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1

Modified High-Density Lipoproteins by Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame, and Saccharin, Showed Loss of Anti-atherosclerotic Activity and Toxicity in Zebrafish.  

PubMed

Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2015-01-01

2

Artificial Sweeteners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update, from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Purdue University psychologist Susie Swithers about new research suggesting that artificial sweeteners may promote overeating. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLink lessons and other related resources.

Science Update

2004-08-02

3

Artificial sweeteners - a review.  

PubMed

Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

2014-04-01

4

Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was

Kevin Huvaere; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Moez Hasni; Christine Vinkx; Joris Van Loco

2011-01-01

5

Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was

Kevin Huvaere; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Moez Hasni; Christine Vinkx; Joris Van Loco

2012-01-01

6

Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... cosmetics, biologics, and radiation -emitting products. The Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, ... in 1958, requires the FDA to approve food additives, including artificial sweeteners, before they can be made ...

7

Aspartame : artifice and the science of sweet  

E-print Network

Aspartame has become an extremely popular artificial sweetener since its entry into the American market in 1981. Humans have an evolutionary preference for sweet tastes, and artificial sweeteners became a mainstream ...

MacLachlan, Allison (Allison Stollery)

2011-01-01

8

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose  

E-print Network

of NAS on glucose homeostasis, we added commercial formulations of saccharin, sucralose or aspartameARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature13793 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose

Gleeson, Joseph G.

9

Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

2011-12-01

10

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2014-04-01

11

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2013-04-01

12

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2011-04-01

13

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2010-04-01

14

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2012-04-01

15

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the...

2011-04-01

16

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the...

2014-04-01

17

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the...

2012-04-01

18

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the...

2010-04-01

19

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176 Section 145.176 Food and... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the...

2013-04-01

20

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171 Section 145.171 Food and...145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches. (a) Artificially sweetened canned peaches is the food which conforms to the...

2010-04-01

21

Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.  

PubMed

America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

Yang, Qing

2010-06-01

22

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail. 145.136 Section 145.136...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.136 Artificially sweetened...

2010-04-01

23

Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume during Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume During Pregnancy? KidsHealth > Parents > Q&A > Pregnancy and Infants > Are Artificial Sweeteners OK to Consume During Pregnancy? Print A A ...

24

77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Revocation of Standards of Identity AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...proposing to revoke the standards of identity for artificially sweetened jelly, preserves...years, FDA has maintained standards of identity for [[Page 71747

2012-12-04

25

Fate of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants in New York State, U.S.A.  

PubMed

Very few studies describe the fate of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of sucralose, saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame were determined based on the concentrations measured in wastewater influent, primary effluent, effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs in the Albany area of New York State, U.S.A. All ASWs were detected at a mean concentration that ranged from 0.13 (aspartame) to 29.4 ?g/L (sucralose) in wastewater influent, 0.49 (aspartame) to 27.7 ?g/L (sucralose) in primary influent, 0.11 (aspartame) to 29.6 ?g/L (sucralose) in effluent, and from 0.08 (aspartame) to 0.65 ?g/g dw (sucralose) in sludge. Aspartame was found in 92% of influent SPM samples at a mean concentration of 444 ng/g dw, followed by acesulfame (92 ng/g) and saccharin (49 ng/g). The fraction of the total mass of ASWs sorbed to SPM was in the rank order: aspartame (50.4%) > acesulfame (10.9%) > saccharin and sucralose (0.8%). The sorption coefficients of ASWs ranged from 4.10 (saccharin) to 4540 L/kg (aspartame). Significant removal of aspartame (68.2%) and saccharin (90.3%) was found in WWTPs; however, sucralose and acesulfame were less efficiently removed (<2.0%). The total mass loading of sucralose, saccharin, and acesulfame in the WWTP that served a smaller population (?15,000) was 1.3-1.5 times lower than that in another WWTP that served a larger population (?100,000). The average daily loading of sucralose in both WWTPs (18.5 g/d/1000 people) was ?2 times higher than the average loading of saccharin. The daily discharge of sucralose from the WWTPs was the highest (17.6 g/d/1000 people), followed by acesulfame (1.22 g/d/1000 people), and saccharin (1.07 g/d/1000 people). Approximately, 1180 g of saccharin and 291 g of acesulfame were transformed in or removed daily from the two WWTPs. This is the first study to describe the fate of ASWs, including the fraction found in SPM and in sludge, in addition to the aqueous portion of wastewater in WWTPs. PMID:25365516

Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-12-01

26

Role of nitrification in the biodegradation of selected artificial sweetening agents in biological wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of the six artificial sweetening agents including acesulfame (ACE), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), neohesperidindihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC) by nitrifying activated sludge was first examined. Experimental results showed that ASP and NHDC were the most easily degradable compounds even in the control tests. CYC and SAC were efficiently biodegraded by the nitrifying activated sludge, whereas ACE and SUC were poorly removed. However, the biodegradation efficiencies of the ASs were increased with the increase in initial ammonium concentrations in the bioreactors. The association between nitrification and co-metabolic degradation was investigated and a linear relationship between nitrification rate and co-metabolic biodegradation rate was observed for the target artificial sweeteners (ASs). The contribution of heterotrophic microorganisms and autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in biodegradation of the ASs was elucidated, of which autotrophic ammonia oxidizers played an important role in the biodegradation of the ASs, particularly with regards to ACE and SUC. PMID:24681682

Tran, N H; Nguyen, V T; Urase, T; Ngo, H H

2014-06-01

27

Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

2012-02-01

28

Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. PMID:24041482

Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

2014-01-01

29

The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.  

PubMed

This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

2014-01-01

30

Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements  

PubMed Central

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

Swithers, Susan E.

2013-01-01

31

Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.  

PubMed

Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50?mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. PMID:24700203

Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

2014-06-01

32

Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.  

PubMed

Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. PMID:24036324

Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

2013-10-01

33

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both

Guido K. W. Frank; Tyson A. Oberndorfer; Alan N. Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Julie L. Fudge; Tony T. Yang; Walter H. Kaye

2008-01-01

34

Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners  

PubMed Central

It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed ‘artificial sweeteners’. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

2013-01-01

35

Glucose utilization rates regulate intake levels of artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

It is well established that animals including humans attribute greater reinforcing value to glucose-containing sugars compared to their non-caloric counterparts, generally termed 'artificial sweeteners'. However, much remains to be determined regarding the physiological signals and brain systems mediating the attribution of greater reinforcing value to sweet solutions that contain glucose. Here we show that disruption of glucose utilization in mice produces an enduring inhibitory effect on artificial sweetener intake, an effect that did not depend on sweetness perception or aversion. Indeed, such an effect was not observed in mice presented with a less palatable, yet caloric, glucose solution. Consistently, hungry mice shifted their preferences away from artificial sweeteners and in favour of glucose after experiencing glucose in a hungry state. Glucose intake was found to produce significantly greater levels of dopamine efflux compared to artificial sweetener in dorsal striatum, whereas disrupting glucose oxidation suppressed dorsal striatum dopamine efflux. Conversely, inhibiting striatal dopamine receptor signalling during glucose intake in sweet-naïve animals resulted in reduced, artificial sweetener-like intake of glucose during subsequent gluco-deprivation. Our results demonstrate that glucose oxidation controls intake levels of sweet tastants by modulating extracellular dopamine levels in dorsal striatum, and suggest that glucose utilization is one critical physiological signal involved in the control of goal-directed sweetener intake. PMID:24060992

Tellez, Luis A; Ren, Xueying; Han, Wenfei; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

2013-11-15

36

Sweet proteins--potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners.  

PubMed

Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

Kant, Ravi

2005-01-01

37

Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners  

PubMed Central

Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

Kant, Ravi

2005-01-01

38

Molecular Structure of Aspartame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartame was discovered by accident in 1965 while trying to create an ulcer treatment drug, it was approved in 1981. Aspartame is produced artificially by combining methanol, phenylalanine, and aspartic acid. Also known as NutraSweet, Aspartame is found in beverages of several types and in many foods. NutraSweet is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, which is common table sugar.

2002-08-13

39

The paradox of artificial sweeteners in managing obesity.  

PubMed

The role of artificial sweeteners in the management of obesity is controversial. Observational data have suggested that nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) may promote weight gain through poorly understood mechanisms of cravings, reward phenomenon, and addictive behavior via opioid receptors. Interventional studies suggest the opposite that substitution of NNS for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) results in reduced caloric intake and modest degrees of weight loss. Whether the use of NNS provides benefit toward weight reduction in the individual patient may depend on the characteristics of their baseline diet, associated changes, or dietary compensation involved with ingestion of NNS, and the degree of compliance with a more complete weight loss program. PMID:25609450

Roberts, Jason R

2015-01-01

40

A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

2007-01-01

41

Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers in groundwater in urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThere is little information available on the prevalence of artificial sweeteners in groundwater, though these compounds may prove to be useful tracers of human wastewater, especially in urban settings with complex hydrology. In this study, the artificial sweetener acesulfame was detected in groundwater at all eight urban sites investigated (from five different urban areas in Canada), often at high concentrations (i.e., ?g/L-scale). In a municipal wastewater plume at Jasper, Alberta, acesulfame was strongly correlated with chloride and was positively correlated with other wastewater-related contaminants indicating that this sweetener has potential to be a good tracer of young wastewater (<20 years residence time) in Canada. Three other artificial sweeteners were detected in urban groundwater: saccharin at six of the sites, sucralose at three sites, and cyclamate at five of seven sites where it was analyzed. The occurrence of sucralose may have been affected by its detection limit, which was much higher than for the other sweeteners. These results, and those of a parallel study, are the first reported detections of saccharin and cyclamate in groundwater, and suggest that these sweeteners may be more common than previously anticipated. In general, fewer samples from each site contained these other three sweeteners compared to acesulfame. At Barrie, Ontario, adjacent to an old landfill, the concentration of saccharin was higher than acesulfame in many samples. These results suggest that analyses of multiple sweeteners, rather than just acesulfame, may provide useful information on contaminant sources and groundwater conditions in urban settings. Further work is needed to address this potential use.

Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Roy, James W.; Brown, Susan J.; Bickerton, Greg

2011-04-01

42

A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

2007-01-01

43

Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Results Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Conclusion Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that acute ingestion of aspartame does not have any detectable psychological or metabolic effects in humans. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN39650237 PMID:25786106

Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser

2015-01-01

44

The effect of five artificial sweeteners on Caco-2, HT-29 and HEK-293 cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Artificial sweeteners (AS) have been associated with tumor development (including colon cancer) in both animals and humans although evidence has been conflicting. Objectives: Additional research was thus conducted by studying the effects of 5 AS on the morphology, cell proliferation and DNA in cells by utilizing Caco-2, HT-29 (colon) and HEK-293 (kidney) cell lines. Materials and methods: Cells were exposed to sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, sucralose and acesulfame-K (0-50?mM) and aspartame (0-35?mM) over 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological changes were presented photographically and % cell viability was determined by using the MTT cell viability assay. Possible DNA damage (comet assay) induced by the AS (0.1, 1 and 10?mM, treated for 24, 48 and 72 hours) was studied. The appearance of "comets" was scored from no damage to severe damage (0-4). Results: Cells became flatter and less well defined at higher AS concentrations (>10?mM). At concentrations >10?mM, decreased cell viability was noted with both increasing concentration and increasing incubation time for all cell lines tested. In general, HEK-293 cells seemed to be less affected then the colon cancer cells. Sucralose and sodium saccharin seemed to elicit the greatest degree of DNA fragmentation of all the sweeteners tested in all the cell lines used. Discussion: Morphological cell alterations, cell viability and DNA fragmentation seemed to be more in the colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Further studies have to be performed to clarify mechanisms involved causing these alterations in mammalian cells. PMID:25317478

van Eyk, Armorel Diane

2014-10-15

45

Amygdala response to sucrose consumption is inversely related to artificial sweetener use  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether exposure to artificial sweeteners degrades the predictive relationship between sweet taste and its post-ingestive consequences. Here we tested whether brain response to caloric sucrose is influenced by individual differences in self-reported artificial sweetener use. Twenty-six subjects participated in fMRI scanning while consuming sucrose solutions. A negative correlation between artificial sweetener use and amygdala response to sucrose ingestion was observed. This finding supports the hypothesis that artificial sweetener use may be associated with brain changes that could influence eating behavior. PMID:22178008

Rudenga, KJ; Small, DM

2011-01-01

46

Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.  

PubMed

The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research. PMID:3319565

Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

1987-11-01

47

Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men123  

PubMed Central

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. Results: There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, including multivitamins, family history, high triglycerides at baseline, high blood pressure, diuretics, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, total energy, and body mass index, the HR was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.40; P for trend < 0.01). Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend < 0.01) but not in the multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.21; P for trend = 0.13). The replacement of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (?237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index. PMID:21430119

de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

2011-01-01

48

Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.  

PubMed

Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220 ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930 ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220 ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417 ?g/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117 ?g/capita/day), acesulfame (90 ?g/capita/day), and saccharin (66?g/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158 ?g/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59 ?g/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-07-01

49

Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This review summarizes the existing literature pertaining to the epidemiology and current recommendations for pediatric artificial sweetener use and presents the results of studies investigating metabolic responses to artificial sweeteners among children. Observational and interventional studies testing the effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, short-term satiety, glycemia, and glucoregulatory hormones are described. In addition, this review touches on the growing body of literature about taste, craving, and addiction to sweet taste. Gaining an understanding of the research previously conducted and the gaps that remain will inform future clinical and translational research, in order to develop evidence-based recommendations for artificial sweetener use in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. PMID:22093863

Sylvetsky, Allison; Rother, Kristina I.; Brown, Rebecca

2011-01-01

50

Artificially sweetened drinks may make older people more vulnerable to obesity.  

PubMed

Older people who try to reduce their sugar intake by drinking diet fizzy drinks containing artificial sweeteners may be at increased risk of abdominal obesity, leaving them vulnerable to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25850482

2015-04-01

51

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

2014-10-01

52

Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.  

PubMed

The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 1·20/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·12, 1·29, P< 0·001) and 1·13/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, P= 0·02), respectively. The association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association. PMID:24932880

Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

2014-09-14

53

Modified Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by Artificial Sweetener Causes Severe Premature Cellular Senescence and Atherosclerosis with Impairment of Functional and Structural Properties of apoA-I in Lipid-Free and Lipid-Bound State  

PubMed Central

Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which have atheroprotective effects. Long-term treatment of apoA-I with the sweetener at physiological concentration (3 mM for 168 h) resulted in loss of antioxidant and phospholipid binding activities with modification of secondary structure. The AS treated apoA-I exhibited proteolytic cleavage to produce 26 kDa-fragment. They showed pro-atherogenic properties in acetylated LDL phagocytosis of macrophages. Each sweetener alone or sweetener-treated apoA-I caused accelerated senescence in human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that long-term consumption of AS might accelerate atherosclerosis and senescence via impairment of function and structure of apoA-I and HDL. PMID:21533907

Jang, Wookju; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

2011-01-01

54

Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.  

PubMed

There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-?g/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. PMID:24156949

Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

2014-01-01

55

Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study123  

PubMed Central

Background: Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. Objective: We examined the intake of AS and SS beverages in pregnant women to replicate the Danish study and observe whether AS intake is indeed associated with preterm delivery. Design: This was a prospective study of 60,761 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Intakes of carbonated and noncarbonated AS and SS beverages and use of artificial sweeteners in hot drinks were assessed by a self-reported food-frequency questionnaire in midpregnancy. Preterm delivery was the primary outcome, and data were obtained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. Results: Intakes of both AS and SS beverages increased with increasing BMI and energy intake and were higher in women with less education, in daily smokers, and in single women. A high intake of AS beverages was associated with preterm delivery; the adjusted OR for those drinking >1 serving/d was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24). Drinking >1 serving of SS beverages per day was also associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.45). The trend tests were positive for both beverage types. Conclusion: This study suggests that a high intake of both AS and SS beverages is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. PMID:22854404

Englund-Ögge, Linda; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Sengpiel, Verena; Khatibi, Ali; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kacerovsky, Marian; Nilsen, Roy M; Jacobsson, Bo

2012-01-01

56

Evaluating the environmental impact of artificial sweeteners: a study of their distributions, photodegradation and toxicities.  

PubMed

While having a long tradition as safe food additives, artificial sweeteners are a newly recognized class of environmental contaminants due to their extreme persistence and ubiquitous occurrence in various aquatic ecosystems. Resistant to wastewater treatment processes, they are continuously introduced into the water environments. To date however, their environmental behavior, fate as well as long term ecotoxicological contributions in our water resources still remain largely unknown. As a first step in the comprehensive study of artificial sweeteners, this work elucidates the geographical/seasonal/hydrological interactions of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in an open coast system at an estuarine/marine junction. Higher occurrence of acesulfame (seasonal average: 0.22 ?g L(-1)) and sucralose (0.05 ?g L(-1)) was found in summer while saccharin (0.11  ?g L(-1)) and cyclamate (0.10 ?g L(-1)) were predominantly detected in winter. Seasonal observations of the four sweeteners suggest strong connections with the variable chemical resistance among different sweeteners. Our photodegradation investigation further projected the potential impact of persistent acesulfame and sucralose compounds under prolonged exposure to intensive solar irradiation. Real-time observation by UPLC-ESI/MS of the degradation profile in both sweeteners illustrated that formation of new photo by-products under prolonged UV irradiation is highly viable. Interestingly, two groups of kinetically behaved photodegradates were identified for acesulfame, one of which was at least six times more persistent than the parent compound. For the first time, acute toxicity for the degradates of both sweeteners were arbitrarily measured, revealing photo-enhancement factors of 575 and 17.1 for acesulfame and sucralose, respectively. Direct comparison of photodegradation results suggests that the phototoxicity of acesulfame degradation products may impact aquatic ecosystems. In an attempt to neutralize this prolonged environmental threat, the feasibility of UV/TiO2 as an effective mineralization process in wastewater treatment was evaluated for both sweeteners. Under an environmental and technical relevant condition, a >84% removal rate recorded within 30 min and complete photomineralization was achieved within 2 h and delivering the best cost efficiency comparing to existing removal methods. A compilation of distribution, degradation, toxicity and attenuation results presented in this paper will go through critical discussions to explore some current issues and to pinpoint solutions for a better control in the emergent contamination of artificial sweeteners. PMID:24289948

Sang, Ziye; Jiang, Yanan; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

2014-04-01

57

Metabolism of aspartame by human and pig intestinal microvillar peptidases.  

PubMed Central

The artificial sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine-1-methyl ester; Nutrasweet), its decomposition product alpha Asp-Phe and the related peptide alpha Asp-PheNH2 were rapidly hydrolysed by microvillar membranes prepared from human duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and from pig duodenum and kidney. The metabolism of aspartame by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations was inhibited significantly (> 78%) by amastatin or 1,10-phenanthroline, and partially (> 38%) by actinonin or bestatin, and was activated 2.9-4.5-fold by CaCl2. The inhibition by amastatin and 1,10-phenanthroline, and the activation by CaCl2 are characteristic of the cell-surface ectoenzyme aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7) and a purified preparation of this enzyme hydrolysed aspartame with a Km of 0.25 mM and a Vmax of 126 mumol/min per mg. A purified preparation of aminopeptidase W (EC 3.4.11.16) also hydrolysed aspartame but with a Km of 4.96 mM and a Vmax of 110 mumol/min per mg. However, rentiapril, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase W, caused only slight inhibition (maximally 19%) of the hydrolysis of aspartame by the microvillar membrane preparations. Similar patterns of inhibition and kinetic parameters were observed for alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2. Two other decomposition products of aspartame, beta Asp-PheMe and cyclo-Asp-Phe, were essentially resistant to hydrolysis by both the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations and the purified preparations of aminopeptidases A and W. Although the relatively selective inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), actinonin, partially inhibited the metabolism of aspartame, alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2 by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations, these peptides were not hydrolysed by a purified preparation of aminopeptidase N. Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) only hydrolysed the unblocked dipeptide, alpha Asp-Phe, but the selective inhibitor of this enzyme, cilastatin, did not block the metabolism of alpha Asp-Phe by the microvillar membrane preparations. PMID:8141778

Hooper, N M; Hesp, R J; Tieku, S

1994-01-01

58

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

59

Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n = 3) and rivers (n = 12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000 ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source. PMID:24100049

Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

2014-01-01

60

Artificial Sweeteners Stimulate Adipogenesis and Suppress Lipolysis Independently of Sweet Taste Receptors*  

PubMed Central

G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut, and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame potassium, enhanced adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as cAMP-response element-binding protein and FOXO1; however, increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? was not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr-308 occurred within 5 min, was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurred in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of Ser-473 occurred more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor Thr-308 phosphorylation was dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although Ser-473 phosphorylation was impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knock-out precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppressed lipolysis even in the presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses were correlated with phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes was also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. PMID:24068707

Simon, Becky R.; Parlee, Sebastian D.; Learman, Brian S.; Mori, Hiroyuki; Scheller, Erica L.; Cawthorn, William P.; Ning, Xiaomin; Gallagher, Katherine; Tyrberg, Björn; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.; Evans, Charles R.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

2013-01-01

61

Artificial Sweeteners in a Large Canadian River Reflect Human Consumption in the Watershed  

PubMed Central

Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (0.88 µg/L), and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in the downstream Great Lakes are largely unknown. PMID:24349342

Spoelstra, John; Schiff, Sherry L.; Brown, Susan J.

2013-01-01

62

Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.  

PubMed

The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. PMID:25543075

von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

2015-04-01

63

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...locations.html. (c)(1) When aspartame is used as a sugar substitute tablet for sweetening hot beverages, including coffee and tea, L-leucine may be used as a lubricant in the manufacture of such tablets at a level not to exceed 3.5 percent...

2011-04-01

64

Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.  

PubMed

Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 60 s). The sensory evaluation of Shankarpoli prepared using refined wheat flour revealed that there was no significant difference in typical attributes of the snack; Aspartame and Acesulfame K had same sweetness intensity where as Sucralose had higher intensity of sweetness. Consumer acceptance study revealed that 53 % of the consumers liked the snack with Sucralose, which is highest compared to other two sweeteners namely Aspartame and Acesulfame K (47 %). Thus sweeteners can be used as sweetening agents in traditional food preparations. PMID:25477687

Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

2014-12-01

65

Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.  

PubMed

Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain. PMID:25009784

Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

2014-01-01

66

Consumption of Artificially-Sweetened Soft Drinks in Pregnancy and Risk of Child Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Background Past evidence has suggested a role of artificial sweeteners in allergic disease; yet, the evidence has been inconsistent and unclear. Objective To examine relation of intake of artificially-sweetened beverages during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. Methods We analyzed data from 60,466 women enrolled during pregnancy in the prospective longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2003. At the 25th week of gestation we administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire which asked in detail about intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using interview data. We also assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis through a questionnaire at age 7 and by using national registries. Current asthma was defined as self-reported asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We examined the relation between intake of artificially-sweetened soft drinks and child allergic disease outcomes and present here odds ratios with 95% CI comparing daily vs. no intake. Results At 18 months, we found that mothers who consumed more artificially-sweetened non-carbonated soft drinks were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.33) times more likely to report a child asthma diagnosis compared to non-consumers. Similar results were found for child wheeze. Consumers of artificially-sweetened carbonated drinks were more likely to have a child asthma diagnosis in the patient (1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.66) and medication (1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.29) registry, as well as self-reported allergic rhinitis (1.31, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.74) during the first 7 years of follow-up. We found no associations for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Carbonated artificially-sweetened soft drinks were associated with registry-based asthma and self-reported allergic rhinitis, while early childhood outcomes were related to non-carbonated soft drinks. These results suggest that consumption of artificially-sweetened soft drinks during pregnancy may play a role in offspring allergic disease development. PMID:23460835

Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

2013-01-01

67

Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.  

PubMed

Sugar consumption, especially in the form of fructose, has been hypothesized to cause kidney disease. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic evidence that sugar consumption increases CKD risk. Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors, including increasing serum uric acid levels, diabetes, and obesity. Sugar may also harm the kidney via other mechanisms. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition. To date, 5 epidemiologic studies have directly evaluated the relationship between sugar consumption (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and CKD. Although most studies suggest that the risk of CKD is elevated among consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages, only 2 studies report statistically significant associations. Three studies have also examined diet soda consumption, with two reporting positive and significant associations. Confounding by unmeasured lifestyle factors may play a role in the positive results whereas poor measurement of sugar and artificial sweetener intake could explain null results. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that sugar causes kidney disease remains plausible, and alternative research designs may be needed. PMID:23439375

Karalius, Vytas P; Shoham, David A

2013-03-01

68

Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener. PMID:17828671

Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

2007-01-01

69

Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the

Marco Scheurer; Florian R. Storck; Heinz-J. Brauch; Frank T. Lange

2010-01-01

70

Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.  

PubMed

Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed. PMID:24687789

Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

2014-07-01

71

Determination of artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge samples using pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2?g/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw. PMID:24210305

Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

2013-12-13

72

Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Moaddel, Ruin

2013-01-01

73

Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 ?S/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 ?g/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely occurs at uniquely high concentrations in domestic wastewater. As such, it holds considerable promise as a powerful new tracer of wastewater impact in groundwater.

Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

2013-01-01

74

Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption.  

PubMed

Absorption of glucose from the lumen of the intestine into enterocytes is accomplished by sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the majority of mammalian species, expression (this includes activity) of SGLT1 is upregulated in response to increased dietary monosaccharides. This regulatory pathway is initiated by sensing of luminal sugar by the gut-expressed sweet taste receptor. The objectives of our studies were to determine (1) if the ruminant intestine expresses the sweet taste receptor, which consists of two subunits [taste 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3)], and other key signaling molecules required for SGLT1 upregulation in nonruminant intestines, and (2) whether T1R2-T1R3 sensing of artificial sweeteners induces release of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and enhances SGLT1 expression. We found that the small intestine of sheep and cattle express T1R2, T1R3, G-protein gustducin, and GLP-2 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Maintaining 110-d-old ruminating calves for 60d on a diet containing a starter concentrate and the artificial sweetener Sucram (consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) enhances (1) Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake by over 3-fold, (2) villus height and crypt depth by 1.4- and 1.2-fold, and (3) maltase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activity by 1.5-fold compared to calves maintained on the same diet without Sucram. No statistically significant differences were observed for rates of intestinal glucose uptake, villus height, crypt depth, or enzyme activities between 50-d-old milk-fed calves and calves maintained on the same diet containing Sucram. When adult cows were kept on a diet containing 80:20 ryegrass hay-to-concentrate supplemented with Sucram, more than a 7-fold increase in SGLT1 protein abundance was noted. Collectively, the data indicate that inclusion of this artificial sweetener enhances SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth in ruminant animals. Exposure of ruminant sheep intestinal segments to saccharin or neohesperidin dihydrochalcone evokes secretion of GLP-2, the gut hormone known to enhance intestinal glucose absorption and mucosal growth. Artificial sweeteners, such as Sucram, at small concentrations are potent activators of T1R2-T1R3 (600-fold>glucose). This, combined with oral bioavailability of T1R2-T1R3 and the understanding that artificial sweetener-induced receptor activation evokes GLP-2 release (thus leading to increased SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth), make this receptor a suitable target for dietary manipulation. PMID:24881785

Moran, A W; Al-Rammahi, M; Zhang, C; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

2014-08-01

75

Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE at elevated concentrations in aquifer zones dominated by local recharge indicated another point-source of domestic waste water. The combined analysis of ACE and conventional hydrochemical data proved to be useful to identify different sources of waste water. It is shown that the combination of physicochemical parameters and artificial sweeteners allow for a clear delineation of infiltration areas in the investigated aquifer system.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-05-01

76

An artificial sweetener and pharmaceutical compounds as co-tracers of urban wastewater in groundwater.  

PubMed

Groundwater in urban areas can be affected by numerous wastewater sources. Distinguishing these sources can facilitate better management of urban water resources and wastewater, and protection of urban aquatic environments. A single wastewater tracer, even if ideal (i.e. low background levels, non-reactive, low detection limits, etc.), would be unable to accomplish this task. Here, we investigated the potential advantages of using a suite of anthropogenic chemicals as co-tracers to distinguish wastewater sources that contribute to groundwater contamination at two urban sites. We considered both relatively ubiquitous and non-ubiquitous tracers in wastewater. At the Jasper (Alberta, Canada) site, concentrations of an artificial sweetener, two pharmaceutical compounds, and a degradate of nicotine in groundwater were strongly correlated as co-tracers. This evidence, along with the similar spatial distributions of these co-tracers could be used to delineate and distinguish a single municipal wastewater plume. At the Barrie (Ontario, Canada) site, there was moderate to strong correlation of the wastewater co-tracers, but local differences in their distributions and in the ratios of their concentrations could be used to infer that mixtures of two or more domestic septic plumes were present in the groundwater at this site. This study demonstrates the benefit of applying a suite of tracers to urban groundwater affected by wastewater contamination. This approach should be applicable at other urban sites. PMID:23738987

Van Stempvoort, D R; Roy, J W; Grabuski, J; Brown, S J; Bickerton, G; Sverko, E

2013-09-01

77

Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species  

PubMed Central

Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

2011-01-01

78

Nonnutritive Sweeteners as Inhibitors of Acid Formation by Oral Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic acid formation from sucrose by S. mutans NCTC 10449, Lactobacillus casei LSB No. 132 and A. viscosus Ny 1 No. 30 was inhibited by acesulfame K, cyclamate, and saccharin but not by aspartame. When inhibitory sweeteners were combined, strong synergism of their effect was observed. Inhibitory effects of such a sweetener mix were further enhanced by fluoride or xylitol

S. C. Ziesenitz; G. Siebert

1986-01-01

79

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

80

Review of present and future use of nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

In response to growing consumer demand for better tasting, low-calorie, sugar-free food products, the number of food items containing nonnutritive sweeteners has grown markedly in recent years. In this paper, present sweetener consumption is reviewed; the history, properties, uses, advantages, and safety of approved sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame-K are presented, as well as those of sweeteners such as cyclamate, sucralose, and alitame that are awaiting FDA approval; the role of sweeteners in the dietary management of persons with diabetes is discussed; and counseling guidelines for safe consumption are given. PMID:2202574

Bertorelli, A M; Czarnowski-Hill, J V

1990-01-01

81

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 ... to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the amino acids in aspartame. If you are concerned that consuming ...

82

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine artificial sweeteners in environmental waters.  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners are food additives employed as sugar substitutes which are now considered to be emerging organic contaminants. In the present study, a method is developed for the determination of a group of artificial sweeteners in environmental waters. Considering the polar and hydrophilic character of these compounds, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is proposed for their separation as an alternative to traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Two stationary phases with different chemistry were compared for this purpose. For the detection of the analytes, high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was employed to take advantage of its benefits in terms of reliable quantification and confirmation for the measurement of accurate masses. Solid-phase extraction was chosen as the sample treatment, in which the extract in a mixture of NH4OH:MeOH:ACN (1:4:15) was directly injected into the chromatographic system, simplifying the analytical procedure. The optimized method was validated on river and waste water samples. For example, in the case of effluent water samples, limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.7 ?g/L and limits of quantification ranged from 0.004 to 1.5 ?g/L. Apparent (whole method) recoveries ranged from 57 to 74 % with intra-day precision (%RSD, n?=?5) ranging from 6 to 25 %. The method was successfully applied to water samples from different rivers in Catalonia and different waste water treatment plants in Tarragona. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine and sucralose were found in several samples. PMID:25428455

Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

2014-11-27

83

Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature. PMID:19275236

Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

2009-04-22

84

Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.  

PubMed

Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24632416

Zheng, Jolene; Greenway, Frank L; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, William D; King, Jason F; King, Michael J; Gao, Chenfei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Finley, John W

2014-05-25

85

Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (?2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (?80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

2011-01-01

86

Determination of eight artificial sweeteners and common Stevia rebaudiana glycosides in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The method for the determination of acesulfame-K, saccharine, cyclamate, aspartame, sucralose, alitame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neotame and five common steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, steviol, steviolbioside and stevioside) in soft and alcoholic beverages was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method which allows for the simultaneous determination of all EU-authorised high-potency sweeteners (thaumatin being the only exception) in one analytical run. The minimalistic sample preparation procedure consisted of only two operations; dilution and centrifugation. Linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, repeatability, and trueness of the method were evaluated. The obtained recoveries at three tested concentration levels varied from 97.0 to 105.7%, with relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of sweeteners in 24 samples of different soft and alcoholic drinks. PMID:25471292

Kubica, Pawe?; Namie?nik, Jacek; Wasik, Andrzej

2015-02-01

87

[The use of low-calorie sweeteners].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the type of sweeteners and their impact on the human body. There have been described in details the sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sugar alcohols, fructose, D-tagatose, steviol glycosides and maple syrup which are present in currently available food products. According to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), aspartame and steviol glycosides were found to be safe for consumption. Whereas fructose, a component representing a large number of component products, according to the Polish Diabetes Association from 2012, should not be consumed by diabetics. The increase of popularity of products containing sweeteners causes that the search for new resources is constantly current and is the subject of research. PMID:23894781

Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Kurzawa, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

2013-05-01

88

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Frozen concentrate for artificially...Section 146.121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements...146.121 Frozen concentrate for...

2010-04-01

89

Distribution of artificial sweeteners in dust and soil in China and their seasonal variations in the environment of Tianjin.  

PubMed

A nationwide investigation on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASs) was conducted by collecting 98 paired outdoor dust and soil samples from mainland China. The ASs were widely detected in Chinese atmospheric dry deposition and soil samples, at concentrations up to 6450 and 1280 ng/g, respectively. To give a picture on AS distribution and source in the whole environment, the concentrations and seasonal variations of ASs in Tianjin were studied, including atmosphere, soil, and water samples. The AS levels were significantly higher in Haihe river at TJW (a sampling site in central city) in winter, while no obviously seasonal trends were obtained at BYL (close to a AS factory) and the site at a wastewater treatment plant. Saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame were the dominant ASs in both gas and particulate phase, with concentrations varying from 0.02 to 1940 pg/m(3). Generally, gas phase concentrations of the ASs were relatively higher in summer, while opposite results were acquired for particulate phase. Wet and dry deposition fluxes were calculated based on the measured AS levels. The results indicated that both wet and dry deposition could efficiently remove ASs in the atmosphere and act as important pollutant sources for the ASs in surface environment. PMID:24830929

Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Yao, Yiming; Zhao, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yanwei; Hu, Hongwei; Wang, Ruonan

2014-08-01

90

[Optimization of sample pretreatment method for the determination of typical artificial sweeteners in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

The sample pretreatment method for the determination of four typical artificial sweeteners (ASs) including sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was optimized. Different conditions of extraction, including four extractants (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, deionized water), three kinds of ionic strength of sodium acetate solution (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mol/L), four pH values (3, 4, 5 and 6) of 0.01 mol/L acetate-sodium acetate solution, four set durations of extraction (20, 40, 60, 120 min) and number of extraction times (1, 2, 3, 4 times) were compared. The optimal sample pretreatment method was finally set up. The sam- ples were extracted twice with 25 mL 0.01 mol/L sodium acetate solution (pH 4) for 20 min per cycle. The extracts were combined and then purified and concentrated by CNW Poly-Sery PWAX cartridges with methanol containing 1 mmol/L tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (Tris) and 5% (v/v) ammonia hydroxide as eluent. The analytes were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The recoveries were obtained by spiked soil with the four artificial sweeteners at 1, 10, 100 ?g/kg (dry weight), separately. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 86.5% to 105%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.56%-5.94% and 3.99%-6.53%, respectively. Good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were observed between 1-100 ?g/kg (dry weight) for all the compounds. The limits of detection were 0.01-0.21 kg/kg and the limits of quantification were 0.03-0.70 ?g/kg for the analytes. The four artificial sweeteners were determined in soil samples from farmland contaminated by wastewater in Tianjin. This method is rapid, reliable, and suitable for the investigation of artificial sweeteners in soil. PMID:25752083

Feng, Biting; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Sun, Hongwen

2014-09-01

91

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...172.804 Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be safely used in...as safe (GRAS) ingredients or food additives approved for use in baked...

2010-04-01

92

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...172.804 Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be safely used in...as safe (GRAS) ingredients or food additives approved for use in baked...

2013-04-01

93

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...172.804 Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be safely used in...as safe (GRAS) ingredients or food additives approved for use in baked...

2014-04-01

94

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION...172.804 Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be safely used in...as safe (GRAS) ingredients or food additives approved for use in baked...

2012-04-01

95

Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

2013-01-01

96

Sweeteners - sugar substitutes  

MedlinePLUS

... Aspartame (Equal and NutraSweet): A combination of two amino acids -- phenylalanine and aspartic acid 220 times sweeter than ... is unable to break down one of the amino acids used to make aspartame.

97

Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. PMID:24612793

Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-05-01

98

Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener.  

PubMed

Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200-300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended with other non-calorie or carbohydrate sweeteners. It is stable under dry conditions, and has much better stability than aspartame or neotame in aqueous food systems. Studies undertaken for the development of a purification process and for the full characterization of the properties of rebiana are reported here. PMID:18554769

Prakash, I; Dubois, G E; Clos, J F; Wilkens, K L; Fosdick, L E

2008-07-01

99

Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

2014-01-01

100

Flow-through spectrophotometric sensor for the determination of aspartame in low-calorie and dietary products.  

PubMed

A very simple flow-through sensor is presented for the determination of the intense sweetener aspartame in low-calorie and dietary products. The sensor is implemented in a monochannel flow-injection system with UV spectrophotometric detection using a Sephadex CM-C25 cationic exchanger packed 20 mm high in a flow cell. This method is based on the transient retention of a cationic species of the sweetener on the solid phase when a pH 5.0 acetic acid sodium acetate buffer (0.01 M) is used as a carrier (2.6 mL(-1) min). The carrier itself elutes the analyte from the solid support, regenerating a sensing zone. Aspartame was determined by measuring its intrinsic absorbance at 219 nm at its residence time without any derivatization. Calibration graphs were linear over the range of 5.0 - 600.0 microg mL(-1) with an RSD of 0.55% (peak height). This sweetener was determined in several samples by measuring the height or peak area, obtaining recoveries ranging between 95 - 101% and 97.5 - 101%, respectively. The procedure was validated for its use in the determination of aspartame in low-calorie and dietary products, giving reproducible and accurate results. PMID:15524198

Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Valencia, M C; Nicolás, E Arana

2004-10-01

101

Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages with green mobile phases and high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new analytical procedure involving the use of water and a low percentage of ethanol combined to high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in a variety of drink samples. The method permitted the analysis in 23min (including column reequilibration) and consuming only 0.85mL of a green organic solvent (ethanol). This methodology provided limits of detection (after 50-fold dilution) in the 0.05-10mg/L range, with recoveries (obtained from five different types of beverages) being in the 86-110% range and relative standard deviation values lower than 12%. Finally, the method was applied to 25 different samples purchased in Spain, where acesulfame and sucralose were the most frequently detected analytes (>50% of the samples) and cyclamate was found over the legislation limit set by the European Union in a sample and at the regulation boundary in three others. PMID:25236212

Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

2015-02-15

102

Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

2015-01-01

103

Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

2015-03-01

104

The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

105

Advantame Sweetener Preference in C57BL/6J Mice and Sprague-Dawley Rats.  

PubMed

Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations. PMID:25560795

Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

2015-03-01

106

Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners to promote eating enjoyment, optimal nutrition, and health. PMID:14760578

2004-02-01

107

Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.  

PubMed

With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. PMID:24679934

Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

2014-06-01

108

Marked Caries Inhibition in the Sucrose-Challenged Rat by a Mixture of Nonnutritive Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of acesulfame K, aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin on cariogenesis caused by a diet containing 30% sucrose were studied in orally superinfected Cara rats. The addition of any individual sweetener had no appreciable effect on fissure caries development in this animal model. However, a 1.00:1.67:0.10 combination of acesulfame K, cyclamate, and saccharin, which was found previously to effectively inhibit

G. Siebert; S. C. Ziesenitz; J. Lotter

1987-01-01

109

Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

2012-01-01

110

Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. PMID:23765203

Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

2014-07-01

111

Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.  

PubMed

The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations. PMID:25606602

Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-12-01

112

Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6?J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50?mg/Kgbw/day) caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) P?Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6?J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species. PMID:22697049

2012-01-01

113

Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.  

PubMed

A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90?±?6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method. PMID:24590107

Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz

2014-05-01

114

Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006). To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea) was measured in deionized water (control), ethanol, aspartame, and five

Stephanie Schleidt; Danielle Indelicato; Ashley Feigenbutz; Cierra Lewis

115

Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.  

PubMed

A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product. PMID:16639576

Ba?yi?it, Gülden; Kulea?an, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

2006-09-01

116

Non-nutritive sweeteners: review and update.  

PubMed

Obesity has become an epidemic, not just in the United States, but also across the globe. Obesity is a result of many factors including poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, hormonal issues, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as many psychological issues. Direct and indirect costs associated with obesity-related morbidity and mortality have been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. Of the many avenues for treatment, dietary interventions are the most common. Numerous diets have been popularized in the media, with most being fads having little to no scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness. Amidst this rise of weight loss diets, there has been a surge of individual products advertised as assuring quick weight loss; one such product group is non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Sugar, a common component of our diet, is also a major contributing factor to a number of health problems, including obesity and increased dental diseases both in adults and children. Most foods marketed towards children are sugar-laden. Obesity-related health issues, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension, once only commonly seen in older adults, are increasing in youth. Manufacturers of NNS are using this as an opportunity to promote their products, and are marketing them as safe for all ages. A systematic review of several databases and reliable websites on the internet was conducted to identify literature related to NNS. Keywords that were used individually or in combination included, but were not limited to, artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners, non-caloric sweeteners, obesity, sugar substitutes, diabetes, and cardiometabolic indicators. The clinical and epidemiologic data available at present are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the benefits of NNS in displacing caloric sweeteners as related to energy balance, maintenance or decrease in body weight, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Although the FDA and most published (especially industry-funded) studies endorse the safety of these additives, there is a lack of conclusive evidence-based research to discourage or to encourage their use on a regular basis. While moderate use of NNS may be useful as a dietary aid for someone with diabetes or on a weight loss regimen, for optimal health it is recommended that only minimal amounts of both sugar and NNS be consumed. PMID:23845273

Shankar, Padmini; Ahuja, Suman; Sriram, Krishnan

2013-01-01

117

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

2012-05-01

118

Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)  

MedlinePLUS

... you make healthy choices throughout your day, choose foods and beverages that are high in nutrients and low in ... it doesn’t always mean that it’s healthy. Foods and beverages that contain NNSs can be included in a ...

119

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development for Biological &  

E-print Network

Faculty Expertise Index Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Technology, & Control Systems Development Processing (see Phytochemicals, Advanced Artificial Intelligence) Canning Technology ­ Ted Labuza Cheese-Paul Schirle-Keller Food Additives ­ Artificial Sweeteners ­ Ted Labuza Food Analysis Chromatographic

Amin, S. Massoud

120

Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.  

PubMed

For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized. PMID:22224551

DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

2012-01-01

121

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2011-09-01

122

Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.  

PubMed

A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of intense sweeteners. The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment. PMID:1302206

Hinson, A L; Nicol, W M

1992-01-01

123

Sweetening agents from natural sources.  

PubMed

Sweetness is an important taste sensation to humans. The absence of suitable sweeteners as alternatives to cyclamates and saccharin has led to a renewed interest in sweeteners form natural sources. A brief review of the history of sweetener usage provides a basis for understanding our present heavy consumption of sweet substances. The structure of naturally-occurring compounds possessing a sweet taste range from simple sugars to complex, intensely sweet proteins. The structural types include monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroid saponins, dipeptides, and proteins. Some of these substances are not, strictly-speaking, natural but are derived from natural sources by relatively minor chemical modification. The properties of two non-sweet substances, miraculin and gymnemic acid, are included because of their close relationship to the subject of sweeteners. Miraculin causes sour substances to taste sweet and gymnemic acid selectively blocks sweet taste perception. The second part of the paper presents some of the work on monellin, the intensely sweet protein from "serendipity berries" (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii). The physico-chemical studies of monellin provide convincing evidence that it is, indeed, a protein. Structural studies using denaturants and specific chemical modifications have provided a beginning of our understanding of the molecular basis of the sweet taste of monellin. PMID:5643

Morris, J A

1976-01-01

124

Hyperactivity and sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

125

Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information  

MedlinePLUS

... likely to cause cancer: cell phones, microwaves, fluoridated water, hair dyes, deodorants, sugar, artificial sweeteners like saccharin and aspartame, and low-frequency magnetic fields produced by power lines and household electric appliances. What You Can ...

126

Vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings 15 years apart secondary to aspartame: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aspartame may have idiosyncratic toxic effects for some people; however, there are few case reports published in the medical literature. We present two case reports in a pair of siblings, one with a vestibular and the other with a cochlear toxicity to aspartame. The cochlear toxicity is the first case to be reported, while the vestibular toxicity is the second case to be reported. Case presentation A 29-year-old white female had a 20-month history of nausea and headache, progressively getting worse with time and eventually to also involve vomiting, vertigo, and ataxia. She was extensively evaluated and diagnosed with a vestibular neuronitis versus a chronic labyrinthitis and treated symptomatically with limited success. In response to a newspaper article, she stopped her aspartame consumption with total cessation of her symptoms. Fifteen years later, her then 47-year-old white brother had a 30-month history of an intermittent, initially 5-10 minute long episode of a mild sensorineural hearing loss in his right ear that progressed over time to several hour episodes of a moderately severe high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss to include tinnitus and a hypoesthetic area in front of his right tragus. After a negative magnetic resonance scan of the brain, he remembered his sister's experience with aspartame and stopped his consumption of aspartame with resolution of his symptoms, although the very high frequency hearing loss took at least 15 months to resolve. For both, subsequent intentional challenges with aspartame and unintentional exposures brought back each of their respective symptoms. Conclusion Aspartame had a vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings, suggesting a genetic susceptibility to aspartame toxicity. Even though the yield may be low, asking patients with dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, or high-frequency hearing loss about their aspartame consumption and suggesting cessation of its use, may prove helpful for some. PMID:20126318

2009-01-01

127

The aspartame story: a model for the clinical testing of a food additive.  

PubMed

Toxicology is based on the premise that all compounds are toxic at some dose. Thus, it is not surprising that very large doses of aspartame (or its components--aspartate, phenylalanine, and methanol) produce deleterious effects in sensitive animal species. The critical question is whether aspartame ingestion is potentially harmful to humans at normal use and potential abuse levels. This paper reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame upon blood levels of aspartate, phenylalanine, and methanol. These studies demonstrate that blood levels of these compounds are well below levels associated with adverse effects in sensitive animal species. PMID:3300262

Stegink, L D

1987-07-01

128

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2012-04-01

129

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2011-04-01

130

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2013-04-01

131

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2010-04-01

132

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2014-04-01

133

Statistical analysis of salivary pH changes after the intake of black tea and yerba maté supplemented with sweeteners.  

PubMed

Many studies have demonstrated the effect of various beverages on hard tissues of the mouth. Sugar consumption has also been avoided because it is associated with caries activity, and artificial sweetener research has been promoted. In this paper, data about the buffer capacity of black tea and yerba mate supplemented with sugar or one of two artificial sweeteners (Barny diet and NutraSweet) were examined. Salivary pH variations after the ingestion of both infusions were statistically analysed. A factorial design of four variables (Infusion, Sweetener, Concentration and Time) and their effects were considered independently and combined. The addition of sucrose lowered the pH of the infusions while black tea showed a greater buffer capacity than yerba mate. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were obtained when salivary pH values were compared between infusions supplemented with sugar or artificial sweeteners. When a factorial design was used to examine differences between Barny diet and NutraSweet, no significant two- or three-way interactions could be observed. This statistical analysis showed a small significant variation in salivary pH after the ingestion of black tea or yerba mate with sugar but not with artificial sweeteners at the recommended concentrations. PMID:10453132

López de Bocanera, M E; Koss de Stisman, M A; Bru de Labanda, E; Chervonagura de Gepner, A

1999-06-01

134

Determination of high-intensity sweeteners in river water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

High-intensity sweeteners have been suggested as potential organic contaminants due to their widespread use in food, drugs and sanitary products. As a consequence, they are introduced into the environment by different pathways, affecting aquatic life. In this study, a method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of eight sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, acesulfame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucralose, stevioside and glycyrrhizic acid) in river water and wastewater. To get the maximum recoveries in SPE, several commercial sorbents were tested and Oasis HLB gave the best results, with recoveries higher than 41% for all of the compounds in the different matrices. Method limits of detection were in the range of 0.001-0.04?g/L in river water and 0.01-0.5?g/L in influent and effluent wastewater. Method reproducibility between days (n=5) was below 15% for all compounds. The method was applied to the determination of sweeteners in various river waters and wastewaters in Catalonia. Cyclamate, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, acesulfame and sucralose were found in river water, with the two last compounds being present at the highest values (1.62?g/L for acesulfame and 3.57?g/L for sucralose). In influent and effluent wastewater, all of the compounds were found at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 155?g/L except for stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, which were not detected. PMID:25840659

Arbeláez, Paula; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa Maria

2015-05-01

135

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2011-04-01

136

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2010-04-01

137

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2014-04-01

138

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2013-04-01

139

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. When these two amino acids are so combined to form aspartame (1-methyl N...

2012-04-01

140

Xylitol, sweeteners, and dental caries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report was to provide an overview of xylitol and other polyol sweeteners and dental caries for clinicians and to discuss current applications for dental practice and potential community-based public health interventions. Xylitol, like other polyol sweeteners, is a naturally occurring sugar alcohol. Studies suggest polyols are noncariogenic. Furthermore, studies indicate that xylitol can decrease mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva and can reduce dental caries in young children, mothers, and in children via their mothers. Food products containing xylitol are now available and have the potential to be widely accessible to consumers to help control rampant decay. Determining whether products contain adequate xylitol amounts for practical use towards prevention is challenging, however, because xylitol content is not clearly labeled. Sufficient evidence exists to support the use of xylitol to reduce caries. Clinicians and dental associations should push for clear recommendations of efficacious dose and frequency of xylitol use and for clear labeling of xylitol content in products to help consumers choose appropriately. PMID:16708791

Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Rothen, Marilynn

2006-01-01

141

Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

142

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2011-04-01

143

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2012-04-01

144

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2010-04-01

145

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2014-04-01

146

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2013-04-01

147

Can Children Discriminate Sugar-Sweetened from Non-Nutritively Sweetened Beverages and How Do They Like Them?  

PubMed Central

Background Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. Methods 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. Results Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39±0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39±0.6 (P?=?0.9) on a scale running from 1 (disgusting) to 5 (delicious). The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P?=?0.000). Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. Conclusion We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children. PMID:25551758

de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kas, Rosa; Olthof, Margreet R.

2014-01-01

148

Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis  

PubMed Central

A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h?1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 ?M for methanol and 0.2 ?M for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

2014-01-01

149

Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.  

PubMed

Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20?mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way. PMID:23786206

Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

2014-03-01

150

Bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human taste receptor for the discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance.  

PubMed

The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs. PMID:25126667

Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

2014-10-28

151

Hypothalamic morphology following ingestion of aspartame or MSG in the neonatal rodent and primate: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal mice received oral doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 g\\/kg or aspartame at levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g\\/kg. Hypothalamic lesions were encountered at dose levels equal to or exceeding 0.5 g\\/kg (MSG) and 1.0 g\\/kg (aspartame). Aspartame administration resulted in a much smaller hypothalamic lesion than did equal

W. Ann Reynolds; Veronica Butler

1976-01-01

152

The Role of Sweeteners in the Diet of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Had children sample beverage and plain cottage cheese sweetened with either sugar or Sweet One as part of a sensory difference test, as well as rank four vanilla puddings sweetened with sugar and three FDA approved sweeteners. Found that participants could tell the difference in beverage but not cottage cheese, and that there was no consensus on…

Soliah, LuAnn; And Others

1997-01-01

153

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?  

E-print Network

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage? A sugar-sweetened beverage is a drink with sugar added.Sugar has many names.To find out if a drink contains sugar,look for any of these words on the list of ingredients:sugar,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,corn sweetener,corn syrup

Rosen, Jay

154

Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults  

PubMed Central

Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ?4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

2014-01-01

155

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2012-04-01

156

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2014-04-01

157

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2010-04-01

158

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2013-04-01

159

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2011-04-01

160

75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose, Galactose...manufacturing facility of Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division, located in Thomson, Illinois...the facility of Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division, located in Thomson,...

2010-02-26

161

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... or artificial flavors? Studies have found that some food additives, such as tartrazine, or yellow No. 5, and aspartame (brand name: NutraSweet), an artificial sweetener, do cause ... condition is called a food allergy when the immune system thinks a certain ...

162

Cactus pear fruit: A new source for a natural sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 ° Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 °Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: aw; reducing

C. Sáenz; A. M. Estévez; E. Sepúlveda; P. Mecklenburg

1998-01-01

163

Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.  

PubMed

The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

2014-04-01

164

Metabolic studies with the nonnutritive sweetener cycloheptylsulfamate.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweetener cycloheptylsulfamate was administered orally to rabbits and rats. The urine of each species was separately collected for 3 days and examined for the metabolites cycloheptylamine, cycloheptanone, and cycloheptanol and for cycloheptylsulfamate. A previously tested GLC method was adapted for the determination of the metabolites. Cycloheptylsulfamate was assayed by hydrolysis and subsequent measurement of the absorbance of the product formed (lambdamax=489 nm) by the liberated amine with p-benzoquinone. The conversions to the metabolites were 0.276, 0.390, and 0.170%, respectively, in rabbits and 0.064, 0.022, and 0.017%, respectively, in rats. PMID:874797

Benson, G A; Spillane, W J

1977-06-01

165

The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediates caloric sugar preference over a non-caloric sweetener in mice.  

PubMed

Neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying increased intake of and preference for nutritive sugars over non-nutritive sweeteners are not fully understood. We examined the roles of subnuclei of the amygdala in the shift in preference for a nutritive sugar. Food-deprived mice alternately received caloric sucrose (1.0M) on odd-numbered training days and a non-caloric artificial sweetener (2.5mM saccharin) on even-numbered training days. During training, mice with sham lesions of the basolateral (BLA) or central (CeA) nucleus of the amygdala increased their intake of 1.0M sucrose, but not saccharin. Trained mice with sham lesions showed a significant shift in preference toward less concentrated sucrose (0.075M) over the saccharin in a two-bottle choice test, although the mice showed an equivalent preference for these sweeteners before training. No increased intake of or preference for sucrose before and after the alternating training was observed in non-food-deprived mice. Excitotoxic lesions centered in the BLA impaired the increase in 1.0M sucrose intake and shift in preference toward 0.075M sucrose over saccharin. Microlesions with iontophoretic excitotoxin injections into the CeA did not block the training-dependent changes. These results suggest that food-deprived animals selectively shift their preference for a caloric sugar over a non-caloric sweetener through the alternate consumption of caloric and non-caloric sweet substances. The present data also suggest that the BLA, but not CeA, plays a role in the selective shift in sweetener preference. PMID:25684750

Yasoshima, Y; Yoshizawa, H; Shimura, T; Miyamoto, T

2015-04-16

166

The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.  

PubMed

Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats. PMID:24970110

Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

2014-09-01

167

Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

2012-11-01

168

Experimental apparatus for simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas  

E-print Network

An experimental apparatus was designed and built for the purpose of studying the feasibility of solvent mixtures for the simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas. The apparatus is versatile and can be used to study gas-solvent systems...

Pace, Christopher Lee

1997-01-01

169

Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged

JOANNE F GUTHRIE; JOAN F MORTON

2000-01-01

170

The use of a sweetener substitution method to predict dietary exposures for the intense sweetener rebaudioside A.  

PubMed

There are more published dietary exposure data for intense sweeteners than for any other group of food additives. Data are available for countries with different patterns of sweetener approvals and also for population groups with high potential intakes, such as children and diabetic subjects. These data provide a secure basis for predicting the potential intakes of a novel intense sweetener by adjustment of the reported intakes of different sweeteners in mg/kg body weight by their relative sweetness intensities. This approach allows the possibility that a novel sweetener attains the same pattern and extent of use as the existing sweeteners. The intakes by high consumers of other sweeteners allows for possible brand loyalty to the novel sweetener. Using this method, the estimated dietary exposures for rebaudioside A in average and high consumers are predicted to be 1.3 and 3.4mg/kg body weight per day for the general population, 2.1 and 5.0mg/kg body weight per day for children and 3.4 and 4.5mg/kg body weight per day for children with diabetes. The temporary ADI defined by the JECFA for steviol glycosides [JECFA, 2005. Steviol glycosides. In: 63rd Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Technical Report Series 928, pp. 34-39] was set at 0-2mg/kg body weight (expressed as steviol equivalents); after correction for the difference in molecular weights, these estimated intakes of rebaudioside A are equivalent to daily steviol intakes of less than 2mg/kg. In consequence, this analysis shows that the intakes of rebaudioside A would not exceed the JECFA temporary ADI set for steviol glycosides. PMID:18547702

Renwick, A G

2008-07-01

171

PKU (Phenylketonuria) in Your Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... and other dairy products Eggs Meat and poultry Fish Nuts Beans Food or drinks that contain aspartame. This is an artificial sweetener that has lots of phenylalanine in it. It’s sold as NutraSweet® and Equal®. PKU meal plans are different for each baby and can ...

172

Nonnutritive sweeteners, energy balance and glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review recent work on potential mechanisms underlying a paradoxical positive association between the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) and weight gain. Recent findings Several potential mechanism, not mutually exclusive, are hypothesized. First, by dissociating sweetness from calories, NNS could interfere with physiological responses that control homeostasis. Second, by changing the intestinal environment, NNS could affect the microbiota and in turn trigger inflammatory processes that are associated with metabolic disorders. Third, by interacting with novel sweet-taste receptors discovered in the gut, NNS could affect glucose absorptive capacity and glucose homeostasis. This last is the mechanism that has received the most attention recently. Some animal studies, but not all, found that NNS activate gut sweet taste-pathways that control incretin release and up-regulate glucose transporters. Human studies found that, at least for healthy fasted subjects, the sole interaction of NNS with sweet-taste gut receptors is insufficient to elicit incretin responses. The reasons for discrepancy between different studies is unknown but could be related to the species of mammal tested and the dose of NNS used. Summary Whether NNS are metabolically inactive, as previously assumed, is unclear. Further research on the potential effects of NNS on human metabolism is warranted. PMID:21505330

Pepino, M. Yanina; Bourne, Christina

2012-01-01

173

Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.  

PubMed

Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. PMID:25713277

2015-03-01

174

Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings12  

PubMed Central

This article summarizes the presentations from the “Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings” symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially “addictive.” Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

Rippe, James M.; Saltzman, Edward

2013-01-01

175

Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

2013-01-01

176

Preference for sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners in young beagles.  

PubMed

Two-bowl choice tests were used to examined preference of puppies aged two to four months for compounds tasting sweet to humans. Puppies found many, but not all of the compounds highly palatable, and were sensitive to both type and amount of sugar or nonnutritive sweetener contained in a semi-moist dog food recipe. Lactose, fructose, and sucrose were well accepted, whereas maltose elicited indifference or rejection. Sodium cyclamate, but not sodium saccharin, was preferred at some concentrations to 15 percent sucrose sweetened semi-moist food used as the standard. Solutions of lactose, fructose, glucose and galactose were preferred to plain tap water. PMID:6205334

Ferrell, F

1984-01-01

177

Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.  

PubMed

Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable. PMID:23598553

Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

2013-05-10

178

Oral health concerns with sweetened medicaments: Pediatricians’ acuity  

PubMed Central

Background: Administration of sweetened medicaments poses many oral health related problems in children due to the lack of awareness among the pediatricians regarding their ill effects. Purpose: To assess pediatricians’ awareness and attitudes toward the use of liquid pediatric medicines and their relationship with dental caries and erosion. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the pediatricians residing in Nellore city. Data were obtained from 55 pediatricians using questionnaires. Results: Among the respondents, 95.6% prescribed liquid medicaments, 51.1% expressed that they may be associated with dental effects, 60% were not aware regarding the sweetness of medicaments, whereas majority of them (77.8%) opined that children complained regarding the taste, 73.3% stated that sugar substitutes were used as sweetening agents, 70.9% believed that they were not acidic, 68.9% did not recommend brushing after intake of medicines, 90% failed to deliver oral health instructions, and 54.5% believed that lack of oral hygiene was a contributing factor for development of dental caries. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents prescribed liquid medicaments and were unaware regarding the sweetening agents and acidity, which cause ill effects on the dental hard tissues. Most of them neither recommended nor delivered oral hygiene instructions (OHI) after prescribing sweetened liquid medicaments. Hence, OHI should be delivered to enhance the oral health related quality of life in children.

Nirmala, S.V.S.G.; Popuri, Vimala Devi; Chilamakuri, Sandeep; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Veluru, Sindhuri; Minor Babu, M.S.

2015-01-01

179

Price behaviour in the US sweetener market: a cointegration approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweetener market in the United States is complicated because of the substitution possibilities between high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sugar. This study focuses on the relationship between raw sugar prices and the prices for high fructose corn syrup. Sugar and HFCS are imperfect substitutes for several industrial uses. Sugar can be used for all industrial uses, but HFCS

Charles B. Moss; Andrew Schmits

2002-01-01

180

A history of sweeteners--natural and synthetic.  

PubMed

Sweetness for the prehistoric man was the taste sensation obtained from sweet berries and honey. Man's quest for other sweet things led to sucose, starch-derived sugars, and synthetic sweeteners. An unusual source of sweet taste is a West African berry known as miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum). This fruit possesses a taste-modifying substance that causes sour foods--e.g., lemons, limes, or grapefruit--to taste sweet. The active principle was found to be a glycoprotein. Until this time, only small molecules were considered sweet-evoking substances, but now macromolecules are considered capable of participating in taste perception. The intense sweetener of the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called the serendipity berry, was revealed to be a protein. The intensely sweet principle of Thaumatococcus daniellii, called katemfe, was reported in 1972 to contain two proteins having intense sweetness. Since intensely sweet protein sweeteners act directly on taste buds as a probe, a peptide linkage analogous to the aspartic acid sweeteners may be partly responsible for their sweetness. PMID:792461

Inglett, G E

1976-09-01

181

Readiness to change sugar sweetened beverage intake among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity is a topic of concern in the United States, especially among children and young adults, and there is also a growing concern that sugared beverage consumption may contribute to increasing obesity rates. However, few studies to date have examined sugar sweetened beverage consumption trends in college students. This study investigated self-reported sugared beverage consumption, nutritional knowledge,

Laura Huffman; Delia Smith West

2007-01-01

182

Analysis of Various Flow Schemes for Sweetening with Amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many possible process variations for sweetening sour hydrocarbons with amines. Those to which we have given attention include the use of precontactors (static or jet eductor mixers), multiple absorber inlet nozzles, split flow units and pressure swing regeneration. Each of these variations is best suited to a certain set of operating conditions. Not all processes are appropriate for

LILI LYDDON; HUNG NGUYEN

183

IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SWEETENED BEVERAGES AND ADIPOSITY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four mechanisms were reviewed to explain the possible association between sweetened beverages and increased overweight or obesity: excess caloric intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, lack of effect of liquid calories on satiety, and displacement of milk. The findings were inconsistent across st...

184

Senescence sweetening of chip and fry processing potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato storage makes the crop available over an extended time period, but increases financial risk to growers and end users. Senescence sweetening limits storage duration for chip and fry processing potatoes because it results in an unacceptable accumulation of reducing sugars that result in dark-co...

185

What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

2014-01-01

186

Production and physicochemical assessment of new stevia amino acid sweeteners from the natural stevioside.  

PubMed

New stevia amino acid sweeteners, stevia glycine ethyl ester (ST-GL) and stevia l-alanine methyl ester (ST-GL), were synthesised and characterised by IR, NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and elemental analysis. The purity of the new sweeteners was determined by HPLC and their sensory properties were evaluated relative to sucrose in an aqueous system. Furthermore, the stevia derivatives (ST-GL and ST-AL) were evaluated for their acute toxicity, melting point, solubility and heat stability. The novel sweeteners were stable in acidic, neutral or basic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of the novel sweeteners was higher than sucrose. Stevia amino acid (ST-GL and ST-AL) solutions had a clean sweetness taste without bitterness when compared to stevioside. The novel sweeteners can be utilised as non-caloric sweeteners in the production of low-calorie food. PMID:25466115

Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Jad, Yahya El-Sayed; Bekhit, Adnan A; El-Faham, Ayman

2015-04-15

187

Use of fructose, xylitol, or sorbitol as a sweetener in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners have been utilized in the diet of diabetic patients an an agent to replace glucose and sucrose. Since saccharin might be removed from the marketplace, the nutritive sweeteners fructose, xylitol, and sorbitol are being considered as possible alternatives for glucose and sucrose. This review considers the effects of these nutritive sweeteners on the main dietary concerns in the diabetic diet--control of blood glucose levels, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. The potential side effects of these agents are also reviewed. PMID:400132

Brunzell, J D

1978-01-01

188

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.  

PubMed

An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. PMID:21802146

Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

2012-04-01

189

Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream: Interactions Between Sweeteners and Stabilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recrystallization in ice creams that were made with various combinations of four sweeteners (20 DE (dextrose equivalent) corn syrup solids, 42 DE corn syrup solids, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup), and four stabilizers (gelatin, locust bean gum, xan- than gum, and carrageenan) was investigated. Ice creams were stored at three different temperatures (-5.2, -9.5, and -15°C). For a given

Talia Miller-Livney; Richard W. Hartel

1997-01-01

190

Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (1960–2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans. PMID:22679063

Rother, Kristina I.

2012-01-01

191

Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 ± 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. PMID:22153513

Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

2011-12-01

192

Artificial Limbs  

MedlinePLUS

... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

193

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

1985-01-01

194

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults -- 18 states, 2012.  

PubMed

Reducing consumption of calories from added sugars is a recommendation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and an objective of Healthy People 2020. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are major sources of added sugars in the diets of U.S. residents. Daily SSB consumption is associated with obesity and other chronic health conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. U.S. adults consumed an estimated average of 151 kcal/day of SSB during 2009-2010, with regular (i.e., nondiet) soda and fruit drinks representing the leading sources of SSB energy intake. However, there is limited information on state-specific prevalence of SSB consumption. To assess regular soda and fruit drink consumption among adults in 18 states, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among the 18 states surveyed, 26.3% of adults consumed regular soda or fruit drinks or both ?1 times daily. By state, the prevalence ranged from 20.4% to 41.4%. Overall, consumption of regular soda or fruit drinks was most common among persons aged 18?34 years (24.5% for regular soda and 16.6% for fruit drinks), men (21.0% and 12.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (20.9% and 21.9%), and Hispanics (22.6% and 18.5%). Persons who want to reduce added sugars in their diets can decrease their consumption of foods high in added sugars such as candy, certain dairy and grain desserts, sweetened cereals, regular soda, fruit drinks, sweetened tea and coffee drinks, and other SSBs. States and health departments can collaborate with worksites and other community venues to increase access to water and other healthful beverages. PMID:25121711

Kumar, Gayathri S; Pan, Liping; Park, Sohyun; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M

2014-08-15

195

Analysis of rubusoside and related compounds in tenryocha extract sweetener.  

PubMed

The main and minor constituents of tenryocha extract product, a natural sweetener, were investigated as a part of an ongoing study to evaluate its quality and safety as a food additive. Four constituents, namely rubusoside, steviolmonoside, panicloside IV, and ent-16 alpha, 17-dihydroxykauran-19-oic acid, were isolated. The concentration of rubusoside, the main sweet constituent, was 8.65% in the tenryocha extract product. In addition, it was confirmed that the origin of the extract was the leaves of Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Rosaseae), as determined by comparing TLC and HPLC profiles of the product and hot-water extract prepared from the leaves of R. suavissimus. PMID:12436720

Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Liu, Hong-Min; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

2002-08-01

196

Analysis of various flow schemes for sweetening with amines  

SciTech Connect

There are many possible process variations for sweetening sour hydrocarbons with amines. Those to which the authors have given attention include the use of precontactors (static or jet eductor mixers), multiple absorber inlet nozzles, split flow units and pressure swing regeneration. Each of these variations is best suited to a certain set of operating conditions. Not all processes are appropriate for use with certain feed compositions or product requirements. This paper will discuss the application of the various flow scheme alternatives to a variety of different process conditions.

Lyddon, L.G.; Nguyen, H.

1999-07-01

197

The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. Methods We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. Results 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529 PMID:24167595

de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

2013-01-01

198

Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues  

PubMed Central

Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

2013-01-01

199

Sweetener blend optimization by using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue.  

PubMed

Utilizing more than one sweetener has been shown to be an effective way to substitute sucrose in food products. The objective of this study was to apply the augmented simplex-centroid mixture design for the optimization of acceptable sweetener blends using coconut sugar, agave, and stevia. Sweetener blends were evaluated in aqueous solutions and gluten-free granola bars by a trained panel and consumers (n = 60). Significant differences were found between sweetener mixtures in solutions by both panelists and consumers (P < 0.05). Taste profiles for the sweetener solutions were also generated using the electronic tongue. Most consumer and trained intensity ratings were highly correlated (R(2) ? 0.79) with the electronic tongue taste profile analysis. Granola bars were also found to be significantly different (P < 0.05), with consumers preferring coconut sugar mixtures. Using contour plots and desirability function analysis, an optimal sweetener combination was found for a granola bar formulation of 89.9% coconut sugar, 6.1% agave, and 4% stevia. These results indicate that a mixture design can be a reliable way to develop new sweetener blends for product development. PMID:25155461

Waldrop, Megan E; Ross, Carolyn F

2014-09-01

200

The influence of sweeteners in probiotic Petit Suisse cheese in concentrations equivalent to that of sucrose.  

PubMed

As in the case of probiotic functional foods in recent years, demand has increased notably for light or diet foods with added sweeteners. However, little is known about the effect of different sweeteners on the microorganisms present. Thus, the objective of the current study was to establish the ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of different sweeteners and to determine, by microbiological analyses, the influence of these compounds on the viability of the starter and probiotic cultures used in the production of strawberry-flavored Petit Suisse cheese during its shelf life. The ideal sucrose concentration was determined using the just-about-right (JAR) scale, and the equivalent concentrations of the sweeteners were subsequently determined by the magnitude estimation method. Microbiological analyses were also carried out to check the viability of the cultures during the product's shelf life. The results showed that the compounds Neotame (NutraSweet, Chicago, IL) and stevia presented, respectively, the greatest and least sweetening power of the sweeteners tested. None of the sweeteners used in this study exerted a negative effect on the viability of the starter or probiotic cultures, and thus we were able to obtain a probiotic, functional food with reduced calorie content. PMID:23810599

Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Pereira, E P R; Rodrigues, J B; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

2013-09-01

201

Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora.  

PubMed

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

2009-01-01

202

Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora  

PubMed Central

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

2009-01-01

203

Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

This paper is a general overview of the field of artificial Intelligence and of some of the application issues within that field. Its first objective is to try and establish a viable definition for what artificial intelligence is, and to make a...

Appleton, D. S.

204

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge representation, industrial expert systems, knowledge bases, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, mathematical logic, robots, flexible manufacturing systems, decision-making in computer-aided planning, computerized control systems, artificial intelligence applied systems, computerized simulation, and natural language.

Ponomaryov, V.M.

1983-01-01

205

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book is an overview of the field of artificial intelligence. The work emphasizes natural language comprehension and knowledge-based reasoning by computers and analyzes the main difficulties involved in making intelligent programs. Representations of knowledge and reasoning mechanisms are provided and applications of artificial intelligence techniques in the development of expert systems are explored.

Bonnet, A.

1986-01-01

206

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

Firschein, O.

1984-01-01

207

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

Smith, Linda C.; And Others

1988-01-01

208

Male rats show an indifference-avoidance response for increasing concentrations of the artificial sweetener sucralose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucralose is a nonnutritive halogenated sucrose derivative that has been described by humans as tasting predominately sweet with little or no aftertaste. In this study we examined the preference for sucralose in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A standard 24-hour 2-bottle test was used to compare a wide range of sucralose concentrations (0.0003-10 g\\/L; 0.8 ?mol\\/L-25 mmol\\/L) with water. The rats

Nicholas T. Bello; Andras Hajnal

2005-01-01

209

Artificially sweetened low sugar watermelon found acceptable by Native American consumer groups  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelons are a rich source of lycopene, a compound that may have health functional properties to protect against some cancers and cardiovascular disease. However, intake of watermelon may be restricted for individuals who have diabetes or those who limit carbohydrate intake. Recently, a low-sugar...

210

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2010-04-01

211

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2012-04-01

212

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2014-04-01

213

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2013-04-01

214

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...avoirdupois per 100 pounds of the finished food. (5) Purified calcium chloride, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination of two or more of these salts, in a...

2011-04-01

215

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2013-04-01

216

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2012-04-01

217

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2014-04-01

218

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

2011-04-01

219

Kinetic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of artificial sweetener (sucralose) in tablets.  

PubMed

Two simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of sucralose are described. The first method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of the drug with alkaline potassium permanganate at room temperature for a fixed time of 30 min. The absorbance of the green coloured manganate ions produced was measured at 610 nm. The second method is based on the reaction of sucralose with cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate in the presence of perchloric acid with the subsequent measurement of the excess unreacted cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate at 320 nm at a fixed time of 30 min in a thermostated water bath at 60 ± 1 °C. This principle is adopted to develop a kinetic method for sucralose determination. The absorbance concentration plots in both methods were rectilinear over the range 4-16 and 10-30 µg ml(-1) , for the first and second methods, respectively. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the colours were carefully studied and optimized. The determination of sucralose by rate constant method, fixed concentration method, and fixed-time method was also feasible with calibration equations obtained but the latter method was found to be more applicable. The two methods have been applied successfully to commercial tablets. PMID:21500365

Youssef, Rasha M; Korany, Mohamed A; Khamis, Essam F; Mahgoub, Hoda; Kamal, Miranda F

2011-04-01

220

Metabolic studies with nonnutritive sweeteners cyclooctylsulfamate and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweeteners cyclooctylsulfamate and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate were fed separately to female Wistar albino rats, and the urine was examined for the possible metabolites cyclooctylamine, cyclooctanone, cyclooctanol, 4-methylcyclohexylamine, 4-methylcyclohexanone, and cis- and trans-4-methylcyclohexanols. The average percent conversions to cyclooctylamine, cyclooctanone, and cyclooctanol were 0.127, 0.08, and 0.092, respectively. The average percent conversions to 4-methylcyclohexylamine and 4-methylcyclohexanone were 0.007 and 0.0013, respectively. No cis- or trans-4-methylcyclohexanol metabolites were found. With cyclooctylsulfamate, 42% was recovered unchanged from the urine. Cyclooctyl- and cycloheptylsulfamates were metabolized to a greater extent than cyclopentylsulfamate, which, in turn, was metabolized to a greater extent than cyclohexylsulfamate (cyclamate) and 4-methylcyclohexylsulfamate. PMID:423133

Spillane, W J; Benson, G A; McGlinchey, G

1979-03-01

221

Low and no calorie sweeteners (LNCS); myths and realities.  

PubMed

Since their introduction in the market, there has been much debate regarding the health effects of low and no calorie sweetners (LNCS). Therefore, through this review, we aim to establish scientific information about the most commonly used LNCS by the food industry. Key questions about uses, safety, and weight control are reviewed. Scientific evidence revised concludes that LNCS available on the market are safe and no epidemiological relationship has been established with the development of non-communicable diseases, including different kind of cancer in humans. Also, LCNS combined with physical activity and a healthy lifestyle can play a significant role in weight loss and the maintenance of a healthy weight. But non nutritive sweeteners will be helpful only as long as people don't eat additional calories later as compensation. Even more, LNCS represent an additional instrument in the dietary treatment of people with diabetes for metabolic control, without avoiding sweet taste. PMID:25344624

Riobó Serván, Pilar; Sierra Poyatos, Roberto; Soldo Rodríguez, Judith

2014-01-01

222

Modeling of liquid hydrocarbon sweetening with amine solutions  

SciTech Connect

The kent-Eisenberg model has been modified to calculate the distributions of acid gases between amine solutions and hydrocarbon liquids. Henry`s constants have been determined as functions of temperature and gas loading from the liquid-liquid equilibria data. The hydraulic and mass transfer models with the stage efficiency calculation for sieve-tray columns have been developed for liquid-liquid contactors. The model calculations are compared with experimental solubility data. The liquid hydrocarbon sweetening process has been simulated by AMSIM{trademark}, a simulation program handling both gas and liquid treatings using rigorous non-equilibrium stage models. A satisfactory agreement between the model predictions and plant operating data has been reached.

Zhang, D.D.; Ng, H.J. [DB Robinson Research Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

223

Assessment of the carcinogenicity of the nonnutritive sweetener cyclamate.  

PubMed

The weight of the evidence from metabolic studies, short-term tests, animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies indicates that cyclamate (CHS) is not carcinogenic by itself; however, there is evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies in animals that implies it may have cancer-promoting or cocarcinogenic activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (CHS and saccharin) has not resulted in a measurable overall increase in the risk of bladder cancer in individuals who have ever used these products. No epidemiological information exists on the possible associations of these sweeteners and cancers other than those of the urinary tract. It is recommended that (1) no further studies on the metabolism of CHS to evaluate its carcinogenicity are required since no potentially hazardous metabolites have been appreciably detected in humans; (2) no further animal bioassays to test for the carcinogenicity of CHS by itself are necessary; (3) the studies in rodents that suggest a promotional or cocarcinogenic effect of CHS should be repeated because they cannot be ruled out; (4) because the significance to human health of a positive outcome of such studies is uncertain, additional research aimed at understanding the predictive value for human health of such results and more generic studies to develop well-validated systems that can be relied on in the assessment of cancer-promoting agents are recommended; (5) in populations where CHS continues to be used, epidemiological monitoring should be continued to determine whether there is an increased risk of cancer in humans who are heavy or long-term users or for those observed long after first exposure. In such monitoring, other cancer sites--in addition to the bladder--should be considered. PMID:1510820

Ahmed, F E; Thomas, D B

1992-01-01

224

Impact and ethics of excluding sweetened beverages from the SNAP program.  

PubMed

The state of New York recently petitioned the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for permission to conduct a demonstration project in which sweetened beverages would be excluded from the foods eligible to be purchased with Supplemental Assistance Nutrition Program (SNAP) benefits (i.e., food stamps) in New York City. The USDA and advocacy groups have raised objections to new SNAP restrictions such as the proposed exclusion of sweetened beverages. Some objections rest on empirical issues best resolved by demonstration projects or pilot studies of new exclusions. Other objections question the equity of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP; these objections are important but not ethically decisive. The USDA should approve the proposed demonstration project and should encourage other pilot studies to assess the effects of excluding sweetened beverages from SNAP. PMID:21566025

Barnhill, Anne

2011-11-01

225

Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors  

E-print Network

This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults...

Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

2013-01-01

226

Development of Taste Sensor with LB Films for Measurement of High-intensity Sweetener  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, development of taste sensor is furthered for quality control of foods. In this study, we developed taste sensor with stearic acid LB films for measurement of high-intensity sweetener taste. We measured several high-intensity sweeteners with the number of layers of stearic acid LB films as 10 and 20 layers. And we also measured mixed high-intensity sweeteners. The result showed that the stearic acid LB films taste sensor was used to detect glucose and high-intensity sweeteners at a threshold level of taste. Stearic acid LB films sensor detects different response by mixed ratio of high-intensity sweeteners. In addition, we compared difference of sensor responses by three kind of storing conditions (vacuum vessel, KCl solution and the air storing). The result showed that the structure of stearic acid LB films is easily affected by moisture in storage environment. This study indicated that the modification of stearic acid LB film layers and materials makes it possible to develop high sensitivity and selectivity taste sensor for sweeteners.

Asami, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yuki; Ando, Ki; Uchida, Hidekazu; Yaji, Tamaki

227

Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2012-01-01

228

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

229

Artificial Ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of artificial ligaments includes possibly more than its fair share of controversy and failures. One main task\\u000a of this chapter is to review the history to extract the lessons that will be valuable for the future. Although artificial\\u000a ligaments are presently unpopular, memories of previous disappointments inevitably fade, while at the same time, technology\\u000a continues, opening up novel

Andrew A. Amis

230

Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.  

PubMed

The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5?mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250?mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5?mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2?h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. PMID:24684500

Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

2014-05-01

231

Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) and its metabolites, applicable on a routine quality assurance basis, is described. Liquid samples (diet Coke, 7-Up, Pepsi, etc.) were injected directly onto a mini-cartridge reversed-phase column on a high-performance liquid chromatographic system, whereas solid samples (Equal, hot chocolate powder, pudding, etc.) were extracted with water. Optimising chromatographic conditions resulted in resolved components of interest within 12 min. The by-products were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Although the method was developed on a two-pump HPLC system fitted with a diode-array detector, it is straightforward and can be transformed to the simplest HPLC configuration. Using a single-piston pump (with damper), a fixed-wavelength detector and a recorder/integrator, the degradation of products can be monitored as they decompose. The results obtained were in harmony with previously reported tedious methods. The method is simple, rapid, quantitative and does not involve complex, hazardous or toxic chemistry. PMID:8900578

Gibbs, B F; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

1996-02-23

232

Behavioral effects of withdrawal from sweetened vegetable shortening in rats.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that withdrawal from intermittent access to a sweet fat mixture would lead to an exaggerated motivation and craving for palatable food. Male Long-Evans rats were divided into three weight-matched groups based on access to sweetened vegetable shortening (SVS). Groups received 1-hour SVS access everyday (7D group), 1-hour SVS access intermittently, 3 days/week (3D group), or no SVS access (Naïve group). By the second week 3D rats began to display a disordered eating pattern. After 28 days on this feeding schedule SVS was withdrawn and anxiety was measured in an elevated plus maze. Motivation was assessed through operant performance for 10% sucrose on a progressive ratio schedule and craving was examined with a reinstatement test for lever pressing following extinction. Initial measures of anxiety and motivation found no differences among groups. However, when food was deprived overnight, there was a greater increase in lever pressing in the 3D group compared to 7D and Naïve rats. Thus a history of intermittent SVS access enhanced the reinforcing value of sucrose, but only under deprivation conditions. Interestingly, reinstatement of responding for sucrose was present only in the Naïve group. These findings suggest that a history of disordered eating may result in augmented motivation for palatable foods during a state of negative energy balance. PMID:20096668

McGee, Heidi M; Amare, Bekaluwa; Bennett, Amy L; Duncan-Vaidya, Elizabeth A

2010-09-01

233

Natural sweeteners as fixatives in histopathology: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background: Fixation is the essential step in histopathological processing of tissues. Since formalin is a corroborated biohazard, its routine use as a fixative is a major health and safety concern and hence the quest for safer alternatives is envisaged. Natural sweeteners like jaggery and honey have proved to be effective tissue preservatives over 24 h. This pioneer eco-idea needs further research to expand its application. Aim: (1) To evaluate the fixative property of jaggery and honey over 6 months and ascertaining the results using hematoxylin and eosin stain (H and E). (2) To evaluate the compatibility of jaggery and honey fixed tissues for special stains - Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Masson–Trichrome (MT). Materials and Methods: Equal bits of commercially available animal mucosae were preserved in 30% jaggery, 20% honey, and 10% buffered formalin (control) over 6 months at intervals. Following which, tissues were subjected to routine H and E, special stains - PAS and MT using standard operating procedures established in our group. Results: Formalin, jaggery, and honey yielded satisfactory results post 6 months for H and E and special stains, jaggery was comparable to formalin in tissue preservation. Conclusion: We propose the use of eco-friendly jaggery and honey as alternatives to formalin for long term tissue preservation.

Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Ganavi, B. S; Majumdar, Barnali

2015-01-01

234

Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2014-01-01

235

Evaluating equity critiques in food policy: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy - modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet - and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program (SNAP) assistance (i.e., food stamps). We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were made to the sweetened beverage exclusion, and analyze these objections in terms of the theoretical notions of distributive equality and social equality. First, the sweetened beverage exclusion is unfair or violates distributive equality because it restricts the consumer choice of SNAP participants relative to non-participants. Second, it is disrespectful or violates social equality to prohibit SNAP participants from purchasing sweetened beverages with food stamps. We conclude that neither equity-based ethical objection is decisive, and that the proposed exclusion of sugar-sweetened beverages is not a violation of either distributive or social equality. PMID:23581672

Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F

2013-01-01

236

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)  

PubMed Central

Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ?2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04–2.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (Ptrend?=?0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR?=?2.22; 95% CI, 1.29–3.81, Ptrend?=?0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24937507

Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

237

Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have reported that, compared with glucose- sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the pre- dominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. Objective: We

Kimber L Stanhope; Steven C Griffen; Brandi R Bair; Michael M Swarbrick; Nancy L Keim; Peter J Havel

238

Artificial Incubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the account of Mr. Llewelyn B. Atkinson's article on ``The Scientific Principles of Artificial Incubation'' (NATURE, February 21, p. 282), the author is quoted as saying that practically every type of incubator has the air too dry. If this is so, the number of eggs hatched should be dependent to some extent on the humidity of the outside air.

C. J. P. Cave; T. Vernon Jones

1925-01-01

239

Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. ...

240

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged .2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to mod- erate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population.

Richard D Mattes; Barry M Popkin

241

Consumption of sugar-sweetened soft-drink and fruit juice beverages differentially associated with glucose-related measures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Impaired insulin sensitivity is a key metabolic abnormality associated with these conditions and high-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in sodas, has bee...

242

Paternal modeling, household availability, and paternal intake as predictors of fruit, vegetable, and sweetened beverage consumption among African American children.  

PubMed

The current study examined how African American fathers' dietary practices were associated with their children's dietary consumption. The sample consisted of one hundred and two African American fathers, who had children between the ages of three and thirteen. The fathers provided self-reports of their consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sugar sweetened beverages; modeling of healthy eating; household availability of foods and beverages; and their children's previously mentioned consumption. Sweetened beverages are considered to be any beverage that contains added sweeteners, high-fructose corn syrup, and/or fruit juice concentrates. Paternal modeling and household availability of food and beverages were measured using subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ). Three separate hierarchical regressions were performed to reveal that child fruit and vegetable consumption was only predicted by parental intake. Child sweetened beverage consumption, however, was predicted by paternal intake and household availability. Modeling did not significantly predict children's consumption of fruits, vegetables, or sweetened beverages. The findings suggest that paternal intake of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages predicts child consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. Family efforts should be made toward increasing father's consumption of healthy foods while decreasing the consumption and availability of sweetened beverages. PMID:25447009

Harris, Toni S; Ramsey, Michael

2015-02-01

243

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

244

Impact of Dairy and Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Diet and Weight of a Multiethnic Population of Head Start Mothers  

PubMed Central

Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall mean±standard error=30.8±0.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.8±0.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.4±0.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. PMID:19394474

O’NEIL, CAROL E.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.

2009-01-01

245

Artificial Rheotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul

2013-03-01

246

Artificial Photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional channel materials, such as zeolites and mesoporous silicas, are very attractive hosts for the preparation\\u000a and investigation of hierarchically organized structures, presenting a successive ordering from the molecular up to macroscopic\\u000a scale. The focus of this article is on artificial photonic antenna systems and on photocatalytically active layers that have\\u000a been built by incorporating organic dyes, complexes, metal cations

Gion Calzaferri

2010-01-01

247

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2005-04-11

248

Published on Scientific Blogging (http://www.scientificblogging.com) Home > Physical Sciences > Chemistry > News Articles > Printer-friendly  

E-print Network

of a business card, can also identify sweeteners used in solid foods such as cakes, cookies, and chewing gum sweeteners, including sucrose (table sugar), xylitol (used in sugarless chewing gum), sorbitol, aspartame

Suslick, Kenneth S.

249

Artificial Intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching techniques; the control of problem solving; programming languages for Al, such as LISP, PLANNER, CONNIVER, and PROLOG; the representation and utilization of knowledge; and the approach to human intelligence.

Shirai, Y.; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

1985-01-01

250

Spectroscopic characterization of the chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil was characterized using spectral methods. It was demonstrated that Vartamil is a mixture of saccharose chloro derivatives, the main one of which is 4,1',6'-trichloro-4,1',6'-trideoxygalactosaccharose (Sucralose).

Kolosova, T. E.; Prokhodchenko, L. K.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Suboch, V. P.

2008-03-01

251

The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

Harrington, Susan

2008-01-01

252

Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

2007-01-01

253

Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

2012-01-01

254

Canadian Diabetes Association National Nutrition Committee Technical Review: Nonnutritive Intense Sweeteners in Diabetes Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada state that up to 10% of daily calories can be derived from sugars. However, individuals with diabetes may also be relying on alternative, low-calorie sweetening agents (providing little or no calories along with sweet taste) to con- trol carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, weight

Réjeanne Gougeon; Mark Spidel; Kristy Lee; Catherine J. Field

2004-01-01

255

Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).  

PubMed

In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23341001

Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

2013-05-01

256

Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cold induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers due to cold storage. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Potato varieties vary in resistance to CIS. Research efforts have focused on enzymes that contribute to the accumulation of reducing s...

257

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: Impact on weight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 years. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary p...

258

Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

259

Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2012-01-01

260

Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

2012-01-01

261

ADVANCED POTATO CLONES WITH INCREASED COLD SWEETENING RESISTANCE (SCR) (YEAR 2004-2005)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening@ and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

262

SWEETENED BEVERAGE SOURCES OF 7TH AND 8TH GRADE YOUTH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: Sweetened beverage (SB) consumption may impact energy balance and weight. For middle school youth, major SB sources include home, school snack bars and vending, and restaurants. Policies have attempted to reduce student access to SB in schools, and concerns about restaurant SB consumption h...

263

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

2014-01-01

264

Sweeten Your JavaScript: Hygienic Macros for ES5 UC Santa Cruz  

E-print Network

Sweeten Your JavaScript: Hygienic Macros for ES5 Tim Disney UC Santa Cruz Nathan Faubion Flow Corp hygienic macro systems for such languages. JavaScript in particular presents unique challenges for macro systems due to ambiguities in the lexing stage that force the JavaScript lexer and parser

Flanagan, Cormac

265

Stability of the intense sweetener neohesperidine DC during yogurt manufacture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the intense sweetener neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (DC) has been assessed during yogurt manufacture and storage. No significant decomposition was detected during and after milk pasteurization, the fermentation process and storage for 6 weeks at 3 °C. In addition, the maximum authorized concentration of neohesperidine DC did not affect the rate of acidification by lactic acid bacteria during the

Helena Montijano; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán; Francisco Borrego

1995-01-01

266

Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers at cold temperatures prevents sprouting and minimizes losses due to disease. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening (CIS). High-temperature processing of potato tubers wit...

267

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: Implications for weight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss pl...

268

Total Artificial Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...

269

Artificial Hydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases. PMID:20356731

Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

2010-01-01

270

On the artificiality of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the question is raised whether artificial intelligence has any psychological relevance, i.e. contributes to our knowledge of how the mind\\/brain works. It is argued that the psychological relevance of artificial intelligence of the symbolic kind is questionable as yet, since there is no indication that the brain structurally resembles or operates like a digital computer. However, artificial

Hans F. M. Crombag

1993-01-01

271

Cognitive and home environmental predictors of change in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption may increase risk for unnecessary weight gain. To develop interventions discouraging consumption, more insight is needed about cognitive and environmental predictors related to the decrease in SSB consumption.

272

Impact of School District Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Policies on Student Beverage Exposure and Consumption in Middle Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the associations between 1) exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in middle schools and student consumption of SSB during the school day; and 2) school district policies about SSB and exposure to SSB in schools.

Donna B. Johnson; Barbara Bruemmer; Anne E. Lund; Carina C. Evens; Corinne M. Mar

2009-01-01

273

Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration in free-living populations. We examined the relationship between the intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages and serum uric

Xiang Gao; Lu Qi; Ning Qiao; Hyon K. Choi; Gary C. Curhan; Katherine L. Tucker; Alberto Ascherio

2007-01-01

274

Artificial Intelligence Daniel Polani  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Daniel Polani Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/26 Is it AI? 1. text editor 2 12. Turing test contenders Artificial Intellige The Turing Test: is partner human or not? See: e.g. [Saygin et al., 2000] Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 The Turing Test II

Polani, Daniel

275

Artificial Intelligence Adversarial Search  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Adversarial Search Readings: Chapter 6 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Rybka. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/25 Games vs. Search problems "Unpredictable" opponent: Solution, poker, scrabble nuclear war Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/25 Tic-Tac-Toe XX XX X X X XX MAX (X) MIN (O

Srinivasan, Padmini

276

Effect of sweetening agents in acidic beverages on associated erosion lesions.  

PubMed

Accurate diagnosis of erosion defects caused by acidic beverages is essential when designing a comprehensive management strategy that includes combating possible recurrence. The manifestations of erosion lesions associated with acidic beverages are diverse, as seen in the differences and similarities of lesions associated with various regular and diet varieties of beverages. Erosion lesions caused by regular sugar-sweetened beverages display signs similar to dental caries, while lesions resulting from diet, non-sugar-sweetened soft drinks have defects similar to mechanical wear of the dentition. Aggravating factors such as toothbrushing or compromised oral home care could influence the features of erosion lesions. These diverse characteristics of erosion lesions could make identification difficult. This article describes pertinent signs of erosion defects associated with the regular and diet varieties of acidic beverages and discusses their causative factors. This information is designed to avert an improper diagnosis that would derail any restorative intervention and alter a proper preventive management course. PMID:22782045

Bassiouny, Mohamed A

2012-01-01

277

Quality characteristics of red raspberry fruit spread made with four sweeteners.  

PubMed

Red raspberry fruit spreads sweetened with sugar (S) or raspberry, red grape, or apple juice concentrates were processed by inversion and analyzed for chemical, physical, and sensory properties at 1, 12, and 24 weeks. All pH values were between 3.0 and 3.5 while all aw were above 0.81. Samples were dark red but became duller over time. Viscosities and total solids were lower (p < 0.05) in juice sweetened products than in S. Sensory evaluations improved over time for all samples, but were always higher (p < 0.05) for S. Mold was detected in all samples at 24 weeks. Acceptable products were prepared using fruit juice concentrates but inversion processing was not recommended for fruit spread preparation. PMID:12602940

McKee, L H; Garcia-Whitehead, C; Remmenga, M

2002-01-01

278

Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?  

PubMed

The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

2011-04-01

279

Natural sweetening of food products by engineering Lactococcus lactis for glucose production.  

PubMed

We show that sweetening of food products by natural fermentation can be achieved by a combined metabolic engineering and transcriptome analysis approach. A Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris strain was constructed in which glucose metabolism was completely disrupted by deletion of the genes coding for glucokinase (glk), EII(man/glc) (ptnABCD), and the newly discovered glucose-PTS EII(cel) (ptcBAC). After introducing the lactose metabolic genes, the deletion strain could solely ferment the galactose moiety of lactose, while the glucose moiety accumulated extracellularly. Additionally, less lactose remained in the medium after fermentation. The resulting strain can be used for in situ production of glucose, circumventing the need to add sweeteners as additional ingredients to dairy products. Moreover, the enhanced removal of lactose achieved by this strain could be very useful in the manufacture of products for lactose intolerant individuals. PMID:16844396

Pool, Wietske A; Neves, Ana Rute; Kok, Jan; Santos, Helena; Kuipers, Oscar P

2006-09-01

280

Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats  

PubMed Central

The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared to diets high in energy, fat and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared to those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a “Westernized” diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively-bred Crl:OP[CD] rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (DIO rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a “Westernized” diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Davidson, T.L.

2014-01-01

281

Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Fructose and Glucose Sweetened Beverages with Meals in Obese Men and Women: Influence of Insulin Resistance on Plasma Triglyceride Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates post- prandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in obese subjects has not been studied. Objective: Compare the effects of fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages consumed with meals on hormones and

Karen L. Teff; Joanne Grudziak; Raymond R. Townsend; Tamara N. Dunn; Ryan W. Grant; Sean H. Adams; Nancy L. Keim; Bethany P. Cummings; Kimber L. Stanhope; Peter J. Havel

2009-01-01

282

Obesity and Sugar-sweetened Beverages in African-American Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3–5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002–2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score

Sungwoo Lim; Jamie M. Zoellner; Joyce M. Lee; Brian A. Burt; Anita M. Sandretto; Woosung Sohn; Amid I. Ismail; James M. Lepkowski

2009-01-01

283

Chinchón declaration; decalogue on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS).  

PubMed

Multidisciplinary experts in the areas of nutrition and health met in Chinchón, Madrid, on November 25-26, 2013 under the auspices of the Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation) and with the collaboration of the Madrid Regional Government's Health Ministry, the International Sweeteners Association and the Carlos III Health Institute CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition. They analyzed the current status of scientific knowledge on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and developed a consensus Decalogue on their use; this constitutes the Chinchón Declaration. Sweeteners, including sugar, represent a subject of undeniable interest and are currently a popular topic, although areas relating to their safety and benefits remain unknown to segments of academia and the general public. The nature of LNCS makes them vulnerable to biased and even contradictory information. They are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements when non-nutritional or non-caloric alternatives are needed. The Chinchón Decalogue is the outcome of a meeting for reflection and consensus by a group of experts with backgrounds in different scientific disciplines (toxicology, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, physiology, food science, public health, pediatrics, endocrinology and nutrition, nursing, pharmaceutical care and food legislation). The Decalogue includes different aspects of LNCS related to regulation, use, benefits and safety. In general, benefits of LNCS have been traditionally neglected in comparison with the tendency for emphasising unexisting or unproven possible risks. The need to strengthen research on LNCS in Spain was emphasized, as well as the need to educate both professionals and the public. PMID:24679013

Serra-Majem, Lluís; Riobó Serván, Pilar; Belmonte Cortés, Susana; Anadón Navarro, Arturo; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Franco Vargas, Eladia; García-Closas, Reina; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Herrero Sancho, Elvira; La Vecchia, Carlo; López Díaz-Ufano, M Luisa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Vázquez Castro, Jesús; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Alcaraz-Cebrián, Francisca; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; González-Gomis, Mercedes; González-Gross, Marcela; Granado de la Orden, Susana; López-Sobaler, Ana María; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Polanco Allué, Isabel; Urrialde de Andrés, Rafael

2014-01-01

284

Fructose content and composition of commercial HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages  

PubMed Central

Objective: The obesigenic and related health effects of caloric sweeteners are subjects of much current research. Consumers can properly adjust their diets to conform to nutritional recommendations only if the sugars composition of foods and beverages is accurately measured and reported, a matter of recent concern. We tested the hypothesis that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in commercial carbonated beverages conforms to commonly assumed fructose percentages and industry technical specifications, and fulfills beverage product label regulations and Food Chemicals Codex-stipulated standards. Design: A high-pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and verified for analysis of sugars in carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The method was used to measure percent fructose in three carbonated beverage categories. Method verification was demonstrated by acceptable linearity (R2>0.99), accuracy (94–104% recovery) and precision (RSD<2%). Result: Fructose comprised 55.58% of total sugars (95% confidence interval 55.51–55.65%), based on 160 total measurements by 2 independent laboratories of 80 randomly selected carbonated beverages sweetened with HFCS-55. The difference in fructose measurements between laboratories was significant but small (0.1%), and lacked relevance. Differences in fructose by product category or by product age were not statistically significant. Total sugars content of carbonated beverages showed close agreement within product categories (95% confidence interval=0.01–0.54%). Conclusions: Using verified analytical methodology for HFCS-sweetened carbonated beverages, this study confirmed the hypothesis that fructose as a percentage of total sugars is in close agreement with published specifications in industry technical data sheets, published literature values and governmental standards and requirements. Furthermore, total sugars content of commercial beverages is consistent with common industry practices for canned and bottled products and met the US Federal requirements for nutritional labeling and nutrient claims. Prior concerns about composition were likely owing to use of improper and unverified methodology. PMID:24798032

White, J S; Hobbs, L J; Fernandez, S

2015-01-01

285

Effect of Sweetener, Stabilizer, and Storage Temperature on Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In ice cream manufacturing, control of ice crystal growth,through,proper formulation,and storage tem- perature is important,for stability during storage. The objective of this study was,to investigate the influence of sweetener (sucrose, 20 dextrose equivalent corn syrup, 42 dextrose equivalent corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup), with and without stabilizer, on ice recrystallization in ice cream,at three storage temperatures.

Tadashi Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartelt

1996-01-01

286

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined

D. P. Figlewicz; G. Ioannou; J. Bennett Jay; S. Kittleson; C. Savard; C. L. Roth

2009-01-01

287

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

288

A novel process for extraction of natural sweetener from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) is a very useful technique for recovering bioactive molecules from natural materials using subcritical compressed liquid water in the temperature range of 50–150°C. A novel process has been developed for making a natural sweetener from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots involving selective chemical reaction and easy separation, for recovering mono-ammonium glycyrrhizate (MAG) using hot water with

Mamata Mukhopadhyay; Palash Panja

2008-01-01

289

Taste responsiveness to sweeteners is resistant to elevations in plasma leptin.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty about the relationship between plasma leptin and sweet taste in mice. Whereas 2 studies have reported that elevations in plasma leptin diminish responsiveness to sweeteners, another found that they enhanced responsiveness to sucrose. We evaluated the impact of plasma leptin on sweet taste in C57BL/6J (B6) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Although mice expressed the long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) selectively in Type 2 taste cells, leptin failed to activate a critical leptin-signaling protein, STAT3, in taste cells. Similarly, we did not observe any impact of intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin treatment on chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners in B6 or ob/ob mice. Finally, there was no effect of leptin treatment on initial licking responses to several sucrose concentrations in B6 mice. We confirmed that basal plasma leptin levels did not exceed 10ng/mL, regardless of time of day, physiological state, or body weight, suggesting that taste cell LepRb were not desensitized to leptin in our studies. Furthermore, i.p. leptin injections produced plasma leptin levels that exceeded those previously reported to exert taste effects. We conclude that any effect of plasma leptin on taste responsiveness to sweeteners is subtle and manifests itself only under specific experimental conditions. PMID:25740302

Glendinning, John I; Elson, Amanda E T; Kalik, Salina; Sosa, Yvett; Patterson, Christa M; Myers, Martin G; Munger, Steven D

2015-05-01

290

Antagonism of the gerbil's sweetener and Polycose gustatory responses by copper chloride.  

PubMed

Antagonism of the gerbil's whole chorda tympani nerve taste responses by CuCl2 was studied. A 30 min pretreatment of 0.1 mM CuCl2 suppressed responses to single concentrations of the following sweeteners: L-alanine, L-proline, D-tryptophan, 6-chloro-D-tryptophan, L-valine, glycine, sucrose, maltose, lactose, tetrachloro-galacto-sucrose, glucose, fructose, methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside, glycerol, sorbitol, sodium saccharin, L-4'-cyano-3'-(2-2-2-trifluoro acetamido)succinanilic acid, phenethyurea, and stevioside. The responses to L-serine and the starch hydrolysate, Polycose were depressed to a lesser degree. The responses to glycine HCl and NaCl were slightly suppressed by CuCl2. The 0.1 mM CuCl2 had no effect on the shape of the sucrose concentration-response curve or its 1/2 maximal response (CR50), but did suppress the maximum response (Rmax), characteristic of non-competitive antagonism. Our work suggests the presence of 2 separate receptor sites on the gerbil's taste receptor cell membrane, one of which interacts with sugar sweeteners and most other non-sugar sweeteners and the other with Polycose. PMID:2224518

Somenarain, L; Jakinovich, W

1990-07-01

291

A human volunteer study to assess the impact of confectionery sweeteners on the gut microbiota composition.  

PubMed

Sweeteners are being sourced to lower the energetic value of confectionery including chocolates. Some, especially non-digestible carbohydrates, may possess other benefits for human health upon their fermentation by the colonic microbiota. The present study assessed non-digestible carbohydrate sweeteners, selected for use in low-energy chocolates, for their ability to beneficially modulate faecal bacterial profiles in human volunteers. Forty volunteers consumed a test chocolate (low-energy or experimental chocolate) containing 22.8 g of maltitol (MTL), MTL and polydextrose (PDX), or MTL and resistant starch for fourteen consecutive days. The dose of the test chocolates was doubled every 2 weeks over a 6-week period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria significantly increased with all the three test treatments. Chocolate containing the PDX blend also significantly increased faecal lactobacilli (P = 0.00 001) after the 6 weeks. The PDX blend also showed significant increases in faecal propionate and butyrate (P = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). All the test chocolates were well tolerated with no significant change in bowel habit or intestinal symptoms even at a daily dose of 45.6 g of non-digestible carbohydrate sweetener. This is of importance not only for giving manufacturers a sugar replacement that can reduce energetic content, but also for providing a well-tolerated means of delivering high levels of non-digestible carbohydrates into the colon, bringing about improvements in the biomarkers of gut health. PMID:20370946

Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

2010-09-01

292

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms123  

PubMed Central

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

293

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

294

Body Weight Gain in Rats Consuming Sweetened Liquids: Effects of Caffeine and Diet Composition  

PubMed Central

Previous studies show that high-intensity sweeteners can stimulate weight gain in rats. The present studies examined whether caffeine, a stimulant commonly added to beverages consumed by humans, influences intake of saccharin- or glucose-sweetened solutions or body weight gain in rats and whether the nature of the maintenance diet influences the effects of caffeine. In two experiments, rats received glucose or saccharin solution mixed with 0.125 mg/g caffeine or no caffeine. Rats consumed significantly more caffeinated than noncaffeinated solutions when they were maintained on a low-fat chow diet (Experiment 1) and when maintained on a sweet, high-fat, high calorie chow diet (Experiment 2). Consumption of saccharin resulted in higher body weight gain in both experiments. Caffeine reversed this effect in Experiment 1 (low-fat diet) but not Experiment 2 (sweet, high-fat diet). The findings extend what is known about the conditions under which consumption of high intensity sweeteners promote energy dysregulation. PMID:20851725

Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely M.; Laboy, Alycia F.; Davidson, T. L.

2010-01-01

295

Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?  

PubMed

Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

2015-01-01

296

Experience with Sugar Modifies Behavioral but not Taste-Evoked Medullary Responses to Sweeteners in Mice  

PubMed Central

Dietary exposure to sugars increases the preference for and intake of sugar solutions in mice. We used brief-access lick tests and multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) to investigate the role of taste in diet-induced changes in sucrose responsiveness. We exposed C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice to either a sucrose diet (chow, water, and a 500mM sucrose solution) or a control diet (chow and water) for 3 days. In B6 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet decreased the appetitive response (i.e., number of trials initiated) but had no effect on the consummatory response (i.e., rate of licking) to 500mM sucrose and 20mM saccharin. In 129 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet increased the appetitive response but had no effect on the consummatory response to the sweetener solutions. In the NST recordings, the B6 mice exhibited larger multiunit responses to sweeteners than 129 mice, but there was no effect of the sucrose diet in either strain. Our results indicate that sucrose exposure alters the appetitive response of B6 and 129 mice to sweeteners in diametrically opposed ways and that these changes are mediated by structures in the gustatory neuraxis above the NST (e.g., ventral forebrain). PMID:24084168

2013-01-01

297

Technological and functional applications of low-calorie sweeteners from lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively used for centuries as starter cultures to carry out food fermentations and are looked upon as burgeoning "cell factories" for production of host of functional biomolecules and food ingredients. Low-calorie sugars have been a recent addition and have attracted a great deal of interest of researchers, manufacturers, and consumers for varied reasons. These sweeteners also getting popularized as low-carb sugars have been granted generally recommended as safe (GRAS) status by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (USFDA) and include both sugars and sugar alcohols (polyols) which in addition to their technological attributes (sugar replacer, bulking agent, texturiser, humectant, cryoprotectant) have been observed to exert a number of health benefits (low calories, low glycemic index, anticariogenic, osmotic diuretics, obesity control, prebiotic). Some of these sweeteners successfully produced by lactic acid bacteria include mannitol, sorbitol, tagatose, and trehalose and there is a potential to further enhance their production with the help of metabolic engineering. These safe sweeteners can be exploited as vital food ingredients for development of low-calorie foods with added functional values especially for children, diabetic patients, and weight watchers. PMID:19200114

Patra, F; Tomar, S K; Arora, S

2009-01-01

298

General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats  

PubMed Central

In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy intake and body weight gain are also obtained when rats were given Acesulfame Potassium (AceK), a nonnutritive high intensity sweetener that is chemically distinct from saccharin. Increased energy intake and body weight gain and impaired caloric compensation were also obtained with a saccharin-sweetened base diet (refried beans) that was calorically similar, but nutritionally distinct from low-fat yogurt. The present studies also extended earlier findings by showing that body weight differences persist after saccharin-sweetened diets are discontinued and following a shift to a diet sweetened with glucose. In addition, rats first exposed to a diet sweetened with glucose still gain additional weight when subsequently exposed to a saccharin sweetened diet. The effect of saccharin on caloric compensation was more complex in that it appeared to depend on the type of diet (yogurt or beans) in which saccharin was consumed prior to testing. The results of these experiments add support to the hypothesis that exposure to weak or non-predictive relationships between sweet tastes and caloric consequences may lead to positive energy balance. PMID:19634935

Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

2009-01-01

299

Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

2012-01-01

300

ADM, Cargill lose bid to end suit over corn-syrup price-fixing WASHINGTON, D.C. --Archer Daniels Midland Co., Cargill Inc. and another maker of corn sweeteners must face a trial  

E-print Network

Midland Co., Cargill Inc. and another maker of corn sweeteners must face a trial over price-fixing claims, Kaplan said Monday. The food makers say the corn-sweetener producers agreed in 1988 to raise prices

Manga, Michael

301

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

302

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems  

E-print Network

Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

Timmis, Jon

303

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics  

E-print Network

Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a central role in Robotics if the connection is to be intelligent. Artificial Intelligence addresses ...

Brady, Michael

1984-02-01

304

Trends in Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

Hayes, Patrick

1978-01-01

305

The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

Fernandez, Thomas

306

Intentionality in Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question of whether Artificial Intelligence can have intentionality. This question is part of a larger discussion of whether or not Artificial Intelligence can ever be 'conscious'. Ultimately, I come to the conclusion that while we can see how intentionality can be transferred, it has yet to be shown that intentionality can be created within Artificial Intelligence.

Christopher D. Tennenbaum

2011-01-01

307

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of artificial intelligence / Juan Ramon Rabunal Dopico, Julian Dorado de la Calle, and Alejandro Pazos Sierra) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

Liang, Faming

308

Artificiality in Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by \\

Jean-Philippe Rennard

2007-01-01

309

Artificial Vision LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision State of the art (2) Second Systems Generation (1990 PAGE 3 #12;2011 Prof. Micheloni Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision State

310

Artificial Vision Image Registration  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision Image Registration Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science. Micheloni Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision Change Detection: Moving Camera Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision Image Registration · The image registration

311

Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: Influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in...

312

The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague–Dawley rats on bone mass and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of sugar beverages has increased among adolescents. Additionally, the replacement of sucrose with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as the predominant sweetener has resulted in higher fructose intake. Few studies have investigated the effect of drinking different sugar-sweetened beverages on bone, despite suggestions that sugar consumption negatively impacts mineral balance. The objective of this study was to determine the

Embedzayi Tsanzi; Heather R. Light; Janet C. Tou

2008-01-01

313

Surrogate markers of insulin resistance associated with consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fruit juice in the Framingham Offspring Cohort  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. High-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in so...

314

By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies.  

PubMed

The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal. PMID:25414517

Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F; Ruff, Ryan R

2014-07-01

315

By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal. PMID:25414517

Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F.; Ruff, Ryan R.

2014-01-01

316

Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. Design We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean±SD age of 21±2 y and BMI of 21.5±1.7 kg/m2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Results Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Conclusion Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks. PMID:24312382

Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Smeets, Paul A. M.; Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; van Rijn, Inge; van den Bosch, Iris; de Graaf, Cees

2013-01-01

317

[Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].  

PubMed

It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels. PMID:12125470

Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

2002-01-01

318

From Artificial Evolution to Artificial Life   

E-print Network

This work addresses the question: What are the basic design considerations for creating a synthetic model of the evolution of living systems (i.e. an `artificial life' system)? It can also be viewed as an attempt to ...

Taylor, Timothy J

319

Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.  

PubMed

Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2010-06-01

320

Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2010-01-01

321

Ending SNAP subsidies for sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

To reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes rates, lawmakers have proposed modifying Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to encourage healthier food choices. We examined the impact of two proposed policies: a ban on using SNAP dollars to buy sugar-sweetened beverages; and a subsidy in which for every SNAP dollar spent on fruit and vegetables, thirty cents is credited back to participants' SNAP benefit cards. We used nationally representative data and models describing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and determinants of food consumption among a sample of over 19,000 SNAP participants. We found that a ban on SNAP purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages would be expected to significantly reduce obesity prevalence and type 2 diabetes incidence, particularly among adults ages 18-65 and some racial and ethnic minorities. The subsidy policy would not be expected to have a significant effect on obesity and type 2 diabetes, given available data. Such a subsidy could, however, more than double the proportion of SNAP participants who meet federal vegetable and fruit consumption guidelines. PMID:24889953

Basu, Sanjay; Seligman, Hilary Kessler; Gardner, Christopher; Bhattacharya, Jay

2014-06-01

322

What Parents Think about Giving Nonnutritive Sweeteners to Their Children: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate parental attitudes toward providing foods and beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) to their children and to explore parental ability to recognize NNS in packaged foods and beverages. Methods. 120 parents of children ? 1 and ?18 years of age completed brief questionnaires upon entering or exiting a grocery store. Parental attitudes toward NNS were assessed using an interviewer-assisted survey. Parental selection of packaged food and beverages (with and without NNS) was evaluated during a shopping simulation activity. Parental ability to identify products with NNS was tested with a NNS recognition test. Results. Most parents (72%) disagreed with the statement "NNS are safe for my child to consume." This was not reflected during the shopping simulation activity because about one-quarter of items selected by parents contained NNS. Parents correctly identified only 23% of NNS-containing items presented as foods or beverages which were sweetened with NNS. Conclusions. The negative parental attitudes toward providing NNS to their children raise the question whether parents are willing to replace added sugars with NNS in an effort to reduce their child's calorie intake. Our findings also suggest that food labeling should be revised in order for consumers to more easily identify NNS in foods and beverages. PMID:25435883

Sylvetsky, Allison C; Greenberg, Mitchell; Zhao, Xiongce; Rother, Kristina I

2014-01-01

323

Design of sweet protein based sweeteners: hints from structure-function relationships.  

PubMed

Sweet proteins represent a class of natural molecules, which are extremely interesting regarding their potential use as safe low-calories sweeteners for individuals who need to control sugar intake, such as obese or diabetic subjects. Punctual mutations of amino acid residues of MNEI, a single chain derivative of the natural sweet protein monellin, allow the modulation of its taste. In this study we present a structural and functional comparison between MNEI and a sweeter mutant Y65R, containing an extra positive charge on the protein surface, in conditions mimicking those of typical beverages. Y65R exhibits superior sweetness in all the experimental conditions tested, has a better solubility at mild acidic pH and preserves a significant thermal stability in a wide range of pH conditions, although slightly lower than MNEI. Our findings confirm the advantages of structure-guided protein engineering to design improved low-calorie sweeteners and excipients for food and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25466141

Rega, Michele Fortunato; Di Monaco, Rossella; Leone, Serena; Donnarumma, Federica; Spadaccini, Roberta; Cavella, Silvana; Picone, Delia

2015-04-15

324

What Parents Think about Giving Nonnutritive Sweeteners to Their Children: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate parental attitudes toward providing foods and beverages with nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) to their children and to explore parental ability to recognize NNS in packaged foods and beverages. Methods. 120 parents of children ? 1 and ?18 years of age completed brief questionnaires upon entering or exiting a grocery store. Parental attitudes toward NNS were assessed using an interviewer-assisted survey. Parental selection of packaged food and beverages (with and without NNS) was evaluated during a shopping simulation activity. Parental ability to identify products with NNS was tested with a NNS recognition test. Results. Most parents (72%) disagreed with the statement “NNS are safe for my child to consume.” This was not reflected during the shopping simulation activity because about one-quarter of items selected by parents contained NNS. Parents correctly identified only 23% of NNS-containing items presented as foods or beverages which were sweetened with NNS. Conclusions. The negative parental attitudes toward providing NNS to their children raise the question whether parents are willing to replace added sugars with NNS in an effort to reduce their child's calorie intake. Our findings also suggest that food labeling should be revised in order for consumers to more easily identify NNS in foods and beverages. PMID:25435883

Sylvetsky, Allison C.; Greenberg, Mitchell; Zhao, Xiongce; Rother, Kristina I.

2014-01-01

325

Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

2010-12-01

326

Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice  

PubMed Central

Background The human diet has altered markedly during the past four decades, with the introduction of Trans hydrogenated fat, which extended the shelf-life of dietary oils and promoted a dramatic increase in elaidic acid (Trans-18.1) consumption. Food additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASP) were introduced to increase food palatability and reduce caloric intake. Nutrigenomics studies in small-animal models are an established platform for analyzing the interactions between various macro- and micronutrients. We therefore investigated the effects of changes in hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression induced by the food additives ASP, MSG or a combination of both additives in C57Bl/6 J mice fed a Trans fat-enriched diet. Methods Hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression profiles, together with body characteristics, glucose parameters, serum hormone and lipid profiles were examined in C57Bl/6 J mice consuming one of the following four dietary regimens, commencing in utero via the mother’s diet: [A] Trans fat (TFA) diet; [B] MSG?+?TFA diet; [C] ASP?+?TFA diet; [D] ASP?+?MSG?+?TFA diet. Results Whilst dietary MSG significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and serum leptin levels in TFA-fed mice, the combination of ASP?+?MSG promoted the highest increase in visceral adipose tissue deposition, serum free fatty acids, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and TNF? levels. Microarray analysis of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed a reduction in hepatic and adipose tissue PPARGC1a expression concomitant with changes in PPARGC1a-related functional networks including PPAR?, ? and ?. We identified 73 DEGs common to both adipose and liver which were upregulated by ASP?+?MSG in Trans fat-fed mice; and an additional 51 common DEGs which were downregulated. Conclusion The combination of ASP and MSG may significantly alter adiposity, glucose homeostasis, hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression in TFA-fed C57Bl/6 J mice. PMID:23783067

2013-01-01

327

Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

328

Piloting "Sodabriety": A School-Based Intervention to Impact Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Rural Appalachian High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the largest source of added sugar in the US diet. In adolescents aged 12-19, these drinks account for 13% to 28% of total daily calories. Compared with other adolescents, those residing in Appalachia have the highest consumption rates of SSBs. Methods: Using a Teen Advisory Council (TAC), a…

Smith, Laureen H.; Holloman, Christopher

2014-01-01

329

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean

D. E. Smith; A. S. Bakshi; S. A. Gay

1985-01-01

330

Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

2014-01-01

331

40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5407 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production...onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) If your sweetening...onshore natural gas processing plant and is subject to the...

2013-07-01

332

40 CFR 60.5407 - What are the requirements for monitoring of emissions and operations from my sweetening unit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5407 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production...onshore natural gas processing plants? (a) If your sweetening...onshore natural gas processing plant and is subject to the...

2014-07-01

333

Relationship between Nutritional Knowledge and the Amount of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumed in Los Angeles County  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with many negative health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the relationship between consumer nutritional knowledge and the amount consumed is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge of…

Gase, Lauren N.; Robles, Brenda; Barragan, Noel C.; Kuo, Tony

2014-01-01

334

A review of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the field of artificial intelligence focusing on embodied artificial intelligence. It also considers models of artificial consciousness, agent-based artificial intelligence and the philosophical commentary on artificial intelligence. It concludes that there is almost no consensus nor formalism in the field and that the achievements of the field are meager.

E. S. Brunette; R. C. Flemmer; C. L. Flemmer

2009-01-01

335

Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats.  

PubMed

Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety. PMID:22561130

Swithers, Susan E; Laboy, Alycia F; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T L

2012-07-15

336

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

PubMed Central

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings. PMID:21616200

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

337

Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adults is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control studies, and nested case-control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used for determining the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009638 PMID:25248499

2014-01-01

338

Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in children? A systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose or glucose intolerance, high lipid levels, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, and overweight/obesity. The occurrence of intermediate outcomes during childhood increases the risk of disease in adulthood. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case–control studies, and nested case–control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to determine the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009641. PMID:25192945

2014-01-01

339

Heidegger and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence

Diaz

1987-01-01

340

Artificial Social Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociologists have begun to explore the gains for theory and research that might be achieved by artificial intelligence technology: symbolic processors, expert systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and classifier systems. The first major accomplishments of artificial social intelligence (ASI) have been in the realm of theory, where these techniques have inspired new theories as well as helping to render existing

William Simms Bainbridge; Edward E. Brent; Kathleen M. Carley; David R. Heise; Michael W. Macy; Barry N. Markovsky; John Skvoretz

1994-01-01

341

Artificial Vision INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision INTRODUCTION Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;2011 Prof. Micheloni Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision The origins of vision · People of the ancient world have tried to understand the nature of the light

342

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Information Theory  

E-print Network

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Information Theory Daniel Polani School of Computer Science referenced. Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Coin Weighing Problem (after Denker 2004) Problem Given (minimax principle) Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Considerations Note in a measurement, left

Polani, Daniel

343

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 301 Mark S. Fox Intelligent Systems Laboratory and future applicationsof Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufactur- ing is taking a systemic view of manufacturing. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing, Knowl- edge

Fox, Mark S.

344

Sweeteners - sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple ...

345

Sweetened beverages  

MedlinePLUS

Coffee drinks you have on the way to work and during coffee breaks can add plenty of extra calories, especially ... Order regular coffee and add only nonfat or 2% milk. Use a sugar substitute if you like your coffee sweet. If ...

346

Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.  

PubMed

Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

2009-04-01

347

Sugar-sweetened and diet beverages in relation to visceral adipose tissue  

PubMed Central

Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been consistently associated with increased adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk, whereas the association with diet beverages is more mixed. We examined how these beverages associate with regional abdominal adiposity measures, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In a cross-sectional analysis of 791 non-Hispanic white men and women aged 18-70 we examined how beverage consumption habits obtained from a food frequency questionnaire associate with overall and abdominal adiposity measures from MRI. With increasing frequency of SSB intake we observed increases in waist circumference (WC) and the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (VAT%), with no change in total body fat (TBF %) or BMI. Greater frequency of diet beverage intake was associated with greater WC, BMI and TBF %, but was not associated with variation in visceral adiposity We conclude that increased frequency of SSB consumption is associated with a more adverse abdominal adipose tissue deposition pattern. PMID:21901024

Odegaard, Andrew O; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W

2012-01-01

348

Gaseous response to ingestion of a poorly absorbed fructo-oligosaccharide sweetener.  

PubMed

Fructo-oligosaccharides are naturally occurring sweet substances that are poorly absorbed and have the potential to be clinically useful nonnutritive sweeteners. Because most nonabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented yielding gas, we assessed flatulent symptoms and H2 excretion during ingestion of fructo-oligosaccharide (5 g tid) for 12 d. Ten subjects had significantly greater flatulence while taking the oligosaccharide than did five subjects taking sucrose (5 g tid). Breath H2 after 10 g fructo-oligosaccharide was similar to that of 10 g lactulose, suggesting near total malabsorption of the fructo-oligosaccharide. Although previous studies found a marked diminution in breath H2 after prolonged exposure to lactulose, breath H2 response increased by 50% after a 12-d period on the oligosaccharide and gaseous symptoms did not improve. We conclude that adaptation of colonic bacteria to carbohydrate malabsorption is variable and may depend upon quantity or nature of the carbohydrate. PMID:3604970

Stone-Dorshow, T; Levitt, M D

1987-07-01

349

Metabolic studies of the nonnutritive sweeteners cyclopentylmethylsulfamate and cyclopentylsulfamate: determination of metabolites in rat urine.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweetener sodium cyclopentylmethyl-sulfamate was fed to Wistar albino rats. The urine was collected for 3 days, combined, and examined (GLC) for the metabolites cyclopentyl-methylamine and cyclopentylmethanol. The percent conversion to these metabolites was 0.077 and 0.0102, respectively. The percent conversion to these to cyclopentylmethylamine was the lowest conversion to amine observed when compared to the metabolism of three other sweet sulfamates, cyclopentylsulfamate, cycloheptylsulfamate, and cyclooctylsulfamate, previously administered to rats. The average excretion of unmetabolized sulfamate was 15.4%. Sodium cyclopentylsulfamate was fed to rats over 9 days, and an analysis was carried out for the metabolites cyclopentylamine, cyclopentanone, and cyclopentanol. A decrease in the level of metabolites occurred after the first 3 days. PMID:621643

Spillane, W J; Benson, G A

1978-02-01

350

DFT and experimental study on the IR spectra and structure of acesulfame sweetener  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-intensity non-nutritive sweetener 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3K)-on-2,2-dioxide (Acesulfame-potassium, Additive E-950) and its neutral molecule have been studied by both quantum chemical calculations and infrared spectra. Density functional theory has been exploited to calculate structural parameters and relative stability of lactim and lactam tautomers of acesulfame in different environment. Theoretical results agree very well with the experimental findings and suggested that the lactam tautomer may be the most stable form in the gas phase and nonpolar solvents, while in polar DMSO one the lactim form dominates. The detailed IR spectra of both tautomers of acesulfame molecule and acesulfame anion were reported. In addition, the changes in both spectra and structures (steric and electronic), caused by the conversion of molecule into corresponding anion are discussed.

Popova, Angelina D.; Velcheva, Evelina A.; Stamboliyska, Bistra A.

2012-02-01

351

Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato  

PubMed Central

Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers at low storage temperatures. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Our study evaluated the relationship between genetic resistance to CIS and two starch parameters, amylose content and starch granule size. We found that the amylose content in four CIS-resistant varieties was higher than that in five susceptible varieties. Amylose content was influenced not only by variety but also storage, production year, and field location. However, interactions between amylose content and environmental variables were not detected. In contrast, starch granule size was not associated with CIS resistance. No effect of storage on starch granule size was detected, and interactions among variety, production year, and field location were observed. Tuber starch amylose content should be considered a source of variability for CIS. PMID:25493178

Jansky, Shelley H; Fajardo, Diego A

2014-01-01

352

[Safety assessment of stevia rebaudiana bertoni grown in southeastern Mexico as food sweetener].  

PubMed

Stevia rebaudiana leaves and their glycosides have been recently and significantly used so important as sweeteners. However, it has been reported an antihyperglycemic effect of the extract and a glycoside. The aim of this study was to quantify S. rebaudiana glycosides, assess cytotoxicity of the extract and its acute and chronic effect on blood glucose in animal models and in human. The glycosides of the Morita II and Criolla extract were quantified by HPLC, using a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm and particle size of 5 uM) with UV detection at 210 nm, mobile phase of acetonitrile/sodium phosphate buffer 10 mmol/L, pH 2.6 (32:68 v/v). Cytotoxicity study was performed in Vero cells, whereas an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a chronic consumption assay (4 weeks) were executed in an animal model of diabetes; finally the glycemic index (G.I.) was determined in healthy individuals. The glycoside content is higher in the Morita variety II although both had a CC50 >300 ?g/mL. The areas under the curve of the IPGTT and fasting glucose of the animals were not significantly different (p> 0.05) and the I.G. extract was 11.11 %, which classifies the extract as low I.G. The extract of S. rebaudiana Morita II has a low glycemic index and, in the doses tested, is not cytotoxic nor has acute or chronic effect on blood sugar, which makes it a safe sweetener. PMID:25238836

Aranda-González, Irma; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

2014-01-01

353

Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States123  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-calorie and no-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) have emerged as alternatives to added sugars. Research suggests that consumption among all Americans is increasing, yet it is unknown whether consumption trends differ among population subgroups. Objective: Our study aimed to assess recent national trends in LCS consumption among children and other demographic subgroups in the United States. Design: We used NHANES data collected in five 2-y cycles from 1999–2000 to 2007–2008. Consumption of foods and beverages with LCSs was estimated by using one 24-h dietary recall. Estimates of the proportion of the population consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs (prevalence of consumption) were weighted to obtain nationally representative results. Trends in prevalence of LCS consumption and mean intake of beverages sweetened with LCSs were tested by using chi-square tests for trend and F tests. Results: In 2007–2008, the percentage of children and adults consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs increased. The prevalence of consuming beverages with LCSs increased from 6.1% to 12.5% among children (P-trend < 0.0001) and from 18.7% to 24.1% among adults (P < 0.001). Increases in the prevalence of consumption of calorie-containing beverages with LCSs were observed among all weight, age, socioeconomic, and race-ethnicity subgroups in both children and adults. However, little change in consumption of no-calorie beverages with LCSs or LCS-containing foods was found. Conclusions: The consumption of LCS-containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Further research is needed to understand the health effects of this trend. PMID:22854409

Welsh, Jean A; Brown, Rebecca J; Vos, Miriam B

2012-01-01

354

Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink  

PubMed Central

Background Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions are engaged by the stimulation of sweet taste receptors by sucrose and by non-nutrient sweeteners and (ii) during visual food-related cues, obese subjects show greater brain responses to sucrose compared with lean controls. Methods In a double-blind, crossover design, 10 obese and 10 lean healthy females received a sucrose or a non-nutrient sweetened beverage prior to viewing food or neutral images. BOLD signal was measured using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Key Results Viewing food images after ingestion of either drink was associated with engagement of similar brain regions (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, anterior insula). Obese differed from lean subjects in behavioral and brain responses rating both beverages as less tasteful and satisfying, yet demonstrating greater brain responses. Obese subjects also showed engagement of an additional brain network (including anterior insula, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and amygdala) only after sucrose ingestion. Conclusions & Inferences Obese subjects had a reduced behavioral hedonic response, yet a greater engagement of affective brain networks, particularly after sucrose ingestion, suggesting that in obese subjects, lingual and gut-derived signaling generate less central hedonic effects than food-related memories in response to visual cues, analogous to response patterns implicated in food addiction. PMID:23566308

Connolly, L.; Coveleskie, K.; Kilpatrick, L. A.; Labus, J. S.; Ebrat, B.; Stains, J.; Jiang, Z.; Tillisch, K.; Raybould, H. E.; Mayer, E. A.

2014-01-01

355

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed

In recent decades, temporal patterns in SSB intake have shown a close parallel between the upsurge in obesity and rising levels of SSB consumption. SSBs are beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit-juice concentrates, all of which result in similar metabolic effects. They include the full spectrum of soft drinks, carbonated soft drinks, fruitades, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, sweetened iced tea, cordial, squashes, and lemonade, which collectively are the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US. It has long been suspected that SSBs have an etiologic role in the obesity epidemic, however only recently have large epidemiological studies been able to quantify the relationship between SSB consumption and long-term weight gain, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Experimental studies have provided important insight into potential underlying biological mechanisms. It is thought that SSBs contribute to weight gain in part by incomplete compensation for energy at subsequent meals following intake of liquid calories. They may also increase risk of T2DM and CVD as a contributor to a high dietary glycemic load leading to inflammation, insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function. Additional metabolic effects from the fructose fraction of these beverages may also promote accumulation of visceral adiposity, and increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and hypertension due to hyperuricemia. Consumption of SSBs should therefore be replaced by healthy alternatives such as water, to reduce risk of obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:20138901

Hu, Frank B; Malik, Vasanti S

2010-04-26

356

Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

Sorensen, J.A.

1998-12-31

357

Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation  

PubMed Central

Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

2012-01-01

358

Reduced Availability of Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues.

Janet E. Whatley Blum; Anne-Marie Davee; Christina M. Beaudoin; Paul L. Jenkins; Lori A. Kaley; Debra A. Wigand

2008-01-01

359

Artificial Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet...and the most threatened. Artificial reefs may help stem the loss of these valuable and beautiful habitats, with shipwrecks, old subway cars, and other structures taking the place of living coral or rocky outcrops. The following Web sites introduce artificial reefs, reef ecology, and some ongoing efforts to establish reef communities in the U.S. and beyond. PBS's NATURE offers a fascinating look at the artificial reefs created by the thousands of shipwrecks and downed planes from World War II that riddle the South Pacific (1). This is the companion Web site to the documentary War Wrecks of the Coral Seas, and it includes some great multimedia features. The next site comes from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and contains an excellent photo gallery of coral ecosystems around the world (2). The collection includes six pages of artificial reef photos taken in the Pacific. The following site comes from the online companion to the BBC's acclaimed documentary series The Blue Planet. Based on the episode The Web of Life, this site offers a fun, multimedia challenge for learning about and testing one's knowledge of coral reefs (3). The site includes a section on artificial reefs (click on Take it Further). Next, an August 2001 segment from National Public Radio's All Things Considered explores efforts to create artificial reefs using decommissioned New York City subway cars -- a project of Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control in the Division of Fish and Wildlife (4). Likewise, the non-profit group Artificial Reefs of the Keys is working to bring a de-commissioned military ship to the Florida Keys (5). The New Jersey Scuba Diver Web site provides an excellent introduction to artificial reef ecology; focused on reefs in New Jersey, of course. The mini-tutorial comes courtesy of William Figly, Principal Fisheries Biologist for the New Jersey Artificial Reef Program (6). The Fall 2001 issue of California Wild, the magazine of the California Academy of Sciences, addresses the benefits and concerns of off shore oil rigs becoming artificial reefs (7). Finally, visitors will find dozens of news articles and Web links related to artificial reefs in this entry, a page from the New England Artificial Reef Society Web site (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

360

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

361

Exercise in artificial gravity  

E-print Network

Artificial gravity provided by short radius centrifugation is considered a promising countermeasure to the deleterious physiological effects of microgravity during long-duration space flight. We investigated the feasibility ...

Edmonds, Jessica Leigh

2005-01-01

362

Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, and  

E-print Network

Reasoning Positive and Negative Cases Evidence Critical Analysis and Critical Thinking Procedures Input fromIntelligence, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognitive Science Thinking About Thinking #12;Cognitive Computational Thinking #12;Question at Hand Worldview Procedural Beliefs Knowledge Judgments Truth Value

Hallstrom, Jason

363

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

Eugene Charniak; Drew McDermott

1985-01-01

364

Introduction to artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

1985-01-01

365

Introduction to artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the development of artificial intelligence (AI). He explains the basic elements of AI: Heuristic search, knowledge representation, AI languages and tools, Natural Language Processing, computer vision, expert systems and problem solving and planning.

Gevarter, W.B.

1987-09-01

366

Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information Daniel Polani Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/26 Decisions: The Fundamental Task Motivation: everything in Artificial Intelligence is basical about taking Intellige Decision: What Door to Open? Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 Bottom Line Clear: decision about

Polani, Daniel

367

Nanostructured artificial photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a novel strategy for artificial photosynthesis where porphyrins and fullerenes are assembled as building blocks into nanostructured artificial photosynthetic systems by the help of self-assembled monolayers. Photodynamical studies on porphyrin–fullerene-linked systems revealed that fullerenes accelerate photo-induced electron transfer and charge-shift and slow down charge recombination, which is in sharp contrast with the modalities of conventional two-dimensional aromatic

Hiroshi Imahori; Yukie Mori; Yoshihiro Matano

2003-01-01

368

Distributed artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Presenting papers originally given at 1985 workshop, this collection describes the current state of research in distributed artificial intelligence (DAI). DAI is concerned with the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized group of agents. The papers in this volume describe architectures and languages for achieving cooperative problem solving in a distributed environment, including several successful applications of distributed artificial intelligence in manufacturing, information retrieval, and distributed sensing.

Huhns, M.

1987-01-01

369

Physics of Artificial Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

370

Heidegger and artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

Diaz, G.

1987-01-01

371

Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123  

PubMed Central

Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States. PMID:24351878

Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

2014-01-01

372

Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = ?0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = ?0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

2014-01-01

373

Risk of Colon Cancer and Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink Intake: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. Methods We investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of primary data from 13 cohort studies. Among 731?441 participants followed for up to 6–20 years, 5604 incident colon cancer case patients were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable relative risks were 1.07 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.30, Ptrend = .68) for coffee consumption greater than 1400 g/d (about six 8-oz cups) and 1.28 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.61, Ptrend = .01) for tea consumption greater than 900 g/d (about four 8-oz cups). For sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption, the pooled multivariable relative risk comparing consumption greater than 550 g/d (about 18 oz) to nonconsumers was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.66 to 1.32, Ptrend = .91). No statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for the highest category of each beverage consumed (P > .20). The observed associations did not differ by sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, or tumor site (P > .05). Conclusions Drinking coffee or sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks was not associated with colon cancer risk. However, a modest positive association with higher tea consumption is possible and requires further study. PMID:20453203

Zhang, Xuehong; Albanes, Demetrius; Beeson, W. Lawrence; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Buring, Julie E.; Flood, Andrew; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Jacobs, Eric J.; Krogh, Vittorio; Larsson, Susanna C.; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sieri, Sabina; Spiegelman, Donna; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C.; Zhang, Shumin M.

2010-01-01

374

Association between Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Mass Index, Proportion of Body Fat and Body Fat Distribution in Mexican Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the relationships between sweetened beverage (SB) consumption and the following indicators of overweight\\/fatness among Mexican adolescents: body mass index, body composition and body fat distribution. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on sociodemographic conditions,

E. Denova-Gutiérrez; A. Jiménez-Aguilar; E. Halley-Castillo; G. Huitrón-Bravo; J. O. Talavera; D. Pineda-Pérez; J. C. Díaz-Montiel; J. Salmerón

2008-01-01

375

A novel method for the simultaneous determination of 14 sweeteners of regulatory interest using UHPLC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

An improved, efficient, sensitive method for the determination of 14 non-nutritive sweeteners in food products was developed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in the negative-ion mode. Fourteen sweeteners and three internal standards were separated on a reversed-phase UHPLC column using a simple gradient programme. Analyte quantitation and confirmation were performed with data collection in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Limits of detection (LODs) were determined in a representative drink, candy and yogurt sample and ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 ng ml(-1) (drinks) and from 0.1 to 2.5 ng g(-1) (candy and yogurt). Repeatability at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 1% to 13% relative standard deviation (RSD). Twenty-seven commercially available food products were tested using the optimised method showing that the majority of products contained sweetener concentrations below their assigned maximum usable dose. Recovery studies were performed and accuracy data are presented. PMID:25482127

Shah, Romina; Farris, Samantha; De Jager, Lowri S; Begley, Timothy H

2015-02-01

376

Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,209 students (grades 9-12) were used. SSB intake was based on intake of 4 nondiet beverages [soda, other (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, or flavored milk), sports drinks, and energy drinks]. Nationwide, 64.9% of high school students drank SSB ?1 time/d, 35.6% drank SSB ?2 times/d, and 22.2% drank SSB ?3 times/d. The most commonly consumed SSB was regular soda. Factors associated with a greater odds for high SSB intake (?3 times/d) were male gender [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.41,1.95); P < 0.05], being non-Hispanic black [OR = 1.87 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.29); P < 0.05], eating at fast-food restaurants 1-2 d/wk or eating there ?3 d/wk [OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 1.05, 1.50); P < 0.05 and OR = 2.94 (95% CI = 2.31, 3.75); P < 0.05, respectively] and watching television >2 h/d [OR = 1.70 (95% CI = 1.44, 2.01); P < 0.05]. Non-Hispanic other/multiracial [OR = 0.67 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.95); P < 0.05] and being physically active ?60 min/d on <5 d/wk were associated with a lower odds for high SSB intake [OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.95); P < 0.05]. Weight status was not associated with SSB intake. Differences in predictors by type of SSB were small. Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations. PMID:22223568

Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

2012-02-01

377

Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ?355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ?28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. PMID:24766236

Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kearney, Monica L; Kanaley, Jill A

2014-05-01

378

Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

2013-11-01

379

Artificial Heart Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

2014-09-18

380

Artificial muscles on heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

2014-03-01

381

The Use of Low-Calorie Sweeteners by Children: Implications for Weight Management123  

PubMed Central

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents. PMID:22573780

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J.; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-01-01

382

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: impact on weight management.  

PubMed

The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 y. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary patterns due to changing lifestyles and attitudes toward food and the changing cost of food. During this same time period, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased from ~30 to 70% of adults in the United States. Clearly, these trends lead to a variety of hypotheses and efforts to explain the role of LCS in this association. The aim of this review is to gain clarity on the role of LCS in weight management and their impact on diet quality. In addition, because the majority of studies aimed at identifying associations between LCS and these outcomes are based on observational data, the pitfalls in designing and evaluating data from observational studies are also discussed. We conclude that there is no evidence that LCS can be claimed to be a cause of higher body weights in adults. Similarly, evidence supporting a role for LCS in weight management is lacking. Due to the confounders in most observational studies, randomized controlled trials are needed to advance understanding. PMID:22573781

Anderson, G Harvey; Foreyt, John; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Allison, David B

2012-06-01

383

The effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages across different income groups.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) taxes on consumption, bodyweight and tax burden for low-income, middle-income and high-income groups using an Almost Ideal Demand System and 2011 Household level scanner data. A significant contribution of our paper is that we compare two types of SSB taxes recently advocated by policy makers: A 20% flat rate sales (valoric) tax and a 20?cent/L volumetric tax. Censored demand is accounted for using a two-step procedure. We find that the volumetric tax would result in a greater per capita weight loss than the valoric tax (0.41?kg vs. 0.29?kg). The difference between the change in weight is substantial for the target group of heavy purchasers of SSBs in low-income households, with a weight reduction of up to 3.20?kg for the volumetric and 2.06?kg for the valoric tax. The average yearly per capita tax burden on low-income households is $17.87 (0.21% of income) compared with $15.17 for high-income households (0.07% of income) for the valoric tax, and $13.80 (0.15%) and $10.10 (0.04%) for the volumetric tax. Thus, the tax burden is lower, and weight reduction is higher under a volumetric tax. PMID:24895084

Sharma, Anurag; Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Siciliani, Luigi

2014-09-01

384

Sweetening Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry by 18F-Fluoroglycosylation: A Short Review  

PubMed Central

At the time when the highly efficient [18F]FDG synthesis was discovered by the use of the effective precursor 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-O-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-?-D-mannopyranose (mannose triflate) for nucleophilic 18F-substitution, the field of PET in nuclear medicine experienced a long-term boom. Thirty years later, various strategies for chemoselective 18F-labeling of biomolecules have been developed, trying to keep up with the emerging field of radiopharmaceutical sciences. Among the new radiochemical strategies, chemoselective 18F-fluoroglycosylation methods aim at the sweetening of pharmaceutical radiochemistry by providing a powerful and highly valuable tool for the design of 18F-glycoconjugates with suitable in vivo properties for PET imaging studies. This paper provides a short review (reflecting the literature not older than 8 years) on the different 18F-fluoroglycosylation reactions that have been applied to the development of various 18F-glycoconjugate tracers, including not only peptides, but also nonpeptidic tracers and high-molecular-weight proteins. PMID:24991541

Maschauer, Simone

2014-01-01

385

Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion. PMID:24423548

Komes, Draženka; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Ljubi?i?, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindri?, Iva Juranovi?; Buši?, Arijana; Vojvodi?, Aleksandra

2014-05-15

386

Simulation modeling of policies directed at youth sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem requiring innovative solutions. While recent reviews indicate that some policies show promise, there is a lack of information regarding which policies, and policy combinations, work best. Low-nutrition, energy-dense foods and beverages such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been identified as a major contributor to the problem. The purpose of this paper is to use simulation modeling to show how changes in three categories of SSB policies-school nutrition, school-based education, and taxes-impact SSB and other food consumption. The model shows that policies directed at SSBs, particularly tax hikes, could lead to substantial reductions in the number of calories consumed by youth. The estimates, however, are subject to a high degree of uncertainty. Estimates from school-based nutrition and school-based education policies, while also helping to reduce caloric intake, generally show smaller effects than tax policies and considerable variation around parameter estimates for individual and combined policies. We conclude with a discussion of the limits of the model, and suggest where additional information is needed. Limitations notwithstanding, simulation modeling is a promising methodology that can help advance our understanding of policy effects, thereby helping policymakers to better formulate effective policies to reduce obesity prevalence and the associated social harms. PMID:22810953

Levy, David T; Friend, Karen B

2013-03-01

387

Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: the case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax.  

PubMed

Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body weight is used, and the main objective of the study is to demonstrate its bias. To accomplish the objective, we estimate income-segmented beverage demand systems to examine the potential effects of a SSB tax. Elasticity estimates and a hypothetical 20 percent effective tax rate (or about 0.5 cent per ounce) are applied to beverage intake data from a nationally representative survey, and we find an average daily reduction of 34-47 calories among adults and 40-51 calories among children. The tax-induced energy reductions are translated into weight loss using both static and dynamic calorie-to-weight models. Results demonstrate that the static model significantly overestimates the weight loss from reduced energy intake by 63 percent in year one, 346 percent in year five, and 764 percent in year 10, which leads to unrealistic expectations for obesity intervention strategies. The tax is estimated to generate $5.8 billion a year in revenue and is found to be regressive, although it represents about 1 percent of household food and beverage spending. PMID:21940223

Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smith, Travis A; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Hall, Kevin D

2011-12-01

388

Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

2013-01-01

389

Artificial black holes  

E-print Network

We study black holes for the linear hyperbolic equations describing the wave propagation in the moving medium. Such black holes are called artificial since the Lorentz metric associated with the hyperbolic equation does not necessary satisfies the Einstein equations. Artificial black holes also arise when we consider perturbations of the Einstein equations. In this paper we review author's results of [E2] and [E3] on the existence and the stability of black holes for the stationary wave equations in two space dimensions, and in the axisymmetric case.

Gregory Eskin

2011-05-10

390

Realizing artificial photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Artificial photosynthesis comprises the design of systems for converting solar energy into useful forms based on the fundamental science underlying natural photosynthesis. There are many approaches to this problem. In this report, the emphasis is on molecule-based systems for photochemical production of fuels using sunlight. A few examples of typical components of artificial photosynthetic systems including antennas, reaction centres, catalysts for fuel production and water oxidation, and units for photoprotection and photoregulation are presented in order to illustrate the current state of the field and point out challenges yet to be fully addressed. PMID:22470964

Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

2012-01-01

391

Invitation to artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence displayed by non-living objects, that is, machines. The possibility of creating intelligent machines has been a motivating force behind a great deal of computing machine development. The methods of AI are not only of historical interest, but are powerful in themselves. Artificial intelligence therefore deserves a prominent place in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. This paper discusses the pedagogical advantages of emphasizing AI in upper level courses, reasons for its present neglect, and the importance of introducing ai study. 5 references.

D'heedene, R.N.

1983-02-01

392

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Discuss what is meant by Artificial Intelligence (AI)  

E-print Network

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Objectives · Discuss what is meant by Artificial important AI tests and terms #12;Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Sections · What is Artificial to Artificial Intelligence Question 1 Can a Machine Ever Be Intelligent ? (survey) #12;Introduction

Qu, Rong

393

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig,  

E-print Network

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig, Paradigns of Artificial Intelligence Programming Daniel Juravsky and James Martin interface to a neural net simulator. artificial intelligence [artificial intelligence] (AI) is a field

Knill, Oliver

394

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge

Toronto, University of

395

Artificial Intelligence Advanced Search  

E-print Network

/11 Problem Reduction (And/Or Graphs, see Bratko) Decomposable problem: a z b k c d e f g h i j River DanielArtificial Intelligence Advanced Search Daniel Polani Daniel Polani: Advanced Search ­ p.1-g Daniel Polani: Advanced Search ­ p.3/11 And/Or Graphs (contd.) Note: goal "nodes" are subproblems

Polani, Daniel

396

Teaching Artificial Intelligence Playfully  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the efforts at the University of Southern California to teach computer science and artificial intelligence with games because games mo- tivate students, which we believe increases enrollment and retention and helps us to educate better computer scientists. The Department of Computer Science is now in its second year of operating its Bachelor's Program in

Mike Zyda; Sven Koenig

397

Artificial recharge of groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

398

Semantic Web 30Artificial  

E-print Network

312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

van Harmelen, Frank

399

Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-print Network

of the heart being overworked can cause the beginning of heart failure (i.e. shortness of breath, fatigueArtificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one

Provancher, William

400

Artificial intelligence within AFSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

Gersh, Mark A.

1990-01-01

401

BASIC artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Although artificial intelligence is usually associated with special computer languages, this introductory book will give a firm foundation to this fascinating subject to users who are familiar with BASIC. Topics considered include introduction to BASIC, varieties of logic and reasoning, strategy and analysis, relationships and the role of memory, natural language, and learning from experience.

James, M.

1986-01-01

402

Evolving artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning and evolution are two fundamental forms of adaptation. There has been a great interest in combining learning and evolution with artificial neural networks (ANNs) in recent years. This paper: 1) reviews different combinations between ANNs and evolutionary algorithms (EAs), including using EAs to evolve ANN connection weights, architectures, learning rules, and input features; 2) discusses different search operators which

Xin Yao

1999-01-01

403

Micromachined Artificial Haircell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

2010-01-01

404

Artificial limb connection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

Owens, L. J.

1974-01-01

405

The Artificial Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

Glover, D. R.

406

Natural or Artificial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This worksheet, suitable for pre-readers, directs students to categorize pictures as sources of either natural or artificial light. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

407

Applications of artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers given at a conference on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included the location of multiple faults by diagnostic expert systems, knowledge-based systems, natural language, image processing, computer vision, and identification systems.

Gilmore, J.F.

1984-01-01

408

Artificial Gravity Research Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

Cromwell, Ronita

2014-01-01

409

CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence An Introduction to Neural Networks and Machine Learning://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~king ©2009 Irwin King. All rights reserved #12;CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Irwin King, All and Claypool Publishers, 2009. #12;CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Irwin King, All rights reserved

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

410

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction to the Course Module G64FAI #12;General in Artificial Intelligence (AI) · Provide an understanding of the theory of a range of those techniques · Introduce the students to a number of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can

Qu, Rong

411

Universal Artificial Intelligence Marcus Hutter  

E-print Network

Universal Artificial Intelligence Marcus Hutter Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia http://www.hutter1.net/ #12;Marcus Hutter - 2 - Universal Artificial Intelligence Abstract The dream of creating artificial devices that reach or outperform human intelligence is many centuries old. In this talk I present

Hutter, Marcus

412

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Determining Optical Flow  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Determining Optical Flow Berthold K.P. Horn and Brian G. Rhunck Artificial determined. Although some reference has been made to schemes for comput- Artificial Intelligence 17 (198I Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,M A 02139, U.S.A. ABSTRACT

Jiang, Hao

413

Artificial Vision OBJECT RECOGNITIONOBJECT RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision OBJECT RECOGNITIONOBJECT RECOGNITION Dr. Claudio Piciarelli Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;Artificial Vision IntroductionIntroduction · The general;Artificial Vision Feature extractionFeature extraction · For each blob detected in the scene, specific

414

Artificial Vision CHANGE DETECTIONCHANGE DETECTION  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision CHANGE DETECTIONCHANGE DETECTION Dr. Claudio Piciarelli Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;Artificial Vision IntroductionIntroduction · The goal of the change;Artificial Vision Introduction (2)Introduction (2) · The main problems of change detection algorithms are due

415

Sweetened-Fat Intake Sensitizes Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid—Mediated Feeding Responses Elicited from the Nucleus Accumbens Shell  

PubMed Central

Background There is much interest in exploring whether reward-driven feeding can produce druglike plasticity in the brain. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell, which modulates hypothalamic feeding systems, is well placed to “usurp” homeostatic control of feeding. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether feeding-induced neuroadaptations occur in this system. Methods Separate groups of ad libitum–maintained rats were exposed to daily bouts of sweetened-fat intake, predator stress, or intra-Acb shell infusions of either d-amphetamine (2 or 10 ?g) or the ?-opioid agonist D-[Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO, 2.5 ?g), then challenged with intra-Acb shell infusion of the GABAA agonist, muscimol (10 ng). Results Exposure to sweetened fat robustly sensitized muscimol-induced feeding. Sensitization was present 1 week after cessation of the palatable feeding regimen but had abated by 2 weeks. Rats exposed to sweetened fat did not show an altered feeding response to food deprivation. Repeated intra-Acb shell infusions of DAMGO (2.5 ?g) also sensitized intra-Acb shell muscimol-driven feeding. However, neither repeated intra-Acb shell d-amphetamine infusions (2 or 10 ?g) nor intermittent exposure to an aversive stimulus (predator stress) altered sensitivity to muscimol. Conclusions Palatable feeding engenders hypersensitivity of Acb shell GABA responses; this effect may involve feeding-induced release of opioid peptides. Heightened arousal, aversive experiences, or increased catecholamine transmission alone are insufficient to produce the effect, and a hunger-induced feeding drive is insufficient to reveal the effect. These findings reveal a novel type of food-induced neuroadaptation within the Acb; possible implications for understanding crossover effects between food reward and drug reward are discussed. PMID:23312563

Newman, Sarah; Pascal, Lindsay; Sadeghian, Ken; Baldo, Brian A.

2013-01-01

416

Menu-Labeling Usage and Its Association with Diet and Exercise: 2011 BRFSS Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu Labeling Module  

PubMed Central

Introduction The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between menu-labeling usage and healthy behaviors pertaining to diet (consumption of fruits, vegetables, sodas, and sugar-sweetened beverages) and exercise. Methods Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu-Labeling module, were used. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between menu-labeling usage and explanatory variables that included fruit, vegetable, soda, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption as well as exercise. Results Nearly half (52%) of the sample indicated that they used menu labeling. People who used menu labeling were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.58), overweight (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00–1.29) or obese (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12–1.50), obtain adequate weekly aerobic exercise (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06–1.32), eat fruits (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12–1.29) and vegetables (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05–1.20), and drink less soda (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69–0.83). Conclusion Although obese and overweight people were more likely to use menu labeling, they were also adequately exercising, eating more fruits and vegetables, and drinking less soda. Menu labeling is intended to combat the obesity epidemic; however the results indicate an association between menu-labeling usage and certain healthy behaviors. Thus, efforts may be necessary to increase menu-labeling usage among people who are not partaking in such behaviors. PMID:24384303

Bowers, Kelly M.

2014-01-01

417

Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage and 100% Fruit Juice Consumption Among California Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine trends in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juice by California children ages 2–11 years from 2003 to 2009 Methods This analysis used serial cross-sectional data from the California Health Interview Survey, a telephone survey of households in California. Parents were asked how many servings of SSBs and 100% fruit juice the child consumed the day before. A test of trend was used to evaluate changes in consumption over time. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent effects of race/ethnicity, parental education and household income on beverage consumption. Results The percent of children consuming an SSB on the prior day declined from 41% in 2003 to 16% in 2009 (p<0.001) among children ages 2–5 and from 56% in 2003 to 33% in 2009 (p<0.001) among children ages 6–11. The percent of children consuming any SSB decreased for all racial/ethnic groups, although there were disparities with higher consumption among Latinos. Among children ages 2–5, consumption of 2 or more servings of 100% fruit juice per day decreased among white children and increased among Latinos. For children ages 6–11, consumption of 2 or more servings of 100% fruit juice per day remained stable for white children and increased among Latinos and African-Americans. Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption by California children from 2003 to 2009 is a promising trend. The increase in 100% fruit juice consumption among minority children during this period may be an unintended consequence of efforts to reduce SSB consumption. PMID:23688439

Beck, Amy L.; Patel, Anisha; Madsen, Kristine

2013-01-01

418

The relationship between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among US adults.  

PubMed

Because there is limited information on associations between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, our cross-sectional study examined this question using the 2010 HealthStyles Survey data for 3,926 adults (aged ?18 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day. About 31% of adults consumed SSBs ?1 time per day, with 20% doing so ?2 times per day. About eight of 10 adults agreed that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain, yet, eight of 10 adults in this study did not know the actual kilocalorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, annual household income, and geographic region, the odds for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day were significantly higher among adults who neither agreed nor disagreed (ie, were neutral) that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.25 vs agree); however, knowledge about the energy content of regular soda was not associated with SSB intake. Our finding that knowledge about the adverse effects of SSB intake is significantly associated with SSB intake among adults suggests that health education regarding the potential contribution of excess energy intake from SSBs to weight gain could contribute to lowered consumption and lower rates of obesity. Although knowledge about the kilocalorie content of regular soda was unrelated to SSB intake, health education on the kilocalorie content of SSBs may still be beneficial because most adults did not know the actual kilocalorie content of SSBs. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore associations between knowledge about energy provided by SSBs and SSB intake. PMID:24360502

Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M

2014-07-01

419

Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35yr) and children (5-13yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. PMID:25529422

Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

2015-03-01

420

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

2013-01-01

421

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

SciTech Connect

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean gum tended to have a lower energy demand than mix with large amounts of guar gum. This was especially pronounced in mixes with 50% 42 high fructose corn syrup and/or 50% 36 DE corn syrup solids.

Smith, D.E.; Bakshi, A.S.; Gay, S.A.

1985-01-01

422

Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System  

PubMed Central

A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

2013-01-01

423

Artificially structured magnetic materials  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.

Falco, C.M.

1990-09-28

424

Artificial intelligence: Human effects  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

1984-01-01

425

Artificial intelligence: Human effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body''

M. Yazdani; A. Narayanan

1984-01-01

426

Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artificial Intelligence and heuristic methods are extremely important for the present and future developments of bioinformatics, a very recent and strategic discipline having the potential for a revolutionary impact on biotechnology, pharmacology, and medicine. While computation has already transformed our industrial society, a comparable biotechnological transformation is on the horizon. In the last few years it has become clear that these two exponentially growing areas are actually converging.

Paolo Frasconi (University of Florence) Ron Shamir (Tel Aviv University)

427

Artificial intelligence in parallel  

SciTech Connect

The current rage in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community is parallelism: the idea is to build machines with many independent processors doing many things at once. The upshot is that about a dozen parallel machines are now under development for AI alone. As might be expected, the approaches are diverse yet there are a number of fundamental issues in common: granularity, topology, control, and algorithms.

Waldrop, M.M.

1984-08-10

428

Introducing artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

Simons, G.L.

1985-01-01

429

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

430

Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels???7.0 mg/dL in men and???5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ?3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0-?

2014-01-01

431

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ?2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ?3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ?0.043). Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity) of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.2-90.2) and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5) risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-?) or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8) for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1) and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7) higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent MetS among boys but not girls in Taiwan. PMID:24858495

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Chun-Ying; Wu, Pei-Wen; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-01-01

432

Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Excess intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been shown to result in weight gain. To address the growing epidemic of obesity, one option is to combine programmes that target individual behaviour change with a fiscal policy such as excise tax on SSBs. This study evaluates the literature on SSB taxes or price increases, and their potential impact on consumption levels, obesity, overweight and body mass index (BMI). The possibility of switching to alternative drinks is also considered. Methods The following databases were used: Pubmed/Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, Econlit, National Bureau of Economics Research (NBER), Research Papers in Economics (RePEc). Articles published between January 2000 and January 2013, which reported changes in diet or BMI, overweight and/or obesity due to a tax on, or price change of, SSBs were included. Results Nine articles met the criteria for the meta-analysis. Six were from the USA and one each from Mexico, Brazil and France. All showed negative own-price elasticity, which means that higher prices are associated with a lower demand for SSBs. Pooled own price-elasticity was -1.299 (95% CI: -1.089 - -1.509). Four articles reported cross-price elasticities, three from the USA and one from Mexico; higher prices for SSBs were associated with an increased demand for alternative beverages such as fruit juice (0.388, 95% CI: 0.009 – 0.767) and milk (0.129, 95% CI: -0.085 – 0.342), and a reduced demand for diet drinks (-0.423, 95% CI: -0.628 - -1.219). Six articles from the USA showed that a higher price could also lead to a decrease in BMI, and decrease the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusions Taxing SSBs may reduce obesity. Future research should estimate price elasticities in low- and middle-income countries and identify potential health gains and the wider impact on jobs, monetary savings to the health sector, implementation costs and government revenue. Context-specific cost-effectiveness studies would allow policy makers to weigh these factors. PMID:24225016

2013-01-01

433

Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening  

PubMed Central

Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as ?-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as ?-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene-associated genes. Conclusion Our Global Match File strategy proved critical for accurately interpretating heterologous datasets, and suggests that similar approaches may be fruitful for other species. Transcript profiling of early events associated with CIS revealed a complex network of events involving sugars, redox and hormone signalling which may be either linked serially or act in parallel. The identification, at a sequence level, of various enzymes long known as having a role in CIS provides molecular tools for further understanding the phenomenon. PMID:18416834

Bagnaresi, Paolo; Moschella, Anna; Beretta, Ottavio; Vitulli, Federico; Ranalli, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico

2008-01-01

434

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

435

Health literacy is associated with healthy eating index scores and sugar-sweetened beverage intake: findings from the rural lower Mississippi delta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for more than a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. This study, evaluates health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores and sugar-sweetened bev...

436

Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2009-01-01

437

The sugar balance in some British potato varieties during storage. II. The effects of tuber age, previous storage temperature, and intermittent refrigeration upon low-temperature sweetening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of sugar extraction and analysis employed are described in detail. The pattern of sweetening of potato tubers at 2 C could vary with their age when placed at this temperature, though not necessarily so. Gradual reduction of the storage temperature to 2 C, in contrast to rapid cooling, resulted in a marked reduction in the amount of sucrose

W. G. Burton

1969-01-01

438

Soda and Cell Aging: Associations between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and risk of cardiometabolic disease. We examined cross-sectional associations between consumption of SSBs, diet soda and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. Methods The study population included 5,309 adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no prior history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (?=?0.010, 95% CI ?0.020, ?0.001, P=0.04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (?= 0.016, 95% CI ?0.000, 0.033). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or non-carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages and telomere length. Conclusions Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas may influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

Leung, Cindy W.; Laraia, Barbara A.; Needham, Belinda L.; Rehkopf, David H.; Adler, Nancy E.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

2014-01-01

439

Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

2008-01-01

440

DAIRY FOODS TECHNICAL NOTES Changes in Electrical Energy Requirements to Operate an Ice Cream Freezer as a Function of Sweeteners and Gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream for- mulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust

D. E. SMITH; A. S. BAKSHI; S. A. GAY

441

Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

2013-01-01

442

The impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet and weight of a multi-ethnic population of head start mothers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of Head Start mothers. Using a cross sectional, secondary analysis, Black (43%), Hispanic-American (33%), and White (24%) women (n=609) were d...

443

Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-hour glucose and insulin excursions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been proposed that the adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages which contain both glucose and fructose are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, i.e dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined if the greater adv...

444

The impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet quality, nutrient intake, and weight of a multi-ethnic population of Head Start mothers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the impact of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) intake on diet and weight in Head Start mothers, three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected on 609 Black (43%), Hispanic (33%), or White (24%) women in AL and TX. Women were divided into four beverage consumption groups: low milk/high SwB, ...

445

Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.  

PubMed

For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria. PMID:14555359

Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

2003-10-01

446

The effects of consuming increasing levels of high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

447

Artificial mismatch hybridization  

DOEpatents

An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

Guo, Zhen (Madison, WI); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI)

1998-01-01

448

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Discuss what is meant by Artificial Intelligence (AI)  

E-print Network

1 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Objectives · Discuss what is meant by Artificial intelligence · Introduce the terms to be used through the rest of the course Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Sections · What is Artificial Intelligence ? · Intelligence and Understanding · Intelligent

Qu, Rong

449

Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical InformaticsInformatics  

E-print Network

ICS 313 1 Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical Informatics Systems Outline and Objectives Describe basic concepts in artificial intelligence Understand is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Goals of AI systems fall into four categories: Thinking humanly Thinking

Reed, Nancy E.

450

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks #12;Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2

Kjellström, Hedvig

451

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks  

E-print Network

Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2 Single Layer

Kjellström, Hedvig

452

Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life  

E-print Network

-state phase space systems thatCannot (?) pre-state phase space systems that include life?include life? HowAgents & ALifeAgents & ALife Artificial LifeArtificial Life Thumbing its Nose atThumbing its NoseMassey University #12;Agents & ALifeAgents & ALife QuestionsQuestions Philosophy and Life - what is it

Hawick, Ken

453

Development of artificial empathy.  

PubMed

We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed. PMID:25498950

Asada, Minoru

2015-01-01

454

Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice  

PubMed Central

The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (d-tryptophan, d-phenylalanine, l-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (l-glutamine, l-threonine, l-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5?-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system. PMID:17911381

Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I.; Theodorides, Maria L.; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

2008-01-01

455

Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.  

PubMed

The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (D-tryptophan, D-phenylalanine, L-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (L-glutamine, L-threonine, L-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system. PMID:17911381

Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I; Theodorides, Maria L; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K; Bachmanov, Alexander A

2007-12-19

456

Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.  

PubMed

Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500?L injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water. PMID:25085815

Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

2014-09-12

457

Effect of an artificial sweetener and yeast product combination on immune function measurements, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of beef heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred ninety-nine crossbred beef heifer calves (205 ± 7.9 kg initial BW) were used in a 44-d receiving trial with 2 dietary treatments (9 pens/treatment) in a completely random design. Diets were a steam-flaked corn and alfalfa hay-based control (CON) diet or the same diet (ADD) with added art...

458

Artificial Selection Lab, Investigation #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the 2012 inquiry-based Advanced Placement Investigation into Artificial Selection (#1). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. This inquiry is guided by the question, Can extreme selection change expression of aquantitative trait in a population in one generation? Students study and carry out an artificial selection investigation using Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa).

AP Biology Investigative Labs: An Inquiry-Based Approach

459

The language of artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This is a guide to LISP. It clarifies data structures and recursion via examples and practical explanations, uses BASIC as a reference point throughout (enabling comparisons with LISP), and stresses artificial intelligence applications. Contents: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. The Fundamentals of LISP. Functions. Conditionals and Loops. Further LISP Processing. Recursion. More Advanced Uses of Functions. LISP Programming and AI. Standard LISP Functions.

Berk, A.A.

1984-01-01

460

Towards an artificial user: the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A user is a system capable of creating and pursuing individual goals. Is it possible to design and implement an artificial user? Traditional artificial systems focus on how achieving a given goal. Most learning algorithms look for an optimal solution of a problem, given a set of optimization criteria and a goal (or a set of goals). However, real

Riccardo Manzotti; Vincenzo Tagliasco

461

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

462

Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

Lubell, Adele

1987-01-01

463

Artificial Neural Networks in Biomedicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, artificial neural networks play an increasing role in the development of new biomedical systems. In United States, over last decades, the granted biomedical patents that explicitly refer to artificial neural networks in their title, abstract or key references amount to about 50% of the total number of granted biomedical patents with a significant element of computational

Paulo J. G. Lisboa; Emmanuel C. Ifeachor; Piotr S. Szczepaniak

464

Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision re- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the prevailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artificial animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as autonomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems. To be opera- tive in

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

465

Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers  

E-print Network

in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Commun. 6, 311­335 (1998). #160441Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers S. Herath,1 N. P. Puente,2 E. I. Chaikina,3@mst.edu Abstract: We develop and experimentally verify a theory of evolution of polarization in artificially-disordered

Yamilov, Alexey

466

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL and Computa­ tional Learning, and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute for the laboratory's artificial intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency

Poggio, Tomaso

467

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 y Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Institute of Technology, 1995. This report describes research done partly at the Artificial Intelligence

Poggio, Tomaso

468

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL physics, artificial intelligence, speech recognition, image processing, and genetics. Formalisms the NSF (ASC--9217041). Support for the laboratory's artificial intelligence research is provided in part

Poggio, Tomaso

469

Intelligence Dynamics and Representations Artificial Intelligence Laboratory  

E-print Network

Intelligence ­ Dynamics and Representations Luc Steels Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Vrije: intelligence, self­organisation, representation, complex dynamical systems. 1 Introduction Artificial the methods of the artificial [24]. This means that systems are built which exhibit intelligent behavior

Steels, Luc

470