. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. PMID:26915590

  4. Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

    1993-10-01

    An artificial sweetener, aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation σ, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of σ by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 σ 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 μm or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

  5. Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks. PMID:25471292

  6. Review of present and future use of nonnutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Bertorelli, A M; Czarnowski-Hill, J V

    1990-01-01

    In response to growing consumer demand for better tasting, low-calorie, sugar-free food products, the number of food items containing nonnutritive sweeteners has grown markedly in recent years. In this paper, present sweetener consumption is reviewed; the history, properties, uses, advantages, and safety of approved sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame-K are presented, as well as those of sweeteners such as cyclamate, sucralose, and alitame that are awaiting FDA approval; the role of sweeteners in the dietary management of persons with diabetes is discussed; and counseling guidelines for safe consumption are given. PMID:2202574

  7. Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 ... to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the amino acids in aspartame. If you are concerned that consuming ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

    2009-04-22

    Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature. PMID:19275236

  9. Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jolene; Greenway, Frank L; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, William D; King, Jason F; King, Michael J; Gao, Chenfei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Finley, John W

    2014-05-25

    Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24632416

  10. Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

    2014-12-01

    Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 60 s). The sensory evaluation of Shankarpoli prepared using refined wheat flour revealed that there was no significant difference in typical attributes of the snack; Aspartame and Acesulfame K had same sweetness intensity where as Sucralose had higher intensity of sweetness. Consumer acceptance study revealed that 53 % of the consumers liked the snack with Sucralose, which is highest compared to other two sweeteners namely Aspartame and Acesulfame K (47 %). Thus sweeteners can be used as sweetening agents in traditional food preparations. PMID:25477687

  11. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine artificial sweeteners in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-06-01

    Artificial sweeteners are food additives employed as sugar substitutes which are now considered to be emerging organic contaminants. In the present study, a method is developed for the determination of a group of artificial sweeteners in environmental waters. Considering the polar and hydrophilic character of these compounds, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is proposed for their separation as an alternative to traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Two stationary phases with different chemistry were compared for this purpose. For the detection of the analytes, high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was employed to take advantage of its benefits in terms of reliable quantification and confirmation for the measurement of accurate masses. Solid-phase extraction was chosen as the sample treatment, in which the extract in a mixture of NH4OH:MeOH:ACN (1:4:15) was directly injected into the chromatographic system, simplifying the analytical procedure. The optimized method was validated on river and waste water samples. For example, in the case of effluent water samples, limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.7 μg/L and limits of quantification ranged from 0.004 to 1.5 μg/L. Apparent (whole method) recoveries ranged from 57 to 74% with intra-day precision (%RSD, n = 5) ranging from 6 to 25%. The method was successfully applied to water samples from different rivers in Catalonia and different waste water treatment plants in Tarragona. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine and sucralose were found in several samples. PMID:25428455

  12. Absence of developmental effects in CF-1 mice exposed to aspartame in utero.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, P A; Collier, M J; Enticott, J; Tesh, J M; Mayhew, D A; Comer, C P; Hjelle, J J; Kotsonis, F N

    1989-08-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a widely used high potency dipeptide sweetener. Developmental toxicology studies have been performed in several species documenting no effects of high doses of aspartame. Recently, a study by Mahalik and Gautieri [1984) Res. Commun. Psychol. Psychiatry Behav. 9, 385-403) reported a delay in the achievement age for the visual placing response in mice pups after maternal administration of high dosages of aspartame during late gestation. In the present study developmental parameters were determined in offspring of CF-1 mice after maternal administration of aspartame at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg body wt by oral gavage. Aspartame was administered on Days 15 through 18 of gestation. Maternal body weight, food consumption, gestation length, reproductive indices, and litter size were not affected by aspartame treatment. In the pups, body weights, negative geotaxis, and surface and midair righting reflexes were not altered by treatment. There was no delay in the development of the visual placing response regardless of the method employed for assessment (grid or rope) or the manner by which the data were analyzed. There were also no changes in time of eye opening, reflex pupil closure, and ophthalmoscopic examination in the offspring. Thus, neither physical nor functional development was altered in mice after in utero exposure to extremely large dosages of aspartame. More specifically, in utero exposure to aspartame did not affect the development of the visual system in mice. PMID:2792596

  13. Ultrastructural changes to rabbit fibrin and platelets due to aspartame.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, E; Humphries, P

    2007-01-01

    The coagulation process, including thrombin, fibrin, as well as platelets, plays an important role in hemostasis, contributing to the general well-being of humans. Fibrin formation and platelet activation are delicate processes that are under the control of many small physiological events. Any one of these many processes may be influenced or changed by external factors, including pharmaceutical or nutritional products, e.g., the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester). It is known that phenylalanine is present at position P(9) and aspartate at position P(10) of the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen, and plays an important role in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by the catalyst alpha-thrombin. The authors investigate the effect of aspartame on platelet and fibrin ultrastructure, by using the rabbit animal model and the scanning electron microscope. Animals were exposed to 34 mg/kg of aspartame 26x during a 2-month period. Aspartame-exposed fibrin networks appeared denser, with a thick matted fine fiber network covering thick major fibers. Also, the platelet aggregates appeared more granular than the globular control platelet aggregates. The authors conclude by suggesting that aspartame usage may interfere with the coagulation process and might cause delayed fibrin breakup after clot formation. They suggest this, as the fibrin networks from aspartame-exposed rabbits are more complex and dense, due to the netlike appearance of the minor, thin fibers. Aspartame usage should possibly be limited by people on anti-clotting medicine or those with prone to clot formation. PMID:17613990

  14. Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI. PMID:23802660

  15. Aspartame and seizure susceptibility: results of a clinical study in reportedly sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A J; Shaywitz, B A; Tuchman, L; French, J A; Luciano, D; Sullivan, C M

    1995-03-01

    The high intensity sweetener aspartame has been implicated anecdotally in seizure provocation. This possibility was investigated with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. After an extensive search, 18 individuals (16 adults and 2 children) who had seizures allegedly related to aspartame consumption were admitted to adult or pediatric epilepsy monitoring units where their EEG was monitored continuously for 5 days. Aspartame (50 mg/kg) or identically enpackaged placebo was administered in divided doses at 0800, 1000, and 1200 h on study days 2 and 4. All meals were uniformly standardized on treatment days. No clinical seizures or other adverse experiences were observed after aspartame ingestion. Mean plasma phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations increased significantly after aspartame ingestion (83.6 microM) as compared with placebo (52.3 microM). Results suggest that aspartame, in acute dosage of approximately 50 mg/kg, is no more likely than placebo to cause seizures in individuals who reported that their seizures were provoked by aspartame consumption. PMID:7614911

  16. Nonnutritive Sweeteners in Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Gardner, Alexandra L; Bauman, Viviana; Blau, Jenny E; Garraffo, H Martin; Walter, Peter J; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), including saccharin, sucralose, aspartame, and acesulfame-potassium, are commonly consumed in the general population, and all except for saccharin are considered safe for use during pregnancy and lactation. Sucralose (Splenda) currently holds the majority of the NNS market share and is often combined with acesulfame-potassium in a wide variety of foods and beverages. To date, saccharin is the only NNS reported to be found in human breast milk after maternal consumption, while there is no apparent information on the other NNS. Breast milk samples were collected from 20 lactating volunteers, irrespective of their habitual NNS intake. Saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-potassium were present in 65% of participants' milk samples, whereas aspartame was not detected. These data indicate that NNS are frequently ingested by nursing infants, and thus prospective clinical studies are necessary to determine whether early NNS exposure via breast milk may have clinical implications. PMID:26267522

  17. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Is sugar really bad for us? How about artificial or low-calorie sweeteners? What have scientists learned ... that contain low- or no-calorie sweeteners. These artificial sweeteners—also known as sugar substitutes—are many ...

  18. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  19. Relationship between artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened cola beverage consumption during pregnancy and preterm delivery in a multi-ethnic cohort: analysis of the Born in Bradford cohort study.

    PubMed

    Petherick, E S; Goran, M I; Wright, J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the intake of sugar-sweetened (SS) and artificially sweetened (AS) cola beverages during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery (PTD). At baseline (2007-2010), 8914 pregnant women were recruited to the Born in Bradford birth cohort study at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Women completed a questionnaire describing their health and lifestyle behaviours, including their consumption of AS and SS cola beverages reported as cups per day, which were then linked to maternity records. The relationship between SS and AS cola beverage consumption was examined using logistic regression analyses. No relationship was observed between daily AS cola beverage consumption and PTD. Women who drank four cups per day of SS cola beverages had higher odds of a PTD when compared with women who did not consume these beverages daily. We conclude that high daily consumption of SS cola beverages during pregnancy is associated with increases in the rate of PTD. PMID:24398641

  20. [Optimization of sample pretreatment method for the determination of typical artificial sweeteners in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Feng, Biting; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    The sample pretreatment method for the determination of four typical artificial sweeteners (ASs) including sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was optimized. Different conditions of extraction, including four extractants (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, deionized water), three kinds of ionic strength of sodium acetate solution (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mol/L), four pH values (3, 4, 5 and 6) of 0.01 mol/L acetate-sodium acetate solution, four set durations of extraction (20, 40, 60, 120 min) and number of extraction times (1, 2, 3, 4 times) were compared. The optimal sample pretreatment method was finally set up. The sam- ples were extracted twice with 25 mL 0.01 mol/L sodium acetate solution (pH 4) for 20 min per cycle. The extracts were combined and then purified and concentrated by CNW Poly-Sery PWAX cartridges with methanol containing 1 mmol/L tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (Tris) and 5% (v/v) ammonia hydroxide as eluent. The analytes were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The recoveries were obtained by spiked soil with the four artificial sweeteners at 1, 10, 100 ?g/kg (dry weight), separately. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 86.5% to 105%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.56%-5.94% and 3.99%-6.53%, respectively. Good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were observed between 1-100 ?g/kg (dry weight) for all the compounds. The limits of detection were 0.01-0.21 kg/kg and the limits of quantification were 0.03-0.70 ?g/kg for the analytes. The four artificial sweeteners were determined in soil samples from farmland contaminated by wastewater in Tianjin. This method is rapid, reliable, and suitable for the investigation of artificial sweeteners in soil. PMID:25752083

  1. Aspartame fails to facilitate pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Dailey, J W; Lasley, S M; Mishra, P K; Bettendorf, A F; Burger, R L; Jobe, P C

    1989-05-01

    Concentrations of plasma amino acids and brain monoamines as well as pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures were monitored in CD-1 mice treated with aspartame in acute oral doses from 0 to 2500 mg/kg. One hour after administration aspartame produced increases in plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine and modest reductions in concentrations of brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. However, these effects of the sweetener had no influence on the convulsive dose fifty (CD50) of pentylenetetrazol. Moreover, aspartame failed to alter the percentage of mice exhibiting seizures when exposed to an approximate CD50 of pentylenetetrazol. Finally, aspartame had no effect on brain norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. In sharp contrast to previously reported studies, these observations suggest that aspartame, given in heroic doses, does not alter the propensity to seizure activity in CD-1 mice. We conclude that changes in plasma amino acids and brain serotonin produced by large oral bolus doses of aspartame are insufficient to result in functional deficits which might have the capacity to facilitate pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. PMID:2470165

  2. Aspartame-stabilized gold-silver bimetallic biocompatible nanostructures with plasmonic photothermal properties, antibacterial activity, and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Fasciani, Chiara; Silvero, M Jazmin; Anghel, Maria Alexandra; Argüello, Gerardo A; Becerra, Maria Cecilia; Scaiano, Juan C

    2014-12-17

    Gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles stabilized with a common sweetener, aspartame (AuNP@Ag@Asm), combine the antimicrobial properties of silver with the photoinduced plasmon-mediated photothermal effects of gold. The particles were tested with several bacterial strains, while biocompatibility was verified with human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25487127

  3. Effect of aspartame on oxidative stress and monoamine neurotransmitter levels in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; Hussein, Jihan Seid

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100?g/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625-45mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7-32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6-31.6%, and increased TNF-? by 16.7-44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-? by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5-16.9%, nitrite by 12.6-20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver. PMID:21822758

  4. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  5. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health. PMID:24436139

  6. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Prokic, Marko D; Paunovic, Milica G; Matic, Milos M; Djordjevic, Natasa Z; Ognjanovic, Branka I; Stajn, Andras S; Saicic, Zorica S

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2 .-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (?N??-) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes. PMID:25431414

  7. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Soffritti M; Padovani M; Tibaldi E; Falcioni L; Manservisi F; Belpoggi F

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health.

  8. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. PMID:26377607

  9. Soft drinks with aspartame: effect on subjective hunger, food selection, and food intake of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Black, R M; Tanaka, P; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1991-04-01

    Ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverages has been reported to increase subjective measures of appetite. This study examined the effects of familiar carbonated soft drinks sweetened with aspartame on subjective hunger, energy intake and macronutrient selection at a lunch-time meal. Subjects were 20 normal weight young adult males, classified as either restrained or nonrestrained eaters. Four treatments of carbonated beverages included 280 ml of mineral water, one can of a soft drink (280 ml) consumed in either 2 or 10 minutes, or two cans of a soft drink (560 ml) consumed in 10 minutes, administered at 11:00 a.m. Subjective hunger and food appeal were measured from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m., and food intake data were obtained from a buffet lunch given at 12:00 noon. There were no treatment effects on energy intake, macronutrient selection or food choice at the lunch-time meal, or food appeal, though restrained eaters consumed more than nonrestrained eaters in all four treatment conditions. Consumption of two soft drinks (560 ml, 320 mg aspartame) significantly reduced subjective hunger from 11:05 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. compared to one soft drink (280 ml, 160 mg aspartame) or 280 ml of mineral water. Thus ingestion of soft drinks containing aspartame did not increase short-term subjective hunger or food intake. PMID:1881987

  10. Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. PMID:24612793

  11. Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenjau; Wang, Yun-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these four substances and the mixtures of CAF with each sweetener. The embryos were exposed to ASP at 0.2 and 1.0 mM, SAC at 0.005 and 0.050 mM, CAF at 0.05 and 0.5 mM, or SUC at 29 and 146 mM, starting from less than 5 h post fertilization until hatch. Control embryos were treated with embryo solution only. Several endpoints were used to evaluate embryonic development. Some of the hatchlings were also tested for anxiety-like behavior with the white preference test. The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development. The most sensitive endpoints were the heart rate, eye density, and hatchling body length. The hatchlings of several treatment groups also exhibited anxiety-like behavior. We then used the Integrated Biological Response (IBR) as an index to evaluate the overall developmental toxicity of the substances. We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners. PMID:26380162

  12. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feij, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flvia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  13. Overview of Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Jerry W.

    1995-08-01

    The techniques for assessing the relative sweetness of different compounds are discussed. The search for new, sweet compounds continues to be of interest to the food industry. In addition to sugars, sweet compounds with a variety of structures are surveyed and range from small inorganic molecules to large proteins. Emphasis is placed on artificial sweeteners and their current status in the marketplace. The recent theories of sweetness are briefly covered.

  14. Aspartame exacerbates EEG spike-wave discharge in children with generalized absence epilepsy: a double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Camfield, P R; Camfield, C S; Dooley, J M; Gordon, K; Jollymore, S; Weaver, D F

    1992-05-01

    There are anecdotal reports of increased seizures in humans after ingestion of aspartame. We studied 10 children with newly diagnosed but untreated generalized absence seizures. Ambulatory cassette recording of EEG allowed quantification of numbers and length of spike-wave discharges in a double-blind study on two consecutive days. On one day the children received 40 mg/kg aspartame and on the other day, a sucrose-sweetened drink. Baseline EEG was the same before aspartame and sucrose. Following aspartame compared with sucrose, the number of spike-wave discharges per hour and mean length of spike-wave discharges increased but not to a statistically significant degree. However, the total duration of spike-wave discharge per hour was significantly increased after aspartame (p = 0.028), with a 40% +/- 17% (SEM) increase in the number of seconds per hour of EEG recording that the children spent in spike-wave discharge. Aspartame appears to exacerbate the amount of EEG spike wave in children with absence seizures. Further studies are needed to establish if this effect occurs at lower doses and in other seizure types. PMID:1579221

  15. Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    1990-01-01

    At the present time there are four intense sweeteners that are available in a number of countries: acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin. Extensive toxicity databases are available on each sweetener and these have been assessed by both national and international regulatory authorities. This review considers briefly the critical toxicity of each sweetener that is the basis for establishing the no adverse effect level in animal studies. The calculation of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for human intake employs a large safety factor applied to the no-effect level. The magnitude of the safety factor for each sweetener is discussed in relation to the ADI values recommended by the Scientific Committee for Food in 1985. PMID:1697543

  16. Proteins used as sweeteners: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojian; Alexander, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    For the prevention of obesity, diabetes, dental caries, and some metabolic disorders, ingestion of sugar should be restricted. Although they have high-potency sweetness, artificial low-calorie sweeteners can have severe adverse effects. Public demand for natural and healthy flavors, as well as perceived problems with the toxicity and taste quality of existing synthetic sweeteners, have led to efforts to find natural proteins with high sweetness and tast-modifying properties. Some important properties of natural protein sweeteners and taste-modifying protein sweeteners are discussed in this review. PMID:23994809

  17. Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages with green mobile phases and high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical procedure involving the use of water and a low percentage of ethanol combined to high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in a variety of drink samples. The method permitted the analysis in 23min (including column reequilibration) and consuming only 0.85mL of a green organic solvent (ethanol). This methodology provided limits of detection (after 50-fold dilution) in the 0.05-10mg/L range, with recoveries (obtained from five different types of beverages) being in the 86-110% range and relative standard deviation values lower than 12%. Finally, the method was applied to 25 different samples purchased in Spain, where acesulfame and sucralose were the most frequently detected analytes (>50% of the samples) and cyclamate was found over the legislation limit set by the European Union in a sample and at the regulation boundary in three others. PMID:25236212

  18. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. Methods As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. Results All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.19.2 kg (p?=?0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p?=?0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 3744) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 3543) (p?=?0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Conclusion Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects. PMID:25069603

  19. Gut microbial adaptation to dietary consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols: implications for host-microbe interactions contributing to obesity.

    PubMed

    Payne, A N; Chassard, C; Lacroix, C

    2012-09-01

    The Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat but reduced complex plant polysaccharides, has been attributed to the prevalence of obesity. A concomitant rise in the consumption of fructose and sugar substitutes such as sugar alcohols, artificial sweeteners, even rare sugars, has mirrored this trend, as both probable contributor and solution to the epidemic. Acknowledgement of the gut microbiota as a factor involved in obesity has sparked much controversy as to the cause and consequence of this relationship. Dietary intakes are a known modulator of gut microbial phylogeny and metabolic activity, frequently exploited to stimulate beneficial bacteria, promoting health benefits. Comparably little research exists on the impact of 'unconscious' dietary modulation on the resident commensal community mediated by increased fructose and sugar substitute consumption. This review highlights mechanisms of potential host and gut microbial fructose and sugar substitute metabolism. Evidence is presented suggesting these sugar compounds, particularly fructose, condition the microbiota, resulting in acquisition of a westernized microbiome with altered metabolic capacity. Disturbances in host-microbe interactions resulting from fructose consumption are also explored. PMID:22686435

  20. Artificial sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone showed antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects against paraquat-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of artificial sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) against paraquat (PQ)-induced acute liver injury in mice. A single dose of PQ (75mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced acute liver toxicity with the evidences of increased liver damage biomarkers, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities in serum. Consistently, PQ decreased the antioxidant capacity by reducing glutathione peroxidase (GP-X), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, glutathione (GSH) level and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Histopathological examination revealed that PQ induced numerous changes in the liver tissues. Immunochemical staining assay indicated the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions. However, NHDC ameliorates PQ-induced hepatic toxicity in mice by reversing these parameters. Additionally, NHDC significantly inhibited PQ-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression and mitochondrial-driven apoptotic signaling. TUNEL assay confirmed that PQ-induced apoptosis was relieved by NHDC. In conclusion, these findings suggested that NHDC showed potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects against PQ-induced acute liver damage. PMID:26362205

  1. Gut microbial adaptation to dietary consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols: implications for host-microbe interactions contributing to obesity.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Payne AN; Chassard C; Lacroix C

    2012-09-01

    The Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat but reduced complex plant polysaccharides, has been attributed to the prevalence of obesity. A concomitant rise in the consumption of fructose and sugar substitutes such as sugar alcohols, artificial sweeteners, even rare sugars, has mirrored this trend, as both probable contributor and solution to the epidemic. Acknowledgement of the gut microbiota as a factor involved in obesity has sparked much controversy as to the cause and consequence of this relationship. Dietary intakes are a known modulator of gut microbial phylogeny and metabolic activity, frequently exploited to stimulate beneficial bacteria, promoting health benefits. Comparably little research exists on the impact of 'unconscious' dietary modulation on the resident commensal community mediated by increased fructose and sugar substitute consumption. This review highlights mechanisms of potential host and gut microbial fructose and sugar substitute metabolism. Evidence is presented suggesting these sugar compounds, particularly fructose, condition the microbiota, resulting in acquisition of a westernized microbiome with altered metabolic capacity. Disturbances in host-microbe interactions resulting from fructose consumption are also explored.

  2. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners. PMID:26181574

  3. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  4. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  5. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  6. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  7. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-12-01

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values. PMID:26582819

  8. Lack of DNA-damaging activity of five non-nutritive sweeteners in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2000-04-01

    The non-nutritive sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose were tested for DNA damaging activity in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay. Using hepatocytes from F344 and Sprague-Dawley male rats, all were inactive despite strong responses for the positive control, 2-aminofluorene. PMID:10722887

  9. Consuming aspartame with and without taste: differential effects on appetite and food intake of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Black, R M; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1993-03-01

    Despite some reports that aspartame (APM)-sweetened beverages may increase subjective appetite, previously we demonstrated that drinking 280 ml of an APM-sweetened soft drink (170 mg APM) had no effect on appetite, and 560 ml of the same soft drink (340 mg APM) reduced appetite. The present study examined this appetite reduction to determine its cause. Eighteen normal weight young adult males received five treatments (beverage preloads) at 1100 h in a randomized order, one per week: 280 ml of carbonated mineral water (CMW) (control), 560 ml of CMW, 280 ml of CMW with 340 mg of encapsulated APM, 280 ml of CMW sweetened with 340 mg APM, 560 ml of an APM-sweetened soft drink (340 mg APM). Subjective hunger and food appeal were measured from 0930 a.m. to 1230 h, and food intake from a buffet lunch offered at 1205 h was measured. Treatment had no effect on food intake or macronutrient selection. Both 560 ml of CMW or soft drink suppressed appetite, although 280 ml of APM-sweetened mineral water significantly increased subjective appetite relative to the control. Encapsulated APM had no effect on appetite. Therefore, appetite reduction following consumption of an APM-sweetened drink is likely due to drink volume and not the APM content. In addition, consuming APM-sweetened CMW produces a short-term increase in subjective appetite. PMID:8451310

  10. Advantame Sweetener Preference in C57BL/6J Mice and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations. PMID:25560795

  11. Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations. PMID:25560795

  12. Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    2004-02-01

    Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners to promote eating enjoyment, optimal nutrition, and health. PMID:14760578

  13. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

    1989-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively. PMID:2802596

  14. Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

    2014-01-01

    With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. PMID:24679934

  15. Sweetened Drinks Might Raise Men's Risk for Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the clarity of the findings. For example, food surveys tend to be inaccurate because they rely on people's memories of what they eat, and the beverage question included all sweetened drinks, whether they contained sugar or an artificial sweetener. But this likely "just ...

  16. Non-nutritive sweeteners are not super-normal stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Antenucci, Rachel G.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is often claimed that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ‘sweeter than sugar’, with the implicit implication high potency sweeteners are super-normal stimuli that encourage exaggerated responses. This study aimed to investigate the perceived sweetness intensity of a variety of nutritive (Sucrose, Maple Syrup, and Agave Nectar) and NNS (Acesulfame-K (AceK), Rebaudioside A (RebA), Aspartame, and Sucralose) in a large cohort of untrained participants using contemporary psychophysical methods. Methods Participants (n=401 total) rated the intensity of sweet, bitter, and metallic sensations for nutritive and NNS in water using the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS). Results Sigmoidal Dose-Response functions were observed for all stimuli except AceK. That is, sucrose follows a sigmoidal function if the data are not artifactually linearized via prior training. More critically, there is no evidence that NNS have a maximal sweetness (intensity) greater than sucrose; indeed, the maximal sweetness for AceK, RebA and Sucralose were significantly lower than for concentrated sucrose. For these sweeteners, mixture suppression due to endogenous dose-dependent bitter or metallic sensations appears to limit maximal perceived sweetness. Conclusions In terms of perceived sweetness, non-nutritive sweeteners cannot be considered super-normal stimuli. These data do not support the view that non-nutritive sweeteners hijack or over-stimulate sweet receptors to product elevated sweet sensations. PMID:24942868

  17. "Aspartame: A review of genotoxicity data".

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Gatehouse, David

    2015-10-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 200× sweeter than sucrose and is approved for use in food products in more than 90 countries around the world. Aspartame has been evaluated for genotoxic effects in microbial, cell culture and animal models, and has been subjected to a number of carcinogenicity studies. The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity data available on aspartame are considered sufficient for a thorough evaluation. There is no evidence of induction of gene mutations in a series of bacterial mutation tests. There is some evidence of induction of chromosomal damage in vitro, but this may be an indirect consequence of cytotoxicity. The weight of evidence from in vivo bone marrow micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and Comet assays is that aspartame is not genotoxic in somatic cells in vivo. The results of germ cell assays are difficult to evaluate considering limited data available and deviations from standard protocols. The available data therefore support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) that aspartame is non-genotoxic. PMID:26321723

  18. Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior, and mood.

    PubMed

    Saravis, S; Schachar, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1990-07-01

    The effect of aspartame on the learning, behavior, and mood of children was evaluated in two experiments. After an overnight fast and a standard breakfast, 20 healthy 9- to 10-year-old children were given the treatments in a double-blind crossover design at 10:30 AM. Lunch was served at 12:00 noon. In experiment 1, the treatment consisted of an ice slurry of strawberry Kool-Aid containing 1.75 g/kg of carbohydrate (polycose) plus either aspartame (34 mg/kg) or the equivalent sweetness as sodium cyclamate and amino acids as alanine. In experiment 2, the treatment consisted of a drink of cold unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid, containing either 1.75 g/kg of sucrose or 9.7 mg/kg of aspartame. Measures of associative learning, arithmetic calculation, activity level, social interaction, and mood were unaffected by treatment in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the only significant treatment effect was that on the frequency of minor and gross motor behaviors, which were less frequent after the consumption of sucrose than after aspartame. Thus, the effect of aspartame on the short-term behavior of healthy 9- to 10-year-old children appears to be related to its absence of metabolic consequences rather than to its amino acid composition and putative neurochemical impact. PMID:1694294

  19. The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    FEEHLEY, TAYLOR; NAGLER, CATHRYN R.

    2014-01-01

    Analyses in mice and humans indicate that non-caloric artificial sweeteners may promote obesity-associated metabolic changes by changing the function of the bacteria that colonize the gut. PMID:25231865

  20. How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Creppy, E E; Baudrimont, I; Anne-Marie

    1998-07-01

    The ubiquitous mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is found as a frequent contaminant of a large variety of food and feed and beverage such as beer, coffee and win. It is produced as a secondary metabolite of moulds from Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Ochratoxin A has been shown experimentally to inhibit protein synthesis by competition with phenylalanine its structural analogue and also to enhance oxygen reactive radicals production. The combination of these basic mechanisms with the unusual long plasma half-life time (35 days in non-human primates and in humans), the metabolisation of OTA into still active derivatives and glutathione conjugate both potentially reactive with cellular macromolecules including DNA could explain the multiple toxic effects, cytotoxicity, teratogenicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. A relation was first recognised between exposure to OTA in the Balkan geographical area and Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) with a high incidence (nearly 50 times higher than normal) of urinary tract tumours. Exposure rates of OTA are measurable in blood of humans and animals and are established in several countries including Scandinavia, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Japan and Northern Africa mainly Tunisia and Egypt. The impact of OTA exposure in non- endemic areas in the world is not known, the rates of exposure being not correlated with the disease records, especially in developed countries, due to lake of well- designed epidemiological studies, genetic polymorphism and maybe to dietary contents of radical scavengers and antioxidants. However the incidence and mortality rates of renal cancer are increasing in European countries and Northern Africa which could be a global resultant of human exposure to natural compounds in food such as mycotoxins and especially ochratoxin A. In addition to special care to prevent the growth of moulds and detoxification measures there was a need for the prevention of the OTA-induced toxic effects once the toxin is ingested. For this purpose several compound have been studied including some therapeutic agents such as piroxicam which cannot be proposed for a large scale use in humans for preventive purpose. Among other compounds, Aspartame, already used as sweetener has shown a real effectiveness in vivo confirmed largely in vitro. When rats exposed to OTA (289 micrograms/kg) by oral route every two days are given 25 mg/kg similarly for several weeks, all the toxic effects including genotoxicity are very efficiently prevented as shown for example by the disappearance of DNA- adducts in tissues excised from treated animals. Aspartame is also effective in washing out the toxin when given afterwards to animals intoxicated by the same oTA doses for several weeks. In vitro, provided that it is added in cell culture medium before OTA it prevent significantly the inhibition of protein synthesis and lipid peroxidation induced by the toxin. Obviously the molecular mechanism mediating the preventive effect of Aspartame is the delivery of phenylalanine by cleavage of the peptide but also the direct effect of the peptide on the bending capacity and transport of the toxin in vivo and in vitro. As a matter of fact when Aspartame is given to animals or added in culture medium the amount of peptide found unchanged (10-15%) may account for a preventive effect as entire peptide. PMID:9760456

  1. 21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 172.804, see the List of CFR... weight of the tablet. (2) When aspartame is used in baked goods and baking mixes, the amount of the additive is not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of ready-to-bake products or of finished formulations...

  2. 21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601.../federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (c)(1) When aspartame is used as a sugar substitute tablet for..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...

  3. 21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 172.804, see the List of CFR... weight of the tablet. (2) When aspartame is used in baked goods and baking mixes, the amount of the additive is not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of ready-to-bake products or of finished formulations...

  4. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. PMID:25627677

  5. Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for sweetenerdrug interactions and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

  6. Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs on Pregnancy Hazards

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common ones that many expectant women wonder about. Artificial Sweeteners (Sugar Substitutes) Should I avoid them? Although ... baby? Although some people have alleged that the artificial sweetener aspartame is linked with birth defects and ...

  7. Effect of aspartame-derived phenylalanine on neutral amino acid uptake in human brain: a positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Koeppe, R A; Shulkin, B L; Rosenspire, K C; Shaw, L A; Betz, A L; Mangner, T; Price, J C; Agranoff, B W

    1991-05-01

    The possible effects of elevation of the plasma phenylalanine level secondary to the ingestion of aspartame on brain amino acid uptake in human subjects have been investigated by means of positron emission tomography (PET). 1-[11C]Aminocyclohexanecarboxylate [( 11C]ACHC) is a poorly metabolized synthetic amino acid that crosses the blood-brain barrier by the same carrier that transports naturally occurring large neutral amino acids. Quantitative test-retest PET studies were performed on 15 individuals. Seven received two identical baseline scans, whereas eight received a baseline scan followed by a scan performed approximately 40-45 min following ingestion of an orange-flavored beverage containing 34 mg/kg of body weight of the low-calorie sweetener aspartame, a dose equivalent to the amount in 5 L of diet soft drink consumed all at once by the study subjects, weighing an average of 76 kg. The 40-45-min interval was selected to maximize the detection of possible decreases in ACHC uptake resulting from increased competition for the carrier, because the plasma phenylalanine level is known to peak at this time. We observed an 11.5% decrease in the amino acid transport rate constant K1 and a smaller decrease in the tissue distribution volume of ACHC (6%). Under conditions of normal dietary use, aspartame is thus unlikely to cause changes in brain amino acid uptake that are measurable by PET. PMID:2013754

  8. Sweetener lowers costs

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, T.; Rosenstock, G.

    1983-10-01

    Mericat sweetening was used to get increased capacity needed by debottlenecking the FCCU at the Ruhr Refinery, Deutsche BP. A low conversion cost initiated the decision to adapt an existing copper chloride sweetener to Mericat but operating experience underscores the value of the choice because operating costs have been only 84% of design while anticipated capacity has been exceeded. Consequently, payout was accelerated to only about four months. Design specifications required that Light Cat Cracked Naphtha (LCCN) containing a maximum of 100 ppmw of mercaptan sulfur be sweetened to a maximum of 10 ppmw while caustic carryover sodium content not exceed 5 ppmw and that the sweetened LCCN meet Copper Strip No. 1 rating. Official tests based on runs with two different crude sources resulted in performance as shown in this paper. Operating costs of the copper chloride sweetening system before conversion and the Mericat system after conversion are also shown.

  9. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. PMID:23765203

  10. Experimental design-based development and single laboratory validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of the artificial sweetener sucralose in food matrices.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Josephine; Stroka, Joerg; Anklam, Elke

    2005-07-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, optimised chemometrically, underwent a complete in-house validation protocol for the qualification and quantification of sucralose in various foodstuffs. Separation from matrix components was obtained in a dinitrobenzoic acid (3 mM)/sodium hydroxide (20 mM) background electrolyte with a pH of 12.1, a potential of 0.11 kV cm(-1) and a temperature of 22 degrees C. Detection was achieved at 238 nm by indirect UV. Screening, optimisation and robustness testing were all carried out with the aid of experimental design. Using standard addition calibration, the CZE method has been applied to still, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, yoghurts and hard-boiled candy. The method allows the detection of sucralose at >30 mg kg(-1), with a linearity range of 50-500 mg kg(-1), making it suitable for implementation of the recently amended "Sweeteners for use in foodstuffs" Directive (European Parliament and Council (2003) Off J L237:3-12), which set maximum usable doses of sucralose for many foodstuffs, most ranging from 200 mg kg(-1) to 450 mg kg(-1). PMID:15906005

  11. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    PubMed

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

  12. First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Degli Esposti, Davide; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

    2006-03-01

    The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100-150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all organs and tissues collected was routinely performed on each animal of all experimental groups. The results of the study show for the first time that APM, in our experimental conditions, causes a) an increased incidence of malignant-tumor-bearing animals with a positive significant trend in males (p < or = 0.05) and in females (p < or = 0.01), in particular those females treated at 50,000 ppm (p < or = 0.01); b) an increase in lymphomas and leukemias with a positive significant trend in both males (p < or = 0.05) and females (p < or = 0.01), in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (p < or = 0.01), 50,000 (p < or = 0.01), 10,000 (p < or = 0.05), 2,000 (p < or = 0.05), or 400 ppm (p < or = 0.01); c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend (p < or = 0.01), of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter and their precursors (dysplasias) in females treated at 100,000 (p < or = 0.01), 50,000 (p < or = 0.01), 10,000 (p < or = 0.01), 2,000 (p < or = 0.05), or 400 ppm (p < or = 0.05); and d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of peripheral nerves with a positive trend (p < or = 0.05) in males. The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM is a multipotential carcinogenic agent, even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, much less than the current acceptable daily intake. On the basis of these results, a reevaluation of the present guidelines on the use and consumption of APM is urgent and cannot be delayed. PMID:16507461

  13. Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to aspartame administered in feed.

    PubMed

    Belpoggi, Fiorella; Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Degli Esposti, Davide; Lauriola, Michelina; Minardi, Franco

    2006-09-01

    Aspartame (APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners in the world. Its ever-growing use in more than 6000 products, such as soft drinks, chewing gum, candy, desserts, etc., has been accompanied by rising consumer concerns regarding its safety, in particular its potential long-term carcinogenic effects. In light of the inadequacy of the carcinogenicity bioassays performed in the 1970s and 1980s, a long-term mega-experiment on APM was undertaken at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation on groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (100-150/sex/group), 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment. APM was administered in feed at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. Treatment lasted until spontaneous death of the animals. The results of the study demonstrate that APM causes: (a) an increased incidence of malignant tumor-bearing animals, with a positive significant trend in both sexes, and in particular in females treated at 50,000 ppm (P < or = 0.01) when compared to controls; (b) an increase in lymphomas-leukemias, with a positive significant trend in both sexes, and in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (P < or = 0.01), 50,000 (P < or = 0.01), 10,000 (P < or = 0.05), 2000 (P < or = 0.05), and 400 ppm (P < or = 0.01); (c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend, of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter in females and particularly in those treated at 100,000 ppm (P < or = 0.05); and (d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the peripheral nerves, with a positive trend in males (P < or = 0.05). The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM, in the tested experimental conditions, is a multipotential carcinogenic agent. PMID:17119233

  14. First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all organs and tissues collected was routinely performed on each animal of all experimental groups. The results of the study show for the first time that APM, in our experimental conditions, causes a) an increased incidence of malignant-tumorbearing animals with a positive significant trend in males (p ? 0.05) and in females (p ? 0.01), in particular those females treated at 50,000 ppm (p ? 0.01); b) an increase in lymphomas and leukemias with a positive significant trend in both males (p ? 0.05) and females (p ? 0.01), in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (p ? 0.01), 50,000 (p ? 0.01), 10,000 (p ? 0.05), 2,000 (p ? 0.05), or 400 ppm (p ? 0.01); c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend (p ? 0.01), of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter and their precursors (dysplasias) in females treated at 100,000 (p ? 0.01), 50,000 (p ? 0.01), 10,000 (p ? 0.01), 2,000 (p ? 0.05), or 400 ppm (p ? 0.05); and d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of peripheral nerves with a positive trend (p ? 0.05) in males. The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM is a multipotential carcinogenic agent, even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, much less than the current acceptable daily intake. On the basis of these results, a reevaluation of the present guidelines on the use and consumption of APM is urgent and cannot be delayed. PMID:16507461

  15. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p < 0.001). In addition, in vivo rat model of skin wound-healing study showed that aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p < 0.05. There was a slight proliferative effect of aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. PMID:24925367

  16. Oral administration of aspartame is not proconvulsant in rats.

    PubMed

    Tilson, H A; Thai, L; Zhao, D; Sobotka, T J; Hong, J S

    1989-01-01

    These experiments examined the potential for single or repeated doses of aspartame to exacerbate or facilitate the production of seizures in Fischer-344 rats. In adult animals, 1,000 mg/kg of aspartame given by gavage acutely or over a 14 day period had no significant effect on the rate of kindling induced by stimulation of the prepyriform cortex. A single dose of 1,000 mg/kg of aspartame had no effect on the number of animals developing tonic seizures after electroconvulsive shock, nor did aspartame affect the frequency or duration of seizure activity after pentylenetetrazol. In a second series of studies, young male and female rats were dosed with 1,000 mg/kg of aspartame on day 3-13 or 21-35 of age. Prior exposure to aspartame had no significant effect on the rate of kindling at 90 days of age. These experiments indicate that aspartame does not act a pro-convulsant in rats. PMID:2616065

  17. Effects of perinatal exposure to aspartame on rat pups.

    PubMed

    Holder, M D

    1989-01-01

    Possible effects of perinatal exposure to L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame) on rat pups were investigated. Adult female rats, and later their pups, were exposed, via their drinking water, to aspartame (0.007%, 0.036%, 0.18% or 0.9% w/v) or phenylalanine (0.45% w/v) for 12 days prior to conception until the pups were 38 days old. Control rats were given plain water. The adults exposed to aspartame consumed an average of 14, 68, 347 and 1614 mg/kg/day of aspartame and those exposed to phenylalanine consumed an average of 835 mg/kg/day of phenylalanine. After weaning the pups given aspartame consumed an average of 32, 154, 836, and 3566 mg/kg/day of aspartame and those given phenylalanine consumed an average of 1795 mg/kg/day of phenylalanine. No effect of aspartame or phenylalanine was detected on either two measures of morphological development (i.e., latencies to pinnae detachment and eye opening) or two tests of reflex development (i.e., latencies for surface righting at 7 days of age and negative geotaxis at 8 days of age). All groups were similar in spatial memory as assessed with two different mazes with pups 30-36 days old. The number of arms before reentry in an 8-arm radial-arm maze and the acquisition curves from a milk maze did not differ between groups. Furthermore, the latencies of mothers to retrieve their litters was also unaffected by the aspartame and phenylalanine. These results indicate that perinatal exposure to aspartame, when voluntarily consumed by mothers (14-1614 mg/kg/day) and later directly by the rat pups (32 to 3566 mg/kg/day) does not affect reflex development, morphological development or spatial memory. PMID:2725436

  18. Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Gtz

    2014-05-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90??6%) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40% during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80% elimination) and acesulfame (85% elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method. PMID:24590107

  19. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes. Few studies have tested for a relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD), or intermediate biomarkers. The role of artificially sweetened beverages is also unclear. Methods and Results We performed an analysis of the Health Professionals Follow-up study, a prospective cohort study including 42 883 men. Associations of cumulatively averaged sugar-sweetened (e.g. sodas) and artificially sweetened (e.g. diet sodas) beverage intake with incident fatal and non-fatal CHD (myocardial infarction) were examined using proportional hazard models. There were 3683 CHD cases over 22 years of follow-up. Participants in the top quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake had a 20% higher relative risk of CHD than those in the bottom quartile (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.33, p for trend < 0.01) after adjusting for age, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, multivitamins, family history, diet quality, energy intake, BMI, pre-enrollment weight change and dieting. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with CHD (multivariate RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.12, p for trend = 0.28). Adjustment for self-reported high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and diagnosed type 2 diabetes slightly attenuated these associations. Intake of sugar-sweetened but not artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with increased triglycerides, CRP, IL6, TNFr1, TNFr2, decreased HDL, Lp(a), and leptin (p values < 0.02). Conclusions Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of CHD and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin. Artificially sweetened beverage intake was not associated with CHD risk or biomarkers. PMID:22412070

  20. Natural sweeteners in a human diet.

    PubMed

    Grembecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Sweeteners, both natural and artificial, play an important role in a human diet as well as are of great importance to the food industry and dieticians. Many people associate sweet taste with sucrose, which is commonly known as table sugar. However, there are many sweet substances that food manufacturers add to food products because none of them is ideal for all applications. Besides sucrose there are also other sugars such as glucose and fructose that originate both from natural sources such as fruits and honey or from added sugars. Among sweeteners there are also compounds which have a sweet taste and contain no calories or those which sweetness is so intense so can be used at very low concentrations, thus, their impact on the total caloric value of the product is negligible. They can be classified due to their origin (natural or synthetic agents), the technological function (sweeteners and fillers), texture (powders and syrups), and nutritional value (caloric and non-caloric). Natural sweetening substances include carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, thaumatin and stevia. Besides providing well tasting foods, they might have an impact on products' texture, color, preservation and caloric value. Sugar alcohols, which belong to carbohydrates, are both natural sugar substitutes and food additives. They are becoming more and more popular among consumers mainly due to their lower caloric values and glycemic indexes as well as anticariogenic effects. Sugar alcohols are often combined with other sweeteners to enhance food products' sweetness. Stevia, which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, is a non caloric substance whereas thaumatin, a sweet protein, provides 4 kcal/g but characterizes with sweetness about 2000 times higher than sucrose (on a weight basis). PMID:26400114

  1. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6?J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50?mg/Kgbw/day) caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) P?Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6?J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species. PMID:22697049

  2. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of the B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by the B6 mice, but not by the 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 mice and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice, the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet-tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485

  3. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved. PMID:17364923

  4. Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

    1990-03-01

    Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

  6. Sweetened Drinks and Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of sweetened beverages per day are at increased risk of heart failure. Researchers tracked the health of around 42,000 men for more than ... of sweetened drinks had a 23 percent higher risk of developing heart failure compared to ... to you. Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  7. Non-nutritive sweeteners: review and update.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Padmini; Ahuja, Suman; Sriram, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic, not just in the United States, but also across the globe. Obesity is a result of many factors including poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, hormonal issues, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as many psychological issues. Direct and indirect costs associated with obesity-related morbidity and mortality have been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. Of the many avenues for treatment, dietary interventions are the most common. Numerous diets have been popularized in the media, with most being fads having little to no scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness. Amidst this rise of weight loss diets, there has been a surge of individual products advertised as assuring quick weight loss; one such product group is non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Sugar, a common component of our diet, is also a major contributing factor to a number of health problems, including obesity and increased dental diseases both in adults and children. Most foods marketed towards children are sugar-laden. Obesity-related health issues, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension, once only commonly seen in older adults, are increasing in youth. Manufacturers of NNS are using this as an opportunity to promote their products, and are marketing them as safe for all ages. A systematic review of several databases and reliable websites on the internet was conducted to identify literature related to NNS. Keywords that were used individually or in combination included, but were not limited to, artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners, non-caloric sweeteners, obesity, sugar substitutes, diabetes, and cardiometabolic indicators. The clinical and epidemiologic data available at present are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the benefits of NNS in displacing caloric sweeteners as related to energy balance, maintenance or decrease in body weight, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Although the FDA and most published (especially industry-funded) studies endorse the safety of these additives, there is a lack of conclusive evidence-based research to discourage or to encourage their use on a regular basis. While moderate use of NNS may be useful as a dietary aid for someone with diabetes or on a weight loss regimen, for optimal health it is recommended that only minimal amounts of both sugar and NNS be consumed. PMID:23845273

  8. Chocolate Milk with Chia Oil: Ideal Sweetness, Sweeteners Equivalence, and Dynamic Sensory Evaluation Using a Time-Intensity Methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J B; Paixão, J A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2015-12-01

    The ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of the stevia, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame in chocolate milk with chia oil as well as the dynamic behavior of certain sensory attributes were investigated using a time-intensity methodology. The use of just-about-right (JAR) identified an ideal sucrose concentration of 9% (w/w). In addition, the magnitude estimation method showed that stevia had the lowest sweetness power whereas neotame presented the highest. Furthermore, the time-intensity analysis indicated that there was no significant change between the maximum intensities of the sweetness for any evaluated sweeteners. In general, the desired sensory profile and some economic considerations are decisive on the choice of which sweetener is better to be used in chocolate milk formulation added with chia oil. PMID:26523944

  9. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

    2012-05-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

  10. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree ... eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  11. An attempt to use sweeteners as a material for accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; José, Flávio A; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2010-02-01

    In case of a radiological accident, it is important to determine the exposure to radiation of the general population. Several materials can be used to reconstruct the exposed dose. Tooth enamel has been studied for a long time, and now the procedures to determine the dose are well established for in vitro measurements. Many materials have been investigated by different techniques: sugar, wall bricks, roof tiles, plastics, watch glass, ruby present in watches, medicines carried by persons and shell button, among others. In this work an attempt is made to use sweeteners as a possible accident dosimeter material because they are becoming increasingly common. Sweeteners based on saccharine, cyclamate, stevia, and aspartame were acquired in local stores, and ESR spectrum was recorded before and after gamma irradiation. Spectrum simulation demonstrated that there are two main radicals with g = 2.0063, A = 1.6 mT, and g = 2.0048, A = 5 mT due to lactose. For the better characterization of spectroscopic and dosimetric properties of these materials, higher microwave frequency (K-band, nu approximately 24 GHz) was also employed. Experiments in X-band (nu approximately 9 GHz) showed that low dose levels of 500 mGy can be measured with this material, demonstrating the potential use of sweeteners for retrospective dosimetry. PMID:20065713

  12. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  13. Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hinson, A L; Nicol, W M

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of intense sweeteners. The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment. PMID:1302206

  14. [Use of sugars and sweeteners in children's diets. Recommendations of the Nutrition Committee of the Spanish Paediatric Association].

    PubMed

    Gil-Campos, M; San José González, M A; Díaz Martín, J J

    2015-11-01

    The term «sweetener» refers to a food additive that imparts a sweet flavour and usually provides no or very low energy. It is used to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements with no nutritional purposes. For years, no-calorie sweeteners have been used as substitutes for all or part of the sugar content in foods and beverages. In recent decades its consumption has risen to prevent tooth decay, or as an aid in weight control, obesity and diabetes and, in general, to achieve an optimal energy balance. However, consumption of sugary or sweetened food and soft drinks is high, making this situation of special interest in calorie intake and in the poor behavioural pattern of eating habits in children. In addition, questions remain among consumers about the risks to health associated with their use, whether they are artificial or natural. The «artificial sweeteners» are the group of greatest interest in research in order to demonstrate their safety and to provide firm data on their possible therapeutic effects. The aim of the present document is to increase information for paediatricians on the characteristics of different sweeteners, and to advise on the choice of sweeteners, based on their properties. PMID:25840708

  15. Effect of tyrosine on the potentiation by aspartame and phenylalanine of metrazol-induced convulsions in rats.

    PubMed

    Guiso, G; Diomede, L; Romano, M; Caccia, S; Sarati, S; Salmona, M

    1991-12-01

    Male rats were treated by oral intubation with tyrosine (Tyr), at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight, alone or together with 1 g aspartame (APM)/kg body weight, or an equivalent dose of phenylalanine (Phe; 0.5 g/kg body weight); the effects on seizures induced by an effective dose of metrazol (ED50) were observed. Tyr (0.5 g/kg body weight) had a protective effect against the Phe-potentiation of metrazol-induced clonic-tonic convulsions. At the same dose Tyr had no effect on the seizure-promoting activity of APM, but at 1 g/kg it reduced the proconvulsant potential of the sweetener. Analysis of the brain and plasma amino acid concentrations indicated that the Tyr to Phe ratio tended to be enhanced in Tyr-Phe treated rats compared with those treated with Phe alone. This ratio remained essentially constant in the brain of APM-treated rats, compared with those treated with APM plus 1 g Tyr/kg body weight, whereas an increase in this ratio in the plasma was observed. These results confirm that Tyr antagonizes the proconvulsant effect of Phe and APM and they further suggest that no simple relationship exists between the relative brain concentrations of the two amino acids and the response to metrazol convulsions. PMID:1765332

  16. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  17. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  18. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 59.70% to 44.61% and 91.78% to 87.18%, respectively. Sterilization (121 °C/15 min) resulted in complete degradation of aspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 50.36% to 8.67%. Results indicated that neotame exhibited better stability than aspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk. PMID:26593524

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  20. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

  1. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the procedures used in an experiment that reinforces the universality of the concepts of saturation using the binding of the ligand aspartame to the protein receptor that determines taste. Illustrates the hyperbolic nature of protein binding. (DDR)

  2. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4. PMID:25991916

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  4. 27 CFR 24.305 - Sweetening record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sweetens natural wine with sugar or juice (unconcentrated or concentrated) under the provisions of this... degrees Brix of the concentrate; (c) If sugar or juice, or both, are used, the gallon equivalent that... quantity of sugar or juice used for sweetening; and (e) The gallons and degrees Brix of the wine...

  5. 27 CFR 24.305 - Sweetening record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sweetens natural wine with sugar or juice (unconcentrated or concentrated) under the provisions of this... degrees Brix of the concentrate; (c) If sugar or juice, or both, are used, the gallon equivalent that... quantity of sugar or juice used for sweetening; and (e) The gallons and degrees Brix of the wine...

  6. 27 CFR 24.305 - Sweetening record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sweetens natural wine with sugar or juice (unconcentrated or concentrated) under the provisions of this... degrees Brix of the concentrate; (c) If sugar or juice, or both, are used, the gallon equivalent that... quantity of sugar or juice used for sweetening; and (e) The gallons and degrees Brix of the wine...

  7. 27 CFR 24.305 - Sweetening record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sweetens natural wine with sugar or juice (unconcentrated or concentrated) under the provisions of this... degrees Brix of the concentrate; (c) If sugar or juice, or both, are used, the gallon equivalent that... quantity of sugar or juice used for sweetening; and (e) The gallons and degrees Brix of the wine...

  8. 27 CFR 24.305 - Sweetening record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sweetens natural wine with sugar or juice (unconcentrated or concentrated) under the provisions of this... degrees Brix of the concentrate; (c) If sugar or juice, or both, are used, the gallon equivalent that... quantity of sugar or juice used for sweetening; and (e) The gallons and degrees Brix of the wine...

  9. Determination of high-intensity sweeteners in river water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity sweeteners have been suggested as potential organic contaminants due to their widespread use in food, drugs and sanitary products. As a consequence, they are introduced into the environment by different pathways, affecting aquatic life. In this study, a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of eight sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucralose, stevioside and glycyrrhizic acid) in river water and wastewater. To get the maximum recoveries in SPE, several commercial sorbents were tested and Oasis HLB gave the best results, with recoveries higher than 41% for all of the compounds in the different matrices. Method limits of detection were in the range of 0.001-0.04μg/L in river water and 0.01-0.5μg/L in influent and effluent wastewater. Method reproducibility between days (n=5) was below 15% for all compounds. The method was applied to the determination of sweeteners in various river waters and wastewaters in Catalonia. Cyclamate, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, acesulfame and sucralose were found in river water, with the two last compounds being present at the highest values (1.62μg/L for acesulfame and 3.57μg/L for sucralose). In influent and effluent wastewater, all of the compounds were found at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 155μg/L except for stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, which were not detected. PMID:25840659

  10. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  11. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  12. Using Models to Understand and Design Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. Eric

    1995-08-01

    While most sweeteners have been discovered accidentally, many models have been devised to aid in understanding structure-taste relationships. Because of the diversity of structures which may exhibit sweet taste, it is difficult to devise a comprehensive model. In fact, it may not be appropriate to fit all sweeteners into a single model since multiple receptors may be involved. This paper describes the evolution of sweetness receptor models, culminating in computer-derived models which have successfully been used in the design of new sweeteners and in predicting how sweet new analogs will be.

  13. N-acetylcysteine protects the rat kidney against aspartame-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Finamor, Isabela; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Pês, Tanise; Ourique, Giovana; Saccol, Etiane; Schiefelbein, Sun; Llesuy, Susana; Partata, Wania

    2014-10-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily ingestion dose causes oxidative stress in the rat kidney through the dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) provides the cystein required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of NAC on the aspartame-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidney. The animals received aspartame by gavage for six weeks (40mg/kg). From the 5th week, NAC (1mmol/kg, via intraperitoneal) was injected for two weeks. Then, they were anaesthetized for blood sample and euthanized for the kidney collection. The blood was centrifuged at 1800g for 15min and the serum was separated for creatinine measurement. The tissue was homogenized in 1.15% KCl buffer and centrifuged at 700g for 10min at 4°C. The supernatant fraction obtained was used to the measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers. The creatinine levels were enhanced in the serum of aspartame-treated rats. NAC caused a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, carbonyl protein and hydrogen peroxide levels, which were increased in the kidney of aspartame-treated animals. Additionally, NAC caused an elevation in the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, total glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased in the kidney of aspartame-treated rats. In conclusion, NAC may be useful for the protection of the rat kidney against aspartame-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26461335

  14. Effect of aspartame on seizures in various models of experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Guiso, G; Caccia, S; Vezzani, A; Stasi, M A; Salmona, M; Romano, M; Garattini, S

    1988-12-01

    We investigated in rats whether aspartame intake affected the susceptibility to seizures induced chemically (metrazol, quinolinic acid) or electrically (electroshock). Aspartame (0.75-1.0 g/kg), given orally as a single bolus to 16-hr fasted animals 60 min before metrazol, significantly increased the number of animals showing clonic-tonic seizures. At 1.0 g/kg the ED50 for clonic-tonic convulsions was lowered by 23%. A similar increase in seizure susceptibility was observed with 0.25-0.5 g/kg of the aspartame's metabolite phenylalanine. When aspartame was administered to fasted rats in three divided doses (0.33 g/kg) over 120 min or to fed animals after a meal, or overnight with the diet, no significant changes in the incidence of animals showing seizures was observed. One gram per kilogram aspartame and 0.5 g/kg phenylalanine did not modify the CC50 (mA) for tonic hindlimb extension induced by electroshock and the electroencephalographic seizures caused by intrahippocampal injection of 120 nmol quinolinic acid. Plasma and brain levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine significantly raised after both 1 g/kg aspartame as a single bolus (plasma: Phe 285%, Tyr 288%; brain: Phe 146%, Tyr 192%; above controls) or in three divided doses (plasma: Phe 207%, Tyr 315%; brain Phe 103%, Tyr 211%; above controls) and 0.5 g/kg phenylalanine (plasma: Phe 339%, Tyr 410%; brain: Phe 219%, Tyr 192%; above controls), but the ratio Phe/Tyr was not modified. Our data indicate that aspartame cannot be regarded as a general proconvulsant agent. The mechanisms of potentiation of seizures induced by metrazol after the administration of the sweetner in a single rapid intake will be discussed. PMID:2974654

  15. Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Palmns, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 57 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?1012 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  16. Whole-nerve chorda tympani responses to sweeteners in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masashi; McCaughey, Stuart A.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    The C57BL/6ByJ (B6) strain of mice exhibits higher preferences than does the 129P3/J (129) strain for a variety of sweet-tasting compounds. We measured gustatory afferent responses of the whole chorda tympani nerve in these two strains using a broad array of sweeteners and other taste stimuli. Neural responses were greater in B6 than in 129 mice to the sugars sucrose and maltose, the polyol D-sorbitol, and the non-caloric sweeteners NaSaccharin, acesulfame-K, SC-45647, and sucralose. Lower neural response thresholds were also observed in the B6 strain for most of these stimuli. The strains did not differ on their neural responses to amino acids that are thought to taste sweet to mice, with the exception of L-proline, which evoked larger responses in the B6 strain. Aspartame and thaumatin, which taste sweet to humans but are not strongly preferred by B6 or 129 mice, did not evoke neural responses that exceeded threshold in either strain. The strains generally did not differ in their neural responses to NaCl, quinine, and HCl. Thus, variation between the B6 and 129 strains in the peripheral gustatory system may contribute to differences in their consumption of many sweeteners. PMID:11555486

  17. Sweetened Drinks May Damage Heart, Review Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often use either table sugar or high-fructose corn syrup to sweeten beverages, researchers said. Both sugar ... dextrose, sucrose, molasses, sugar, syrup or high-fructose corn syrup, Chaparro said. If any of those are ...

  18. Can Children Discriminate Sugar-Sweetened from Non-Nutritively Sweetened Beverages and How Do They Like Them?

    PubMed Central

    de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kas, Rosa; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. Methods 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. Results Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.390.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.390.6 (P?=?0.9) on a scale running from 1 (disgusting) to 5 (delicious). The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P?=?0.000). Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. Conclusion We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children. PMID:25551758

  19. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  20. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h?1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 ?M for methanol and 0.2 ?M for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

  1. Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20?mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way. PMID:23786206

  2. Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo.

    PubMed

    Trocho, C; Pardo, R; Rafecas, I; Virgili, J; Remesar, X; Fernndez-Lpez, J A; Alemany, M

    1998-01-01

    Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame 14C-labelled in the methanol carbon. At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several organs was investigated. Most of the radioactivity found (>98% in plasma, >75% in liver) was bound to protein. Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time. Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12 to 1/10th of that of liver. In all, the rat retained, 6 hours after administration about 5% of the label, half of it in the liver. The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform. The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to labelled formaldehyde. DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base, different from the normal bases present in DNA. The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures. The administration of labelled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde formation from aspartame and binding to biological components. The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labelled aspartame during 10 days resulted in the accumulation of even more label when given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be cumulative. It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID:9714421

  3. Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2014-10-28

    The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs. PMID:25126667

  4. Exposure to non-nutritive sweeteners during pregnancy and lactation: Impact in programming of metabolic diseases in the progeny later in life.

    PubMed

    Araújo, João Ricardo; Martel, Fátima; Keating, Elisa

    2014-11-01

    The nutritional environment during embryonic, fetal and neonatal development plays a crucial role in the offspring's risk of developing diseases later in life. Although non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) provide sweet taste without contributing to energy intake, animal studies showed that long-term consumption of NSS, particularly aspartame, starting during the perigestational period may predispose the offspring to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life. In this paper, we review the impact of NNS exposure during the perigestational period on the long-term disease risk of the offspring, with a particular focus on metabolic diseases. Some mechanisms underlying NNS adverse metabolic effects have been proposed, such as an increase in intestinal glucose absorption, alterations in intestinal microbiota, induction of oxidative stress and a dysregulation of appetite and reward responses. The data reviewed herein suggest that NNS consumption by pregnant and lactating women should be looked with particular caution and requires further research. PMID:25263228

  5. Choline as a fuel sweetener and sulfur antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, G.L.; Porlier, B.W.; Cravey, W.E.

    1986-06-10

    A method is described of sweetening petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and, at the same time, reducing the sulfur content thereof which comprises treating such fuels with a sweetening and sulfur-removing amount of choline.

  6. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment for energy intake. Conclusions from previous reviews have been inconsistent, but some included many cross-sectional studies or studies supported by sugar industry. A literature search was performed for prospective and experimental studies using Medline and Scirus. Fourteen prospective and five experimental studies were identified. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity. Three experimental studies found positive effects of calorically sweetened beverages and subsequent changes in body fat. Two experimental studies did not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However, there seems to be no support that the association between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity is mediated via increased energy intake, and alternative biological explanations should be explored. PMID:18764885

  7. Sugar-sweetened beverages and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been associated with the development and maintenance of obesity, as well as the risk for multiple obesity-related comorbidities. Some experts have hypothesized that the effect is entirely associated with excess caloric intake, while others suggest that a component of sweeteners may have a physiologic impact on the development of hypertension, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Chen et al. have presented the first, large-scale clinical trial, assessing the direct effect of modest changes in sweetened drink consumption on blood pressure in a racially diverse population. The study team utilized data from the PREMIER: Lifestyle Interventions for Blood Pressure Control trial, in which 810 adult subjects were randomized to three groups: advice only; comprehensive lifestyle modification aimed at weight loss, increased exercise and dietary sodium reduction; or comprehensive lifestyle modification with incorporation of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Sweetened drink intake was estimated from 24-h subject recall, assessed by unscheduled phone calls to subjects at baseline, 6 months and 18 months. Over the duration of the study, a reduction of one 12-oz serving of sugar-sweetened beverages per day was associated with an average of 1.8 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure and an average of 1.1 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure. PMID:21142633

  8. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits....180(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used... packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the food is...

  9. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits....180(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used... packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the food is...

  10. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits....180(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used... packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the food is...

  11. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits....180(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used... packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the food is...

  12. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits....180(a), except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used... packing medium may be thickened with pectin. (b)(1) The specified name of the food is...

  13. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  14. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  15. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  16. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  17. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  18. The Role of Sweeteners in the Diet of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Had children sample beverage and plain cottage cheese sweetened with either sugar or Sweet One as part of a sensory difference test, as well as rank four vanilla puddings sweetened with sugar and three FDA approved sweeteners. Found that participants could tell the difference in beverage but not cottage cheese, and that there was no consensus on

  19. The Role of Sweeteners in the Diet of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Had children sample beverage and plain cottage cheese sweetened with either sugar or Sweet One as part of a sensory difference test, as well as rank four vanilla puddings sweetened with sugar and three FDA approved sweeteners. Found that participants could tell the difference in beverage but not cottage cheese, and that there was no consensus on…

  20. High doses of aspartame have no effects on sensorimotor function or learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Tilson, H A; Hong, J S; Sobotka, T J

    1991-01-01

    Acute or repeated (14 days) intragastric administration of L-d-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame) suspended in saline and Tween-80 in doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg had no significant effect in male Fischer-344 rats on routine measures of sensorimotor function, including spontaneous motor activity, acoustic startle reflex and prepulse inhibition. Other experiments found that aspartame (500 or 1,000 mg/kg) had no significant effect on acquisition of passive or active avoidance or a spatial, reference memory task in the Morris water maze. A series of separate studies found that aspartame had no effects in rats fasted 24 hours prior to testing, or if it was suspended in carboxymethylcellulose or administered by the intraperitoneal route. Under the conditions of these experiments, large doses of aspartame have no significant neurobiological effects in adult rats as measured by procedures known to be sensitive to the neurobiological effects of neurotoxicants, including convulsants, organochlorine insecticides and heavy metals. PMID:2046625

  1. Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  2. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ?4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  3. Physiological mechanisms by which non-nutritive sweeteners may impact body weight and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary V; Small, Dana M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence linking sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption to weight gain and other negative health outcomes has prompted many individuals to resort to artificial, non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) substitutes as a means of reducing SSB intake. However, there is a great deal of controversy regarding the biological consequences of NNS use, with accumulating evidence suggesting that NNS consumption may influence feeding and metabolism via a variety of peripheral and central mechanisms. Here we argue that NNSs are not physiologically inert compounds and consider the potential biological mechanisms by which NNS consumption may impact energy balance and metabolic function, including actions on oral and extra-oral sweet taste receptors, and effects on metabolic hormone secretion, cognitive processes (e.g. reward learning, memory, and taste perception), and gut microbiota. PMID:26048305

  4. Is there a relationship between sweet taste and seizures? Anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of non-nutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Enrique, Andrea V; Del Valle, María E; Aldana, Blanca; Rosella, María A; Rocha, Luisa; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Talevi, Alan

    2015-01-01

    From a virtual screening campaign, a number of artificial and natural sweeteners were predicted as potential anticonvulsant agents with protective effects in the seizure animal model Maximal Electroshock Seizure (MES) test. In all cases, the predictions were experimentally confirmed in the aforementioned preclinical seizure model. The article reviews and expands previous reports from our group on anticonvulsant activity of those non-nutritive sweeteners, illustrating the potential of virtual screening approaches to propose new medical uses of food additives. This constitutes a particular case of knowledge-based drug repositioning, which may greatly shorten the development time and investment required to introduce novel medications to the pharmaceutical market. We also briefly overview evidence on possible molecular explanations on the anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of different non-nutritive sweeteners. Our analysis -based on Swanson's ABC model- suggests that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors and carbonic anhydrase isoform VII (both proposed or validated molecular targets of antiepileptic drugs) might be involved in the anticonvulsant effect of artificial sweeteners. The first hypothesis is in line with recent advances on development of selective modulators of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors as potential antiepileptic agents. PMID:25747439

  5. [Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Tomonori; Akaki, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in various foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sweeteners and preservatives were extracted from solid samples with 80% and 50% methanol and from liquid samples with 80% methanol, followed by Oasis WAX cartridge cleanup. The LC separation was performed on a XSelect CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column (5 ?m, 2.1 mm 150 mm) with a mobile phase of 10 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and MS detection with negative ion electrospray ionization. The quantification limits of acesulfame K (AK), alitame (AL), aspartame (ASP), cyclamic acid (CYC), neotame (NEO), saccharin Na (SAC), p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl (PHBA-Me), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl (PHBA-Et), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isopropyl (PHBA-iPr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl (PHBA-Pr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl (PHBA-iBu) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl (PHBA-Bu) were 0.001 g/kg, those of dulcin (DU), glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), rebaudioside A (REB), stevioside (STV), sucralose (SUC) and benzoic acid (BA) were 0.005 g/kg, and those of sorbic acid (SOA) and dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were 0.02 g/kg. The mean recoveries from ten kinds of foods fortified at the levels of 0.02 and 0.2 g/kg were 70.9-119.0%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.1-11.7%. PMID:23863365

  6. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  7. Effects of beta-carotene and aspartame on clustogenic activity of cyclophosphamide and dioxidine in mice.

    PubMed

    Belogolovskaya, E G; Oreshchenko, A V; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B; Litvinova, E V; Zubtsov, Y N

    2000-11-01

    Antimutagenic effects of combination of aspartame (0.4 and 4 mg/kg) and beta-carotene (0.15-15 mg/kg) were studied by estimation of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of C57Bl/6 mice. Single and 5-day treatment with this combination decreased the clastogenic effects of dioxidine and cyclophosphamide and produced a more potent and universal antimutagenic effect than its constituents. PMID:11182828

  8. Aspartame prevents the karyomegaly induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, I; Sostaric, B; Yenot, C; Betbeder, A M; Dano-Djedje, S; Sanni, A; Steyn, P S; Creppy, E E

    2001-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus ochraceus as well as other moulds. This mycotoxin contaminates animal feed and food. OTA is immunosuppressive, genotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic and is nephrotoxic in all animal species studied so far. OTA inhibits protein synthesis and induces lipid peroxidation. Since it seems impossible to avoid completely contamination of foodstuffs by toxigenic fungi, it is necessary to investigate the possible ways of limiting such toxicity. An attempt to prevent OTA-induced nephrotoxic and genotoxic effects, mainly the karyomegaly, has been made in vivo using aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester), a structural analogue of both OTA and phenylalanine. Aspartame (25 mg/kg body weight) prevented most of the nephrotoxic effects induced by OTA (289 microg/kg body weight). It also showed some utility in preventing morphological and histological damage, mainly the karyomegaly. The protective effects of aspartame on OTA-induced nephrotoxicity could be based on several mechanisms related to competitive binding to plasma proteins, to transport or tissue distribution in the kidney or to the elimination of the toxin in the urine. PMID:11409539

  9. Impaired performance on odor-aversion testing following prenatal aspartame exposure in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Dow-Edwards, D L; Scribani, L A; Riley, E P

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant guinea pigs were administered aspartame (500 mg/kg) in sesame oil by gavage or sesame oil alone between the day of conception and parturition. A nontreated control group was also maintained. There were no statistically significant effects of the treatment on maternal weight gain, litter size, or birth weight of the pups. Newborn pups were weighed daily and on day 15 were injected with either LiCl or saline and placed in a cage with vanilla odor for 30 min. Twenty-four hr later the pups were permitted to choose between vanilla and lemon odors in a preference test. While both the vehicle-treated control and nontreated control groups injected with LiCl showed a conditioned aversion to vanilla, the aspartame-treated pups injected with LiCl did not. These data indicate that aspartame exposure at 500 mg/kg throughout gestation disrupts odor-associative learning in 15-day-old guinea pigs. PMID:2796897

  10. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of water only from a mixture of milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The... of total milk solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent... suitable characterizing flavoring ingredients, with or without coloring and nutritive...

  11. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of water only from a mixture of milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The... of total milk solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent... suitable characterizing flavoring ingredients, with or without coloring and nutritive...

  12. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of water only from a mixture of milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The... of total milk solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent... suitable characterizing flavoring ingredients, with or without coloring and nutritive...

  13. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of water only from a mixture of milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The... of total milk solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent... suitable characterizing flavoring ingredients, with or without coloring and nutritive...

  14. 21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of water only from a mixture of milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The... of total milk solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent... suitable characterizing flavoring ingredients, with or without coloring and nutritive...

  15. Metabolic studies with the nonnutritive sweetener cycloheptylsulfamate.

    PubMed

    Benson, G A; Spillane, W J

    1977-06-01

    The nonnutritive sweetener cycloheptylsulfamate was administered orally to rabbits and rats. The urine of each species was separately collected for 3 days and examined for the metabolites cycloheptylamine, cycloheptanone, and cycloheptanol and for cycloheptylsulfamate. A previously tested GLC method was adapted for the determination of the metabolites. Cycloheptylsulfamate was assayed by hydrolysis and subsequent measurement of the absorbance of the product formed (lambdamax=489 nm) by the liberated amine with p-benzoquinone. The conversions to the metabolites were 0.276, 0.390, and 0.170%, respectively, in rabbits and 0.064, 0.022, and 0.017%, respectively, in rats. PMID:874797

  16. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediates caloric sugar preference over a non-caloric sweetener in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasoshima, Y; Yoshizawa, H; Shimura, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-04-16

    Neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying increased intake of and preference for nutritive sugars over non-nutritive sweeteners are not fully understood. We examined the roles of subnuclei of the amygdala in the shift in preference for a nutritive sugar. Food-deprived mice alternately received caloric sucrose (1.0 M) on odd-numbered training days and a non-caloric artificial sweetener (2.5 mM saccharin) on even-numbered training days. During training, mice with sham lesions of the basolateral (BLA) or central (CeA) nucleus of the amygdala increased their intake of 1.0 M sucrose, but not saccharin. Trained mice with sham lesions showed a significant shift in preference toward less concentrated sucrose (0.075 M) over the saccharin in a two-bottle choice test, although the mice showed an equivalent preference for these sweeteners before training. No increased intake of or preference for sucrose before and after the alternating training was observed in non-food-deprived mice. Excitotoxic lesions centered in the BLA impaired the increase in 1.0M sucrose intake and shift in preference toward 0.075 M sucrose over saccharin. Microlesions with iontophoretic excitotoxin injections into the CeA did not block the training-dependent changes. These results suggest that food-deprived animals selectively shift their preference for a caloric sugar over a non-caloric sweetener through the alternate consumption of caloric and non-caloric sweet substances. The present data also suggest that the BLA, but not CeA, plays a role in the selective shift in sweetener preference. PMID:25684750

  17. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

  18. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    PubMed

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats. PMID:24970110

  19. Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

    2000-10-01

    Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

  20. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; DeBoer, Mark D

    2016-03-18

    Temporal trends in the epidemic of childhood obesity have been paralleled by increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during childhood. Consumption has increased dramatically over the past several decades in all age ranges, with some moderation over the past 10 years. Evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal, and interventional studies supports links between SSB consumption in childhood and unhealthy weight gain, as well as other untoward health outcomes. These data have stimulated public health efforts to curtail consumption as a means of improving childhood weight status and related health outcomes. Reducing ready access to SSBs, changing the message environment to which children are exposed, and replacing SSBs with healthier beverages have had moderate success in decreasing SSB consumption and curbing unhealthy weight gain. PMID:26989829

  1. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  2. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  3. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  4. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  5. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), they produce...

  6. The use of a sweetener substitution method to predict dietary exposures for the intense sweetener rebaudioside A.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    2008-07-01

    There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis for predicting the potential intakes of a novel intense sweetener by adjustment of the reported intakes of different sweeteners in mg/kg body weight by their relative sweetness intensities. This approach allows the possibility that a novel sweetener attains the same pattern and extent of use as the existing sweeteners. The intakes by high consumers of other sweeteners allows for possible brand loyalty to the novel sweetener. Using this method, the estimated dietary exposures for rebaudioside A in average and high consumers are predicted to be 1.3 and 3.4mg/kg body weight per day for the general population, 2.1 and 5.0mg/kg body weight per day for children and 3.4 and 4.5mg/kg body weight per day for children with diabetes. The temporary ADI defined by the JECFA for steviol glycosides [JECFA, 2005. Steviol glycosides. In: 63rd Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Technical Report Series 928, pp. 34-39] was set at 0-2mg/kg body weight (expressed as steviol equivalents); after correction for the difference in molecular weights, these estimated intakes of rebaudioside A are equivalent to daily steviol intakes of less than 2mg/kg. In consequence, this analysis shows that the intakes of rebaudioside A would not exceed the JECFA temporary ADI set for steviol glycosides. PMID:18547702

  7. Reduction of the ochratoxin A-induced cytotoxicity in Vero cells by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Baudrimont, I; Betbeder, A M; Creppy, E E

    1997-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus ochraceus as well as other moulds. This mycotoxin contaminates animal feed and human food and is nephrotoxic for all animal species studied so far. OTA is immunosuppressive, genotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. Recently lipid peroxidation induced by OTA has been reported. OTA, a structural analogue of phenylalanine, inhibits protein synthesis by competition with phenylalanine in the phenylalanine-tRNA aminoacylation reaction, constituting the main mechanism of OTA-induced cytotoxicity. Since it seems impossible to avoid contamination of foodstuffs by toxigenic fungi, investigation is required for preventing the toxicity of OTA. An attempt to prevent its toxic effect, mainly the inhibition of protein synthesis, has been made using aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) a structural analogue of both OTA and phenylalanine. Protein synthesis was assayed in monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) treated by increasing concentrations of OTA (10-100 microM). After 24 h incubation, protein synthesis was inhibited by OTA in a concentration dependent manner (the 50% inhibitory concentration, IC50, was c. 14.5 microM). Aspartame (A19), at tenfold higher concentrations than OTA (100-1000 microM), was found to partially protect against the OTA-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero cells, and more efficiently when added 24 h prior to the toxin (IC50 34 microM) than together (IC50 22 microM). As expected A19(250 microM) prevented the OTA-induced leakage of certain enzymes, including lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, into the culture medium, and the concomitant decrease of their intracellular activity in OTA (25 microM)-treated cells. In order to investigate the effect of aspartame (A19) on OTA-protein binding as explanation of the above results, the mycotoxin time- and concentration-dependent binding to human samples was studied in static diffusion cells with two compartments separated by a dialysis membrane. When A19 (34 microM) was added to the upper compartment containing plasma before installing OTA (50, 250, 1240 microM) in the lower one. OTA binding was largely prevented (95-98%). When A19 (34 microM) was added to the lower compartment simultaneously with the toxin (50, 250, 1240 microM), for the lowest concentration of OTA, the same efficiency was shown in preventing OTA binding, but at the two high concentrations A19 seemed less efficient. PMID:9137807

  8. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Husy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T ; Kolset, S O; Ntvik Jakobsen, H; Tmmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern. PMID:18639604

  9. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Garca-Jimnez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitn-Vallvey, L F

    2007-07-01

    Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

  10. Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Pepino, M Yanina

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, the general belief was that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) were healthy sugar substitutes because they provide sweet taste without calories or glycemic effects. However, data from several epidemiological studies have found that consumption of NNSs, mainly in diet sodas, is associated with increased risk to develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this article is to review recent scientific evidence supporting potential mechanisms that explain how "metabolically inactive" NNSs, which have few, if any, calories, might promote metabolic dysregulation. Three potential mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, are presented: 1) NNSs interfere with learned responses that contribute to control glucose and energy homeostasis, 2) NNSs interfere with gut microbiota and induce glucose intolerance, and 3) NNSs interact with sweet-taste receptors expressed throughout the digestive system that play a role in glucose absorption and trigger insulin secretion. In addition, recent findings from our laboratory showing an association between individual taste sensitivity to detect sucralose and sucralose's acute effects on metabolic response to an oral glucose load are reported. Taken as a whole, data support the notion that NNSs have metabolic effects. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which NNSs may drive metabolic dysregulation and better understand potential effects of these commonly used food additives. PMID:26095119

  11. Nonnutritive sweeteners, energy balance and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Bourne, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent work on potential mechanisms underlying a paradoxical positive association between the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) and weight gain. Recent findings Several potential mechanism, not mutually exclusive, are hypothesized. First, by dissociating sweetness from calories, NNS could interfere with physiological responses that control homeostasis. Second, by changing the intestinal environment, NNS could affect the microbiota and in turn trigger inflammatory processes that are associated with metabolic disorders. Third, by interacting with novel sweet-taste receptors discovered in the gut, NNS could affect glucose absorptive capacity and glucose homeostasis. This last is the mechanism that has received the most attention recently. Some animal studies, but not all, found that NNS activate gut sweet taste-pathways that control incretin release and up-regulate glucose transporters. Human studies found that, at least for healthy fasted subjects, the sole interaction of NNS with sweet-taste gut receptors is insufficient to elicit incretin responses. The reasons for discrepancy between different studies is unknown but could be related to the species of mammal tested and the dose of NNS used. Summary Whether NNS are metabolically inactive, as previously assumed, is unclear. Further research on the potential effects of NNS on human metabolism is warranted. PMID:21505330

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Renata B.; Popkin, Barry M.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. Methods. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002–2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48 470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Results. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). Conclusions. High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption. PMID:22095333

  13. Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    PubMed

    Malik, Vasanti S; Hu, Frank B

    2012-01-31

    Temporal patterns over the past three to four decades have shown a close parallel between the rise in added sugar intake and the global obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) epidemics. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, are composed of naturally derived caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fruit juice concentrates. Collectively they are the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Over the past 10years a number of large observational studies have found positive associations between SSB consumption and long-term weight gain and development of T2D and related metabolic conditions. Experimental studies provide insight into potential biological mechanisms and illustrate that intake of SSBs increases T2D and cardiovascular risk factors. SSBs promote weight gain by incomplete compensation of liquid calories and contribute to increased risk of T2D not only through weight gain, but also independently through glycemic effects of consuming large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars and metabolic effects of fructose. PMID:22289979

  14. Hydrogen-bonding and the sweet taste mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathlouthi, M.; Portmann, M. O.

    1990-09-01

    The tripartite glucophores (AH-B,γ) of some natural (sugars) and artificial (Aspartame, Acesulfame, Saccharin, NHDHC and Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweeteners are proposed. These propositions are based on the molecular structure and infrared spectra of the studied molecules. The role of water in the sweet taste mechanism of small carbohydrates and artificial sweeteners was derived from the Raman spectra of their aqueous solutions. Comparison of the intensities and frequencies of the calculated components of the experimental Raman band of water on the one hand and of aqueous solutions of sweeteners on the other permitted interpretation of the role of water in the sweetness mechanism.

  15. Compatibility of a corrosion inhibitor with gas sweetening agents

    SciTech Connect

    Ramkez, M.; Morales, J.L.; Afonso, M.E.; Viloria, A.

    1998-12-31

    A methodology to establish the effect of a corrosion inhibitor on the behavior of two gas sweetening agents namely an amine (A) and a solid product constituted by iron oxides (B), has been developed. This information will be useful in case of traces of inhibitor passing through these two sweetening systems. Tests conducted in a static autoclave tester in gas sweetening conditions were made to determine the sour gas absorption power of the two agents, A and B, in presence or absence of inhibitor. Additionally, the effect of the inhibitor on the foaming power of agent A was evaluated, at room conditions. According to the results obtained, in the range of conditions considered in this study, neither does the inhibitor affect the sour gas absorption power nor the foaming power of agent A. Nevertheless, the anticorrosive product diminished by 12.5% the sour gas removal capability of agent B.

  16. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

  17. Preference for sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners in young beagles.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, F

    1984-01-01

    Two-bowl choice tests were used to examined preference of puppies aged two to four months for compounds tasting sweet to humans. Puppies found many, but not all of the compounds highly palatable, and were sensitive to both type and amount of sugar or nonnutritive sweetener contained in a semi-moist dog food recipe. Lactose, fructose, and sucrose were well accepted, whereas maltose elicited indifference or rejection. Sodium cyclamate, but not sodium saccharin, was preferred at some concentrations to 15 percent sucrose sweetened semi-moist food used as the standard. Solutions of lactose, fructose, glucose and galactose were preferred to plain tap water. PMID:6205334

  18. Is there an association between sweetened beverages and adiposity?

    PubMed

    Bachman, Christine M; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2006-04-01

    Four mechanisms were reviewed to explain the possible association between sweetened beverages and increased overweight or obesity: excess caloric intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, lack of effect of liquid calories on satiety, and displacement of milk. The findings were inconsistent across studies. The strongest support was for the excess caloric intake hypothesis, but the findings were not conclusive. Assigning possible links between sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity requires research that compares and contrasts specific mechanisms, especially in populations at risk for obesity, while controlling for likely confounding variables. PMID:16673752

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  20. Artificial Limbs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  1. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  3. A history of sweeteners--natural and synthetic.

    PubMed

    Inglett, G E

    1976-09-01

    Sweetness for the prehistoric man was the taste sensation obtained from sweet berries and honey. Man's quest for other sweet things led to sucose, starch-derived sugars, and synthetic sweeteners. An unusual source of sweet taste is a West African berry known as miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum). This fruit possesses a taste-modifying substance that causes sour foods--e.g., lemons, limes, or grapefruit--to taste sweet. The active principle was found to be a glycoprotein. Until this time, only small molecules were considered sweet-evoking substances, but now macromolecules are considered capable of participating in taste perception. The intense sweetener of the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called the serendipity berry, was revealed to be a protein. The intensely sweet principle of Thaumatococcus daniellii, called katemfe, was reported in 1972 to contain two proteins having intense sweetness. Since intensely sweet protein sweeteners act directly on taste buds as a probe, a peptide linkage analogous to the aspartic acid sweeteners may be partly responsible for their sweetness. PMID:792461

  4. IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SWEETENED BEVERAGES AND ADIPOSITY?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mechanisms were reviewed to explain the possible association between sweetened beverages and increased overweight or obesity: excess caloric intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, lack of effect of liquid calories on satiety, and displacement of milk. The findings were inconsistent across st...

  5. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  6. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase

  7. Oral health concerns with sweetened medicaments: Pediatricians acuity

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, S.V.S.G.; Popuri, Vimala Devi; Chilamakuri, Sandeep; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Veluru, Sindhuri; Minor Babu, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Administration of sweetened medicaments poses many oral health related problems in children due to the lack of awareness among the pediatricians regarding their ill effects. Purpose: To assess pediatricians awareness and attitudes toward the use of liquid pediatric medicines and their relationship with dental caries and erosion. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the pediatricians residing in Nellore city. Data were obtained from 55 pediatricians using questionnaires. Results: Among the respondents, 95.6% prescribed liquid medicaments, 51.1% expressed that they may be associated with dental effects, 60% were not aware regarding the sweetness of medicaments, whereas majority of them (77.8%) opined that children complained regarding the taste, 73.3% stated that sugar substitutes were used as sweetening agents, 70.9% believed that they were not acidic, 68.9% did not recommend brushing after intake of medicines, 90% failed to deliver oral health instructions, and 54.5% believed that lack of oral hygiene was a contributing factor for development of dental caries. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents prescribed liquid medicaments and were unaware regarding the sweetening agents and acidity, which cause ill effects on the dental hard tissues. Most of them neither recommended nor delivered oral hygiene instructions (OHI) after prescribing sweetened liquid medicaments. Hence, OHI should be delivered to enhance the oral health related quality of life in children. PMID:25767765

  8. Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

  9. Tagatose, the new GRAS sweetener and health product.

    PubMed

    Levin, Gilbert V

    2002-01-01

    Tagatose, a low-calorie, full-bulk natural sugar, has just attained GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status under U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, thereby permitting its use as a sweetener in foods and beverages. This paper presents all current aspects of tagatose with respect to demonstrated food and beverage applications and the potential health and medical benefits of this unique substance. Summarized studies are referenced to detailed peer-reviewed papers. The safety studies followed the recommendations in the FDA "Red Book." Results were submitted to an Expert Panel for determination of GRAS status under FDA regulation. Small phase 2 clinical trials showed tagatose to be effective in treating type 2 diabetes. The results, buttressed by the references cited, support the efficacy of the various applications disclosed for tagatose. Tagatose has been found to be safe and efficacious for use as a low-calorie, full-bulk sweetener in a wide variety of foods, beverages, health foods, and dietary supplements. It fills broad, heretofore unmet needs for a low-calorie sweetener in products in which the bulk of sugar is important, such as chocolates, chewing gum, cakes, ice cream, and frosted cereals. Its synergism with high-intensity sweeteners also makes it useful in sodas. Various health and medical benefits are indicated, including the treatment of type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, anemia, and hemophilia and the improvement of fetal development. PMID:12511110

  10. A hydro/organo/hybrid gelator: a peptide lipid with turning aspartame head groups.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Masaru; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Asakawa, Masumi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Kogiso, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a novel bola-type peptide lipid which can gelate water, organic solvents, and water/organic-solvent mixtures. In its molecular structure, an amphiphilic dipeptide aspartame (L-?-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is connected at both ends of an alkylene linker. The different morphologies in the hydrogel (helical nanotapes) and the organogel (tape-like nanostructures) were visualized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and energy-filtering scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the molecular arrangement was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Possessing a hydrophilic aspartic acid group and a (relatively) hydrophobic phenylalanine methyl ester group, the dipeptide head group can turn about in response to solvent polarity. As a consequence, the solvent condition changed the molecular packing of the gelator and affected the overall supramolecular structure of the gel. It is noted that the peptide lipid gelated mixed solvents of water and organic solvents such as dichloromethane, liquid-paraffin, olive-oil, silicone-oils, and so on. The present hybrid gel can simultaneously hold hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional materials. PMID:23394806

  11. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal. PMID:24159687

  12. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly

  13. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  14. Production and physicochemical assessment of new stevia amino acid sweeteners from the natural stevioside.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Jad, Yahya El-Sayed; Bekhit, Adnan A; El-Faham, Ayman

    2015-04-15

    New stevia amino acid sweeteners, stevia glycine ethyl ester (ST-GL) and stevia l-alanine methyl ester (ST-GL), were synthesised and characterised by IR, NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and elemental analysis. The purity of the new sweeteners was determined by HPLC and their sensory properties were evaluated relative to sucrose in an aqueous system. Furthermore, the stevia derivatives (ST-GL and ST-AL) were evaluated for their acute toxicity, melting point, solubility and heat stability. The novel sweeteners were stable in acidic, neutral or basic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of the novel sweeteners was higher than sucrose. Stevia amino acid (ST-GL and ST-AL) solutions had a clean sweetness taste without bitterness when compared to stevioside. The novel sweeteners can be utilised as non-caloric sweeteners in the production of low-calorie food. PMID:25466115

  15. The effect of aspartame on rat brain xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vences-Meja, A; Labra-Ruz, N; Hernndez-Martnez, N; Dorado-Gonzlez, V; Gmez-Garduo, J; Prez-Lpez, I; Nosti-Palacios, R; Camacho Carranza, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2006-08-01

    This study demonstrates that chronic aspartame (ASP) consumption leads to an increase of phase I metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP)) in rat brain. Wistar rats were treated by gavage with ASP at daily doses of 75 and 125 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. Cerebrum and cerebellum were used to obtain microsomal fractions to analyse activity and protein levels of seven cytochrome P450 enzymes. Increases in activity were consistently found with the 75 mg/kg dose both in cerebrum and cerebellum for all seven enzymes, although not at the same levels: CYP 2E1-associated 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (4-NPH) activity was increased 1.5-fold in cerebrum and 25-fold in cerebellum; likewise, CYP2B1-associated penthoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity increased 2.9- and 1.7-fold respectively, CYP2B2-associated benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) 4.5- and 1.1-fold, CYP3A-associated erythromycin N-demethylase (END) 1.4- and 3.3-fold, CYP1A1-associated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) 5.5- and 2.8-fold, and CYP1A2-associated methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) 3.7- and 1.3-fold. Furthermore, the pattern of induction of CYP immunoreactive proteins by ASP paralleled that of 4-NHP-, PROD-, BROD-, END-, EROD- and MROD-related activities only in the cerebellum. Conversely, no differences in CYP concentration and activity were detected in hepatic microsomes of treated animals with respect to the controls, suggesting a brain-specific response to ASP treatment. PMID:16937917

  16. Use of fructose, xylitol, or sorbitol as a sweetener in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Brunzell, J D

    1978-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been utilized in the diet of diabetic patients an an agent to replace glucose and sucrose. Since saccharin might be removed from the marketplace, the nutritive sweeteners fructose, xylitol, and sorbitol are being considered as possible alternatives for glucose and sucrose. This review considers the effects of these nutritive sweeteners on the main dietary concerns in the diabetic diet--control of blood glucose levels, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The potential side effects of these agents are also reviewed. PMID:400132

  17. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2012-04-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. PMID:21802146

  18. Reuse of spent natural gas liquid sweetening solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, W.J.; McKim, M.N.; Smith, L.S.

    1995-12-01

    Partially spent caustic solutions from natural gas liquids (NGL) sweetening processes can be used as reagent for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) scrubbing facilities, reducing the costs for purchasing scrubber reagent and eliminating the costs and liabilities associated with waste disposal. This paper discusses: (1) the characteristics of typical spent NGL sweetening solutions, (2) State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of these solutions as wastes, (3) the operational variables affecting reuse of these solutions in SO{sub 2} scrubbers, (4) field and laboratory analytical data from a pilot project conducted to evaluate the reuse of a partially spent NGL sweetening solution as SO{sub 2} scrubber reagent, and (5) economic data from the pilot project. For the pilot project, a partially spent caustic NGL sweetening solution was used in place of soda ash solution as reagent in a SO{sub 2} scrubber serving two steam generators burning sour gas. Emissions testing of the scrubber demonstrated that the solution provided effective removal of oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) in both gaseous and particulate phases to meet permitted limits. Data from the pilot project is used in the paper to: (1) quantify SO{sub 2} scrubber performance with partially spent caustic solutions in terms of SO{sub x} removal efficiency, (2) identify the necessary modifications in scrubber operation (reagent feed rate, scrubber liquor pH and specific gravity, blowdown rate) to achieve acceptable performance using partially spent caustic solutions, and (3) describe the effect that the use of partially spent caustic solutions has on physical and chemical properties of scrubber liquor.

  19. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (19602012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans. PMID:22679063

  20. Aspartame Administration and Insulin Treatment Altered Brain Levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nosti-Palacios, Rosario; Gómez-Garduño, Josefina; Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Calzada-León, Raúl; Dorado-González, Víctor Manuel; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-07-17

    This study demonstrates that aspartame consumption and insulin treatment in a juvenile diabetic rat model leads to increase in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and CYP3A2 isozymes in brain. Diabetes mellitus was induced in postweaned 21-day-old Wistar male rat by streptozotocin. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: untreated control, diabetic (D), D-insulin, D-aspartame, or the D-insulin + aspartame-treated group. Brain and liver tissue samples were used to analyze the activity of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 and protein levels. Our results indicate that combined treatment with insulin and aspartame in juvenile diabetic rats significantly induced CYP2E1 in the cerebrum and cerebellum without modifying it in the liver, while CYP3A2 protein activity increased both in the brain and in the liver. The induction of CYP2E1 in the brain could have important in situ toxicological effects, given that this CYP isoform is capable of bioactivating various toxic substances. Additionally, CYP3A2 induction in the liver and brain could be considered a decisive factor in the variation of drug response and toxicity. PMID:25038063

  1. Kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction (aspartame degradation) as affected by polyol-induced changes in buffer pH and pK values.

    PubMed

    Chuy, S; Bell, L N

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of an acid-base catalyzed reaction, aspartame degradation, were examined as affected by the changes in pH and pK(a) values caused by adding polyols (sucrose, glycerol) to phosphate buffer. Sucrose-containing phosphate buffer solutions had a lower pH than that of phosphate buffer alone, which contributed, in part, to reduced aspartame reactivity. A kinetic model was introduced for aspartame degradation that encompassed pH and buffer salt concentrations, both of which change with a shift in the apparent pK(a) value. Aspartame degradation rate constants in sucrose-containing solutions were successfully predicted using this model when corrections (that is, lower pH, lower apparent pK(a) value, buffer dilution from the polyol) were applied. The change in buffer properties (pH, pK(a)) from adding sucrose to phosphate buffer does impact food chemical stability. These effects can be successfully incorporated into predictive kinetic models. Therefore, pH and pK(a) changes from adding polyols to buffer should be considered during food product development. PMID:19200086

  2. Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

    2011-12-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. PMID:22153513

  3. A novel solid-phase extraction for the concentration of sweeteners in water and analysis by ion-pair liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ruonan; Feng, Biting

    2013-01-25

    A highly sensitive method for the simultaneous trace (ng/L) quantification of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in a variety of water samples using solid-phase extraction and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source (ESI-MS) in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring mode was developed. Ten solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were tested to evaluate their applicability for the pre-concentration of the analytes, and their loading and eluting parameters were optimized. Satisfactory recoveries (77-99%) of all of the studied sweeteners were obtained using a Poly-Sery PWAX cartridge with 25 mM sodium acetate solution (pH 4) as wash buffer and methanol containing 1mM tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (TRIS) as eluent. The method is sound and does not require pH adjustment or buffering of water samples. The HPLC separation was performed on an Athena C18-WP column with water and acetonitrile, both containing 5mM ammonium acetate and 1mM TRIS as mobile phases, in gradient elution mode. The linearity, precision, and accuracy of the method were evaluated, and good reproducibility was obtained. Method quantification limits varied between 0.4 and 7.5 ng/L for different water samples. The post-extraction spike method was applied to assess matrix effects, and quantification was achieved using internal standard calibration to overcome the unavoidable matrix effects during ESI-MS analysis. The method was applied to the analysis of thirteen water samples from Tianjin, China, including wastewater, tap water, surface water, and groundwater. The method described here is time-saving, accurate and precise, and is suitable for monitoring artificial sweeteners in different water matrices. PMID:23273631

  4. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... products containing flavoring or sweetening. The unqualified name “whipped cream” should not be applied...

  5. Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves dietary in Lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality. We simulated the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with tap water on the diet quality of Lower Miss...

  6. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  7. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the “small change” in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high. PMID:26404369

  8. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Are Public Health and the Market Aligned or in Conflict?

    PubMed

    Shrapnel, William

    2015-09-01

    Adverse health consequences of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages are frequently cited as an example of market failure, justifying government intervention in the marketplace, usually in the form of taxation. However, declining sales of sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia and a corresponding increase in sales of drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, in the absence of significant government regulation, appear to reflect market forces at work. If so, the public health challenge in relation to sugar-sweetened beverages may have less to do with regulating the market and more to do with harnessing it. Contrary to assertions that consumers fail to appreciate the links between their choice of beverage and its health consequences, the health conscious consumer appears to be driving the changes taking place in the beverage market. With the capacity to meet consumer expectations for convenience and indulgence without unwanted kilojoules, drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners enable the "small change" in health behaviour that individuals are willing to consider. Despite the low barriers involved in perpetuating the current trend of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with drinks containing non-nutritive sweeteners, some public health advocates remain cautious about advocating this dietary change. In contrast, the barriers to taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages appear high. PMID:26404369

  9. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake. PMID:25128835

  10. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults -- 18 states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri S; Pan, Liping; Park, Sohyun; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-08-15

    Reducing consumption of calories from added sugars is a recommendation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and an objective of Healthy People 2020. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are major sources of added sugars in the diets of U.S. residents. Daily SSB consumption is associated with obesity and other chronic health conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. U.S. adults consumed an estimated average of 151 kcal/day of SSB during 2009-2010, with regular (i.e., nondiet) soda and fruit drinks representing the leading sources of SSB energy intake. However, there is limited information on state-specific prevalence of SSB consumption. To assess regular soda and fruit drink consumption among adults in 18 states, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among the 18 states surveyed, 26.3% of adults consumed regular soda or fruit drinks or both ≥1 times daily. By state, the prevalence ranged from 20.4% to 41.4%. Overall, consumption of regular soda or fruit drinks was most common among persons aged 18‒34 years (24.5% for regular soda and 16.6% for fruit drinks), men (21.0% and 12.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (20.9% and 21.9%), and Hispanics (22.6% and 18.5%). Persons who want to reduce added sugars in their diets can decrease their consumption of foods high in added sugars such as candy, certain dairy and grain desserts, sweetened cereals, regular soda, fruit drinks, sweetened tea and coffee drinks, and other SSBs. States and health departments can collaborate with worksites and other community venues to increase access to water and other healthful beverages. PMID:25121711

  11. Structural studies on artificial sweeteners: itN-(4-(1-propyloxy)-phenyl)-urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooft, Rob W. W.; Kanters, Jan A.; Kroon, Jan

    1991-12-01

    C 10N 2O 2H 14, M r=194.23, triclinic, itP1. At T=298 K: a=7.0292 (12), b=7.0394 (14), c=21.761 (2) Å, α=97.637 (13), β=97.326 (12), γ=96.14 (2)°, V=1050.0 (3) Å 3, Z=4, Dx=1.229 Mg m -3, λ(Cu Kα)=1.54184 Å, μ=6.7 cm -1, F(000)=416 and R=0.037 for 4268 unique observed diffractometer data (itI≥ 2.5σ(itI)). At T=100 K: a=6.8724 (4), b=6.8748 (6), c=21.773 (3) Å, α=96.680 (8), β=97.010 (7), γ=94.558 (6)°, V= 1009.5 (2) Å 3, Z=4, Dx=1.278 Mg m -3, λ(Mo Kα)=0.71073 Å, μ=0.8cm -1, F(000)=416 and R=0.056 for 3765 unique observed diffractometer data (itI≥2.5σ(itI)). At room temperature the methyl group C atoms have a high thermal motion which is possibly librational. The molecules form NH⋯0-type hydrogen-bonded networks, each oxygen accepting three hydrogen bonds. A systematic search for the so-called AH⋯B moieties which are thought to be responsible for the sweet taste revealed a number of possible candidates.

  12. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food additives as so defined, they are used in conformity with regulations established... purport to be or are represented for special dietary use by regulations promulgated pursuant to...

  13. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food additives as so defined, they are used in conformity with regulations established... purport to be or are represented for special dietary use by regulations promulgated pursuant to...

  14. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food additives as so defined, they are used in conformity with regulations established... purport to be or are represented for special dietary use by regulations promulgated pursuant to...

  15. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount...

  16. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount...

  17. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount...

  18. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount...

  19. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount...

  20. Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables. PMID:20199453

  1. Cranberry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 33% pure cranberry juice, sweetened with fructose or artificial sweetener. ... stick with cranberry products that are sweetened with artificial sweeteners. Low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria). Cranberry juice might ...

  2. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. Methods We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. Results 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529 PMID:24167595

  3. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  4. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  5. Gas sweetening in Saudi Arabia in large dga plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huval, M.; Van De Venne, H.

    1981-01-01

    The authors are concerned with the natural gas conditioning by using sweetening agent, diglycolamine or DGA, a trademark name for 2-(2-amino-ethoxy) ethanol or 2-2 hydroxy-ethylamine. This paper describes the use of DGA in Saudi Arabia, where Aramco has several DGA plants to treat large amounts of low pressure associated gas to 1/4 grain gas pipeline specification. The paper also describes the reasons why DGA was selected, some of the special features of these plants and the operating experiences to date. It is demonstrated that DGA is a very potent gas sweetening agent. Sour gases with H/sub 2/S concentrations ranging from 3-8% and with CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranging from 8-14% can be treated in a single contactor with 21 trays producing sweet gas containing 1-2 ppm H/sub 2/S and less than 100 ppm CO/sub 2/. Recommendations for practice are included.

  6. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  7. Sweet and bitter taste: structure and conformations of two aspartame dipeptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, E; Gavuzzo, E; Santini, A; Kent, D R; Zhu, Y F; Zhu, Q; Mahr, C; Goodman, M

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis and X-ray diffraction analysis of two dipeptide taste ligands have been carried out as part of our study of the molecular basis of taste. The compounds L-aspartyl-D-alpha-methylphenylalanine methyl ester [L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe] and L-aspartyl-D-alanyl-2,2,5, 5-tetramethylcyclopentanyl ester [L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP] elicit bitter and sweet taste, respectively. The C-terminal residues of the two analogues adopt distinctly different conformations in the solid state. The aspartyl moiety assumes the same conformation found in other dipeptide taste ligands with the side-chain carboxylate and the amino groups forming a zwitterionic ring with a conformation defined by psi, chi 1 = 157.7 degrees, -61.5 degrees for L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP and 151.0 degrees, -68.8 degrees for L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe. In the second residue, a left-handed helical conformation is observed for the (alpha Me)Phe residue of L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe with phi 2 = 49.0 degrees and psi 2 = 47.9 degrees, while the Ala residue of L-Asp-D-Ala-OTMCP adopts a semi-extended conformation characterized by dihedral angles phi 2 = 62.8 degrees and psi 2 = -139.9 degrees. The solid-state structure of the bitter L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe is extended: while the crystal structure of the sweet L-Asp-D-OTMCP roughly adopts the typical L-shaped structure shown by other sweeteners. The data of L-Asp-D-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe are compared with those of its diastereoisomer L-Asp-L-(alpha Me)Phe-OMe. Conformational analysis of the two taste ligands in solution by NMR and computer simulations agrees well with our model for sweet and bitter tastes. PMID:9223014

  8. Sweetener blend optimization by using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Megan E; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing more than one sweetener has been shown to be an effective way to substitute sucrose in food products. The objective of this study was to apply the augmented simplex-centroid mixture design for the optimization of acceptable sweetener blends using coconut sugar, agave, and stevia. Sweetener blends were evaluated in aqueous solutions and gluten-free granola bars by a trained panel and consumers (n = 60). Significant differences were found between sweetener mixtures in solutions by both panelists and consumers (P < 0.05). Taste profiles for the sweetener solutions were also generated using the electronic tongue. Most consumer and trained intensity ratings were highly correlated (R(2) ? 0.79) with the electronic tongue taste profile analysis. Granola bars were also found to be significantly different (P < 0.05), with consumers preferring coconut sugar mixtures. Using contour plots and desirability function analysis, an optimal sweetener combination was found for a granola bar formulation of 89.9% coconut sugar, 6.1% agave, and 4% stevia. These results indicate that a mixture design can be a reliable way to develop new sweetener blends for product development. PMID:25155461

  9. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. PMID:25847181

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  11. Artificial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul; CSMR Team

    2013-03-01

    Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

  12. Artificial Rheotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anais; Hanson, Kasey; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul; CSMR, NYU Team

    2013-11-01

    Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

  13. Acute pulmonary edema caused by accidental aspiration of sweetened water in two cases of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaneki, T; Kubo, K; Sone, S; Kawashima, A

    1998-11-01

    We treated two cases of diabetes mellitus who developed acute pulmonary edema following accidental aspiration of sweetened water for emergency treatment, when they had fallen into hypoglycemic coma following an overdose of injectable insulin. Although they showed hypoxemia and radiological examinations revealed pulmonary edema, they improved by giving only oxygen and antibiotics in a few days. The osmotic pressure of the sweetened water in each case was approximately 2,600 mOsm and 1,900 mOsm. We suppose that the pathogenesis of the pulmonary edema was due to the sweetened water causing water within the pulmonary vessels to permeate into the alveoli. PMID:9868963

  14. Metabolic studies with nonnutritive sweeteners cyclooctylsulfamate and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate.

    PubMed

    Spillane, W J; Benson, G A; McGlinchey, G

    1979-03-01

    The nonnutritive sweeteners cyclooctylsulfamate and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate were fed separately to female Wistar albino rats, and the urine was examined for the possible metabolites cyclooctylamine, cyclooctanone, cyclooctanol, 4-methylcyclohexylamine, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and cis- and trans-4-methylcyclohexanols. The average percent conversions to cyclooctylamine, cyclooctanone, and cyclooctanol were 0.127, 0.08, and 0.092, respectively. The average percent conversions to 4-methylcyclohexylamine and 4-methylcyclohexanone were 0.007 and 0.0013, respectively. No cis- or trans-4-methylcyclohexanol metabolites were found. With cyclooctylsulfamate, 42% was recovered unchanged from the urine. Cyclooctyl- and cycloheptylsulfamates were metabolized to a greater extent than cyclopentylsulfamate, which, in turn, was metabolized to a greater extent than cyclohexylsulfamate (cyclamate) and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate. PMID:423133

  15. Employment Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Persky, Joseph J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes on net employment. Methods. We used a macroeconomic simulation model to assess the employment impact of a 20% SSB tax accounting for changes in SSB demand, substitution to non-SSBs, income effects, and government expenditures of tax revenues for Illinois and California in 2012. Results. We found increased employment of 4406 jobs in Illinois and 6654 jobs in California, representing a respective 0.06% and 0.03% change in employment. Declines in employment within the beverage industry occurred but were offset by new employment in nonbeverage industry and government sectors. Conclusions. SSB taxes do not have a negative impact on state-level employment, and industry claims of regional job losses are overstated and may mislead lawmakers and constituents. PMID:24524492

  16. Assessment of the carcinogenicity of the nonnutritive sweetener cyclamate.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F E; Thomas, D B

    1992-01-01

    The weight of the evidence from metabolic studies, short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies indicates that cyclamate (CHS) is not carcinogenic by itself; however, there is evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies in animals that implies it may have cancer-promoting or cocarcinogenic activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (CHS and saccharin) has not resulted in a measurable overall increase in the risk of bladder cancer in individuals who have ever used these products. No epidemiological information exists on the possible associations of these sweeteners and cancers other than those of the urinary tract. It is recommended that (1) no further studies on the metabolism of CHS to evaluate its carcinogenicity are required since no potentially hazardous metabolites have been appreciably detected in humans; (2) no further animal bioassays to test for the carcinogenicity of CHS by itself are necessary; (3) the studies in rodents that suggest a promotional or cocarcinogenic effect of CHS should be repeated because they cannot be ruled out; (4) because the significance to human health of a positive outcome of such studies is uncertain, additional research aimed at understanding the predictive value for human health of such results and more generic studies to develop well-validated systems that can be relied on in the assessment of cancer-promoting agents are recommended; (5) in populations where CHS continues to be used, epidemiological monitoring should be continued to determine whether there is an increased risk of cancer in humans who are heavy or long-term users or for those observed long after first exposure. In such monitoring, other cancer sites--in addition to the bladder--should be considered. PMID:1510820

  17. Antibiotics and sweeteners in the aquatic environment: biodegradability, formation of phototransformation products, and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bergheim, Marlies; Gminski, Richard; Spangenberg, Bernd; Debiak, Malgorzata; Bürkle, Alexander; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Kümmerer, Klaus; Gieré, Reto

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, in vitro toxicity as well as biopersistence and photopersistence of four artificial sweeteners (acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine, and sucralose) and five antibiotics (levofloxacin, lincomycin, linezolid, marbofloxacin, and sarafloxacin) and of their phototransformation products (PTPs) were investigated. Furthermore, antibiotic activity was evaluated after UV irradiation and after exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. The study reveals that most of the tested compounds and their PTPs were neither readily nor inherently biodegradable in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-biodegradability tests. The study further demonstrates that PTPs are formed upon irradiation with an Hg lamp (UV light) and, to a lesser extent, upon irradiation with a Xe lamp (mimics sunlight). Comparing the nonirradiated with the corresponding irradiated solutions, a higher chronic toxicity against bacteria was found for the irradiated solutions of linezolid. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was found in human cervical (HeLa) and liver (Hep-G2) cells for any of the investigated compounds or their PTPs. Antimicrobial activity of the tested fluoroquinolones was reduced after UV treatment, but it was not reduced after a 28-day exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. This comparative study shows that PTPs can be formed as a result of UV treatment. The study further demonstrated that UV irradiation can be effective in reducing the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics, and consequently may help to reduce antimicrobial resistance in wastewaters. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that some PTPs may exhibit a higher ecotoxicity than the respective parent compounds. Consequently, UV treatment does not transform all micropollutants into harmless compounds and may not be a large-scale effluent treatment option. PMID:26169816

  18. Does the Sale of Sweetened Beverages at School Affect Childrens Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Solveig A.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    In response to the increase in childrens weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between childrens access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages. PMID:21907477

  19. Impact and Ethics of Excluding Sweetened Beverages From the SNAP Program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The state of New York recently petitioned the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for permission to conduct a demonstration project in which sweetened beverages would be excluded from the foods eligible to be purchased with Supplemental Assistance Nutrition Program (SNAP) benefits (i.e., food stamps) in New York City. The USDA and advocacy groups have raised objections to new SNAP restrictions such as the proposed exclusion of sweetened beverages. Some objections rest on empirical issues best resolved by demonstration projects or pilot studies of new exclusions. Other objections question the equity of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP; these objections are important but not ethically decisive. The USDA should approve the proposed demonstration project and should encourage other pilot studies to assess the effects of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP. PMID:21566025

  20. Artificial Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Y.; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

    1985-01-01

    Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching techniques; the control of problem solving; programming languages for Al, such as LISP, PLANNER, CONNIVER, and PROLOG; the representation and utilization of knowledge; and the approach to human intelligence.

  1. Artificial halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmke, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  2. Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

    PubMed

    Popkin, Barry M; Hawkes, Corinna

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that excessive intake of added sugars has adverse effects on cardiometabolic health, which is consistent with many reviews and consensus reports from WHO and other unbiased sources. 74% of products in the US food supply contain caloric or low-calorie sweeteners, or both. Of all packaged foods and beverages purchased by a nationally representative sample of US households in 2013, 68% (by proportion of calories) contain caloric sweeteners and 2% contain low-calorie sweeteners. We believe that in the absence of intervention, the rest of the world will move towards this pervasiveness of added sugars in the food supply. Our analysis of trends in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages around the world, in terms of calories sold per person per day and volume sold per person per day, shows that the four regions with the highest consumption are North America, Latin America, Australasia, and western Europe. The fastest absolute growth in sales of sugar-sweetened beverages by country in 2009-14 was seen in Chile. We believe that action is needed to tackle the high levels and continuing growth in sales of such beverages worldwide. Many governments have initiated actions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in the past few years, including taxation (eg, in Mexico); reduction of their availability in schools; restrictions on marketing of sugary foods to children; public awareness campaigns; and positive and negative front-of-pack labelling. In our opinion, evidence of the effectiveness of these actions shows that they are moving in the right direction, but governments should view them as a learning process and improve their design over time. A key challenge for policy makers and researchers is the absence of a consensus on the relation of beverages containing low-calorie sweeteners and fruit juices with cardiometabolic outcomes, since decisions about whether these are healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages are an integral part of policy design. PMID:26654575

  3. Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 20059

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 20052009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 20052009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

  4. Artificial rheotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Pine, David J.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes. PMID:26601175

  5. Artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Scott, William B

    2005-04-25

    NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients. PMID:15852559

  6. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1985-08-16

    A project to develop artificial intelligence (AI) computers that can understand and emulate human speech, perform physical functions, and make reasoned judgments has developed to the point where expert systems with modest powers that suggest reasoning are at work in business and industry. Present-day computers process data, but must be programmed with instructions. AI systems process information more rapidly and can comprehend new types of programming languages that use symbols rather than numbers. The programs compare facts and rules to make deductive, reasoned responses. Sales in AI soft and hardware amount to $150 million a year, and Japan is competing for industry and defense contracts. There is no conclusive proof that computers can do more than make inferences, nor is it known how to instill common sense or spontaneous problem solving.

  7. Artificial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes. PMID:26601175

  8. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. PMID:24684500

  9. Total Artificial Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and ...

  10. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    PubMed

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  11. Misperceptions of peer norms as a risk factor for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Perkins, H Wesley; Craig, David W

    2010-12-01

    Research has shown that excess calories from sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with weight gain among youth. There is limited knowledge, however, regarding perception of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms. This study examined the extent of misperception about peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms and the association of perceived peer norms with personal self-reported consumption. Among 3,831 6th- to 12th-grade students in eight schools who completed anonymous cross-sectional surveys between November 2008 and May 2009, students' personal perception of the daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norm in their school within their grade (School Grade group) was compared with aggregate self-reports of daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for each School Grade group. The median daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from personal reports was one beverage in 24 of 29 School Grade groups, two beverages in four School Grade groups, and three beverages in one School Grade group. Seventy-six percent of students overestimated the daily norm in their School Grade group, with 24% perceiving the norm to be at least three beverages or more per day. Fixed-effects multiple regression analysis showed that the perceived peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norm was much more positively associated with personal consumption than was the estimated actual sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norm per School Grade group. Misperceptions of peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms were pervasive and associated with unhealthy sugar-sweetened beverage consumption behavior. These misperceptions may contribute to intake of excess calories, potentially contributing to adolescent obesity. Future research should assess the pervasiveness of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption misperceptions in other school populations as well as causes and consequences of these misperceptions. Health professionals may wish to consider how normative feedback interventions could potentially reduce consumption. PMID:21111101

  12. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34) compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806). One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively). No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are needed to determine the role of hypocaloric sweeteners in a wider population health strategy to prevent, reduce and manage obesity and its consequences. PMID:22093544

  13. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners. PMID:26650384

  14. Evaluating equity critiques in food policy: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F

    2013-01-01

    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy - modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet - and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program (SNAP) assistance (i.e., food stamps). We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were made to the sweetened beverage exclusion, and analyze these objections in terms of the theoretical notions of distributive equality and social equality. First, the sweetened beverage exclusion is unfair or violates distributive equality because it restricts the consumer choice of SNAP participants relative to non-participants. Second, it is disrespectful or violates social equality to prohibit SNAP participants from purchasing sweetened beverages with food stamps. We conclude that neither equity-based ethical objection is decisive, and that the proposed exclusion of sugar-sweetened beverages is not a violation of either distributive or social equality. PMID:23581672

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ?2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.042.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (Ptrend?=?0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR?=?2.22; 95% CI, 1.293.81, Ptrend?=?0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24937507

  16. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

  17. Life-Span Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning during Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Tibaldi, Eva; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lauriola, Michelina

    2007-01-01

    Background In a previous study conducted at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation (CMCRC/ERF), we demonstrated for the first time that aspartame (APM) is a multipotent carcinogenic agent when various doses are administered with feed to Sprague-Dawley rats from 8 weeks of age throughout the life span. Objective The aim of this second study is to better quantify the carcinogenic risk of APM, beginning treatment during fetal life. Methods We studied groups of 7095 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered APM (2,000, 400, or 0 ppm) with feed from the 12th day of fetal life until natural death. Results Our results show a) a significant dose-related increase of malignant tumorbearing animals in males (p < 0.01), particularly in the group treated with 2,000 ppm APM (p < 0.01); b) a significant increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males treated with 2,000 ppm (p < 0.05) and a significant dose-related increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in females (p < 0.01), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.01); and c) a significant dose-related increase in incidence of mammary cancer in females (p < 0.05), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this carcinogenicity bioassay confirm and reinforce the first experimental demonstration of APMs multipotential carcinogenicity at a dose level close to the acceptable daily intake for humans. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that when life-span exposure to APM begins during fetal life, its carcinogenic effects are increased. PMID:17805418

  18. 40 CFR 60.5406 - What test methods and procedures must I use for my sweetening units affected facilities at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use for my sweetening units affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5406... Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5406 What test methods and procedures must I use for my sweetening units affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.5423 - What additional recordkeeping and reporting requirements apply to my sweetening unit affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements apply to my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing... Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5423 What additional recordkeeping and reporting requirements apply to my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural...

  20. 40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5407 What are the... natural gas processing plants? (a) If your sweetening unit affected facility is located at an...

  1. 40 CFR 60.5423 - What additional recordkeeping and reporting requirements apply to my sweetening unit affected...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements apply to my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing... Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5423 What additional recordkeeping and reporting requirements apply to my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit affected facilities at onshore natural gas... Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5407 What are the... natural gas processing plants? (a) If your sweetening unit affected facility is located at an...

  3. 40 CFR 60.5406 - What test methods and procedures must I use for my sweetening units affected facilities at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use for my sweetening units affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5406... Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5406 What test methods and procedures must I use for my sweetening units affected facilities at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  4. Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft-drink and fruit juice beverages differentially associated with glucose-related measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Impaired insulin sensitivity is a key metabolic abnormality associated with these conditions and high-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in sodas, has bee...

  5. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  6. Paternal modeling, household availability, and paternal intake as predictors of fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption among African American children.

    PubMed

    Harris, Toni S; Ramsey, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The current study examined how African American fathers' dietary practices were associated with their children's dietary consumption. The sample consisted of one hundred and two African American fathers, who had children between the ages of three and thirteen. The fathers provided self-reports of their consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugar sweetened beverages; modeling of healthy eating; household availability of foods and beverages; and their children's previously mentioned consumption. Sweetened beverages are considered to be any beverage that contains added sweeteners, high-fructose corn syrup, and/or fruit juice concentrates. Paternal modeling and household availability of food and beverages were measured using subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Three separate hierarchical regressions were performed to reveal that child fruit and vegetable consumption was only predicted by parental intake. Child sweetened beverage consumption, however, was predicted by paternal intake and household availability. Modeling did not significantly predict children's consumption of fruits, vegetables, or sweetened beverages. The findings suggest that paternal intake of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages predicts child consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. Family efforts should be made toward increasing father's consumption of healthy foods while decreasing the consumption and availability of sweetened beverages. PMID:25447009

  7. Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

  8. Fructose and Cardiometabolic Health: What the Evidence From Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Tells Us.

    PubMed

    Malik, Vasanti S; Hu, Frank B

    2015-10-01

    Recent attention has focused on fructose as having a unique role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. However, because we rarely consume fructose in isolation, the major source of fructose in the diet comes from fructose-containing sugars, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, in sugar-sweetened beverages and foods. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has been consistently linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in various populations. Putative underlying mechanisms include incomplete compensation for liquid calories, adverse glycemic effects, and increased hepatic metabolism of fructose leading to de novo lipogenesis, production of uric acid, and accumulation of visceral and ectopic fat. In this review we summarize the epidemiological and clinical trial evidence evaluating added sugars, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease and address potential biological mechanisms with an emphasis on fructose physiology. We also discuss strategies to reduce intake of fructose-containing beverages. PMID:26429086

  9. Banning All Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Middle Schools

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether state policies that regulate beverages in schools are associated with reduced in-school access and purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and reduced consumption of SSBs (in and out of school) among adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Public schools in 40 states. Participants Students sampled in fifth and eighth grades (spring 2004 and 2007, respectively). Main Exposures State policies that ban all SSBs and state policies that ban only soda for 2006-2007. Main Outcome Measures In-school SSB access, in-school SSB purchasing behavior, and overall SSB consumption (in and out of school) in eighth grade. Results The proportions of eighth-grade students who reported in-school SSB access and purchasing were similar in states that banned only soda (66.6% and 28.9%, respectively) compared with states with no beverage policy (66.6% and 26.0%, respectively). In states that banned all SSBs, fewer students reported in-school SSB access (prevalence difference, ?14.9; 95% CI, ?23.6 to ?6.1) or purchasing (?7.3; ?11.0 to ?3.5), adjusted for race/ethnicity, poverty status, locale, state obesity prevalence, and state clustering. Results were similar among students who reported access or purchasing SSBs in fifth grade compared with those who did not. Overall SSB consumption was not associated with state policy; in each policy category, approximately 85% of students reported consuming SSBs at least once in the past 7 days. Supplementary analyses indicated that overall consumption had only a modest association with in-school SSB access. Conclusion State policies that ban all SSBs in middle schools appear to reduce in-school access and purchasing of SSBs but do not reduce overall consumption. PMID:22064875

  10. Association between sugar-sweetened beverages and type2 diabetes: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yu, Min; Fang, Le; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Many studies have been carried out to examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and the incident of type2 diabetes, but results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and the risk of type2 diabetes. Materials and Methods PubMed, Springer Link and Elsevier databases were searched up to July 2014. Prospective studies published on the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and the risk of type2 diabetes were included. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for highest versus lowest category of sugar-sweetened beverages were estimated using a random-effects model. Results The pooled effect estimate of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.211.39) for type2 diabetes; stratified by geographic region of the studies, the pooled effect estimates were 1.34 (95% CI 0.742.43), 1.30 (95% CI 1.201.40), 1.29 (95% CI 1.091.53) in Asia, the USA and Europe,respectively; the pooled effect estimates were 1.26 (95% CI 1.161.36) with adjusting body mass index and 1.38 (95% CI 1.231.56) without adjusting body mass index. Conclusions Our findings suggested that sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with an increased risk of type2 diabetes, and the association was attenuated by adjustment for body mass index. Specifically, the associations were also found to be significantly positive in the USA and Europe. PMID:25969723

  11. The Relationships between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiometabolic Markers in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Kosova, Ethan C.; Auinger, Peggy; Bremer, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated as a major contributor to the development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Objective To evaluate the relationships between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiometabolic markers in young children. Design A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Participants A total of 4,880 individuals aged 3 to 11 years from nationally representative samples of US children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2004 were studied. Main outcome measures Concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein as well as waist circumference and body mass index percentile for age–sex. Statistical analyses performed Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine independent associations between each outcome variable and the number of serving equivalents of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed after adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty status, physical activity, and energy intake. Results Increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased C-reactive protein concentrations (P=0.003), increased waist circumference (P=0.04), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P=0.001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated differences in the association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake with metabolic markers and anthropometric measurements among age ranges, sex, and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis of children's dietary data, sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with alterations in lipid profiles, increased markers of inflammation, and increased waist circumference in children. Prospective studies are needed, but awareness of these trends is essential in combating the growing metabolic and cardiovascular disease burden in the pediatric population. PMID:23351625

  12. Impact of Dairy and Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Diet and Weight of a Multiethnic Population of Head Start Mothers

    PubMed Central

    ONEIL, CAROL E.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall meanstandard error=30.80.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.80.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.40.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. PMID:19394474

  13. Impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet and weight of a multiethnic population of head start mothers.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Franklin, Frank A

    2009-05-01

    Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall mean+/-standard error=30.8+/-0.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.8+/-0.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.4+/-0.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. PMID:19394474

  14. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women1234

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Costenbader, Karen H; Gao, Xiang; Al-Daabil, May; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Solomon, Daniel H; Hu, Frank B; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened soda consumption is consistently associated with an increased risk of several chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether it plays a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a common autoimmune inflammatory disease, remains unclear. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of RA in US women. Design: We prospectively followed 79,570 women from the Nurses Health Study (NHS; 19802008) and 107,330 women from the NHS II (19912009). Information on sugar-sweetened soda consumption (including regular cola, caffeine-free cola, and other sugar-sweetened carbonated soda) was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and approximately every 4 y during follow-up. Incident RA cases were validated by medical record review. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs after adjustment for confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled by an inverse-varianceweighted, fixed-effects model. Results: During 3,381,268 person-years of follow-up, 857 incident cases of RA were documented in the 2 cohorts. In the multivariable pooled analyses, we found that women who consumed ?1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d had a 63% (HR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.004) increased risk of developing seropositive RA compared with those who consumed no sugar-sweetened soda or who consumed <1 serving/mo. When we restricted analyses to those with later RA onset (after age 55 y) in the NHS, the association appeared to be stronger (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.56, 4.46; P-trend < 0.0001). No significant association was found for sugar-sweetened soda and seronegative RA. Diet soda consumption was not significantly associated with risk of RA in the 2 cohorts. Conclusion: Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive RA in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. PMID:25030783

  15. Interspecies and interstrain studies on the increased susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions in animals given aspartame.

    PubMed

    Diomede, L; Romano, M; Guiso, G; Caccia, S; Nava, S; Salmona, M

    1991-02-01

    The ability of aspartame (APM) to increase the susceptibility to metrazol-induced convulsions was studied in two strains of mice (CD1 and DBA/2J) and in guinea-pigs. Rats were included as known positive controls. Plasma and brain levels of phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) were measured in CD1 mice and guinea-pigs at various intervals after a dose of 1 g APM/kg body weight (administered orally to mice and ip to guinea-pigs). In mice, peak levels of Phe and Tyr were observed in plasma after 30 min and in brain after 60 min. In guinea-pigs peak plasma levels of Phe and Tyr occurred 30 min after treatment. Phe was at a maximum in guinea-pig brain after 30 min, while Tyr levels reached a peak at 120 min. In further experiments Phe and Tyr levels were measured 1 hr after APM doses of 0.5, 0.75 or 1 g/kg. In CD1 mice, plasma Phe and Tyr levels were increased significantly only at the highest dose, whereas in brain, Tyr concentrations were significantly increased by 0.75 or 1 g APM/kg and Phe was significantly increased by all three doses. In the guinea-pig, plasma Phe and Tyr were increased significantly only by 1 g APM/kg and in brain this dose significantly raised only the Phe levels. Monoamine and metabolite levels were determined in the brain striata of CD1 and DBA/2J mice 1 hr after the oral administration of 1 or 2 g APM/kg body weight; no differences from control values were found in either strain. The studies of potentiation of metrazol-induced convulsions showed that APM, at doses of up to 2 g/kg body weight, had no such effect in mice or guinea-pigs. In contrast, as expected, the potentiation was significant in the rat at 1 g/kg. PMID:2010138

  16. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from Karger AG Publishing Co., P.O. Box, Ch-4009 Basel... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and...

  17. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from Karger AG Publishing Co., P.O. Box, Ch-4009 Basel... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and...

  18. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from Karger AG Publishing Co., P.O. Box, Ch-4009 Basel... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and...

  19. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from Karger AG Publishing Co., P.O. Box, Ch-4009 Basel... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and...

  20. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from Karger AG Publishing Co., P.O. Box, Ch-4009 Basel... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate... Requirements for Health Claims § 101.80 Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and...

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverages and prevalence of the metabolically abnormal phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the...

  2. Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

  3. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

  4. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: Implications for weight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss pl...

  5. Germplasm release: Tetraploid clones with resistance to cold-induced sweetening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cold storage is necessary to supply potatoes to the processing industry and potato products to consumers throughout the year. Cold-induced sweetening limits the potential for existing potato cultivars to produce acceptable chips after cold storage. Genes for resistance to cold-induced swee...

  6. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently

  7. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  8. Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23341001

  9. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as

  11. Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

  12. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions 131.25 Whipped...

  13. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions 131.25 Whipped...

  14. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions 131.25 Whipped...

  15. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions 131.25 Whipped...

  16. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a

  17. Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire

  18. The addition of oat fiber and natural alternative sweeteners in the manufacture of plain yogurt.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Garca, E; McGregor, J U; Traylor, S

    1998-03-01

    Calorie-reduced yogurts that were fortified with 1.32% oat fiber were prepared from lactose-hydrolyzed milk, alone and supplemented with 2 and 4% sucrose or with 1.6, 3.6, and 5.5% fructose. Treated samples were compared with unsweetened yogurt and with yogurts sweetened with 2, 4, and 6% sucrose. Addition of 5.5% fructose increased fermentation time by 60%, slowing down the production of lactic, pyruvic, acetic, and propionic acids and the consumption of hippuric and orotic acids. Lactose hydrolysis had an inhibitory effect on starter activity at the beginning of fermentation and a stimulatory effect at the end of fermentation. Fiber addition led to increases in concentrations of acetic and propionic acid. Lactobacilli counts were lower in samples treated with fructose. The use of hydrolyzed milk had a stimulatory effect on total bacteria and lactobacilli counts throughout the cold storage period. After 28 d of storage, lactobacilli counts were consistently higher in fiber-fortified yogurts, but total bacteria counts were lower. Apparent viscosity increased with the addition of sweetener and fiber. Lactose-hydrolyzed and fructose yogurts had the highest viscosity values. Samples sweetened with sucrose received the highest scores for flavor. Fiber addition decreased overall flavor quality. The lactose-hydrolyzed yogurts received the highest flavor scores, independent of fiber fortification. Fiber addition improved the body and texture of unsweetened yogurts but lowered overall scores for body and texture in yogurts sweetened with sucrose. PMID:9565867

  19. Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and

  20. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

  1. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: Impact on weight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 years. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary p...

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of the chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova, T. E.; Prokhodchenko, L. K.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Suboch, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil was characterized using spectral methods. It was demonstrated that Vartamil is a mixture of saccharose chloro derivatives, the main one of which is 4,1',6'-trichloro-4,1',6'-trideoxygalactosaccharose (Sucralose).

  3. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  4. SWEETENED BEVERAGE SOURCES OF 7TH AND 8TH GRADE YOUTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Sweetened beverage (SB) consumption may impact energy balance and weight. For middle school youth, major SB sources include home, school snack bars and vending, and restaurants. Policies have attempted to reduce student access to SB in schools, and concerns about restaurant SB consumption h...

  5. 7 CFR 58.938 - Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administration for sweetened condensed milk (21 CFR 131.120). In addition, the quantity of refined sugar used shall be sufficient to give a sugar-in-water ratio of not less than 61.5 percent. (h) Sediment. The... Sediment Standard for Milk and Milk Products (7 CFR 58.2726)....

  6. 7 CFR 58.938 - Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administration for sweetened condensed milk (21 CFR 131.120). In addition, the quantity of refined sugar used shall be sufficient to give a sugar-in-water ratio of not less than 61.5 percent. (h) Sediment. The... Sediment Standard for Milk and Milk Products (7 CFR 58.2726)....

  7. 7 CFR 58.938 - Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk. 58.938 Section 58.938 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...

  8. 7 CFR 58.938 - Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administration for sweetened condensed milk (21 CFR 131.120). In addition, the quantity of refined sugar used shall be sufficient to give a sugar-in-water ratio of not less than 61.5 percent. (h) Sediment. The... Sediment Standard for Milk and Milk Products (7 CFR 58.2726)....

  9. 7 CFR 58.938 - Physical requirements and microbiological limits for sweetened condensed milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administration for sweetened condensed milk (21 CFR 131.120). In addition, the quantity of refined sugar used shall be sufficient to give a sugar-in-water ratio of not less than 61.5 percent. (h) Sediment. The... Sediment Standard for Milk and Milk Products (7 CFR 58.2726)....

  10. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  11. [The artificial lens implant].

    PubMed

    Crstocea, B; Selaru, D; Filip, M; Sandu, E; Stefan, C; Isp??oiu, C; Banaeu, I

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a short history of the cataract intervention, starting from the lens luxation in vitreum and going to the implant of artificial lens. From the three classes of artificial lenses, up-to-date options are the posterior chamber artificial lenses. Today, in 80% of the cases, artificial lens implant is done, 80% of the implanted lenses being posterior chamber lenses. The paper also exposes various operatorial techniques, post-operatorial evolution and the results obtained. PMID:8507623

  12. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of selected natural sweeteners available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Tomczyk-Ulanowska, Kinga

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen natural sweeteners available on the Polish market were screened for total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS(·+)). In addition, we analyzed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus strains: both those susceptible and those resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity differ widely among different samples of sweeteners. Phenolic content, expressed as a gallic acid equivalent, ranged from 0 mg kg(-1) in white, refined sugar, xylitol and wheat malt syrup to 11.4 g kg(-1) in sugarcane molasses. Antioxidant activity was lowest in refined white sugar, xylitol, brown beet sugar, liquid fructose, and rape honey; it was average in spelt syrup and corn syrup, and highest in sugar cane, beet molasses, date and barley syrups. Despite the great variety of sweeteners, a strong correlation was noted between the concentration of phenolics and antioxidant properties, as determined by the ABTS(·+) method (r = 0.97) and the FRAP assay (r = 0.77). The strongest antibacterial activity was observed in sugarcane molasses, which was lethal to S. aureus strains at 2 and 4% concentrations in medium for susceptible and MRSA strains respectively. Other sweeteners kill bacteria in 6-15% solutions, whereas some did not show any antibacterial activities against S. aureus strains, even at 20% concentrations. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, some of the tested sweeteners have potential therapeutic value as supporting agents in antibiotic therapy. PMID:24007486

  13. Separation of alpha-hydroxy acid enantiomers by high performance capillary electrophoresis using copper(II)-L-amino acid and copper(II)-aspartame complexes as chiral selectors in the background electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Desiderio, C; Aturki, Z; Fanali, S

    1994-06-01

    Optical isomers of some alpha-hydroxy acids, namely 2-, 3-phenyllactic acid, mandelic, p-hydroxy-, m-hydroxy and 3,4-di-hydroxymandelic acid, were separated by means of capillary zone electrophoresis in free solution, using copper (II) complexes with L-amino acid or aspartame ligands in the background electrolyte. The concentration and the pH dependence of the enantiomer separations have been studied in the cases of different chiral ligands and/or analytes. With the use of L-proline as ligand only the optical isomers of 3-phenyllactic acid were resolvable, whereas using L-hydroxyproline the D and L forms of all compounds, except for 2-phenyllactic acid, were separated. Better results were obtained with aspartame as chiral ligand. PMID:7982412

  14. Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Students: School-Based Programs and Policies That Work.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Julia A

    2016-03-01

    The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumed by U.S. youth has nearly doubled since the 1970s. The majority of children between 2 and 19 years drink SSBs on any given day. Many serious health problems such as childhood overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular problems have been linked to SSBs. This article provides an overview of school-based interventions and policies that have successfully contributed to a reduction in sugar-sweetened intake among children. School nurses and nurses in other community-based settings are well positioned to promote intake of more healthful beverages among children using strategies recommended in this article. PMID:25816431

  15. An artificial muscle computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, 1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can thinkpaving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  16. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Davidson, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared to diets high in energy, fat and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared to those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a Westernized diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively-bred Crl:OP[CD] rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (DIO rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a Westernized diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

  17. Chinchn declaration; decalogue on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS).

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Llus; Riob Servn, Pilar; Belmonte Corts, Susana; Anadn Navarro, Arturo; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Franco Vargas, Eladia; Garca-Closas, Reina; Gmez-Candela, Carmen; Herrero Sancho, Elvira; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lpez Daz-Ufano, M Luisa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Vzquez Castro, Jess; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Alcaraz-Cebrin, Francisca; Garca-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gonzlez-Gomis, Mercedes; Gonzlez-Gross, Marcela; Granado de la Orden, Susana; Lpez-Sobaler, Ana Mara; Moreno Villares, Jos Manuel; Ortega Anta, Rosa Mara; Prez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Polanco Allu, Isabel; Urrialde de Andrs, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary experts in the areas of nutrition and health met in Chinchn, Madrid, on November 25-26, 2013 under the auspices of the Fundacin para la Investigacin Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation) and with the collaboration of the Madrid Regional Government's Health Ministry, the International Sweeteners Association and the Carlos III Health Institute CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition. They analyzed the current status of scientific knowledge on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and developed a consensus Decalogue on their use; this constitutes the Chinchn Declaration. Sweeteners, including sugar, represent a subject of undeniable interest and are currently a popular topic, although areas relating to their safety and benefits remain unknown to segments of academia and the general public. The nature of LNCS makes them vulnerable to biased and even contradictory information. They are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements when non-nutritional or non-caloric alternatives are needed. The Chinchn Decalogue is the outcome of a meeting for reflection and consensus by a group of experts with backgrounds in different scientific disciplines (toxicology, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, physiology, food science, public health, pediatrics, endocrinology and nutrition, nursing, pharmaceutical care and food legislation). The Decalogue includes different aspects of LNCS related to regulation, use, benefits and safety. In general, benefits of LNCS have been traditionally neglected in comparison with the tendency for emphasising unexisting or unproven possible risks. The need to strengthen research on LNCS in Spain was emphasized, as well as the need to educate both professionals and the public. PMID:24679013

  18. Combined hydrogenolysis pulse oxidation process for sweetening a sour hydrocarbon fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.; Bricker, J.C.; Stine, L.O.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a process for sweetening a sour hydrocarbon fraction. It comprises reacting mercaptans contained in the sour hydrocarbon fraction with hydrogen in the presence of a selective hydrogenolysis catalyst at hydrogenolysis conditions and for a time sufficient to selectively hydrogenolyse the tertiary mercaptans; and reacting the mercaptans in the sour hydrocarbon fraction with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a basic component and an oxidation catalyst effective in oxidizing the mercaptans to disulfides.

  19. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    PubMed

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not receiving treatment for eating disorders. PMID:24949566

  20. Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages

    PubMed Central

    White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94104% recovery) and precision (RSD<2%). Result: Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.5155.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.010.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology. PMID:24798032

  1. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms123

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

  2. Technological and functional applications of low-calorie sweeteners from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Patra, F; Tomar, S K; Arora, S

    2009-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively used for centuries as starter cultures to carry out food fermentations and are looked upon as burgeoning "cell factories" for production of host of functional biomolecules and food ingredients. Low-calorie sugars have been a recent addition and have attracted a great deal of interest of researchers, manufacturers, and consumers for varied reasons. These sweeteners also getting popularized as low-carb sugars have been granted generally recommended as safe (GRAS) status by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (USFDA) and include both sugars and sugar alcohols (polyols) which in addition to their technological attributes (sugar replacer, bulking agent, texturiser, humectant, cryoprotectant) have been observed to exert a number of health benefits (low calories, low glycemic index, anticariogenic, osmotic diuretics, obesity control, prebiotic). Some of these sweeteners successfully produced by lactic acid bacteria include mannitol, sorbitol, tagatose, and trehalose and there is a potential to further enhance their production with the help of metabolic engineering. These safe sweeteners can be exploited as vital food ingredients for development of low-calorie foods with added functional values especially for children, diabetic patients, and weight watchers. PMID:19200114

  3. Experience with Sugar Modifies Behavioral but not Taste-Evoked Medullary Responses to Sweeteners in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to sugars increases the preference for and intake of sugar solutions in mice. We used brief-access lick tests and multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) to investigate the role of taste in diet-induced changes in sucrose responsiveness. We exposed C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice to either a sucrose diet (chow, water, and a 500mM sucrose solution) or a control diet (chow and water) for 3 days. In B6 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet decreased the appetitive response (i.e., number of trials initiated) but had no effect on the consummatory response (i.e., rate of licking) to 500mM sucrose and 20mM saccharin. In 129 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet increased the appetitive response but had no effect on the consummatory response to the sweetener solutions. In the NST recordings, the B6 mice exhibited larger multiunit responses to sweeteners than 129 mice, but there was no effect of the sucrose diet in either strain. Our results indicate that sucrose exposure alters the appetitive response of B6 and 129 mice to sweeteners in diametrically opposed ways and that these changes are mediated by structures in the gustatory neuraxis above the NST (e.g., ventral forebrain). PMID:24084168

  4. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

  5. Simultaneous determination of sweeteners in beverages by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Azusa; Tamura, Masayoshi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    A new method was established for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners and a degradation product in beverages by using LC-MS/MS. An ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used as the LC column and 0.1% each of aqueous formic acid and formic acid in acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase. A simple and rapid determination of sweeteners was possible by diluting with a solvent, and in the case of some samples containing a large amount of foreign matter, after pre-treatment by diluting with solvent and clean-up of the sample using an Oasis HLB cartridge. All the validation results were satisfactory. As the regulations and standards for sweeteners vary from country to country, a field survey of 58 beverages marketed in Japan was performed using the present method. No issues concerning the labelling or food sanitation law were found in the tested samples. PMID:25794347

  6. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Urban JD; Carakostas MC; Taylor SL

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts.

  7. A human volunteer study to assess the impact of confectionery sweeteners on the gut microbiota composition.

    PubMed

    Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

    2010-09-01

    Sweeteners are being sourced to lower the energetic value of confectionery including chocolates. Some, especially non-digestible carbohydrates, may possess other benefits for human health upon their fermentation by the colonic microbiota. The present study assessed non-digestible carbohydrate sweeteners, selected for use in low-energy chocolates, for their ability to beneficially modulate faecal bacterial profiles in human volunteers. Forty volunteers consumed a test chocolate (low-energy or experimental chocolate) containing 22.8 g of maltitol (MTL), MTL and polydextrose (PDX), or MTL and resistant starch for fourteen consecutive days. The dose of the test chocolates was doubled every 2 weeks over a 6-week period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria significantly increased with all the three test treatments. Chocolate containing the PDX blend also significantly increased faecal lactobacilli (P = 0.00 001) after the 6 weeks. The PDX blend also showed significant increases in faecal propionate and butyrate (P = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). All the test chocolates were well tolerated with no significant change in bowel habit or intestinal symptoms even at a daily dose of 45.6 g of non-digestible carbohydrate sweetener. This is of importance not only for giving manufacturers a sugar replacement that can reduce energetic content, but also for providing a well-tolerated means of delivering high levels of non-digestible carbohydrates into the colon, bringing about improvements in the biomarkers of gut health. PMID:20370946

  8. Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.J.

    1986-02-14

    Objective was to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to certain conventional separation processes now in use in the corn-sweetener industry. Three applications of membranes were studied during the program: the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; the concentration of dilute wastes, called ''sweetwater,'' by a combination of reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis; and the enrichment of corn syrup in fructose by a process involving selective complexation of fructose by membrane filtration. Laboratory experiments were conducted for all three applications, and the results were used to conduct technical and economic analyses of the process. Calculations indicate that the use of reverse osmosis in combination with conventional mechanical-vapor-recompression evaporation to concentrate steep water, offers savings of a factor of 2.5 in capital costs and a factor of 4.5 in operating costs over currently used evaporation alone. In the concentration of sweetwater by reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis, capital costs would be about the same as those for evaporation, but operating costs would only be about one-half those of evaporation. For the fructose-enrichment scheme, preliminary results indicate that the savings in energy alone for the membrane process would be about $0.01/lb of sweetener produced by the process, or about $20 million annually, for the corn-sweetener industry.

  9. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    PubMed

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

  10. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios Predict Intake of Sweeteners in a Yup’ik Study Population12

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Boyer, Bert B.; O’Brien, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated δ13C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N), can control for confounding dietary effects on δ13C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup’ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC δ13C and δ15N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both δ13C and δ15N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only δ13C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate “covariate” isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest. PMID:23256142

  12. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  13. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  14. [Importance of taste in maintaining homeostasis and pathological impact of orosensory reflexes distraction in relation to sweet taste after non-caloric sweeteners consumption].

    PubMed

    Neuwirthová, Jana; Gál, Břetislav; Smilek, Pavel; Kostřica, Rom

    2014-01-01

    Taste signals and their reflexes have important signalling function in nature. They protect organism against toxic substances in food with help of taste aversion, they help to cope nutrition deficiencies through taste preferences, on the other hand, they act in many postprandial reflexes to maintain energy homeostasis. It is well-known that sweet taste is important oro-sensory stimulus for mammals. It acts as predictor of caloric food intake even before its entry into stomach and circulation. Taste and other oro-sensory signals from oral cavity affect not only the intake regulation, but also influence hormonal, neural and metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. The aim is to utilize effectively food energy and prevent energy instability of organism. Oro-sensory reflexes mediated by taste cells develop naturally from the first contact with sweet breast milk in infancy. It has been proven that the attenuation of reflexes due to the use of artificial sweeteners that don´t bring any caloric value to human body leads to hormonal and energetic dysregulation of organism and may contribute to metabolic syndrome. PMID:24974748

  15. Artificial intelligence and statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six parts: uncertainly propagation, clustering and learning, expert systems, environments for supporting statistical strategy, knowledge acquisition, and strategy. The editor ties the collection together in the first chapter by providing an overview of AI and statistics, discussing the Workshop, and exploring future research in the field.

  16. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance associated with consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fruit juice in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. High-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in so...

  17. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: Influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in...

  18. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word intelligence suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  19. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  20. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.