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1

Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.  

PubMed

A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame. PMID:24481880

Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

2014-05-01

2

Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.  

PubMed

A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2?2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. PMID:24177861

Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

2014-02-24

3

Artificial sweeteners - a review.  

PubMed

Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

2014-04-01

4

Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

2012-12-01

5

Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame, a high intensity sweetener, is used extensively worldwide in over 5,000 products. Upon ingestion, aspartame is completely metabolized to two amino acids and methanol (approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid, and 10% methanol). The effects of aspartame on cognitive function, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 48 adult (21 men, 27 women) heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKUH). PKUH

Friedrich Trefz; Leo de Sonneville; Peter Matthis; Christian Benninger; Brigitte Lanz-Englert; Horst Bickel

1994-01-01

6

Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated temperature could generate D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. The nutritive consequences of these D-amino acids in the human diet are not well established, and thus aspartame should probably not be used as a sweetener when the exposure of neutral pH foods and beverages to elevated temperatures is required. At pH 4, a typical pH of most foods and beverages that might be sweetened with aspartame, the half-lives are 47 hours for aspartic acid and 1200 hours for phenylalanine at 100 degrees C. Racemization at pH 4 takes place in aspartame itself. Although the racemization rates at pH 4 are slow and no appreciable racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine should occur during the normal use of aspartame, some food and beverage components could conceivably act as catalysts. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the use of aspartame as a sugar substitute might not in turn result in an increased human consumption of D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine.

Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

1984-01-01

7

Development of a sweetness sensor for aspartame, a positively charged high-potency sweetener.  

PubMed

Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame. PMID:24763213

Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

8

Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener  

PubMed Central

Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame.

Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

9

Caffeine, Artificial Sweetener, and Fluid Intake in Anorexia Nerovsa  

PubMed Central

Objective The current paper provides an analysis of the use of artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and excess fluids in patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Method Seventy subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) were recruited to participate in an ecologic momentary assessment study which included nutritional analysis using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R), a computer based dietary recall system. Results When subtypes were compared, AN-restricting subtype (AN-R) subjects and AN-Binge-Purge (AN-B/P) subjects did not differ in quantity of aspartame, caffeine, or water consumed. Daily water consumption was related to daily vomiting frequency in AN-B/P but not to daily exercise frequency in either AN-R or AN-B/P subjects. Conclusion Caffeine, water, and aspartame consumption can be variable in AN patients and the consumption of these substances appears to be only modestly related to purging behavior.

Marino, Joanna M.; Ertelt, Troy E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Lancaster, Kathy; Mitchell, James E.; Fischer, Sarah; Doyle, Peter; le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott

2010-01-01

10

Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. PMID:23891579

Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

2013-10-01

11

Study of thermal degradation of aspartame and its products of conversion in sweetener using isothermal thermogravimetry and HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame (APM) has been a center of discussion due to the toxicity of its metabolism products. This work studied the thermal degradation of aspartame and its products of conversion in a sweetener using isothermal thermogravimetry (TG), infrared (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The TG curves were performed using a Shimadzu Thermobalance, under air atmosphere, flow rate of 20mLmin?1 and

Marta M. Conceição; Valter J. Fernandes; Antonio G. Souza; Ticiano G. Nascimento; Cícero F. S. Aragão; Rui O. Macedo

2005-01-01

12

Role of nitrification in the biodegradation of selected artificial sweetening agents in biological wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

The biodegradation of the six artificial sweetening agents including acesulfame (ACE), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), neohesperidindihydrochalcone (NHDC), saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC) by nitrifying activated sludge was first examined. Experimental results showed that ASP and NHDC were the most easily degradable compounds even in the control tests. CYC and SAC were efficiently biodegraded by the nitrifying activated sludge, whereas ACE and SUC were poorly removed. However, the biodegradation efficiencies of the ASs were increased with the increase in initial ammonium concentrations in the bioreactors. The association between nitrification and co-metabolic degradation was investigated and a linear relationship between nitrification rate and co-metabolic biodegradation rate was observed for the target artificial sweeteners (ASs). The contribution of heterotrophic microorganisms and autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in biodegradation of the ASs was elucidated, of which autotrophic ammonia oxidizers played an important role in the biodegradation of the ASs, particularly with regards to ACE and SUC. PMID:24681682

Tran, N H; Nguyen, V T; Urase, T; Ngo, H H

2014-06-01

13

Cytotoxic effects of methanol, formaldehyde, and formate on dissociated rat thymocytes: A possibility of aspartame toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener added to many soft beverages and its usage is increasing in health-conscious\\u000a societies. Upon ingestion, this artificial sweetener produces methanol as a metabolite. In order to examine the possibility\\u000a of aspartame toxicity, the effects of methanol and its metabolites (formaldehyde and formate) on dissociated rat thymocytes\\u000a were studied by flow cytometry. While methanol

Y. Oyama; H. Sakai; T. Arata; Y. Okano; N. Akaike; K. Sakai; K. Noda

2002-01-01

14

Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)  

MedlinePLUS

... Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS), to five* NNSs: Aspartame (NutraSweet® and Equal®) Acesulfame-K (Sweet One®) Neotame Saccharin (Sweet’N Low®) Sucralose (Splenda®) *Stevia (Truvia® and PureVia®) doesn’t have ...

15

Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of aspartame in beverages and beverage mixes.  

PubMed

A method is described for determining the artificial sweetener aspartame in beverages and beverage mixes by liquid chromatography. Aspartame is separated on a microC18 column, using a mobile phase of acetic acid, water, and isopropyl alcohol at pH 3.0 and UV detection at 254 nm. Beverages are filtered through 0.45 micron filters and injected directly into the chromatograph. Aspartame is eluted in approximately 7 min. Detection of aspartame is confirmed by a UV scan of the trapped peak. Aspartame is quantitated in the presence of other beverage additives such as saccharin, caffeine, sodium benzoate, artificial colors, and artificial flavors. Results are presented for spiked soda beverages, beverages from fruit-flavored mixes, instant tea, reconstituted presweetened drink mixes, and a powdered tabletop sweetener. PMID:6746472

Webb, N G; Beckman, D D

1984-01-01

16

Sweet proteins - Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners  

PubMed Central

Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

Kant, Ravi

2005-01-01

17

Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.  

PubMed

Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10?mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50?mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24700203

Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

2014-06-01

18

Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments made from indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations as well as commonly used individual serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf-life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime.

Musto, Christopher J.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

19

A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

2007-01-01

20

Consumption of artificial sweetener- and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite safety reports of the artificial sweetener aspartame, health-related concerns remain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether the consumption of aspartame- and sugar-containing soda is associated with risk of hematopoetic cancers. Design: We repeatedly assessed diet in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Over 22 y, we identified 1324 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), 285 multiple myelomas, and 339 leukemias. We calculated incidence RRs and 95% CIs by using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: When the 2 cohorts were combined, there was no significant association between soda intake and risks of NHL and multiple myeloma. However, in men, ?1 daily serving of diet soda increased risks of NHL (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) and multiple myeloma (RR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.40) in comparison with men who did not consume diet soda. We observed no increased risks of NHL and multiple myeloma in women. We also observed an unexpected elevated risk of NHL (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.51) with a higher consumption of regular, sugar-sweetened soda in men but not in women. In contrast, when sexes were analyzed separately with limited power, neither regular nor diet soda increased risk of leukemia but were associated with increased leukemia risk when data for men and women were combined (RR for consumption of ?1 serving of diet soda/d when the 2 cohorts were pooled: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.02). Conclusion: Although our findings preserve the possibility of a detrimental effect of a constituent of diet soda, such as aspartame, on select cancers, the inconsistent sex effects and occurrence of an apparent cancer risk in individuals who consume regular soda do not permit the ruling out of chance as an explanation.

Schernhammer, Eva S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

2012-01-01

21

Aspartame: Review of Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents,

Harriett H. Butchko; W. Wayne Stargel; C. Phil Comer; Dale A. Mayhew; Christian Benninger; George L. Blackburn; Leo M. J. de Sonneville; Raif S. Geha; Zsolt Hertelendy; Adalbert Koestner; Arthur S. Leon; George U. Liepa; Kenneth E. McMartin; Charles L. Mendenhall; Ian C. Munro; Edward J. Novotny; Andrew G. Renwick; Susan S. Schiffman; Donald L. Schomer; Bennett A. Shaywitz; Paul A. Spiers; Thomas R. Tephly; John A. Thomas; Friedrich K. Trefz

2002-01-01

22

Modified apolipoprotein (apo) AI by artificial sweetener causes severe premature cellular senescence and atherosclerosis with impairment of functional and structural properties of apoAI in lipid-free and lipid-bound state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk\\u000a of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence\\u000a of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein\\u000a (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL),

Wookju Jang; Nam Ho Jeoung; Kyung-Hyun Cho

2011-01-01

23

Molecular Structure of Aspartame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartame was discovered by accident in 1965 while trying to create an ulcer treatment drug, it was approved in 1981. Aspartame is produced artificially by combining methanol, phenylalanine, and aspartic acid. Also known as NutraSweet, Aspartame is found in beverages of several types and in many foods. NutraSweet is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, which is common table sugar.

2002-08-13

24

Aspartame: Scientific Evaluation in the Postmarketing Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to marketing, the safety of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer was demonstrated by the results of over 100 scientific studies in animals and humans. In the postmarketing period, the safety of aspartame was further evaluated through extensive monitoring of intake, postmarketing surveillance of anecdotal reports of alleged health effects, and

Harriett H. Butchko; W. Wayne Stargel

2001-01-01

25

77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...characteristic to the standardized food even if such ingredients...provided for by the relevant food standard. Thus, under...permits manufacturers to use safe and suitable artificial...within the name of these foods. FDA took this action...consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices by...

2012-12-04

26

Effects of aspartame metabolites on astrocytes and neurons.  

PubMed

Aspartame, a widespread sweetener used in many food products, is considered as a highly hazardous compound. Aspartame was discovered in 1965 and raises a lot of controversy up to date. Astrocytes are glial cells, the presence and functions of which are closely connected with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this article is to demonstrate the direct and indirect role of astrocytes participating in the harmful effects of aspartame metabolites on neurons. The artificial sweetener is broken down into phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%) during metabolism in the body. The excess of phenylalanine blocks the transport of important amino acids to the brain contributing to reduced levels of dopamine and serotonin. Astrocytes directly affect the transport of this amino acid and also indirectly by modulation of carriers in the endothelium. Aspartic acid at high concentrations is a toxin that causes hyperexcitability of neurons and is also a precursor of other excitatory amino acid - glutamates. Their excess in quantity and lack of astrocytic uptake induces excitotoxicity and leads to the degeneration of astrocytes and neurons. The methanol metabolites cause CNS depression, vision disorders and other symptoms leading ultimately to metabolic acidosis and coma. Astrocytes do not play a significant role in methanol poisoning due to a permanent consumption of large amounts of aspartame. Despite intense speculations about the carcinogenicity of aspartame, the latest studies show that its metabolite - diketopiperazine - is cancirogenic in the CNS. It contributes to the formation of tumors in the CNS such as gliomas, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. Glial cells are the main source of tumors, which can be caused inter alia by the sweetener in the brain. On the one hand the action of astrocytes during aspartame poisoning may be advantageous for neuro-protection while on the other it may intensify the destruction of neurons. The role of the glia in the pathogenesis of many CNS diseases is crucial. PMID:23553132

Rycerz, Karol; Jaworska-Adamu, Jadwiga El?bieta

2013-01-01

27

Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea.  

PubMed

Concern over the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) as well as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment is growing, due to their high use and potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. The data for this study are drawn from a nationwide survey of ASWs in sewage sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that receive domestic (WWTPD), industrial (WWTPI), or mixed (domestic plus industrial; WWTPM) wastewaters in Korea. Five ASWs (concentrations ranged from 7.08 to 5220ng/g dry weight [dw]) and ten PPCPs (4.95-6930ng/g dw) were determined in sludge. Aspartame (concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 5220ng/g dw) was determined for the first time in sewage sludge. The median concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge from domestic WWTPs were 0.8-2.5 and 1.0-3.4 times, respectively, the concentrations found in WWTPs that receive combined domestic and industrial wastewaters. Among the five ASWs analyzed, the median environmental emission rates of aspartame through domestic WWTPs (both sludge and effluent discharges combined) were calculated to be 417?g/capita/day, followed by sucralose (117?g/capita/day), acesulfame (90?g/capita/day), and saccharin (66?g/capita/day). The per-capita emission rates of select PPCPs, such as antimicrobials (triclocarban: 158?g/capita/day) and analgesics (acetaminophen: 59?g/capita/day), were an order of magnitude higher than those calculated for antimycotic (miconazole) and anthelmintic (thiabendazole) drugs analyzed in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis of measured concentrations of ASWs and PPCPs in sludge revealed that several WWTP parameters, such as treatment capacity, population-served, sludge production rate, and hydraulic retention time could influence the concentrations found in sludge. PMID:24695211

Subedi, Bikram; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-07-01

28

Transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by UV light.  

PubMed

The transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by direct photolysis was investigated at various pH values, in different water types and at various concentration levels. Main photodegradation products of acesulfame were elucidated and analyzed both in laboratory experiments and in a full-scale waterworks using UV treatment for disinfection purposes. The degradation of acesulfame was found to be independent of the pH (range 5-11) and followed pseudo first order kinetics in a concentration range between 1?g?L(-1) and 10mg?L(-1). Calculated rate constants were in the range between 5.4·10(-3)s(-1) and 7.4·10(-3)s(-1). The main photodegradation products of acesulfame were separated by ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and were identified as hydroxylated acesulfame and iso-acesulfame by high resolution mass spectrometry and fragmentation experiments. In the case of iso-acesulfame an intramolecular rearrangement is assumed as the transformation product has a higher polarity and different product ions after MS fragmentation compared to acesulfame. Minor transformation products were identified as amidosulfonic acid and sulfate by comparison with analytical standards. The transformation pathway was found to be transferable to drinking water production as the identified transformation products were also detected to a similar extent in fortified tap water. In a Swiss full-scale waterworks acesulfame concentrations were reduced by approximately 30% and one of the main UV transformation products could be qualitatively detected. PMID:24631604

Scheurer, Marco; Schmutz, Beat; Happel, Oliver; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Wülser, Richard; Storck, Florian Rüdiger

2014-05-15

29

Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.  

PubMed

The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study. PMID:23247016

Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

2013-01-30

30

Metabolism of Aspartame in Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame (SC-18862, 3-amino-N-(a-carboxyphenethyl)succinarnic acid, methyl ester; the methyl ester of aspartyl-phenylalanine ) is a sweetening agent that organoleptically has about 180 times the sweetness of sugar. Because it so closely resembles naturally occurring dipeptides, it was believed that it would be digested in a similar manner. To show this, the metabolism of (14C) aspartame labeled separately in the methyl, aspartyl

J. A. OPPERMANN; E. MULDOON; ANDR. E. RANNEY

2009-01-01

31

Stevia, cyclamate and saccharin - natural and artificial sweeteners - exert no effect on sulfane levels in tissues.  

PubMed

The interactions among natural and artificial sweeteners and endogenous sulfur metabolism have never been investigated. CBA strain mice were administered orally stevia, cyclamate or saccharin in doses of 5 mg/kg of body weight in water solutions each. The measurements of the free and acid-labile sulfane (H2S) tissue concentrations in brain, heart, liver and kidney were performed with Siegel spectrophotometric modified method. No differences in comparisons between hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the control group and each sweetener group within every tissue type were noted. In conclusion, stevia, cyclamate and saccharine do not change the endogenous sulfur metabolism to the extent of causing sulfane tissue levels alterations. PMID:24858558

Wilinski, Bogdan; Opoka, Wlodzimierz; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Wilinski, Jerzy

2013-01-01

32

Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. PMID:22922192

Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

2012-09-01

33

Artificial sweeteners as waste water markers in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One key factor in groundwater quality management is the knowledge of flow paths and recharge. In coupled ground- and surface water systems the understanding of infiltration processes is therefore of paramount importance. Recent studies show that artificial sweeteners - which are used as sugar substitutes in food and beverages - are suitable tracers for domestic wastewater in the aquatic environment. As most rivers receive sewage discharges, artificial sweeteners might be used for tracking surface waters in groundwater. In this study artificial sweeteners are used in combination with conventional tracers (inert anions Cl-, SO42-, stable water isotopes ?18O, ?2H) to identify river water infiltration and the influence of waste water on a shallow unconfined aquifer used for drinking water production. The investigation area is situated in a mesoscale alpine head water catchment. The alluvial aquifer consists of quaternary gravel deposits and is characterized by high hydraulic permeability (kfmax 5 x 10-2 ms-1), high flow velocities (vmax 250 md-1) and a considerable productivity (2,5 m3s-1). A losing stream follows the aquifer in close proximity and is susceptible to infiltrate substantial volumes of water into the alluvial sediments. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (Acesulfam ACE, Sucralose SUC, Saccharin SAC and Cyclamat CYC) at the investigated site. The local sewage treatment plant was identified as point source of artificial sweeteners in the river water, with ACE concentrations up to 0,6 ?gL-1. ACE concentrations in groundwater where approximately of one order of magnitude lower: ACE was present in 33 out of 40 sampled groundwater wells with concentrations up to 0,07 ?gL-1, thus indicating considerable influence of sewage water loaded surface water throughout the aquifer. Elevated concentrations of ACE and SAC in single observation wells denote other sources of locally limited contamination. Also, the temporal variability of sweeteners in surface water and the drinking water production well is compared with other tracers. ACE, Cl-and SO42- exhibit similar patterns in the river water. However, this behaviour cannot be observed in the production well, where ACE concentrations are varying compared to Cl- and SO42-.This suggests that the production well does receive groundwater being infiltrated prior to the sewage water treatment plant. Time series analysis of 18O, ?2H will give more insight in travel times and the location of infiltration zones.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

34

Mathematical approach to thermolysin-catalyzed synthesis of aspartame precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame precursor (N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, was synthesized enzymatically from N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-aspartic acid (Z-l-Asp) and l-phenylalanine methyl ester (l-PM) as substrates with thermolysin as an enzyme in an aqueous monophase system. A reversible Theorell-Chance mechanism is proposed to explain the synthesis, and its kinetic parameters were determined at pH 6.5 and 40°C. The rate equation of the enzymatic reaction,

Yoshihiko Murakami; Makoto Hirata; Akira Hirata

1996-01-01

35

Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n = 3) and rivers (n = 12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000 ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source. PMID:24100049

Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo

2014-01-01

36

Ethanol, nicotine, amphetamine, and aspartame consumption and preferences in C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a two-bottle choice paradigm, adult C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2 mice (11 males and 10 females per strain) were given access to tapwater and an ascending series of concentrations of ethanol, nicotine, amphetamine, and the artificial sweetener, aspartame. The C57 mice consumed more ethanol, nicotine, and amphetamine, and showed greater preferences for these substances, than did the DBA\\/2 mice. In contrast,

Charles J. Meliska; Andrzej Bartke

1995-01-01

37

Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

1999-03-01

38

Acute effects of aspartame on aggression and neurochemistry of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse relationship between serotonin and aggression was investigated in rats treated with aspartame, a sweetener thought to interfere with the synthesis of this neurotransmitter. Eleven adult, male Long-Evans rats received either aspartame (200–800 mg\\/kg, IP) or the vehicle prior to testing in a standard resident-intruder paradigm. Contrary to our hypothesis, aspartame significantly decreased aggression as shown by increased latencies

Amy L. Goerss; George C. Wagner; Wendy L. Hill

2000-01-01

39

Aspartame intolerance.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a food additive marketed under the brand name Nutrasweet. Aspartame is a white, odorless, crystalline powder and consists of two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. It is 180 times as sweet as sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first allowed its use in dry foods in July 1981 and then approved its use in carbonated beverages in July 1983. It has subsequently been approved for use in a number of materials including multivitamins, fruit juices, stick-type confections, breath mints, and iced tea. The FDA requires the statement "phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine" on labels of food products containing aspartame because individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. Aspartame is judged to be free of long-term cancer risks. Aspartame is not stable under certain conditions including baking and cooking, and prolonged exposure to acid conditions. In such situations it loses its sweetness. Products formed from aspartame include its component amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid), methanol, and diketopiperazine (DKP). Animal studies show DKP to be nontoxic. Methanol occurs in small amounts and does not exceed that formed during consumption of many foods including fresh fruits and vegetables. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors aspartame's safety in part through reports of adverse reactions. After aspartame was approved for use in carbonated beverages, the FDA received an increased number of reports concerning adverse reactions related to aspartame. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reviewed these reports, which included complaints of neurologic, gastrointestinal, andallergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3061324

Garriga, M M; Metcalfe, D D

1988-12-01

40

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

41

Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanyl- methyl ester, 200 mg\\/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g\\/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and

Hidehiko Yokogoshi; Carolyn H Roberts; Benjamin Caballero; Richard J Wurtman

42

Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.  

PubMed

Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed. PMID:24687789

Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

2014-07-01

43

Synthesis of Aspartame by Thermolysin: An X-ray Structural Study.  

PubMed

Protease mediated peptide synthesis (PMPS) was first described in the 1930s but remains underexploited today. In most PMPS, the reaction equilibrium is shifted toward synthesis by the aqueous insolubility of product generated. Substrates and proteases are selected by trial and error, yields are modest, and reaction times are slow. Once implemented, however, PMPS reactions can be simple, environmentally benign, and readily scalable to a commercial level. We examined the PMPS of a precursor of the artificial sweetener aspartame, a multiton peptide synthesis catalyzed by the enzyme thermolysin. X-ray structures of thermolysin in complex with aspartame substrates separately, and after PMPS in a crystal, rationalize the reaction's substrate preferences and reveal an unexpected form of substrate inhibition that explains its sluggishness. Structure guided optimization of this and other PMPS reactions could expand the economic viability of commercial peptides beyond current high-potency, low-volume therapeutics, with substantial green chemistry advantages. PMID:24944748

Birrane, Gabriel; Bhyravbhatla, Balaji; Navia, Manuel A

2014-06-12

44

Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate on sweetness intensity of Aspartame.  

PubMed

Sensory evaluation of Aspartame in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-L) and sodium alginate (SA) revealed that only CMC-L showed a suppression effect, while SA did not. By using an artificial taste receptor model, we found that the presence of SA or CMC-L resulted in a decrease in association constants. Further investigation of CMC-L solution revealed that the decrease in water mobility and diffusion also contribute to the suppression effect. In the case of SA, the decreased viscosity and comparatively higher amount of free water facilitated the diffusion of sweetener, which might compensate for the decreased binding constant between Aspartame and receptor. This may suppress the impact of SA on sweetness intensity. The results suggest that exploring the binding affinity of taste molecules with the receptor, along with water mobility and diffusion in hydrocolloidal structures, provide sufficient information for understanding the mechanism behind the effect of macromolecular hydrocolloids on taste. PMID:24996335

Han, Xue; Xu, Shu-Zhen; Dong, Wen-Rui; Wu, Zhai; Wang, Ren-Hai; Chen, Zhong-Xiu

2014-12-01

45

Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain.  

PubMed

Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain. PMID:25009784

Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

2014-01-01

46

Biochemical responses and mitochondrial mediated activation of apoptosis on long-term effect of aspartame in rat brain  

PubMed Central

Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is very widely used in many foods and beverages. But there are controversies about its metabolite which is marked for its toxicity. Hence it is believed to be unsafe for human use. Previous studies have reported on methanol exposure with involvements of free radicals on excitotoxicity of neuronal apoptosis. Hence, this present study is proposed to investigate whether or not chronic aspartame (FDA approved Daily Acceptable Intake (ADI),40 mg/kg bwt) administration could release methanol, and whether or not it can induce changes in brain oxidative stress status and gene and protein expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 in the rat brain region. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, Methotrexate (MTX)-treated Wistar strain male albino rats were used and after the oral administration of aspartame, the effects were studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Aspartame exposure resulted with a significant increase in the enzymatic activity in protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in (aspartame MTX)-treated animals and with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and protein thiol, pointing out the generation of free radicals. The gene and protein expression of pro apoptotic marker Bax showed a marked increase whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 decreased markedly indicating the aspartame is harmful at cellular level. It is clear that long term aspartame exposure could alter the brain antioxidant status, and can induce apoptotic changes in brain.

Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

2014-01-01

47

Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796

Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

2014-01-01

48

Comparative metabolism of aspartame in experimental animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame [SC?18862; 3?amino?H?(??carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid, methyl ester, the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine] is a sweetening agent that organoleptically has about 180 times the sweetness of sugar. The metabolism of aspartame has been studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and humans. The compound was digested in all species in the same way as are natural constituents of the diet. Hydrolysis of

R. E. Ranney; J. A. Oppermann; E. Muldoon; F. G. McMahon

1976-01-01

49

Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE at elevated concentrations in aquifer zones dominated by local recharge indicated another point-source of domestic waste water. The combined analysis of ACE and conventional hydrochemical data proved to be useful to identify different sources of waste water. It is shown that the combination of physicochemical parameters and artificial sweeteners allow for a clear delineation of infiltration areas in the investigated aquifer system.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-05-01

50

Food and Drug Administration: Food Additive Approval Process Followed for Aspartame.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The GAO has reviewed the Food and Drug Administrations's (FDA) process for approving aspartame--a sweetener marketed under the brand name NutraSweet. The report discusses FDA's (1) process for approving aspartame, (2) review of the scientific issues raise...

1987-01-01

51

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.  

PubMed

A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer. PMID:24393598

Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

2014-07-15

52

Effect of bulking agents on the quality of artificially sweetened misti dahi (caramel colored sweetened yoghurt) prepared from reduced fat buffalo milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misti dahi, the sweetened variety of dahi, is a popular fermented dairy product of eastern India. It is analogous with sweetened yoghurt, but has pleasant caramel colour and flavour. High sugar content in misti dahi may pose a hurdle for its successful marketing in other parts of the country in the present health foods regime. It is imperative to use

P. Narender Raju; Dharam Pal

2011-01-01

53

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 220 ... bodies are unable to metabolize one of the amino acids in aspartame, phenylalanine. Benefits of aspartame Does not ...

54

Effects of three intense sweeteners on fat storage in the C. elegans model.  

PubMed

Beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners (CS), glucose, sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, are associated with weight gain. Beverages sweetened with intense sweeteners (IS) are marketed as low-calorie substitutes to prevent beverages-associated weight gain. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, the effects on intestinal fat deposition (IFD) and pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR) of cola beverages sweetened with glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus acesulfame-potassium (AceK) were compared. Control groups received Escherichia coli (OP50) only. Study I: the nematodes received additional glucose- or IS-sweetened beverages. Study II: the nematodes received additional glucose, aspartame, or aspartame plus AceK (AAK). Beverages containing CS or IS (aspartame or AAK) did not alter IFD in wild type (N2) or in daf-16 deficiency. The CS cola increased IFD in sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). The AAK-cola increased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05). Glucose increased IFD in N2 and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05). Aspartame showed a tendency towards reduced IFD in N2 and decreased IFD in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency (P<0.05). AAK increased IFD in daf-16 deficiency and sir-2.1 deficiency (P<0.05), and reversed the aspartame-induced reduction in IFD. The aspartame-sweetened cola increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2 deficiency and daf-16 deficiency (P<0.05); similar results were obtained in N2 with both IS (P<0.05). AAK increased the PPR in daf-16/daf-2, daf-16, and sir-2.1 deficiencies (P<0.05). Thus, IS increased the PPR, a surrogate marker of lifespan. Aspartame may have an independent effect in reducing IFD to assist humans desiring weight loss. AceK may increase IFD in presence of insulin resistance. PMID:24632416

Zheng, Jolene; Greenway, Frank L; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, William D; King, Jason F; King, Michael J; Gao, Chenfei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Finley, John W

2014-05-25

55

[The use of low-calorie sweeteners].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the type of sweeteners and their impact on the human body. There have been described in details the sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sugar alcohols, fructose, D-tagatose, steviol glycosides and maple syrup which are present in currently available food products. According to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), aspartame and steviol glycosides were found to be safe for consumption. Whereas fructose, a component representing a large number of component products, according to the Polish Diabetes Association from 2012, should not be consumed by diabetics. The increase of popularity of products containing sweeteners causes that the search for new resources is constantly current and is the subject of research. PMID:23894781

Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Kurzawa, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

2013-05-01

56

Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial sweetener, aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation ?, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of ? by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 ? 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 ?m or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

1993-10-01

57

Distribution of artificial sweeteners in dust and soil in China and their seasonal variations in the environment of Tianjin.  

PubMed

A nationwide investigation on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASs) was conducted by collecting 98 paired outdoor dust and soil samples from mainland China. The ASs were widely detected in Chinese atmospheric dry deposition and soil samples, at concentrations up to 6450 and 1280ng/g, respectively. To give a picture on AS distribution and source in the whole environment, the concentrations and seasonal variations of ASs in Tianjin were studied, including atmosphere, soil, and water samples. The AS levels were significantly higher in Haihe river at TJW (a sampling site in central city) in winter, while no obviously seasonal trends were obtained at BYL (close to a AS factory) and the site at a wastewater treatment plant. Saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame were the dominant ASs in both gas and particulate phase, with concentrations varying from 0.02 to 1940pg/m(3). Generally, gas phase concentrations of the ASs were relatively higher in summer, while opposite results were acquired for particulate phase. Wet and dry deposition fluxes were calculated based on the measured AS levels. The results indicated that both wet and dry deposition could efficiently remove ASs in the atmosphere and act as important pollutant sources for the ASs in surface environment. PMID:24830929

Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Yao, Yiming; Zhao, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yanwei; Hu, Hongwei; Wang, Ruonan

2014-08-01

58

Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.  

PubMed

The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI. PMID:23802660

Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

2013-01-01

59

Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. PMID:23561080

Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

2013-08-15

60

Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. PMID:24612793

Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-05-01

61

Examination of the potential for adaptive chirality of the nitrogen chiral center in aza-aspartame.  

PubMed

The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the ?-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors. PMID:24288001

Bouayad-Gervais, Samir H; Lubell, William D

2013-01-01

62

Aspartame and Its Analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

1981-04-01

63

The powder flow and compact mechanical properties of sucrose and three high-intensity sweeteners used in chewable tablets.  

PubMed

The physical, flow, and mechanical properties of four common pharmaceutical sweeteners were measured to assess their relative manufacturability in solid dosage formulations. Sucrose, acesulfame potassium (Sunett), saccharin sodium, and aspartame were evaluated to determine significant differences in particle shape, size distribution, and true density. Powder flow and cohesivity as well as compact mechanical properties such as ductility, elasticity, and tensile strength were measured and found to be noticeably different. Among these sweeteners, sucrose and acesulfame potassium demonstrated excellent flowability and marginal mechanical property performance relative to over 100 commonly used pharmaceutical excipients evaluated in the authors' laboratory. Saccharin sodium and aspartame demonstrated poor flowability and superior compact strength relative to sucrose and acesulfame, despite their noticeably higher brittleness. These data suggest that careful selection of an appropriate sweetener is warranted in obtaining desirable process and tableting robustness, particularly if sweetener loading is high. Detailed descriptions of each material property and recommendations for sweetener selection in formulation development are included. PMID:12711177

Mullarney, Matthew P; Hancock, Bruno C; Carlson, Glenn T; Ladipo, Dauda D; Langdon, Beth A

2003-05-12

64

Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels  

PubMed Central

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload.

Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

2010-01-01

65

Diffusion of sucrose and aspartame in kappa-carrageenan and gellan gum gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sweetness release from the food to the human papillae, diffusion of the sweetener through the food is one of the steps. Information on diffusion behaviour of small molecules like sucrose has been studied mainly in connection with blanching or osmotic processes. In this paper, diffusion constants (D) of both sucrose (100 and 150g\\/l) and aspartame (0.8

S Bayarri; I Rivas; E Costell; L Durán

2001-01-01

66

Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

2013-01-01

67

Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

2014-05-01

68

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2010-01-01

69

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2009-04-01

70

Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.  

PubMed

With the mainstream emergence of natural sweeteners such as stevia, which is available in different commercial formulations, suitability for yogurt needs to be validated. The present study aimed to determine the appropriate concentration level of 3 processed stevia sweeteners/supplements in commercial plain low-fat yogurt flavored with natural vanilla. Three different levels of sucrose, aspartame, an erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A stevia sweetener, a 95% pure mix of maltodextrin and steviol glycosides, and a cold water stevia extract were used in the study. The just-about-right level for each sweetener and consumer acceptability of each naturally flavored low-fat vanilla yogurt were evaluated. Results from penalty analysis demonstrated that only 0.7% of stevia containing maltodextrin and 95% steviol glycoside was necessary, whereas higher levels (between 4.0 to 5.5%) were more appropriate for stevia containing erythritol and 95% rebaudiana A or cold water extract of stevia, respectively. The concentrations of stevia sweeteners used influenced the perceived sweetness and sourness. In general, consumers disliked the yogurt sweetened with stevia or aspartame, and neither disliked nor liked the yogurt sweetened with sucrose, which was largely driven by perceived sourness of the base yogurt. The findings underline the importance of careful selection of stevia type and concentration as well as optimizing yogurt cultures and fermentation conditions before product launch. PMID:24679934

Narayanan, P; Chinnasamy, B; Jin, L; Clark, S

2014-06-01

71

Characterization of aspartame–cyclodextrin complexation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion complex formation of aspartame (guest) and various cyclodextrins (host) were examined using 1H NMR titration and capillary electrophoresis. Initially the protonation constants of aspartame were determined by NMR-pH titration with in situ pH measurement to yield logK1=7.83 and logK2=2.96. Based on these values the stability of the complexes formed by aspartame and 21 different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied

Tamás Sohajda; Szabolcs Béni; Erzsébet Varga; Róbert Iványi; Ákos Rácz; Lajos Szente; Béla Noszál

2009-01-01

72

Long-term continuous synthesis of aspartame precursor in a column reactor with an immobilized thermolysin  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-asparty-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, the precursor of the synthetic sweetener aspartame, was continuously synthesized in an immobilized thermolysin plug-flow type reactor at 25° C with the substrates (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid and l-phenylalanine methyl ester) dissolved in ethyl acetate. The immobilized enzyme was quite stable in ethyl acetate containing 2.5% 0.01 M 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid-NaOH buffer, pH 6.0, and 20 mM CaCl2 with or

Kazuhiro Nakanishi; Akira Takeuchi; Ryuichi Matsuno

1990-01-01

73

Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners.

2012-01-01

74

Postingestive inhibition of food intake by aspartame: Importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame administered in capsules (i.e., without tasting) 1 h before a meal significantly reduces the amount eaten in that meal. In the present study 36 young men and women were divided into 3 groups of 12 to receive aspartame (400 mg) or placebo (400 mg starch) on separate occasions either 5 min (Group A), 30 min (Group B) or 60

Peter J. Rogers; Victoria J. Burley; Lorraine A. Alikhanizadeh; John E. Blundell

1995-01-01

75

Sweeteners - sugar substitutes  

MedlinePLUS

... Not used in cooking and baking FDA approved Stevia (Truvia, Pure Via, Sun Crystals) Non-caloric plant-based sweetener Made from the plant Stevia rebaudiana, which is grown for its sweet leaves ...

76

How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is found as a frequent contaminant of a large variety of food and feed and beverage such as beer, coffee and win. It is produced as a secondary metabolite of moulds from Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Ochratoxin A has been shown experimentally to inhibit protein synthesis by competition with phenylalanine its structural analogue and also to enhance oxygen reactive radicals production. The combination of these basic mechanisms with the unusual long plasma half-life time (35 days in non-human primates and in humans), the metabolisation of OTA into still active derivatives and glutathione conjugate both potentially reactive with cellular macromolecules including DNA could explain the multiple toxic effects, cytotoxicity, teratogenicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. A relation was first recognised between exposure to OTA in the Balkan geographical area and Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) with a high incidence (nearly 50 times higher than normal) of urinary tract tumours. Exposure rates of OTA are measurable in blood of humans and animals and are established in several countries including Scandinavia, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Japan and Northern Africa mainly Tunisia and Egypt. The impact of OTA exposure in non- endemic areas in the world is not known, the rates of exposure being not correlated with the disease records, especially in developed countries, due to lake of well- designed epidemiological studies, genetic polymorphism and maybe to dietary contents of radical scavengers and antioxidants. However the incidence and mortality rates of renal cancer are increasing in European countries and Northern Africa which could be a global resultant of human exposure to natural compounds in food such as mycotoxins and especially ochratoxin A. In addition to special care to prevent the growth of moulds and detoxification measures there was a need for the prevention of the OTA-induced toxic effects once the toxin is ingested. For this purpose several compound have been studied including some therapeutic agents such as piroxicam which cannot be proposed for a large scale use in humans for preventive purpose. Among other compounds, Aspartame, already used as sweetener has shown a real effectiveness in vivo confirmed largely in vitro. When rats exposed to OTA (289 micrograms/kg) by oral route every two days are given 25 mg/kg similarly for several weeks, all the toxic effects including genotoxicity are very efficiently prevented as shown for example by the disappearance of DNA- adducts in tissues excised from treated animals. Aspartame is also effective in washing out the toxin when given afterwards to animals intoxicated by the same oTA doses for several weeks. In vitro, provided that it is added in cell culture medium before OTA it prevent significantly the inhibition of protein synthesis and lipid peroxidation induced by the toxin. Obviously the molecular mechanism mediating the preventive effect of Aspartame is the delivery of phenylalanine by cleavage of the peptide but also the direct effect of the peptide on the bending capacity and transport of the toxin in vivo and in vitro. As a matter of fact when Aspartame is given to animals or added in culture medium the amount of peptide found unchanged (10-15%) may account for a preventive effect as entire peptide. PMID:9760456

Creppy, E E; Baudrimont, I; Anne-Marie

1998-07-01

77

Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes. Few studies have tested for a relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD), or intermediate biomarkers. The role of artificially sweetened beverages is also unclear. Methods and Results We performed an analysis of the Health Professionals Follow-up study, a prospective cohort study including 42 883 men. Associations of cumulatively averaged sugar-sweetened (e.g. sodas) and artificially sweetened (e.g. diet sodas) beverage intake with incident fatal and non-fatal CHD (myocardial infarction) were examined using proportional hazard models. There were 3683 CHD cases over 22 years of follow-up. Participants in the top quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake had a 20% higher relative risk of CHD than those in the bottom quartile (RR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.33, p for trend < 0.01) after adjusting for age, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, multivitamins, family history, diet quality, energy intake, BMI, pre-enrollment weight change and dieting. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption was not significantly associated with CHD (multivariate RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.12, p for trend = 0.28). Adjustment for self-reported high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure and diagnosed type 2 diabetes slightly attenuated these associations. Intake of sugar-sweetened but not artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with increased triglycerides, CRP, IL6, TNFr1, TNFr2, decreased HDL, Lp(a), and leptin (p values < 0.02). Conclusions Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of CHD and some adverse changes in lipids, inflammatory factors, and leptin. Artificially sweetened beverage intake was not associated with CHD risk or biomarkers.

de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S.; Kellogg, Mark D.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

2012-01-01

78

Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. PMID:23765203

Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

2014-07-01

79

[Sweeteners: between myth and reality].  

PubMed

As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes are continually increasing, the use of "false sugars" otherwise known as sweeteners, and their associated health issues are being more and more discussed. A higher sugared power, less calories as well as a moderated or non-existent effect on blood sugar would lead to believe that sweeteners are helpful. However, we CANNOT say that they are THE solution as they can contain calories, may have some undesired effects, and moreover they ease the conscience without actually allowing a weight loss with their sole use. They are to be used with judgment, wittingly and especially when comparing sweetened products. The sweetener myth is often far from reality. It is therefore important to give our patients the means to analyze their dietary intake with regard to their sweeteners ingestion. PMID:19462612

Clarisse, Muriel; Di Vetta, Véronique; Giusti, Vittorio

2009-03-25

80

First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100–150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all organs and tissues collected was routinely performed on each animal of all experimental groups. The results of the study show for the first time that APM, in our experimental conditions, causes a) an increased incidence of malignant-tumor–bearing animals with a positive significant trend in males (p ? 0.05) and in females (p ? 0.01), in particular those females treated at 50,000 ppm (p ? 0.01); b) an increase in lymphomas and leukemias with a positive significant trend in both males (p ? 0.05) and females (p ? 0.01), in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (p ? 0.01), 50,000 (p ? 0.01), 10,000 (p ? 0.05), 2,000 (p ? 0.05), or 400 ppm (p ? 0.01); c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend (p ? 0.01), of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter and their precursors (dysplasias) in females treated at 100,000 (p ? 0.01), 50,000 (p ? 0.01), 10,000 (p ? 0.01), 2,000 (p ? 0.05), or 400 ppm (p ? 0.05); and d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of peripheral nerves with a positive trend (p ? 0.05) in males. The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM is a multipotential carcinogenic agent, even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, much less than the current acceptable daily intake. On the basis of these results, a reevaluation of the present guidelines on the use and consumption of APM is urgent and cannot be delayed.

Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

2006-01-01

81

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

2012-05-01

82

Thermoanalytical studies of some sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition behavior of acesulfame-K (ACK), aspartame (ASP), sodium cyclamate (SCL), saccharine (SAC), and sodium\\u000a saccharine (SSA) were investigated. After re-crystallization of the commercial samples the compounds were characterized by\\u000a using elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and thermoanalytical techniques (TG\\/DTG, DTA, and DSC). Evidences of hydrate water\\u000a loss were observed for SSA and ASP. Melting was detected for SSA and

Lucinéia Cristina de Carvalho; Milena Pinotti Segato; Ronaldo Spezia Nunes; Csaba Novak; Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro

2009-01-01

83

Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6?J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50?mg/Kgbw/day) caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) P?Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6?J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

2012-01-01

84

The hydration/dehydration behavior of aspartame revisited.  

PubMed

Aspartame, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, has two hydrates (IA and IB), a hemi-hydrate (IIA) and an anhydrate (IIB). The hydration/dehydration behavior of aspartame was investigated using hot-humidity stage X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and molecular mechanics modeling in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of this study are compared to earlier studies on aspartame as described in literature. It is shown that earlier transition studies were hampered by incomplete conversions and wrong assignment of the forms. The combination of the techniques applied in this study now shows consistent results for aspartame and yields a clear conversion scheme for the hydration/dehydration behavior of the four forms. PMID:18207687

Guguta, C; Meekes, H; de Gelder, R

2008-03-13

85

Preservatives and artifical sweeteners.  

PubMed

Twenty saccharin-containing table sweeteners, in the form of tablets, liquids, crystals, or blends, and manufactured or distributed by 15 different companies, were analyzed for their o-toluenesulfonamide (o-TS) content. A previously described procedure for the determination of o-TS in commercial saccharin was found to be applicable to the determination of o-TS in these preparations. o-TS was found in all analyzed samples, in amounts ranging from 57 to 3811 ppm. In some cases the concentration of o-TS varied even from lot to lot from the same manufacturer. One pair of lots contained 57 and 67 ppm o-TS, respectively, while in another 711 and 3003 PPM O-TS were found. Gas-liquid chromatographic patterns of samples from the same distributor (or manufacturer) were similar and characteristic of the brand. Recoveries of o-TS from liquid and tablet preparations were almost quantitative, while recoveries from saccharin blends were in the 95-103% range. PMID:1141168

Stavric, B; Klassen, R

1975-05-01

86

Beta-Ketocarboxyl and Phosphonate Dihydrochalcone Sweeteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns synthetic sweeteners. More particularly, it concerns a new group of substituted dihydrochalcone compounds, their use as sweeteners for edible compositions such as foodstuffs, and certain amino dihydrochalcone intermediates.

G. E. Dubois

1981-01-01

87

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

Szöll?Si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2011-09-01

88

Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

1990-03-01

89

Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake behavior is not so simple and still many people tend to consume more calories than they burn and

P. A. M. Smeets

2010-01-01

90

An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

B?y?k, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

2009-10-01

91

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a...

2009-04-01

92

Use of Low Absorptive Sweeteners in Cakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present project was designed to study the effect of low absorptive sweeteners i.e. fructose, sorbitol, and mannitol on the cakes by replacing the sucrose to make dietetic cakes for energy conscious people. Eight different treatments depending upon different levels of sweeteners were prepared. Sensory evaluation of the cakes at different intervals of storage was carried out to find the

M. S. BUTT; IMRAN PASHA; F. TUFAIL; F. M. ANJUM

93

Hyperactivity and sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

94

Alzheimer's Myths  

MedlinePLUS

... the Brain Tour Ask a librarian Myth 1: Memory loss is a natural part of aging. Reality: ... aluminum pose any threat. Myth 5: Aspartame causes memory loss. Reality: This artificial sweetener, marketed under such ...

95

Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information  

MedlinePLUS

... are continuously doing research to determine whether particular natural or manmade substances cause cancer. Research shows that the following are not likely to cause cancer: cell phones, microwaves, fluoridated water, hair dyes, deodorants, sugar, artificial sweeteners like saccharin and aspartame, ...

96

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 86-035-2224, Nabisco Brands, Inc., Seville, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a request from the United Food and Commercial Workers Union Local 880, an investigation was begun of possible airway irritation symptoms among workers exposed to the artificial food sweetener aspartame (22839470) at Nabisco Brands, Inc. (SI...

G. A. Burr B. P. Bernard

1992-01-01

97

Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aspartame analogue, L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond. The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature. In this analogue, the hydrogen of amide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the

Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

2004-01-01

98

Incidence of brain tumors in rats fed aspartame.  

PubMed

The brain tumorigenicity of aspartame (APM) and of its diketopiperazine (DKP) was studied in 860 SCL Wistar rats. APM at dietary levels of 1 g/kg, 2 gK/, 4 g/kg or APM + DKP (3:1) 4 g/kg was fed for 104 weeks. One atypical astrocytoma was found in a control rat and 2 astrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas and 1 ependymoma were scattered among the 4 test groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of brain tumors between control and test groups. It is concluded that neither AMP nor DKP caused brain tumors in rats in this study. PMID:7245229

Ishii, H

1981-03-01

99

The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

Stein, Paul J.

1997-09-01

100

Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

Çak?r, S.; Co?kun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, ?.; ?çbudak, H.; Çak?r, O.

2002-08-01

101

The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the procedures used in an experiment that reinforces the universality of the concepts of saturation using the binding of the ligand aspartame to the protein receptor that determines taste. Illustrates the hyperbolic nature of protein binding. (DDR)

Stein, Paul J.

1997-01-01

102

Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and cyclamate in dietary products at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. In square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of aspartame and cyclamate present in binary mixtures by about 400mV. The detection limit for aspartame in the

Roberta Antigo Medeiros; Adriana Evaristo de Carvalho; Romeu C. Rocha-Filho; Orlando Fatibello-Filho

2008-01-01

103

The determination of mixtures of some artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

A scheme is suggested for the analysis of mixtures of saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate and sorbitol. It depends upon: --Determination of saccharin sodium by precipitation of silver saccharinate. --Determination of sodium cyclamate by spectrophotometric titration with sodium nitrite. --Complexometric determination of sorbitol via its copper complex. PMID:724760

Amer, M M; Haroun, I A; Walash, M I; Ashour, F M

1978-07-01

104

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

...any combination of two or more of these salts, in a quantity reasonably necessary to...permits the use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of carrageenan standardized with nutritive...a dry-weight basis), carrageenan or salts of carrageenan complying with the...

2014-04-01

105

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

...pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...statement “thickened with pectin”. When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of two or more of these is...

2014-04-01

106

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) of this section permits the use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of carrageenan...in paragraph (a) of this section are pectin, agar-agar, carob bean gum (also...combination of two or more of these. Pectin may be standardized with a nutritive...

2010-04-01

107

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) of this section permits the use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of carrageenan...in paragraph (a) of this section are pectin, agar-agar, carob bean gum (also...combination of two or more of these. Pectin may be standardized with a nutritive...

2009-04-01

108

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Such packing medium may be thickened with pectin and may contain any mixture of any edible...If the packing medium is thickened with pectin, the label shall bear the statement âthickened with pectinâ. When any organic salt or acid...

2010-04-01

109

Estudo das interacoes de aminoacidos e o peptideo aspartame com ions lantanidios (III). (Interaction study of amino acids and the peptide aspartame with lanthanide (III) ions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interactions between the Nd(III) ion with the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-histidine and the peptide aspartame in aqueous solution were studied. The study was conducted by means of electronic spectroscopy with the Judd-Ofelt form...

C. R. Carubelli

1990-01-01

110

Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h?¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

2014-01-01

111

Sweet Taste Affinity and the Consumption of Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two studies, rats bred to consume high amounts of saccharin solution (HiS) and rats bred to consume low amounts of saccharin solution (LoS) were tested on their preference for two sweeteners. One sweetener was the powder form of stevia, a plant extract that is 200 ? 300 times sweeter than sugar. The supply of stevia came from a commercial

Kiana Dobson

2010-01-01

112

Blood methanol concentrations in normal adult subjects administered abuse doses of aspartame.  

PubMed

Blood methanol concentrations were measured in 30 normal adult subjects administered aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester. The doses studied included the 99th percentile of projected daily ingestion (34 mg/kg body weight) and three doses considered to be in the abuse range (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight). Methanol concentrations were below the level of detection (0.4 mg/dl) in the blood of the 12 normal subjects who ingested aspartame at 34 mg/kg. They were significantly elevated (p less than or equal to 0 .001) after ingestion of each abuse dose, with the mean peak blood methanol concentrations and the areas under the blood methanol concentration-time curve increasing in proportion to dose. Mean (+/- SD) peak blood methanol concentrations were 1.27 +/- 0.48 mg/dl at the 100 mg/kg dose, 2.14 +/- 0.35 mg/dl at the 150 mg/kg dose, and 2.58 +/- 0.78 mg/dl at the 200 mg/kg dose. Blood methanol concentrations returned to predosing levels by 8 h after administration of the 100 mg/kg dose. Methanol was still detected in the blood 8 h after the subjects had ingested aspartame at 150 or 200 mg/kg. Blood formate analyses were carried out in the 6 subjects who ingested aspartame at 200 mg/kg, since recent studies indicate that the toxic effects of methanol are due to formate accumulation. No significant increase in blood formate concentrations over predosing concentrations was noted. No changes were noted in any of the blood chemistry profile parameters measured 24 h after aspartame ingestion, compared to values noted before administration. Similarly, no differences were noted in ophthalmologic examinations carried out before and after aspartame loading. PMID:7230276

Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; McMartin, K; Martin-Amat, G; Filer, L J; Baker, G L; Tephly, T R

1981-02-01

113

Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.  

PubMed

The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

2014-04-01

114

Hunger and negative alliesthesia to aspartame and sucrose in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls.  

PubMed

The present study explores sweet stimuli effects on hunger and negative alliesthesia in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls. Those phenomena were examined in relation to previous weight gain, eating and weight-related cognitions and type of sweet stimuli: aspartame or sucrose. Alliesthesia is delayed in participants who gained weight regardless of cross group differences. A similar reduction of hunger was observed after the intake of two kinds of sweet stimuli (aspartame or sucrose) whereas alliesthesia measures were not affected. Whereas atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain is linked to delayed satiety, the phenomenon is similar in magnitude in non-psychiatric controls who gained weight. PMID:20179410

Khazaal, Y; Chatton, A; Claeys, F; Ribordy, F; Khan, R; Zullino, D

2009-12-01

115

Hypothalamic morphology following ingestion of aspartame or MSG in the neonatal rodent and primate: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal mice received oral doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 g\\/kg or aspartame at levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g\\/kg. Hypothalamic lesions were encountered at dose levels equal to or exceeding 0.5 g\\/kg (MSG) and 1.0 g\\/kg (aspartame). Aspartame administration resulted in a much smaller hypothalamic lesion than did equal

W. Ann Reynolds; Veronica Butler

1976-01-01

116

Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

2012-11-01

117

Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg\\/kg aspartame 14C-labelled in the methanol carbon. At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several organs was investigated. Most of the radioactivity found (> 98 % min plasma, > 75 % min liver) was bound to protein. Label present in liver, plasma and kidney

C. Trocho; R. Pardo; I. Rafecas; J. Virgili; X. Remesar; J. A. Fernández-López; M. Alemany

1998-01-01

118

Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of free amino acids in adult humans administered abuse doses of aspartame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of amino acids were measured in 18 fasting adult subjects (9 male, 9 female) administered abuse doses of aspartame (100, 150, and 200 mg\\/kg body weight) dissolved in 500 ml orange juice. Six subjects were studied at each dose. Plasma aspartate concentrations increased significantly (p ?0.05) over baseline values after ingestion of each dose. However, the

Lewis D. Stegink; L. J. Filer Jr; George L. Baker

1981-01-01

119

Detection of Clostridium botulinum in natural sweetening.  

PubMed

Various sugar products were examined for contamination with C. botulinum spores. Type A, B and C spores were detected in three of 56 samples of sugar for apiculture, which may attest the significance of bee-feed as a source of contamination of honey. The heavy contamination of honey with C. botulinum spores sometimes encountered, however, can not be explained unless some other factors, e.g., that allowing germination and multiplication of the spores somewhere during honey production, are found. Type A spores were detected in some samples of raw sugar and molasses and also in two of 41 samples of brown sugar lump, but not in refined sugar or other various samples taken at a sugar factory or in sugar cane left on the field in Okinawa. The fact that some natural sweetenings are contaminated with C. botulinum spores, even in low concentrations, may be food-hygienically important. PMID:1445754

Nakano, H; Yoshikuni, Y; Hashimoto, H; Sakaguchi, G

1992-06-01

120

Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged

JOANNE F GUTHRIE; JOAN F MORTON

2000-01-01

121

An Electronic Tongue: Evaluation of the Masking Efficacy of Sweetening and/or Flavoring Agents on the Bitter Taste of Epinephrine  

PubMed Central

An epinephrine (E) tablet is under development for sublingual (SL) administration for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis; however, the inherent bitterness of E may hinder acceptability by patients, especially children. To assess the degree of E bitterness and to predict the masking effects of sweetening and/or flavoring non-medicinal ingredients (NMIs), the potential usefulness of an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) was evaluated. The e-Tongue sensors were conditioned, calibrated, and tested for taste discrimination. Six standard active pharmaceutical ingredients were used to build and validate a bitterness model which was then used to assess E bitartrate (EB) solutions from 0.3–9 mM. Taste-masking efficiency of aspartame (ASP), acesulfame potassium (ASK), and citric acid (CA) each at 0.5 mM was evaluated. Using EB 9 mM, the bitterness score was 20 on a scale of 20 (unacceptable) down to 1 (not detected). When NMIs 0.5 mM were added, neither ASK (17.2, unacceptable) nor was ASP (14.0, limit acceptable) effective in masking the bitter taste. When the combination of ASK and ASP was used, the bitterness score was reduced to 9.2 (acceptable). However, the addition of CA alone resulted in the best reduction of the bitterness score to 3.3 (not detected). Using the e-Tongue, the incorporation of a variety of sweetening and/or flavoring NMIs into a SL tablet of E could be shown to mask its bitter taste by up to 80%. These results should be confirmed by in vivo studies.

Simons, F. Estelle R.; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Simons, Keith J.

2010-01-01

122

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated whether taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) would improve the diets of households in Brazil. Methods. We used household food consumption data that the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics collected in 2002–2003 from a nationally representative sample of 48 470 Brazilian households. The consumption of SSBs is expressed as the total SSB calories consumed and as the SSB percentage of the total calories purchased. We investigated price elasticity with regression models, controlling for demographic variables, income, and prices of all other foods and drinks. Results. Increases in the price of SSBs led to reductions in consumption. A 1.00% increase in the price of SSBs led to a 0.85% reduction of SSB calories consumed (1.03% reduction for the poor and 0.63% for the nonpoor). Increased income had a positive effect on SSB consumption, but the effect was less than half the size of the price elasticity (0.41% increase in SSB calories consumed for every 1.00% increase in income). Conclusions. High SSB price elasticity in Brazil indicates that a tax on purchased weight or volume would lead to reductions in SSB consumption.

Levy, Renata B.; Popkin, Barry M.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

2012-01-01

123

Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a within-subjects design, we gave over- weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 mm after the preload was completed. Blood was drawn throughout and assayed for concentrations of

Judith Rodin

124

Blood methanol concentrations in normal adult subjects administered abuse doses of aspartame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood methanol concentrations were measured in 30 normal adult subjects administered aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester. The doses studied included the 99th percentile of projected daily ingestion (34 mg\\/kg body weight) and three doses considered to be in the abuse range (100, 150, and 200 mg\\/kg body weight). Methanol concentrations were below the level of detection (0.4 mg\\/dl) in the

Lewis D. Stegink; Marvin C. Brummel; K. McMartin; L. J. Filer Jr; G. L. Baker; T. R. Tephly

1981-01-01

125

Effect of an Abuse Dose of Aspartame upon Plasma and Erythrocyte Levels of Amino Acids in Phenylketonuric Heterozygous and Normal Adults1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte levels of free amino acids were measured in five female subjects known to be heterozygous for phenylketonuria and six subjects assumed to be normal (three male, three female) who were ad ministered an abuse dose of aspartame (100 mg\\/kg) in orange juice. Small increases in plasma aspartate levels were noted 30 minutes after aspartame load ing in

LEWIS D. STEGINK; L. J. FILER JR.; GEORGE L. BAKER; ANDJEAN E. MCDONNELL

126

Converting to DEA\\/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine

MICHAEL L. SPEARS; KATHY M. HAGAN; JERRY A. BULLIN; CARL J. MICHALIK

1996-01-01

127

What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

2014-01-01

128

A review of the effectiveness of aspartame in helping with weight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Strategies to reverse the upward trend in obesity rates need to focus on both reduc- ing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. The provision of low- or reduced-energy-dense foods is one way of helping people to reduce their energy intake and so enable weight maintenance or weight loss to occur. The use of intense sweeteners as a substitute for

A. de la Hunty; S. Gibson; M. Ashwell

2006-01-01

129

Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

2000-10-01

130

Soft drinks, sweetened beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drinks usually contain sugar and caffeine that might influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. We considered the association\\u000a between carbonated drink consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case–control study conducted in 1991–2008 on\\u000a 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 matched controls. We also combined the results from all the studies on soft drinks or\\u000a sweetened beverages and pancreatic cancer published

Silvano Gallus; Federica Turati; Alessandra Tavani; Jerry Polesel; Renato Talamini; Silvia Franceschi; Carlo La Vecchia

2011-01-01

131

Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (1960–2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans.

Rother, Kristina I.

2012-01-01

132

Safety and Efficacy of Aspartame-Based Liquid Versus Sucrose-Based Liquids Used for Dilution in Oral Sodium Phosphate Solutions for Colonoscopy Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear\\u000a liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as\\u000a the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different\\u000a OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based

Sherman M. Chamberlain; J. Carter Balart; Kostas Sideridis; Jefrey Salek; Subbaramiah Sridhar; William O. Thompson

2007-01-01

133

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Temporal increases in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have paralleled the rise in obesity prevalence, but whether the intake of such beverages interacts with the genetic predisposition to adiposity is unknown. METHODS We analyzed the interaction between genetic predisposition and the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) and obesity risk in 6934 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and in 4423 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and also in a replication cohort of 21,740 women from the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS). The genetic-predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 32 BMI-associated loci. The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages was examined prospectively in relation to BMI. RESULTS In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, the genetic association with BMI was stronger among participants with higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages than among those with lower intake. In the combined cohorts, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.00 for an intake of less than one serving per month, 1.12 for one to four servings per month, 1.38 for two to six servings per week, and 1.78 for one or more servings per day (P<0.001 for interaction). For the same categories of intake, the relative risks of incident obesity per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.59), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.28 to 2.16), 1.58 (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.47), and 5.06 (95% CI, 1.66 to 15.5) (P = 0.02 for interaction). In the WGHS cohort, the increases in BMI per increment of 10 risk alleles were 1.39, 1.64, 1.90, and 2.53 across the four categories of intake (P = 0.001 for interaction); the relative risks for incident obesity were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.64), 1.50 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.93), 1.54 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.94), and 3.16 (95% CI, 2.03 to 4.92), respectively (P = 0.007 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS The genetic association with adiposity appeared to be more pronounced with greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.

Qi, Qibin; Chu, Audrey Y.; Kang, Jae H.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Hunter, David J.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

2012-01-01

134

Remineralization of Artificial Caries-like Lesions in Human Enamel in situ by Chewing Sorbitol Gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine quantitatively the effect on the potential for in situ remineralization of artificial caries-like lesions in human enamel when sugar-free gum containing mainly sorbitol as sweetener was chewed after meals and snacks. Artificial white-spot lesions were created in extracted human premolars and divided into three parts. One part was used as reference and

S. A. Leach; G. T. R. Lee; W. M. Edgar

1989-01-01

135

40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

2013-07-01

136

Membrane-based separation scheme for processing sweeteners from stevia leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In existing processes, extraction and refining of glycoside based sweeteners from stevia leaves involves many process steps including extraction by organic solvents. The purpose of the present study was to develop a process of extraction and refining of sweeteners with reduced number of unit operations and minimization and\\/or elimination of chemical usage including organic solvents. It was found that water

Shi Qiu Zhang; Ashwani Kumar; Oleh Kutowy

2000-01-01

137

A novel solid-phase extraction for the concentration of sweeteners in water and analysis by ion-pair liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive method for the simultaneous trace (ng/L) quantification of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in a variety of water samples using solid-phase extraction and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source (ESI-MS) in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring mode was developed. Ten solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were tested to evaluate their applicability for the pre-concentration of the analytes, and their loading and eluting parameters were optimized. Satisfactory recoveries (77-99%) of all of the studied sweeteners were obtained using a Poly-Sery PWAX cartridge with 25 mM sodium acetate solution (pH 4) as wash buffer and methanol containing 1mM tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (TRIS) as eluent. The method is sound and does not require pH adjustment or buffering of water samples. The HPLC separation was performed on an Athena C18-WP column with water and acetonitrile, both containing 5mM ammonium acetate and 1mM TRIS as mobile phases, in gradient elution mode. The linearity, precision, and accuracy of the method were evaluated, and good reproducibility was obtained. Method quantification limits varied between 0.4 and 7.5 ng/L for different water samples. The post-extraction spike method was applied to assess matrix effects, and quantification was achieved using internal standard calibration to overcome the unavoidable matrix effects during ESI-MS analysis. The method was applied to the analysis of thirteen water samples from Tianjin, China, including wastewater, tap water, surface water, and groundwater. The method described here is time-saving, accurate and precise, and is suitable for monitoring artificial sweeteners in different water matrices. PMID:23273631

Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ruonan; Feng, Biting

2013-01-25

138

Design and operation of a selective sweetening plant using MDEA  

SciTech Connect

The Signalta Resources Forestburg Gas Plant was constructed during the winter of 1983 and placed on stream in April of 1984. A design outlet gas specification of 1/4 grain H/sub 2/S/100 scf was requested to ensure meeting the contract commitment of 1 grain/100 scf. The design gas flowrate was 30 MMSCFD containing 0.5% H/sub 2/S and 3% CO/sub 2/ at 415 psia and 70/sup 0/F. The overall plant is configured as shown in Figure 1. Inlet separation facilities are followed by a feed gas heater. The gas stream then flows through a filter separator followed by the amine contactor. Another filter separator is used as a sweet gas scrubber. After sweetening, the gas is routed to a dew point control refrigeration unit. Finally, a single stage of compression is required to boost the gas to 1200 psig maximum pipeline pressure. The sweetening chemical selected for the Forestburg Plant was methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). This was chosen due to its capability to remove H/sub 2/S and leave a portion of the CO/sub 2/ in the residue gas. At the time of plant commissioning it was one of the first operating MDEA facilities in Western Canada.

MacKenzie, D.H.; Chiraka-Parambil, F.; Daniels, C.A.; Bullin, J.A.

1986-01-01

139

Impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on blood pressure.  

PubMed

The impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on blood pressure (BP) has been debated, with some evidence suggesting that their increased intake is related to higher risk of developing hypertension. We conducted a systematic review exploring the relation between consumption of SSB and BP. A comprehensive search in 5 electronic databases along with a bibliography search was performed. The keywords "sugar sweetened beverages," "sugary drinks," "added sugars," "blood pressure," and "hypertension" were indexed in all combinations. Studies were included that reported the effects of intake of SSBs on BP. We excluded studies with <100 subjects and those involving subjects aged <12 years. Of 605 potentially relevant studies, a total of 12 studies (409,707 participants) met our inclusion criteria; 6 were cross sectional studies, whereas the rest were prospective cohort studies. All 12 studies showed positive relation between increased SSB intake and hypertension; however, statistical significance was reported in 10 of these studies. Of the 12 studies, 5 reported an increase in mean BP whereas 7 reported an increase in the incidence of high BP. In conclusion, our systematic review shows that the consumption of SSBs is associated with higher BP, leading to increased incidence of hypertension. Restriction on SSB consumption should be incorporated in the recommendations of lifestyle modifications for the treatment of hypertension. Interventions to reduce intake of SSBs should be an integral part of public health strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension. PMID:24630785

Malik, Aaqib Habib; Akram, Yasir; Shetty, Suchith; Malik, Senada Senda; Yanchou Njike, Valentine

2014-05-01

140

The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. Methods We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. Results 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529

de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

2013-01-01

141

The influence of sweeteners in probiotic Petit Suisse cheese in concentrations equivalent to that of sucrose.  

PubMed

As in the case of probiotic functional foods in recent years, demand has increased notably for light or diet foods with added sweeteners. However, little is known about the effect of different sweeteners on the microorganisms present. Thus, the objective of the current study was to establish the ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of different sweeteners and to determine, by microbiological analyses, the influence of these compounds on the viability of the starter and probiotic cultures used in the production of strawberry-flavored Petit Suisse cheese during its shelf life. The ideal sucrose concentration was determined using the just-about-right (JAR) scale, and the equivalent concentrations of the sweeteners were subsequently determined by the magnitude estimation method. Microbiological analyses were also carried out to check the viability of the cultures during the product's shelf life. The results showed that the compounds Neotame (NutraSweet, Chicago, IL) and stevia presented, respectively, the greatest and least sweetening power of the sweeteners tested. None of the sweeteners used in this study exerted a negative effect on the viability of the starter or probiotic cultures, and thus we were able to obtain a probiotic, functional food with reduced calorie content. PMID:23810599

Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Pereira, E P R; Rodrigues, J B; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

2013-09-01

142

Converting to DEA/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity  

SciTech Connect

Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine (DEA) to a DEA/MDEA (methyl DEA) mixture after analysis by TSWEET, a process-simulation program. After conversion, CO{sub 2} levels in the sales gas fell to less than pipeline specifications. Data were taken for the absorber at a constant amine circulation of 120 gpm. A comparison of the performance data to the values calculated by the program proved the accuracy of TSWEET. The conversion and performance of the plant are described.

Spears, M.L. [Union Pacific Resources, Bryan, TX (United States); Hagan, K.M. [Union Pacific Resources, Ft. Worth, TX (United States); Bullin, J.A.; Michalik, C.J. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Bryan, TX (United States)

1996-08-12

143

Toxicity of aspartame and its diketopiperazine for Wistar rats by dietary administration for 104 weeks.  

PubMed

Aspartame (APM) or L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine, and a 3 : 1 combination of APM with its decomposition product, 5-benzyl-3,6-dioxo-2-piperazine acetic acid (DKP), were incorporated at levels of up to 4 g/kg in the diet of male and female Wistar rats from 6 weeks to 104 weeks of age. There was a dose-dependent depression of body weight gain at 2 and 4 g/kg AMP and at 4 g/kg APM + DKP in males, and at all dose levels in females, correlated with decreased food consumption and attributed to liberation of amino acids from hydrolysis of APM. Increases in urinary specific gravity and pH, with increase of relative kidney weight, were attributed to the urinary excretion DKP and acidic metabolites of APM. A dose-related increase in urinary calcium probably reflected increased calcium absorption, as from high protein diets. A slight decrease in serum cholesterol and an increase in relative spleen weight appeared to be without adverse effect. It is concluded that the treatments were without toxic effect. PMID:7281205

Ishii, H; Koshimizu, T; Usami, S; Fujimoto, T

1981-01-01

144

A hydro/organo/hybrid gelator: a peptide lipid with turning aspartame head groups.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel bola-type peptide lipid which can gelate water, organic solvents, and water/organic-solvent mixtures. In its molecular structure, an amphiphilic dipeptide aspartame (L-?-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is connected at both ends of an alkylene linker. The different morphologies in the hydrogel (helical nanotapes) and the organogel (tape-like nanostructures) were visualized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and energy-filtering scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and the molecular arrangement was examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Possessing a hydrophilic aspartic acid group and a (relatively) hydrophobic phenylalanine methyl ester group, the dipeptide head group can turn about in response to solvent polarity. As a consequence, the solvent condition changed the molecular packing of the gelator and affected the overall supramolecular structure of the gel. It is noted that the peptide lipid gelated mixed solvents of water and organic solvents such as dichloromethane, liquid-paraffin, olive-oil, silicone-oils, and so on. The present hybrid gel can simultaneously hold hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional materials. PMID:23394806

Mukai, Masaru; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Asakawa, Masumi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Kogiso, Masaki

2013-04-01

145

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

...any combination of two or more of these salts, in a quantity reasonably necessary to...permits the use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of carrageenan standardized with nutritive...a dry-weight basis), carrageenan or salts of carrageenan complying with the...

2014-04-01

146

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) of this section permits the use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of carrageenan...in paragraph (a) of this section are pectin, agar-agar, carob bean gum (also...combination of two or more of these. Pectin may be standardized with a nutritive...

2009-04-01

147

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...d) of this section permits the use of pectin, carrageenan, or salts of carrageenan...in paragraph (a) of this section are pectin, agar-agar, carob bean gum (also...combination of two or more of these. Pectin may be standardized with a nutritive...

2010-04-01

148

75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose, Galactose and Mannose); Thomson...special-purpose subzone at the xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose manufacturing...related to the manufacturing of xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose at the...

2010-02-26

149

21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions § 131.25 Whipped cream products containing flavoring...

2010-04-01

150

21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions § 131.25 Whipped cream products containing flavoring...

2013-04-01

151

Smooth Peas, Wrinkled Peas and Garbanzo Beans in Production of Sweetened Paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smooth peas, wrinkled peas and garbanzo beans were evaluated for production of sweetened paste with regard to yield and quality. Wrinkled peas required longer cooking times (6.5 h and 5.5 h) than smooth peas (2.5 h) and garbanzo beans (3.5 h). The yield of fine cotyledon particles which were used for production of sweetened paste was 65.8% for garbanzo bean

B. Klamczynska; Z. Czuchajowska; B.-K. Baik

2001-01-01

152

Development of Taste Sensor with LB Films for Measurement of High-intensity Sweetener  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, development of taste sensor is furthered for quality control of foods. In this study, we developed taste sensor with stearic acid LB films for measurement of high-intensity sweetener taste. We measured several high-intensity sweeteners with the number of layers of stearic acid LB films as 10 and 20 layers. And we also measured mixed high-intensity sweeteners. The result showed that the stearic acid LB films taste sensor was used to detect glucose and high-intensity sweeteners at a threshold level of taste. Stearic acid LB films sensor detects different response by mixed ratio of high-intensity sweeteners. In addition, we compared difference of sensor responses by three kind of storing conditions (vacuum vessel, KCl solution and the air storing). The result showed that the structure of stearic acid LB films is easily affected by moisture in storage environment. This study indicated that the modification of stearic acid LB film layers and materials makes it possible to develop high sensitivity and selectivity taste sensor for sweeteners.

Asami, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yuki; Ando, Ki; Uchida, Hidekazu; Yaji, Tamaki

153

Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-9  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods.

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2012-01-01

154

Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal. PMID:24159687

Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

2012-10-01

155

Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract, aspartame and cyclamate\\/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special diets are used to mitigate many human diseases. When these diets require changes in carbohydrate content, then sweetness becomes an important characteristic. The range of low-calorie sweeteners available to the food industry is expanding. It is essential to have an exact knowledge of the relative sweetness of various sweeteners in relation to different sucrose concentrations. The objective of this

H. M. A. B. Cardello; M. A. P. A. Da Silva; M. H. Damasio

1999-01-01

156

Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.  

PubMed

Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables. PMID:20199453

Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

2009-01-01

157

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book is an overview of the field of artificial intelligence. The work emphasizes natural language comprehension and knowledge-based reasoning by computers and analyzes the main difficulties involved in making intelligent programs. Representations of knowledge and reasoning mechanisms are provided and applications of artificial intelligence techniques in the development of expert systems are explored.

Bonnet, A.

1986-01-01

158

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2013-04-01

159

Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora  

PubMed Central

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli.

Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

2009-01-01

160

Artificial urushi.  

PubMed

A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

2001-11-19

161

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)  

PubMed Central

Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ?2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04–2.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (Ptrend?=?0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR?=?2.22; 95% CI, 1.29–3.81, Ptrend?=?0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients.

Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

162

Evaluating equity critiques in food policy: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy - modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet - and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program (SNAP) assistance (i.e., food stamps). We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were made to the sweetened beverage exclusion, and analyze these objections in terms of the theoretical notions of distributive equality and social equality. First, the sweetened beverage exclusion is unfair or violates distributive equality because it restricts the consumer choice of SNAP participants relative to non-participants. Second, it is disrespectful or violates social equality to prohibit SNAP participants from purchasing sweetened beverages with food stamps. We conclude that neither equity-based ethical objection is decisive, and that the proposed exclusion of sugar-sweetened beverages is not a violation of either distributive or social equality. PMID:23581672

Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F

2013-01-01

163

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models.

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

164

Banning All Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Middle Schools  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether state policies that regulate beverages in schools are associated with reduced in-school access and purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and reduced consumption of SSBs (in and out of school) among adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Public schools in 40 states. Participants Students sampled in fifth and eighth grades (spring 2004 and 2007, respectively). Main Exposures State policies that ban all SSBs and state policies that ban only soda for 2006-2007. Main Outcome Measures In-school SSB access, in-school SSB purchasing behavior, and overall SSB consumption (in and out of school) in eighth grade. Results The proportions of eighth-grade students who reported in-school SSB access and purchasing were similar in states that banned only soda (66.6% and 28.9%, respectively) compared with states with no beverage policy (66.6% and 26.0%, respectively). In states that banned all SSBs, fewer students reported in-school SSB access (prevalence difference, ?14.9; 95% CI, ?23.6 to ?6.1) or purchasing (?7.3; ?11.0 to ?3.5), adjusted for race/ethnicity, poverty status, locale, state obesity prevalence, and state clustering. Results were similar among students who reported access or purchasing SSBs in fifth grade compared with those who did not. Overall SSB consumption was not associated with state policy; in each policy category, approximately 85% of students reported consuming SSBs at least once in the past 7 days. Supplementary analyses indicated that overall consumption had only a modest association with in-school SSB access. Conclusion State policies that ban all SSBs in middle schools appear to reduce in-school access and purchasing of SSBs but do not reduce overall consumption.

Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

2014-01-01

165

The Relationships between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiometabolic Markers in Young Children  

PubMed Central

Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated as a major contributor to the development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease. Objective To evaluate the relationships between sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiometabolic markers in young children. Design A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Participants A total of 4,880 individuals aged 3 to 11 years from nationally representative samples of US children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2004 were studied. Main outcome measures Concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and C-reactive protein as well as waist circumference and body mass index percentile for age–sex. Statistical analyses performed Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine independent associations between each outcome variable and the number of serving equivalents of sugar-sweetened beverages consumed after adjusting for age, sex, race, poverty status, physical activity, and energy intake. Results Increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased C-reactive protein concentrations (P=0.003), increased waist circumference (P=0.04), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P=0.001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated differences in the association of sugar-sweetened beverage intake with metabolic markers and anthropometric measurements among age ranges, sex, and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis of children's dietary data, sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with alterations in lipid profiles, increased markers of inflammation, and increased waist circumference in children. Prospective studies are needed, but awareness of these trends is essential in combating the growing metabolic and cardiovascular disease burden in the pediatric population.

Kosova, Ethan C.; Auinger, Peggy; Bremer, Andrew A.

2014-01-01

166

CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF SUGAR SWEETENED BEVERAGES IN THE UNITED STATES  

PubMed Central

Background Few previous studies investigated consumption distributions of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control. Objective To assess consumption patterns and individual-level associations. Design Trend and cross-sectional analyses of 24-hour dietary recall data and demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2000, 2001–2002, 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008). Participants/setting Children (2–11 years, N=8,627), adolescents (12–19 years, N=8,922), young adults (20–34 years, N=5,933), and middle-aged and elder adults (?35 years, N=16,456). Statistical analyses performed Age-stratified regression analyses for SSBs overall and by subtypes. Results The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption (?500 kcal/day) increased among children (4% to 5%) although it decreased among adolescents (22% to 16%) and young adults (29% to 20%). Soda was the most heavily-consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/energy drink consumption tripled (4% to 12%) among adolescents. Black children and adolescents showed a higher odds of heavy fruit drink consumption (OR=1.71 and 1.67) than whites. Low-income children had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (OR=1.93) and higher caloric intake from total SSBs and fruit drinks (by 23 and 27 kcal/day) than high-income children. Adolescents with low- versus high-educated parents had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (OR=1.28) and higher caloric intake from total SSBs and soda (by 27 and 21 kcal/day). Low- versus high-SES was associated with a higher odds of heavy consumption of total SSBs, soda, and fruit drinks among adults. Conclusions Prevalence of soda consumption fell but non-traditional SSBs rose. Heterogeneity of heavy consumption by SSB types across racial/ethnic subpopulations and higher odds of heavy SSB consumption among low-SES populations should be considered in targeting policies to encourage healthful beverage consumption.

Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

167

Artificial Paranoia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A case of artificial paranoia was synthesized in the form of a computer model. Using the test operations of a teletyped psychiatric interview, clinicians judge the input-output behavior of the model to be paranoid. Formal validation of the model will requ...

K. M. Colby S. Weber F. D. Hilf

1970-01-01

168

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

Wash, Darrel Patrick

1989-01-01

169

Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2012-01-01

170

Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

171

Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

2012-01-01

172

Formulation of health drinks using natural sweetener, its HPTLC method development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Mulethi, Awala, Shatavari, Gokharu, Arjun, Giloy, Safed musli, Kalimirchi, Haldi, Jaiphal was used as an active ingredients and aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceutical in health dinks. The product was developed by treating concentrates of each crude drug with purified water. TLC profile, HPTLC method development and validation were carried out using Gallic acid

S. B. Bhise; V. R. Salunkhe

173

Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

2007-01-01

174

The possible role of sugar-sweetened beverages in obesity etiology: a review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the second half of the last century, soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have assumed an increasingly significant proportion of total energy intake in the US and most ‘westernized’ populations. These beverages are heavily marketed to youth and adults. As such, obesity researchers and public health activists and officials have targeted SSB as one of the primary culprits

M A Pereira

2006-01-01

175

Nutritional and energetic consequences of sweetened drink consumption in 6- to 13-year-old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the effects of excessive sweetened drink consumption on daily energy balance and nutrient intake in a longitudinal study of children. Subjects and methods Daily dietary intakes of 30 children aged 6 to 13 years old were collected over 4 to 8 weeks. Weights and heights of children were measured at the beginning and end of the study

Gordana Mrdjenovic; David A. Levitsky

2003-01-01

176

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among a Subset of Canadian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may play a role in increased rates of obesity. This study examined patterns and frequencies of beverage consumption among youth in 3 distinct regions in Canada, and examined associations between beverage consumption and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dieting behavior, as well as…

Vanderlee, Lana; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna; Hanning, Rhona; Hammond, David

2014-01-01

177

Separation and Determination of Stevia Sweeteners by Capillary Electrophoresis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the separation of steviol glycosides in stevia sweeteners including stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C and dulcoside A by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography was investigated. A simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method was developed. The results were compared with those obtained by HPLC. The individual steviol glycosides were obtained by HPLC fraction collection, and peaks

J. Liu; S. F. Y. Li

1995-01-01

178

Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).  

PubMed

In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23341001

Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

2013-05-01

179

Artificial Rheotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul

2013-03-01

180

Artificial Photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional channel materials, such as zeolites and mesoporous silicas, are very attractive hosts for the preparation\\u000a and investigation of hierarchically organized structures, presenting a successive ordering from the molecular up to macroscopic\\u000a scale. The focus of this article is on artificial photonic antenna systems and on photocatalytically active layers that have\\u000a been built by incorporating organic dyes, complexes, metal cations

Gion Calzaferri

2010-01-01

181

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-11

182

Cognitive and home environmental predictors of change in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption may increase risk for unnecessary weight gain. To develop interventions discouraging consumption, more insight is needed about cognitive and environmental predictors related to the decrease in SSB consumption.

183

Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?  

PubMed

The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

2011-04-01

184

Mutagenicity and human chromosomal effect of stevioside, a sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

PubMed Central

Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni have been popularly used as a sweetener in foods and beverages for diabetics and obese people due to their potent sweetener stevioside. In this report, stevioside and steviol were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 and for chromosomal effects on cultured human lymphocytes. Stevioside was not mutagenic at concentrations up to 25 mg/plate, but showed direct mutagenicity to only TA98 at 50 mg/plate. However, steviol did not exhibit mutagenicity in either TA98 or TA100, with or without metabolic activation. No significant chromosomal effect of stevioside and steviol was observed in cultured blood lymphocytes from healthy donors (n = 5). This study indicates that stevioside and steviol are neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in vitro at the limited doses; however, in vivo genotoxic tests and long-term effects of stevioside and steviol are yet to be investigated.

Suttajit, M; Vinitketkaumnuen, U; Meevatee, U; Buddhasukh, D

1993-01-01

185

Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Fructose and Glucose Sweetened Beverages with Meals in Obese Men and Women: Influence of Insulin Resistance on Plasma Triglyceride Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates post- prandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in obese subjects has not been studied. Objective: Compare the effects of fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages consumed with meals on hormones and

Karen L. Teff; Joanne Grudziak; Raymond R. Townsend; Tamara N. Dunn; Ryan W. Grant; Sean H. Adams; Nancy L. Keim; Bethany P. Cummings; Kimber L. Stanhope; Peter J. Havel

2009-01-01

186

Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.  

PubMed

The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

2013-04-01

187

Chinchón declaration; decalogue on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS).  

PubMed

Multidisciplinary experts in the areas of nutrition and health met in Chinchón, Madrid, on November 25-26, 2013 under the auspices of the Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation) and with the collaboration of the Madrid Regional Government's Health Ministry, the International Sweeteners Association and the Carlos III Health Institute CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition. They analyzed the current status of scientific knowledge on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and developed a consensus Decalogue on their use; this constitutes the Chinchón Declaration. Sweeteners, including sugar, represent a subject of undeniable interest and are currently a popular topic, although areas relating to their safety and benefits remain unknown to segments of academia and the general public. The nature of LNCS makes them vulnerable to biased and even contradictory information. They are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements when non-nutritional or non-caloric alternatives are needed. The Chinchón Decalogue is the outcome of a meeting for reflection and consensus by a group of experts with backgrounds in different scientific disciplines (toxicology, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, physiology, food science, public health, pediatrics, endocrinology and nutrition, nursing, pharmaceutical care and food legislation). The Decalogue includes different aspects of LNCS related to regulation, use, benefits and safety. In general, benefits of LNCS have been traditionally neglected in comparison with the tendency for emphasising unexisting or unproven possible risks. The need to strengthen research on LNCS in Spain was emphasized, as well as the need to educate both professionals and the public. PMID:24679013

Serra-Majem, Lluís; Riobó Serván, Pilar; Belmonte Cortés, Susana; Anadón Navarro, Arturo; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Franco Vargas, Eladia; García-Closas, Reina; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Herrero Sancho, Elvira; La Vecchia, Carlo; López Díaz-Ufano, M Luisa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Vázquez Castro, Jesús; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Alcaraz-Cebrián, Francisca; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; González-Gomis, Mercedes; González-Gross, Marcela; Granado de la Orden, Susana; López-Sobaler, Ana María; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Polanco Allué, Isabel; Urrialde de Andrés, Rafael

2014-04-01

188

A simple turbidimetric flow injection system for saccharin determination in sweetener products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for saccharin determination in liquid sweetener products was developed. The method is based on the precipitation\\u000a reaction of Ag(I) ions with saccharin in aqueous medium (pH 3.0), using a flow injection analysis system with merging zones,\\u000a the suspension was stabilized with 5 g L?1 Triton X-100. All experimental parameters influencing the flow injection system were optimized by

Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Emiliane Pereira Laignier; Maisa Ribeiro Pereira Lima Brigagão; Pedro Orival Luccas; César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley

2010-01-01

189

A novel process for extraction of natural sweetener from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) is a very useful technique for recovering bioactive molecules from natural materials using subcritical compressed liquid water in the temperature range of 50–150°C. A novel process has been developed for making a natural sweetener from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots involving selective chemical reaction and easy separation, for recovering mono-ammonium glycyrrhizate (MAG) using hot water with

Mamata Mukhopadhyay; Palash Panja

2008-01-01

190

Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.  

PubMed

The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams. PMID:11534468

Kmiecik, W; Lisiewska, Z; Jaworska, G

2001-08-01

191

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.  

PubMed

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5-15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight. PMID:19815021

Figlewicz, D P; Ioannou, G; Bennett Jay, J; Kittleson, S; Savard, C; Roth, C L

2009-12-01

192

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined

D. P. Figlewicz; G. Ioannou; J. Bennett Jay; S. Kittleson; C. Savard; C. L. Roth

2009-01-01

193

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat  

PubMed Central

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5–15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight.

Figlewicz, D.P.; Ioannou, G.; Jay, J. Bennett; Kittleson, S.; Savard, C.; Roth, C.L.

2009-01-01

194

Biochemical and molecular control of cold-induced sweetening in potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of being able to process potatoes directly into chips or fries from cold storage (2 to 4 C) include less shrinkage,\\u000a retention of dry matter, decreased disease loss, extended marketability, and the elimination of the need for dormancy-prolonging\\u000a chemicals. Unfortunately at low temperature, potato tubers undergo a phenomenon known as cold-induced sweetening where the\\u000a rate of conversion of

Joseph R. Sowokinos

2001-01-01

195

Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.  

PubMed

The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5?mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250?mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5?mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2?h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. PMID:24684500

Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

2014-05-01

196

Artificial Hydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases.

Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

2010-01-01

197

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios predict intake of sweeteners in a Yup'ik study population.  

PubMed

The carbon isotope ratio (?¹³C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated ?¹³C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (?¹?N), can control for confounding dietary effects on ?¹³C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup'ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC ?¹³C and ?¹?N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both ?¹³C and ?¹?N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only ?¹³C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate "covariate" isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest. PMID:23256142

Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

2013-02-01

198

Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios Predict Intake of Sweeteners in a Yup'ik Study Population12  

PubMed Central

The carbon isotope ratio (?13C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated ?13C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (?15N), can control for confounding dietary effects on ?13C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup’ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC ?13C and ?15N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both ?13C and ?15N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only ?13C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate “covariate” isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest.

Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Boyer, Bert B.; O'Brien, Diane M.

2013-01-01

199

A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.)

Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.

2012-01-01

200

Life-Span Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning during Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study conducted at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation (CMCRC/ERF), we demonstrated for the first time that aspartame (APM) is a multipotent carcinogenic agent when various doses are administered with feed to Sprague-Dawley rats from 8 weeks of age throughout the life span. Objective The aim of this second study is to better quantify the carcinogenic risk of APM, beginning treatment during fetal life. Methods We studied groups of 70–95 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered APM (2,000, 400, or 0 ppm) with feed from the 12th day of fetal life until natural death. Results Our results show a) a significant dose-related increase of malignant tumor–bearing animals in males (p < 0.01), particularly in the group treated with 2,000 ppm APM (p < 0.01); b) a significant increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males treated with 2,000 ppm (p < 0.05) and a significant dose-related increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in females (p < 0.01), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.01); and c) a significant dose-related increase in incidence of mammary cancer in females (p < 0.05), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this carcinogenicity bioassay confirm and reinforce the first experimental demonstration of APM’s multipotential carcinogenicity at a dose level close to the acceptable daily intake for humans. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that when life-span exposure to APM begins during fetal life, its carcinogenic effects are increased.

Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Tibaldi, Eva; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lauriola, Michelina

2007-01-01

201

Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2014-01-01

202

Intake of high-intensity sweeteners alters the ability of sweet taste to signal caloric consequences: Implications for the learned control of energy and body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of noncaloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of noncaloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a

Terry L. Davidson; Ashley A. Martin; Kiely Clark; Susan E. Swithers

2011-01-01

203

New MDEA design in gas plant improves sweetening, reduces CO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests on a newly installed gas-sweetening unit at a Hungarian gas plant indicate that H[sub 2]S can be removed from inlet feed gas in a high-pressure system to less than 6 mg/cu m (4 ppmv) while rejecting most of the CO[sub 2]. This result was accomplished by use of significantly fewer amine contractor trays than in conventional practice and confirmed earlier computer simulations employed in the design phase. The paper describes the plant, the selective absorption process, the high-pressure stream being processed, the performance tests, and contributions by companies to the process development.

Law, D. (Titan Industrial Constructors Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1994-08-29

204

Amine-degradation products play no part in corrosion at gas-sweetening plants  

SciTech Connect

Gas-sweetening units using diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are occasionally subject to corrosion. Discounting the basic degradation products of DEA as the cause, researchers (1) confirmed the presence of formic, oxalic, and acetic acids in used amine solutions, (2) defined oxygen's role in forming these carboxylic acids, and (3) demonstrated that the acid contents of different units are about the same order of magnitude for both DEA and MDEA. In most cases, oxygen can be easily excluded from gas-treating units, especially in storage tanks, thereby limiting the formation of acid products.

Blanc, C.; Grall, M.; Demarais, G.

1982-11-15

205

Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract. PMID:24168664

Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

2013-01-01

206

Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink  

PubMed Central

Background Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions are engaged by the stimulation of sweet taste receptors by sucrose and by non-nutrient sweeteners and (ii) during visual food-related cues, obese subjects show greater brain responses to sucrose compared with lean controls. Methods In a double-blind, crossover design, 10 obese and 10 lean healthy females received a sucrose or a non-nutrient sweetened beverage prior to viewing food or neutral images. BOLD signal was measured using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Key Results Viewing food images after ingestion of either drink was associated with engagement of similar brain regions (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, anterior insula). Obese differed from lean subjects in behavioral and brain responses rating both beverages as less tasteful and satisfying, yet demonstrating greater brain responses. Obese subjects also showed engagement of an additional brain network (including anterior insula, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and amygdala) only after sucrose ingestion. Conclusions & Inferences Obese subjects had a reduced behavioral hedonic response, yet a greater engagement of affective brain networks, particularly after sucrose ingestion, suggesting that in obese subjects, lingual and gut-derived signaling generate less central hedonic effects than food-related memories in response to visual cues, analogous to response patterns implicated in food addiction.

Connolly, L.; Coveleskie, K.; Kilpatrick, L. A.; Labus, J. S.; Ebrat, B.; Stains, J.; Jiang, Z.; Tillisch, K.; Raybould, H. E.; Mayer, E. A.

2014-01-01

207

Effects of Sugar-sweetened Beverages on plasma Acylation Stimulating Protein, Leptin & Adiponectin and Metabolic Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective We determined the effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity. Design and Methods 32 overweight/obese adults consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages (25% energy requirement) with their ad libitum diets for 8 weeks, followed by sweetened beverage consumption for 2 weeks with a standardized, energy-balanced diet. Plasma variables were measured at baseline, 2, 8 and 10 weeks, and body adiposity and insulin sensitivity at baseline and 10 weeks. Results Fasting and postprandial ASP concentrations increased at 2 and/or 8 weeks. ASP increases correlated with changes in late-evening triglyceride concentrations. At 10 weeks, fasting adiponectin levels decreased in both groups, and decreases were inversely associated with baseline intra-abdominal fat volume. Sugar consumption increased fasting leptin concentrations; increases were associated with body weight changes. 24-h leptin profiles increased during glucose consumption and decreased during fructose consumption. These changes correlated with changes of 24-h insulin levels. Conclusions The consumption of fructose and glucose beverages induced changes in plasma concentrations of ASP, adiponectin and leptin. Further study is required to determine if these changes contribute to the metabolic dysfunction observed during fructose consumption.

Rezvani, Reza; Cianflone, Katherine; McGahan, John P.; Berglund, Lars; Bremer, Andrew A.; Keim, Nancy L.; Griffen, Steven C.; Havel, Peter J.; Stanhope, Kimber L.

2013-01-01

208

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

209

Artificial Heart Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The need for artificial heart devices; Basic objective of the artificial heart program; Temporary left ventricular assistance: (a) emergency devices to stabilize the circulation; (b) implantable assist pump; Total implantability: A prerequisite ...

1966-01-01

210

Artificial life and Piaget.  

PubMed

Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour. PMID:12691760

Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

2003-04-01

211

Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

2014-01-01

212

Aerobic biodegradability of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) used in natural gas sweetening plants in batch tests and continuous flow experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixtures of different amines including tertiary amines (methyldiethanolamine, MDEA) are commonly used for the removal of CO2 from gas mixtures or in gas sweetening processes for the extraction of CO2 and H2S. The absorber solutions used can be released into the industrial waste water due to continuous substitution of degraded MDEA, periodically cleaning processes or an accidental spill. In this

M. Fürhacker; A. Pressl; R. Allabashi

2003-01-01

213

Postprandial Effects of a New Low Calorie Sweetener on Plasma Glucose in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare the effects of a morning meal containing SugarLike, a low calorie sweetener, or sucrose on plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Eight subjects with type 2 diabetes were recruited. All of the subjects were being treated with diet and\\/or sulfonylurea medications; none were taking insulin. Subjects arrived fasting and after duplicate baseline blood samples were

Judy S. Hannah; Kathleen A. Jablonski; David C. Robbins

1998-01-01

214

Piloting "Sodabriety": A School-Based Intervention to Impact Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Rural Appalachian High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the largest source of added sugar in the US diet. In adolescents aged 12-19, these drinks account for 13% to 28% of total daily calories. Compared with other adolescents, those residing in Appalachia have the highest consumption rates of SSBs. Methods: Using a Teen Advisory Council (TAC), a…

Smith, Laureen H.; Holloman, Christopher

2014-01-01

215

Enhanced responses of the chorda tympani nerve to nonsugar sweeteners in the diabetic db/db mouse.  

PubMed

Genetically diabetic db/db mice show greater neural and behavioral responses to sugars than lean control mice. The present study examined chorda tympani responses of db/db mice to nonsugar sweeteners and their inhibition by a sweet response inhibitor, gurmarin. The results showed that responses to sucrose, saccharin, glycine, L-alanine, and D-tryptophan, but not to D-phenylalanine, were approximately 1.5 times greater in db/db mice than in control mice. Treatment of the tongue with gurmarin suppressed responses to these sweeteners in db/db and control mice, but the extent of suppression was considerably smaller in db/db mice. The magnitudes of gurmarin-sensitive components of the response to sweeteners in db/db mice were not significantly different from those in control mice, whereas the magnitudes of gurmarin-insensitive components in db/db mice were about twice as large as those in control mice. These results suggest that the enhancement of chorda tympani responses in db/db mice to sucrose and other nonsugar sweeteners may occur through gurmarin-insensitive membrane components. PMID:9644046

Ninomiya, Y; Imoto, T; Yatabe, A; Kawamura, S; Nakashima, K; Katsukawa, H

1998-05-01

216

In vitro metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, stevia mixture and enzymatically modified stevia in human intestinal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevia mixture, sweeteners extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, consists mainly of stevioside and rebaudioside A (glycosides of the diterpene derivative steviol). The aim of this study was to investigate human intestinal metabolism of stevia mixture and its ?-glucose derivative (known in Japan as enzymatically modified stevia) by LC\\/MS\\/ESI analysis. Degradation was examined by incubating stevia mixture, enzymatically

E Koyama; K Kitazawa; Y Ohori; O Izawa; K Kakegawa; A Fujino; M Ui

2003-01-01

217

Absorption and metabolism of glycosidic sweeteners of stevia mixture and their aglycone, steviol, in rats and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevia mixture, sweeteners extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, consists mainly of the glycosides of the diterpene derivative steviol. The aims of this study were to investigate the absorption (in rats) and the hepatic metabolism (in rats and humans) of both stevia mixture and steviol. Absorption was investigated both in vivo and ex vivo. In ex vivo experiments

Eriko Koyama; Norifumi Sakai; Yuji Ohori; Ken Kitazawa; Osamu Izawa; Kunio Kakegawa; Akiharu Fujino; Michio Ui

2003-01-01

218

Artificial intelligence in engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference which considered supercomputers, artificial intelligence, and expert systems. Topics covered at the conference included artificial intelligence in manufacturing and operations, expert system packages and tools, military applications, artificial intelligence in engineering design and development, decision support systems, engineering testing, decision support systems, expert management systems, and expert database systems.

Not Available

1985-01-01

219

Artificial dreams and lying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the relation between artificial dreams and lying. Artificial dreams are those dreams which a person consciously makes up when requested to do. Artificial dreams show the same processes as real dreams, and the latent thoughts always show the realization of wishes. They are as important as real dreams for the discovery of hidden complexes. They also demonstrate some of

A. A. Brill

1914-01-01

220

Demographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with Daily Sugar-sweetened Soda Consumption in New York City Adults  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption was defined as drinking one or more 12-oz servings of sugar-sweetened soda on an average day; 9,865 adults, aged 18 years and older, provided valid responses. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with frequent consumption, and linear regression models were used to assess the relation of frequent consumption to BMI. An estimated 27.5% of NYC adults are frequent sugar-sweetened soda consumers. Frequent consumption is independently associated with low household income (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1 for <200% vs. ?600% federal poverty level) and with ethnic group and nativity (e.g., OR?=?3.1, 95% CI 2.6–3.7 for U.S.-born blacks vs. whites). Men report more consumption then women, but an association of less education with frequent consumption is stronger among women. Adjusting for demographics, frequent consumption is associated with more television viewing and with less physical activity. Adjusting for demographics and behaviors, frequent consumption was associated with higher BMI among women (0.7 BMI units, 95% CI 0.1–1.2) but not among men. Disparities in sugar-sweetened soda consumption mirror obesity disparities. Improved surveillance and interventions are needed to better quantify and reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, especially in groups most impacted by obesity.

Rehm, Colin D.; Van Wye, Gretchen; Young, Candace; Frieden, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

221

Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans  

PubMed Central

Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations increased by approximately 10% during 10 weeks of glucose consumption but not after fructose consumption. In contrast, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the 23-hour postprandial triglyceride AUC were increased specifically during fructose consumption. Similarly, markers of altered lipid metabolism and lipoprotein remodeling, including fasting apoB, LDL, small dense LDL, oxidized LDL, and postprandial concentrations of remnant-like particle–triglyceride and –cholesterol significantly increased during fructose but not glucose consumption. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels increased and insulin sensitivity decreased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. These data suggest that dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults.

Stanhope, Kimber L.; Schwarz, Jean Marc; Keim, Nancy L.; Griffen, Steven C.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Graham, James L.; Hatcher, Bonnie; Cox, Chad L.; Dyachenko, Artem; Zhang, Wei; McGahan, John P.; Seibert, Anthony; Krauss, Ronald M.; Chiu, Sally; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Ai, Masumi; Otokozawa, Seiko; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Beysen, Carine; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Berglund, Lars; Havel, Peter J.

2009-01-01

222

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

PubMed Central

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings.

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

223

Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.  

PubMed

Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

2009-04-01

224

Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States123  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-calorie and no-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) have emerged as alternatives to added sugars. Research suggests that consumption among all Americans is increasing, yet it is unknown whether consumption trends differ among population subgroups. Objective: Our study aimed to assess recent national trends in LCS consumption among children and other demographic subgroups in the United States. Design: We used NHANES data collected in five 2-y cycles from 1999–2000 to 2007–2008. Consumption of foods and beverages with LCSs was estimated by using one 24-h dietary recall. Estimates of the proportion of the population consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs (prevalence of consumption) were weighted to obtain nationally representative results. Trends in prevalence of LCS consumption and mean intake of beverages sweetened with LCSs were tested by using chi-square tests for trend and F tests. Results: In 2007–2008, the percentage of children and adults consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs increased. The prevalence of consuming beverages with LCSs increased from 6.1% to 12.5% among children (P-trend < 0.0001) and from 18.7% to 24.1% among adults (P < 0.001). Increases in the prevalence of consumption of calorie-containing beverages with LCSs were observed among all weight, age, socioeconomic, and race-ethnicity subgroups in both children and adults. However, little change in consumption of no-calorie beverages with LCSs or LCS-containing foods was found. Conclusions: The consumption of LCS-containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Further research is needed to understand the health effects of this trend.

Welsh, Jean A; Brown, Rebecca J; Vos, Miriam B

2012-01-01

225

Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages  

PubMed Central

Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ?500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts).

Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2013-01-01

226

Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors  

PubMed Central

This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults. As guided by health literacy concepts and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this randomized controlled pilot trial applied the RE-AIM framework and a mixed methods approach to examine a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intervention (SipSmartER), as compared to a matched-contact control intervention targeting physical activity (MoveMore). Both 5-week interventions included two interactive group sessions and three support telephone calls. Executing a patient-centered developmental process, the primary aim of this paper was to evaluate patient feedback on intervention content and structure. The secondary aim was to understand the potential reach (i.e., proportion enrolled, representativeness) and effectiveness (i.e. health behaviors, theorized mediating variables, quality of life) of SipSmartER. Twenty-five participants were randomized to SipSmartER (n=14) or MoveMore (n=11). Participants’ intervention feedback was positive, ranging from 4.2–5.0 on a 5-point scale. Qualitative assessments reavealed several opportunties to improve clarity of learning materials, enhance instructions and communication, and refine research protocols. Although SSB consumption decreased more among the SipSmartER participants (?256.9 ± 622.6 kcals), there were no significant group differences when compared to control participants (?199.7 ± 404.6 kcals). Across both groups, there were significant improvements for SSB attitudes, SSB behavioral intentions, and two media literacy constructs. The value of using a patient-centered approach in the developmental phases of this intervention was apparent, and pilot findings suggest decreased SSB may be achieved through targeted health literacy and TPB strategies. Future efforts are needed to examine the potential public health impact of a large-scale trial to address health literacy and reduce SSB.

Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

2013-01-01

227

The Interplay of Public Health Law and Industry Self-Regulation: The Case of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Sales in Schools  

PubMed Central

It is increasingly recognized that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption contributes to childhood obesity. Most states have adopted laws that regulate the availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in school settings. However, such policies have encountered resistance from consumer and parent groups, as well as the beverage industry. The beverage industry’s recent adoption of voluntary guidelines, which call for the curtailment of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, raises the question, Is further policy intervention in this area needed, and if so, what form should it take? We examine the interplay of public and private regulation of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, by drawing on a 50-state legal and regulatory analysis and a review of industry self-regulation initiatives.

Mello, Michelle M.; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Moran, Patricia

2008-01-01

228

Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.  

PubMed

Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2010-06-01

229

The artificial womb.  

PubMed

The availability of computer-controlled artificial hearts, kidneys, and lungs, as well as the possibility of implanting human embryos in ex vivo uterus models or an artificial endometrium, presents new perspectives for creating an artificial uterus. Survival rates have also improved, with fetuses surviving from as early as 24 weeks of gestation. These advances bring new opportunities for complete or partial ectogenesis through the creation of an artificial womb, one that could sustain the growth and development of fetuses outside of the human body. PMID:21401640

Bulletti, Carlo; Palagiano, Antonio; Pace, Caterina; Cerni, Angelica; Borini, Andrea; de Ziegler, Dominique

2011-03-01

230

Effects of Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Body Weight in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in promoting obesity is controversial. Observational data link SSB consumption with excessive weight gain; however, randomized, controlled trials are lacking and necessary to resolve the debate. We conducted a pilot study to examine the effect of decreasing SSB consumption on body weight. METHODS.We randomly assigned 103 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years who regularly

Cara B. Ebbeling; Henry A. Feldman; Stavroula K. Osganian; Virginia R. Chomitz; Sheila J. Ellenbogen; David S. Ludwig

2010-01-01

231

Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the nutrition transition in Chile, dietary changes were marked by increased consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor products, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Obesity is now the primary nutritional problem in posttran- sitional Chile. Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects on body composition of delivering milk beverages to the homes of overweight and obese children to

Cecilia Albala; Cara B Ebbeling; Mariana Cifuentes; Lydia Lera; Nelly Bustos; David S Ludwig

232

The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine–calorie effect’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Caffeine is a mildly addictive psychoactive chemical and controversial additive to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The objective of this study is to assess if removal of caffeine from SSBs allows co-removal of sucrose (energy) without affecting flavour of SSBs, and if removal of caffeine could potentially affect population weight gain.Subjects\\/Methods:The research comprised of three studies; study 1 used three-alternate forced choice

R S J Keast; D Sayompark; G Sacks; B A Swinburn; L J Riddell; RSJ Keast

2011-01-01

233

Increasing Caloric Contribution From Sugar Sweetened Beverages and 100% Fruit Juices Among US Children and Adolescents, 1988-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. We sought to document increases in caloric contributions from sugar- sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice among US youth during 1988 -2004. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We analyzed 24-hour dietary recalls from children and adolescents (aged 2-19) in 2 nationally representative population surveys: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994, N 9882) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Y. Claire Wang; Sara N. Bleich; Steven L. Gortmaker

2010-01-01

234

Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women.  

PubMed

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1-3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = -0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = -0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

Duchaine, Caroline S; Diorio, Caroline

2014-01-01

235

Progress in artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This guide explores the most recent and significant achievements attained in the field of artificial intelligence through the fifth generation computing plan. Discussions center around problem-solving and learing, knowledge-representation, reasoning and control, artificial intelligence and external relations, and applications.

Steels, L.; Campbell, A.

1985-01-01

236

Melting artificial spin ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial spin ice arrays of micromagnetic islands are a means of engineering additional energy scales and frustration into magnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a magnetic phase transition in an artificial square spin ice and use the symmetry of the lattice to verify the presence of excitations far below the ordering temperature. We do this by measuring the temperature-dependent magnetization in

Vassilios Kapaklis; Unnar B Arnalds; Adam Harman-Clarke; Evangelos Th Papaioannou; Masoud Karimipour; Panagiotis Korelis; Andrea Taroni; Peter C W Holdsworth; Steven T Bramwell; Björgvin Hjörvarsson

2012-01-01

237

Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals  

PubMed Central

Background We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the U.S. Objective We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose, and in a subset of subjects with pure fructose and glucose. Design 34 men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 hours. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. Results In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS were consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate, but comparably high as after pure fructose. Conclusions Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

Stanhope, Kimber L.; Griffen, Steven C.; Bair, Brandi R.; Swarbrick, Michael M.; Keim, Nancy L.; Havel, Peter J.

2011-01-01

238

Artificial intelligence in medicine.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting.

Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

2004-01-01

239

The antioxidant activities of natural sweeteners, mogrosides, from fruits of Siraitia grosvenori.  

PubMed

To search for antioxidant agents from natural resources, in this paper the in vitro antioxidant activities of two natural sweeteners, mogroside V and 11-oxo-mogroside V isolated from the fruits of Siraitia grosvenori, were determined using chemiluminescence (CL). The results showed that these sweet glycosides, having cucurbitane triterpenoid aglycon, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species (O2-, H2O2 and *OH) and DNA oxidative damage. 11-oxo-mogroside V showed a higher scavenging effect on O2- (concentration at which 50% of chemiluminescence intensity is inhibited [EC50] =4.79 microg/ml) and H2O2 (EC50 = 16.52 microg/ml) than those of mogroside V. However, mogroside V was more effective in scavenging *OH, with EC50 =48.44 microg/ml compared with that of 11-oxo-mogroside V (EC50 = 146.17 microg/ml). Further, 11 -oxo-mogroside V exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect on *OH-induced DNA damage with EC50 = 3.09 microg/ml. PMID:17852496

Chen, W J; Wang, J; Qi, X Y; Xie, B J

2007-11-01

240

The Use of Low-Calorie Sweeteners by Children: Implications for Weight Management123  

PubMed Central

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents.

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J.; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-01-01

241

Sweetening Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry by 18F-Fluoroglycosylation: A Short Review  

PubMed Central

At the time when the highly efficient [18F]FDG synthesis was discovered by the use of the effective precursor 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-O-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-?-D-mannopyranose (mannose triflate) for nucleophilic 18F-substitution, the field of PET in nuclear medicine experienced a long-term boom. Thirty years later, various strategies for chemoselective 18F-labeling of biomolecules have been developed, trying to keep up with the emerging field of radiopharmaceutical sciences. Among the new radiochemical strategies, chemoselective 18F-fluoroglycosylation methods aim at the sweetening of pharmaceutical radiochemistry by providing a powerful and highly valuable tool for the design of 18F-glycoconjugates with suitable in vivo properties for PET imaging studies. This paper provides a short review (reflecting the literature not older than 8 years) on the different 18F-fluoroglycosylation reactions that have been applied to the development of various 18F-glycoconjugate tracers, including not only peptides, but also nonpeptidic tracers and high-molecular-weight proteins.

Maschauer, Simone

2014-01-01

242

Simulation modeling of policies directed at youth sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem requiring innovative solutions. While recent reviews indicate that some policies show promise, there is a lack of information regarding which policies, and policy combinations, work best. Low-nutrition, energy-dense foods and beverages such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been identified as a major contributor to the problem. The purpose of this paper is to use simulation modeling to show how changes in three categories of SSB policies-school nutrition, school-based education, and taxes-impact SSB and other food consumption. The model shows that policies directed at SSBs, particularly tax hikes, could lead to substantial reductions in the number of calories consumed by youth. The estimates, however, are subject to a high degree of uncertainty. Estimates from school-based nutrition and school-based education policies, while also helping to reduce caloric intake, generally show smaller effects than tax policies and considerable variation around parameter estimates for individual and combined policies. We conclude with a discussion of the limits of the model, and suggest where additional information is needed. Limitations notwithstanding, simulation modeling is a promising methodology that can help advance our understanding of policy effects, thereby helping policymakers to better formulate effective policies to reduce obesity prevalence and the associated social harms. PMID:22810953

Levy, David T; Friend, Karen B

2013-03-01

243

Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.  

PubMed

Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology. PMID:22932228

Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

2013-01-01

244

Evaluation of antioxidant and mutagenic activities of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar.  

PubMed

In vitro chemical properties and antioxidant potential and in vivo mutagenic activity of honey-sweetened cashew apple nectar (HSCAN), a beverage produced from the cashew pseudo-fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) and of its constituents were assessed. Analytical procedures were carried out to investigate the honey used in the HSCAN preparation, and the results observed are in accordance with Brazilian legal regulations, except for diastase number. HSCAN and pulp were investigated for ascorbic acid, carotenoid, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and both showed high acid ascorbic concentrations. Antioxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and/or ?-carotene/linoleic acid systems were applied and demonstrated a weak antioxidant capacity of honey and HSCAN, but cashew apple pulp demonstrated high antioxidant capacity. A weakly positive mutagenic effect of cashew pulp 20% was observed using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster only in the high-bioactivation (HB) cross. On the contrary, HSCAN was not mutagenic in both standard and high bioactivation crosses. HSCAN exhibited slight antioxidant activity, which could be associated with the high amount of ascorbic acid found in the samples evaluated. The beverage prepared did not induce DNA damage in somatic cells of D. melanogaster, which means that it is neither mutagenic nor recombinagenic in this test system. PMID:23973191

da Silva, Robson Alves; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Nascimento e Santos, Débora; de Abreu, Bianca Regina Ribas; de Lima, Alessandro; de Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio

2013-12-01

245

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

2011-01-01

246

Dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in middle and high-school children. METHODS Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 15,283 middle and high school children in Texas, USA. Consumption of sodas and consumption of non-carbonated flavored and sports beverages (FSB) were examined separately for their associations with level of (a) unhealthy foods (fried meats, fries, desserts) and (b) healthy foods (vegetables, fruit, and milk) (c) physical activity including usual vigorous physical activity, and participation in organized physical activity, and (d) sedentary activity, including hours spent on TV, the computer, and videogames. RESULTS In both sexes, consumption of soda and FSB were systematically associated with a number of unhealthy dietary practices, as well as with sedentary behaviors. However, consumption of flavored and sports beverages showed significant positive graded associations with several healthy dietary practices and level of physical activity, while soda consumption showed no such associations with healthy behaviors. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of flavored and sports beverages coexists with healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors, suggesting popular misperception of these beverages as consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Assessment and obesity-prevention efforts targeting SSB need to distinguish between flavored and sports beverages from sodas.

Ranjit, Nalini; Evans, Martin H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Evans, Alexandra E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

2011-01-01

247

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: implications for weight management.  

PubMed

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents. PMID:22573780

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-06-01

248

Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion. PMID:24423548

Komes, Draženka; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Ljubi?i?, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindri?, Iva Juranovi?; Buši?, Arijana; Vojvodi?, Aleksandra

2014-05-15

249

Artificial intelligence and statistics  

SciTech Connect

This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six parts: uncertainly propagation, clustering and learning, expert systems, environments for supporting statistical strategy, knowledge acquisition, and strategy. The editor ties the collection together in the first chapter by providing an overview of AI and statistics, discussing the Workshop, and exploring future research in the field.

Gale, W.A.

1987-01-01

250

Artificial ecosystem selection  

PubMed Central

Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact that the ecosystems initially are composed of thousands of species and millions of individuals. Artificial ecosystem selection can be used for practical purposes, illustrates an important role for complex interactions in evolution, and challenges a widespread belief that selection is most effective at lower levels of the biological hierarchy.

Swenson, William; Wilson, David Sloan; Elias, Roberta

2000-01-01

251

[Simple artificial mouth model].  

PubMed

A simple artificial mouth model is established under our laboratory condition. Development of monobacterial plaque and mixed bacterial plaque was studied in this artificial mouth model. The samples were subjected to viable count, microhardness measurement, etc. The result showed that the controlled conditions of the model can be used to study plaque development and earlier enamel lesion production on a time-dependent basis. It is concluded that the simple artificial mouth model is suitable for a wide range of dental applications. PMID:9387546

Zhu, M; Liu, Z; Li, M

1996-03-01

252

Psychological distress mediates the association between daytime sleepiness and consumption of sweetened products: cross-sectional findings in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60?years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5% having excessive scores (>12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8% having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5?g/day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the potential effects of other sleep variables in this relationship.

Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

2013-01-01

253

Two Dimensional Artificial Reality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current presumption is that it is necessary to don goggles, gloves and a data suit to experience artificial reality. However, there is another technology that offers an alternative or complement to the encumbering techniques associated with NASA. In V...

M. W. Krueger

1991-01-01

254

Artificial Dewatering of Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New information produced by a study of the literature and by outstanding experimental research is presented is this publication. The subjects dealt with are peat production methods based on artificial dewatering, peat structure, and the waterbinding prope...

M. Aho P. Pirkkonen R. Thun T. Peltola V. M. Luukkainen

1988-01-01

255

Intelligence: Real or artificial?  

PubMed Central

Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis.

Schlinger, Henry D.

1992-01-01

256

Artificial Kidneys: Biochemical Evaluations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dialysance of amino acids and conjugated amino acids was measured in patients being maintained by hemodialysis with the Model 4 Cordis Dow hollow fiber artificial kidney. Dialysance and molecular weights of the amino acids were inversely related. Conj...

J. H. Peters F. A. Gotch

1973-01-01

257

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recomm...

I. C. Peden J. V. Braddock W. Brown R. M. Langendorf S. W. Leibholz

1982-01-01

258

30526 artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the four major methods of artificial lift: sucker-rod pumping, gas lift, electrical submersible pumping (ESP) and hydraulic pumping. Though more than 80% of artificially lifted wells worldwide are rod-pumped, the large majority of these wells are low-volume, stripper-type producers. For this reason, sucker-rod pumping papers comprise less than 40% of the 26 SPE papers selected.

Not Available

1989-01-01

259

Nanostructured artificial photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed a novel strategy for artificial photosynthesis where porphyrins and fullerenes are assembled as building blocks into nanostructured artificial photosynthetic systems by the help of self-assembled monolayers. Photodynamical studies on porphyrin–fullerene-linked systems revealed that fullerenes accelerate photo-induced electron transfer and charge-shift and slow down charge recombination, which is in sharp contrast with the modalities of conventional two-dimensional aromatic

Hiroshi Imahori; Yukie Mori; Yoshihiro Matano

2003-01-01

260

Heidegger and artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

Diaz, G.

1987-01-01

261

Computer animation based on artificial life and artificial intelligence: the research of artificial fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, self-reproduction characteristic of artificial life is introduced to computer animation. A self-reproduction model of artificial fish based on gene control is put forward and built. Based on artificial fish's phenotype, the contents of its chromosome are given. Based on this model, heredity rules are given. Artificial fish could reproduce and grow in the virtual marine environment freely

Ban Xiaojuan; Ai Dongmei; Zeng Guangping; Tu Xuyan

2005-01-01

262

Menu-Labeling Usage and Its Association with Diet and Exercise: 2011 BRFSS Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu Labeling Module  

PubMed Central

Introduction The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between menu-labeling usage and healthy behaviors pertaining to diet (consumption of fruits, vegetables, sodas, and sugar-sweetened beverages) and exercise. Methods Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu-Labeling module, were used. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between menu-labeling usage and explanatory variables that included fruit, vegetable, soda, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption as well as exercise. Results Nearly half (52%) of the sample indicated that they used menu labeling. People who used menu labeling were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.58), overweight (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00–1.29) or obese (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12–1.50), obtain adequate weekly aerobic exercise (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06–1.32), eat fruits (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12–1.29) and vegetables (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05–1.20), and drink less soda (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69–0.83). Conclusion Although obese and overweight people were more likely to use menu labeling, they were also adequately exercising, eating more fruits and vegetables, and drinking less soda. Menu labeling is intended to combat the obesity epidemic; however the results indicate an association between menu-labeling usage and certain healthy behaviors. Thus, efforts may be necessary to increase menu-labeling usage among people who are not partaking in such behaviors.

Bowers, Kelly M.

2014-01-01

263

Sweetened-Fat Intake Sensitizes Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid--Mediated Feeding Responses Elicited from the Nucleus Accumbens Shell  

PubMed Central

Background There is much interest in exploring whether reward-driven feeding can produce druglike plasticity in the brain. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell, which modulates hypothalamic feeding systems, is well placed to “usurp” homeostatic control of feeding. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether feeding-induced neuroadaptations occur in this system. Methods Separate groups of ad libitum–maintained rats were exposed to daily bouts of sweetened-fat intake, predator stress, or intra-Acb shell infusions of either d-amphetamine (2 or 10 ?g) or the ?-opioid agonist D-[Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO, 2.5 ?g), then challenged with intra-Acb shell infusion of the GABAA agonist, muscimol (10 ng). Results Exposure to sweetened fat robustly sensitized muscimol-induced feeding. Sensitization was present 1 week after cessation of the palatable feeding regimen but had abated by 2 weeks. Rats exposed to sweetened fat did not show an altered feeding response to food deprivation. Repeated intra-Acb shell infusions of DAMGO (2.5 ?g) also sensitized intra-Acb shell muscimol-driven feeding. However, neither repeated intra-Acb shell d-amphetamine infusions (2 or 10 ?g) nor intermittent exposure to an aversive stimulus (predator stress) altered sensitivity to muscimol. Conclusions Palatable feeding engenders hypersensitivity of Acb shell GABA responses; this effect may involve feeding-induced release of opioid peptides. Heightened arousal, aversive experiences, or increased catecholamine transmission alone are insufficient to produce the effect, and a hunger-induced feeding drive is insufficient to reveal the effect. These findings reveal a novel type of food-induced neuroadaptation within the Acb; possible implications for understanding crossover effects between food reward and drug reward are discussed.

Newman, Sarah; Pascal, Lindsay; Sadeghian, Ken; Baldo, Brian A.

2013-01-01

264

The Relationship between Health-Related Knowledge and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among US Adults.  

PubMed

Because there is limited information on associations between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, our cross-sectional study examined this question using the 2010 HealthStyles Survey data for 3,926 adults (aged ?18 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day. About 31% of adults consumed SSBs ?1 time per day, with 20% doing so ?2 times per day. About eight of 10 adults agreed that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain, yet, eight of 10 adults in this study did not know the actual kilocalorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, annual household income, and geographic region, the odds for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day were significantly higher among adults who neither agreed nor disagreed (ie, were neutral) that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.25 vs agree); however, knowledge about the energy content of regular soda was not associated with SSB intake. Our finding that knowledge about the adverse effects of SSB intake is significantly associated with SSB intake among adults suggests that health education regarding the potential contribution of excess energy intake from SSBs to weight gain could contribute to lowered consumption and lower rates of obesity. Although knowledge about the kilocalorie content of regular soda was unrelated to SSB intake, health education on the kilocalorie content of SSBs may still be beneficial because most adults did not know the actual kilocalorie content of SSBs. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore associations between knowledge about energy provided by SSBs and SSB intake. PMID:24360502

Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M

2014-07-01

265

Sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk: meta-analysis and review.  

PubMed

There is speculation on an association between sweetened, carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk. This study aimed to examine this issue. Over 50 independent estimates of risk were available, 11 for colas specifically. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out with tests for publication bias performed as well as Higgins and Thompson's I measure of the percentage of heterogeneity between studies that could not be explained by chance. Over all the different sites of cancer, the summary relative risk (SRR), when all 55 independent estimates were considered together, was SRR=1.03 [95% confidence interval (0.96; 1.11)]. When individual cancer sites were considered, there was no significant increase or decrease in the meta-analysis estimate of risk of cancer of the pancreas, bladder, kidney, squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, colon, gastric cardia, gastric noncardia, prostate, breast, larynx and ovary or of the oral cavity, pharynx or glioma. There was no evidence in a sensitivity analysis from those studies that reported results separately for colas of an associated risk of pancreas cancer [SRR=1.00, 95% confidence interval (0.61; 1.65)]. The results for all other forms of cancers were considerably hampered by poor methodology and small numbers of studies (mainly one report on each cancer site studied). Overall, the findings are reassuring in terms of the association between soft drinks, including colas, and cancer risk, although the quality of many of the studies is quite poor by acceptable, modern standards and no study has been carried out with use of carbonated beverages as a primary hypothesis. PMID:24625472

Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Autier, Philippe

2014-09-01

266

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with abdominal fat partitioning in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

2014-08-01

267

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine patterns of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among U.S. adults with type 2 diabetes in 2003–2006. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 to estimate SSB consumption levels among 1,090 adults (aged ?20 years) with type 2 diabetes overall and by diagnosis and control status of their diabetes. RESULTS In 2003–2006, 45% of adults with diabetes consumed SSBs on a given day, obtaining an average of 202 calories and 47 g of sugar. Undiagnosed adults with diabetes were significantly more likely to consume SSBs than diagnosed adults (60 vs. 38% diagnosed/uncontrolled [P < 0.001] and 43% diagnosed/controlled [P = 0.001]) and were less likely to consume diet beverages (18 vs. 50% diagnosed/uncontrolled [P < 0.001] and 40% diagnosed/controlled [P < 0.001]). Men consumed significantly more SSBs than women (P = 0.027), younger adults (aged 20–44) more than older adults (45–64 and ?65; P < 0.001), non–Hispanic black more than whites (P = 0.010); and low-income individuals (quartile 1) more than higher-income individuals (quartile 3, P = 0.040; quartile 4, P = 0.013). For most demographic and body weight categories, adults who were undiagnosed consumed more sugar from SSBs than adults who were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS SSB consumption is high among adults with diabetes, particularly among those who are undiagnosed.

Bleich, Sara N.; Wang, Y. Claire

2011-01-01

268

Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-h glucose and insulin excursions123  

PubMed Central

Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown to be associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, ie, dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined whether the greater adverse effects of fructose than of glucose consumption were associated with glucose and insulin exposures. Design: The subjects were studied in a metabolic facility and consumed energy-balanced diets containing 55% of energy as complex carbohydrate for 2 wk (GI = 64). The subjects then consumed 25% of energy requirements as fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages along with their usual ad libitum diets for 8 wk at home and then as part of energy-balanced diets for 2 wk at the metabolic facility (fructose GI = 38, glucose GI = 83). The 24-h glucose and insulin profiles and fasting plasma glycated albumin and fructosamine concentrations were measured 0, 2, 8, and 10 wk after beverage consumption. Results: Consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages lowered glucose and insulin postmeal peaks and the 23-h area under the curve compared with the baseline diet and with the consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages (all P < 0.001, effect of sugar). Plasma glycated albumin concentrations were lower 10 wk after fructose than after glucose consumption (P < 0.01, effect of sugar), whereas fructosamine concentrations did not differ between groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that the specific effects of fructose, but not of glucose and insulin excursions, contribute to the adverse effects of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on lipids and insulin sensitivity. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165853.

Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bremer, Andrew A; Vink, Roel G; Schaefer, Ernst J; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Beysen, Carine; Berglund, Lars; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

2011-01-01

269

Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System  

PubMed Central

A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction.

Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

2013-01-01

270

Sweets, sweetened beverages, and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We examined the associations between sweets, sweetened and unsweetened beverages, and sugars and pancreatic cancer risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a population-based case–control study (532 cases, 1,701 controls) and used multivariate logistic regression models\\u000a to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Because associations were often different by sex, we present\\u000a results for men and women combined and separately.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Among

June M. Chan; Furong Wang; Elizabeth A. Holly

2009-01-01

271

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

SciTech Connect

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean gum tended to have a lower energy demand than mix with large amounts of guar gum. This was especially pronounced in mixes with 50% 42 high fructose corn syrup and/or 50% 36 DE corn syrup solids.

Smith, D.E.; Bakshi, A.S.; Gay, S.A.

1985-01-01

272

Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.  

PubMed

During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. PMID:24121558

Sacha, G M; Varona, P

2013-11-15

273

Artificial recharge of groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

Asano, T.

1985-01-01

274

Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

2013-11-01

275

Controversies in Headache Medicine: Migraine Prevention Diets  

MedlinePLUS

... be broadly recommended. Certain alcoholic beverages, especially red wine and beer, are frequently cited migraine triggers. Two ... food triggers items may include: Alcohol, specifically red wine Aspartame sweetener Beans and other tyramine-containing foods ...

276

Inteligencia Artificial E Possivel (Is Artificial Intelligence Possible).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial intelligence is the part of Computer Science which deals with the building of computer systems that show characteristics normally associated with intelligence in human behavior. Artificial intelligence has two major goals: (1) a programmatic on...

E. L. F. Senne S. A. Sandri

1984-01-01

277

Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice  

PubMed Central

Background The human diet has altered markedly during the past four decades, with the introduction of Trans hydrogenated fat, which extended the shelf-life of dietary oils and promoted a dramatic increase in elaidic acid (Trans-18.1) consumption. Food additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASP) were introduced to increase food palatability and reduce caloric intake. Nutrigenomics studies in small-animal models are an established platform for analyzing the interactions between various macro- and micronutrients. We therefore investigated the effects of changes in hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression induced by the food additives ASP, MSG or a combination of both additives in C57Bl/6 J mice fed a Trans fat-enriched diet. Methods Hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression profiles, together with body characteristics, glucose parameters, serum hormone and lipid profiles were examined in C57Bl/6 J mice consuming one of the following four dietary regimens, commencing in utero via the mother’s diet: [A] Trans fat (TFA) diet; [B] MSG?+?TFA diet; [C] ASP?+?TFA diet; [D] ASP?+?MSG?+?TFA diet. Results Whilst dietary MSG significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and serum leptin levels in TFA-fed mice, the combination of ASP?+?MSG promoted the highest increase in visceral adipose tissue deposition, serum free fatty acids, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and TNF? levels. Microarray analysis of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed a reduction in hepatic and adipose tissue PPARGC1a expression concomitant with changes in PPARGC1a-related functional networks including PPAR?, ? and ?. We identified 73 DEGs common to both adipose and liver which were upregulated by ASP?+?MSG in Trans fat-fed mice; and an additional 51 common DEGs which were downregulated. Conclusion The combination of ASP and MSG may significantly alter adiposity, glucose homeostasis, hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression in TFA-fed C57Bl/6 J mice.

2013-01-01

278

Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. PMID:24070799

Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E

2013-04-01

279

The Artificial Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

Glover, D. R.

280

Natural or Artificial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This worksheet, suitable for pre-readers, directs students to categorize pictures as sources of either natural or artificial light. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

281

Evolving artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning and evolution are two fundamental forms of adaptation. There has been a great interest in combining learning and evolution with artificial neural networks (ANNs) in recent years. This paper: 1) reviews different combinations between ANNs and evolutionary algorithms (EAs), including using EAs to evolve ANN connection weights, architectures, learning rules, and input features; 2) discusses different search operators which

Xin Yao

1999-01-01

282

Artificial Microfluidic Squirmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a growing consensus on the propulsion mechanisms of swimmers at low Reynolds' numbers, many questions remain open regarding the hydrodynamic effects on such swimmers, in particular the coupling between swimmers. Here we present experiments on artificial swimmers, where hydrodynamics is seen to be responsible for a wide range of collective behavior and interactions. Using droplet microfluidics with

Shashi Thutupalli; Ralf Seemann; Stephan Herminghaus

2011-01-01

283

Artificial intelligence and robotics  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

1982-09-01

284

Artificial Life and Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is developing into a new type of discipline, based on computational construction as its main tool for exploring and producing a science of life as it could be. In this area of research, the generation of complex virtual systems, in place of the traditional empirical domain, has become the actual object of theory. This entails a profound change

Alvaro Moreno

2002-01-01

285

Compact Artificial Hand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compact and relatively simple artificial hand includes hooks pivotally mounted on a first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable 'turning at the wrist' movements without limitation, and the sec...

G. A. Wiker W. A. Mann

1977-01-01

286

Artificial intelligence within AFSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

Gersh, Mark A.

1990-01-01

287

Melting artificial spin ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial spin ice arrays of micromagnetic islands are a means of engineering additional energy scales and frustration into magnetic materials. Despite much progress in elucidating the properties of such arrays, the `spins' in the systems studied so far have no thermal dynamics as the kinetic constraints are too high. Here we address this problem by using a material with an

Vassilios Kapaklis; Unnar B. Arnalds; Adam Harman-Clarke; Evangelos Th. Papaioannou; Masoud Karimipour; Panagiotis Korelis; Andrea Taroni; Peter C. W. Holdsworth; Steven T. Bramwell; Björgvin Hjörvarsson

2011-01-01

288

Artificial Kagome Spin Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, significant interest has emerged in fabricated systems that mimic the behavior of geometrically-frustrated materials. Here, I will present the full realization of such an artificial spin ice system on a two-dimensional kagome lattice, and I will present results obtained by directly counting individual pseudospins, demonstrating rigid adherence to the local ice rule. This adherence is maintained even when the

John Cumings

2008-01-01

289

Artificial limb connection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

Owens, L. J.

1974-01-01

290

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents.  

PubMed

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ?2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ?3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ?0.043). Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity) of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.2-90.2) and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5) risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-?) or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8) for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1) and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7) higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent MetS among boys but not girls in Taiwan. PMID:24858495

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Chun-Ying; Wu, Pei-Wen; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-05-01

291

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ?2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ?3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ?0.043). Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity) of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.2-90.2) and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5) risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-?) or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8) for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1) and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7) higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent MetS among boys but not girls in Taiwan.

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Chun-Ying; Wu, Pei-Wen; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-01-01

292

Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels???7.0 mg/dL in men and???5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ?3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0-?

2014-01-01

293

ATE applications of artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Artificial intelligence technologies have been investigated by the Naval Air Engineering Center for potential applications to ATE. It was found that artificial intelligence is capable of accumulating knowledge from expert technicians and expanding on the knowledge of optimum ATE support.

Kunert, J.

1982-01-01

294

Airside Applications for Artificial Turf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to investigate the considerations and concerns associated with airside applications of artificial turf was conducted using input from the artificial turf manufacturers and by administering and discussing questionnaire surveys via site visits to ai...

T. Connelly C. Teubert

2006-01-01

295

Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

2008-01-01

296

Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2009-01-01

297

The sugar balance in some British potato varieties during storage. II. The effects of tuber age, previous storage temperature, and intermittent refrigeration upon low-temperature sweetening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of sugar extraction and analysis employed are described in detail. The pattern of sweetening of potato tubers at 2 C could vary with their age when placed at this temperature, though not necessarily so. Gradual reduction of the storage temperature to 2 C, in contrast to rapid cooling, resulted in a marked reduction in the amount of sucrose

W. G. Burton

1969-01-01

298

Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

Teodorescu, Ioana

1987-01-01

299

Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.  

PubMed

The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0.001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0.001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, P<0.001) and Ca (dq -175 mg/d, P<0.001), and worse HEI (dq -2, P<0.01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1.77 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2.02 %, P<0.001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt. PMID:12628036

Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

2003-03-01

300

Artificially structured magnetic materials  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.

Falco, C.M.

1990-09-28

301

Artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides an introduction to the exciting field of artificial neural networks and their potential role in the emerging field of neurocomputing. Although the genesis of this subject can be traced back to the 1940s, the present interest is largely due to the recent developments in theoretical models, technologies, and algorithms. This volume is devoted to introductory and theoretical concepts, and the emphasis is on network architectures, learning, associative memories, with a glimpse of the application areas and implementation experiences.

Vemuri, V.

1988-01-01

302

Whither Artificial Reproduction?  

PubMed Central

Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments.

Percival-Smith, Robin

1985-01-01

303

Economics and artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This volume gives a overview of artificial intelligence and the use of computers in economics. Areas covered include statistics and macro economic forecasting, the use of automated techniques for economic studies and decision-making processes. The book looks at how much computers are used in business, and how far they will affect the design of markets and the structure of organizations in the future.

Roos, J.L.

1987-01-01

304

Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artificial Intelligence and heuristic methods are extremely important for the present and future developments of bioinformatics, a very recent and strategic discipline having the potential for a revolutionary impact on biotechnology, pharmacology, and medicine. While computation has already transformed our industrial society, a comparable biotechnological transformation is on the horizon. In the last few years it has become clear that these two exponentially growing areas are actually converging.

Paolo Frasconi (University of Florence) Ron Shamir (Tel Aviv University)

305

Polar cap Artificial Auroras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that high-power high-frequency radio waves, when beamed into the F-layer ionosphere, accelerate electrons 1-2 orders of magnitude above thermal levels. These electrons collide with the neutral oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules, which subsequently produce optical emissions identical to those in natural auroras. Artificial optical emissions are one of few methods available to directly detect energetic electrons in the ionosphere. The mechanism of acceleration remains under debate but there is evidence for turbulent upper-hybrid and Langmuir electrostatic waves. Artificial optical emissions have been observed at low latitudes (e.g. Arecibo in Puerto Rico), mid-latitudes (e.g. SURA in Russia), and at high latitudes (e.g. EISCAT in Norway and HAARP in Alaska). The electron accelerating mechanisms are sensitive to the magnetic field aspect angle to the pump beam, hence the need to reproduce the phenomenon at different latitudes. Here we report on the first attempt within the polar cap using the SPEAR facility on Svalbard, where the magnetic dip angle is only 8 degrees. Svalbard also has the unique situation of being under the cusp during the daytime whilst the ground is in total darkness during the winter months. In addition, Svalbard is the only location currently available where in-situ rocket measurements are possible within an artificial aurora. Plans for a future launch are discussed.

Kosch, M.; Pedersen, T.; Robinson, T.

2004-12-01

306

Polish artificial heart program.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika

2012-01-01

307

Ethics and obesity prevention: ethical considerations in 3 approaches to reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

Obesity and overweight prevalence soared to unprecedented levels in the United States, with 1 in 3 adults and 1 in 6 children currently categorized as obese. Although many approaches have been taken to encourage individual behavior change, policies increasingly attempt to modify environments to have a more positive influence on individuals' food and drink choices. Several policy proposals target sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), consumption of which has become the largest contributor to Americans' caloric intake. Yet proposals have been criticized for unduly inhibiting choice, being overly paternalistic, and stigmatizing low-income populations. We explored the ethical acceptability of 3 approaches to reduce SSB consumption: restricting sale of SSBs in public schools, levying significant taxes on SSBs, and prohibiting the use of Supplemental Nutrition and Assistance Program (formerly food stamps) benefits for SSB purchases. PMID:24625154

Kass, Nancy; Hecht, Kenneth; Paul, Amy; Birnbach, Kerry

2014-05-01

308

Establishment of a New Cell-Based Assay To Measure the Activity of Sweeteners in Fluorescent Food Extracts  

PubMed Central

Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca2+-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca2+ indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level.

2011-01-01

309

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

310

Microscopic artificial swimmers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L.; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A.; Bibette, Jérôme

2005-10-01

311

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm on Training Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, performance of the artificial bee colony algorithm, a recently proposed algorithm, has been tested on training on artificial neural networks which are widely used in signal processing applications and the performance of the algorithm has been compared to differential evolution and particle swarm optimization algorithms which are also population-based algorithms. Results show that ABC algorithm outperforms the

D. Karaboga; B. Akay

2007-01-01

312

An Electronic Tongue: Evaluation of the Masking Efficacy of Sweetening and\\/or Flavoring Agents on the Bitter Taste of Epinephrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epinephrine (E) tablet is under development for sublingual (SL) administration for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis;\\u000a however, the inherent bitterness of E may hinder acceptability by patients, especially children. To assess the degree of E\\u000a bitterness and to predict the masking effects of sweetening and\\/or flavoring non-medicinal ingredients (NMIs), the potential\\u000a usefulness of an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) was evaluated.

Ousama Rachid; F. Estelle R. Simons; Mutasem Rawas-Qalaji; Keith J. Simons

2010-01-01

313

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Blood Pressure in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

High sugar intake has been suggested to be related to hypertension. To examine the associations between intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and the prevalence of hypertension, we used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. A total of 3,044 participants aged ?19 years were included. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression model. Prevalent hypertension cases were defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ?140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ?90 mmHg. In the multivariate adjusted models, we observed no association between sugar consumption and the prevalence of hypertension. In the model where we adjusted for age, gender, NHANES period and BMI, those who consumed ?3 times per day of sugar-sweetened beverages had an OR of 1.87 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.06-3.26) for the prevalence of hypertension compared with those who consumed <1 time per month of these beverages. Further adjustment for other factors attenuated the association; ORs (95% CIs) were 1.21 (0.81-1.81) for 1 time per month-<3 times per week, 1.39 (0.86-2.24) for 3 times per week-<1 times per day, 1.26 (0.80-1.98) for 1-<3 times per day, and 1.50 (0.84-2.68) for ?3 times per day of sugar-sweetened beverages compared to the <1 time per month (p for trend = 0.33). In conclusion, we found that sugar consumption was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension, however there was suggestion that high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with high prevalence of hypertension in the US.

Kim, Young Ha; Abris, Grace P.; Sung, Mi-Kyung

2012-01-01

314

Intake of sucrose-sweetened water induces insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits and amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Compelling evidence indicates that excess consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD). High fat diets promote AD-like pathology in mice. It is not known whether consumption of excess sugar as in calorically sweetened beverages with an otherwise normal diet affects the development of AD. In the present study, we provided 10% sucrose-sweetened water to a transgenic mouse model of AD with a normal rodent diet. Compared with the control mice with no sucrose added in the water, the sucrose group gained more body weight and developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. These metabolic changes were associated with the exacerbation of memory impairment and a 2-3-fold increase in insoluble amyloid-beta protein levels and deposition in the brain. We further showed that the levels of expression and secretase-cleaved products of amyloid-beta precursor protein were not affected by sucrose intake. The steady-state levels of insulin-degrading enzyme did not change significantly, whereas there was a 2.5-fold increase in brain apoE levels. Therefore, we concluded that the up-regulation of apoE accelerated the aggregation of Abeta, resulting in the exacerbation of cerebral amyloidosis in sucrose-treated mice. These data underscore the potential role of dietary sugar in the pathogenesis of AD and suggest that controlling the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be an effective way to curtail the risk of developing AD. PMID:17942401

Cao, Dongfeng; Lu, Hailin; Lewis, Terry L; Li, Ling

2007-12-14

315

The Effect of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake on Energy Intake in an ad libitum 6Month Low-Fat High-Carbohydrate Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The increased incidence of obesity coincides with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study investigated the effect of SSB intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in a reanalysis of the CARMEN data. Methods: Forty-seven overweight-to-obese men and women participated in the Maastricht centre of the randomized controlled CARMEN study. They were

Marjet J. M. Munsters; Wim H. M. Saris

2010-01-01

316

Artificial Selection Lab, Investigation #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the 2012 inquiry-based Advanced Placement Investigation into Artificial Selection (#1). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. This inquiry is guided by the question, Can extreme selection change expression of aquantitative trait in a population in one generation? Students study and carry out an artificial selection investigation using Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa).

Approach, Ap B.

317

Artificial Chemistries-A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the growing body of scientific work in Artificial Chemistry. First, common motivations and fundamental concepts are introduced. Second, current research activities are discussed along three application dimensions: modelling, information processing and optimization. Finally, common phenomena among the different systems are summarized. It is argued here that Artificial Chemistries are "the right stuff" for the study of pre-biotic

Peter Dittrich; Jens Ziegler; Wolfgang Banzhaf

2001-01-01

318

A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

Leal, Ralph A.

319

Spectroscopy of Individual “Artificial Atoms”  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metamaterials exhibiting a magnetic response at optical wavelengths have recently attracted much attention [1]. The magnetic\\u000a response depends on both the design of the individual building blocks (“artificial atoms”) and on electromagnetic coupling\\u000a effects between them. Thus for future developments, investigation of the individual “artificial atoms” is crucial.

Martin Husnik; Nils Feth; Michael König; Jens Niegemann; Kurt Busch; Stefan Linden; Martin Wegener

320

The fortification of tea with sweeteners and milk and its effect on in vitro antioxidant potential of tea product and glutathione levels in an animal model.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated that tea flavonoids protect cells and tissues against free radicals which have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress-related disease disorders. However, black tea is commonly consumed with additives that could otherwise affect the bioavailability of the active tea molecules. In this study, the biochemical parameters of Kenyan teas were determined and the effect of added milk and sweeteners on the antioxidant activity of Kenyan teas was investigated. The effect of tea antioxidants on glutathione (GSH) was also evaluated in vivo in a time series study using Swiss mice. Green teas had the highest levels of total polyphenols, total and individual catechins, while black teas had high levels of total thearubigins, total theaflavins and theaflavin fractions. The antioxidant activity was high in green teas though some of the black teas were as efficacious as the green teas. The addition of milk, sugar and honey significantly (p<0.05) decreased the antioxidant activity of tea in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the sweetener, stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), showed no significant (p>0.05) influence on the antioxidant activity of tea and therefore can be recommended as a preferred sweetener for tea. Significantly (p<0.001) higher levels of GSH were observed in plasma than in other tissues. GSH levels were generally highest 2h after tea consumption, which indicates the need to repeatedly take tea every 2h to maximise its potential health benefits. PMID:24128460

Korir, M W; Wachira, F N; Wanyoko, J K; Ngure, R M; Khalid, R

2014-02-15

321

Compact artificial hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (inventors)

1979-01-01

322

A programmable artificial retina  

SciTech Connect

An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm[sup 2] CMOS 2-[mu]m circuit are presented.

Bernard, T.M. (Perception System Lab., Arcueil (France)); Zavidovique, B.Y. (Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France). Electrical Engineering Dept. Perception System Lab., Arcueil (France)); Devos, F.J. (Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France). Dept. of Integrated Circuits and Systems)

1993-07-01

323

Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity  

SciTech Connect

This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Swegle, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.

1994-08-01

324

Feeding Artificial Diets to Smallmouth Bass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acceptance of the artificial diet and costs of the feeding method are two important considerations in developing techniques for feeding artificial diets. Fingerling smallmouth bass are trained to accept Oregon Moist Pellet and Silver Cup Salmon artificial...

R. J. Anderson

1974-01-01

325

In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).  

PubMed

The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve process quality through reconditioning. Breeding for retention of postharvest quality and LTS resistance should consider strategies for incorporating more robust tolerance to in-season heat stress. PMID:24615233

Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

2014-06-01

326

Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study  

PubMed Central

Objective To model the overall and income specific effect of a 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the UK. Design Econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. Setting United Kingdom. Population Adults aged 16 and over. Intervention A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks. Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were the overall and income specific changes in the number and percentage of overweight (body mass index ?25) and obese (?30) adults in the UK following the implementation of the tax. Secondary outcomes were the effect by age group (16-29, 30-49, and ?50 years) and by UK constituent country. The revenue generated from the tax and the income specific changes in weekly expenditure on drinks were also estimated. Results A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks was estimated to reduce the number of obese adults in the UK by 1.3% (95% credible interval 0.8% to 1.7%) or 180?000 (110?000 to 247?000) people and the number who are overweight by 0.9% (0.6% to 1.1%) or 285?000 (201?000 to 364?000) people. The predicted reductions in prevalence of obesity for income thirds 1 (lowest income), 2, and 3 (highest income) were 1.3% (0.3% to 2.0%), 0.9% (0.1% to 1.6%), and 2.1% (1.3% to 2.9%). The effect on obesity declined with age. Predicted annual revenue was £276m (£272m to £279m), with estimated increases in total expenditure on drinks for income thirds 1, 2, and 3 of 2.1% (1.4% to 3.0%), 1.7% (1.2% to 2.2%), and 0.8% (0.4% to 1.2%). Conclusions A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks would lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in the UK of 1.3% (around 180?000 people). The greatest effects may occur in young people, with no significant differences between income groups. Both effects warrant further exploration. Taxation of sugar sweetened drinks is a promising population measure to target population obesity, particularly among younger adults.

2013-01-01

327

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding.  

PubMed

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in patients with dementia and dysphagia. Given the lack of documented benefit of gastrointestinal feeding in these patients, the literature has focused on selection of appropriate patients for this medical intervention. Ethical care involves compassion, communication, consultation, and collaboration in dealing with emotionally difficult circumstances. PMID:15245701

Lipman, Timothy O

2004-08-01

328

Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N?=?102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10?L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects. PMID:24667153

Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

2014-07-01

329

Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves diet quality in Lower Mississippi Delta adults  

PubMed Central

Background Although the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality. Objective To simulate the effects of replacing SSBs with tap water on diet quality and total energy intake of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Design Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional dietary intake data using a representative sample of LMD adults (n=1,689). Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores that were computed using the population ratio method. The effects of substituting SSBs with water on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with tap water's profile. Results Simulating the replacement of SSBs with tap water at 25, 50, and 100% levels resulted in 1-, 2.3-, and 3.8-point increases, respectively, in the HEI-2005 total score. Based on a mean daily intake of 2,011 kcal, 100% substitution of SSBs with tap water would result in 11% reduction in energy intake. Conclusions Replacing SSBs with water could substantially improve the diet quality of the LMD adult population and potentially lead to significant weight loss overtime. Prioritizing intervention efforts to focus on the replacement of SSBs with energy-free drinks may be the most efficacious approach for conveying potentially substantial health benefits in this and similar disadvantaged populations.

Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.; Connell, Carol L.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Yadrick, Kathy

2011-01-01

330

Reduction in Purchases of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Low-Income Black Adolescents After Exposure to Caloric Information  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the effect of an intervention to provide caloric information about sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the number of SSB purchases. Methods. We used a case-crossover design with 4 corner stores located in low-income, predominately Black neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. The intervention randomly posted 1 of 3 signs with the following caloric information: (1) absolute caloric count, (2) percentage of total recommended daily intake, and (3) physical activity equivalent. We collected data for 1600 beverage sales by Black adolescents, aged 12–18 years, including 400 during a baseline period and 400 for each of the 3 caloric condition interventions. Results. Providing Black adolescents with any caloric information significantly reduced the odds of SSB purchases relative to the baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 0.89). When examining the 3 caloric conditions separately, the significant effect was observed when caloric information was provided as a physical activity equivalent (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.85). Conclusions. Providing easily understandable caloric information—particularly a physical activity equivalent—may reduce calorie intake from SSBs among low-income, Black adolescents.

Herring, Bradley J.; Flagg, Desmond D.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.

2012-01-01

331

Suppression of the Vacuolar Invertase Gene Prevents Cold-Induced Sweetening in Potato12[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the third most important food crop in the world. Potato tubers must be stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses, and supply consumers and the processing industry with high-quality tubers throughout the year. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars in tubers. High-temperature processing of these tubers results in dark-colored, bitter-tasting products. Such products also have elevated amounts of acrylamide, a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen. We demonstrate that silencing the potato vacuolar acid invertase gene VInv prevents reducing sugar accumulation in cold-stored tubers. Potato chips processed from VInv silencing lines showed a 15-fold acrylamide reduction and were light in color even when tubers were stored at 4°C. Comparable, low levels of VInv gene expression were observed in cold-stored tubers from wild potato germplasm stocks that are resistant to cold-induced sweetening. Thus, both processing quality and acrylamide problems in potato can be controlled effectively by suppression of the VInv gene through biotechnology or targeted breeding.

Bhaskar, Pudota B.; Wu, Lei; Busse, James S.; Whitty, Brett R.; Hamernik, Andy J.; Jansky, Shelley H.; Buell, C. Robin; Bethke, Paul C.; Jiang, Jiming

2010-01-01

332

Development of structure-taste relationships for monosubstituted phenylsulfamate sweeteners using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty monosubstituted phenylsulfamates (cyclamates) have been synthesized and have had their taste portfolios determined. These have been combined with 63 compounds already in the literature to give a database of 83 ortho, meta, and para compounds. A training set of 75 compounds was randomly selected leaving eight compounds as a test set. A series of nine predictors determined with Corey-Pauling-Koltun models, calculated from the PC SPARTAN PRO program and Hammett sigma values taken mainly from the literature, have been used to establish structure-taste relationships for these types of sweeteners. The taste panel data for all compounds were categorized into three classes, namely, sweet (S), nonsweet (N), and sweet/nonsweet (N/S), and a novel "sweetness value" or weighting was also calculated for each compound. Linear and quadratic discriminant analysis were first used with the S, N, and N/S data, but the results were somewhat disappointing. Classification and regression tree analysis using the sweetness values for all 75 compounds was more successful, and only 14 were misclassified and six of the eight test set compounds were correctly classified. For the 29 meta compounds, one subset using just two parameters classified 83% of these compounds. Finally, using various methods, predictions were made on the likely tastes of a number of meta compounds and a striking agreement was found between the tree prediction and those given by earlier models. This appears to offer a strong vindication of the tree approach. PMID:16104795

Kelly, Damien P; Spillane, William J; Newell, John

2005-08-24

333

Socio-economic inequalities in children's snack consumption and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the contribution of home environmental factors.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the association between maternal education and unhealthy eating behaviour (the consumption of snack and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) and explored environmental factors that might mediate this association in 11-year-old children. These environmental factors include home availability of snacks and SSB, parental rules about snack and SSB consumption, parental intake of snacks and SSB, peer sensitivity and children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Data were obtained from the fourth wave of the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study (2011), in which 1318 parent-child dyads completed a questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate regression models. Children of mothers with an intermediate educational level were found to consume more snacks than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 1·22, P= 0·02). This association was not mediated by environmental factors. Children of mothers with a low educational level were found to consume more SSB than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 0·63, P< 0·01). The association between maternal educational level and children's SSB consumption was found to be mediated by parental intake of snacks and SSB and home availability of SSB. The home environment seems to be a promising setting for interventions on reducing socio-economic inequalities in children's SSB consumption. PMID:24833428

van Ansem, Wilke J C; van Lenthe, Frank J; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

2014-08-01

334

Modulation of gene expression in cold-induced sweetening resistant potato species Solanum berthaultii exposed to low temperature.  

PubMed

Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a crucial factor influencing the processing quality of potato tubers. To better understand the molecular events of potato CIS and different CIS-sensitivity among various potato species, a suppression subtractive hybridization library and cDNA microarray gene filters were developed. A total of 188 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE) in Solanum berthaultii (ber) upon cold stimulation. These functional genes were mostly related to cell rescue, defense and virulence, metabolism, energy and protein fate, included in various processes of plant defense against abiotic stresses. Four expression patterns of these DE genes were profiled by qRT-PCR using the cold-stored tubers of both CIS-resistant (ber) and CIS-sensitive (E-potato 3, a variety of S. tuberosum) potatoes. The expression pattern and abundance of many DE genes encoding proteins involved in metabolism were different in these two potato tubers, especially genes associated with amylolysis, sucrose decomposition and glycolysis pathways, indicating distinct regulatory mechanisms between ber and E3 in response to cold stress, which may be crucial for potato CIS. Further investigation of these cold-regulated genes will deepen our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of potato CIS and direct approaches for the genetic improvement of potato processing quality. PMID:22526428

Chen, Xia; Song, Botao; Liu, Jun; Yang, Jianwen; He, Tianjiu; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Huiling; Xie, Conghua

2012-05-01

335

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

336

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

337

Artificially structured superconductors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress during the previous 2 1/2 years of DOE funding; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining months of the present grant; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Work proposed to be conducted during the next three years is described in detail in a separate proposal submitted to the DOE. Because of the specific capabilities given by significant enhancements to our thin film preparation and analysis facilities (e.g., two heavily instrumented Molecular Beam Epitaxy machines), our research efforts have increasingly been directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces. Thus, the proposal submitted to DOE for the next three years involves studies of such magnetic thin films and superlattices. This DOE grant is for research on Artificially Structured Superconductors. When my original proposal was written in mid-1986 this meant low {Tc} metallic superlattices. However, after announcement of the new high {Tc} compounds in late-1986, and after consultation with my former DOE contract monitor in January 1987 we began work on the new high {Tc} superconductors.

Falco, C.M. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Optical Sciences Center)

1989-11-17

338

Artificial photosynthesis: Solar to fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial photosynthesis is an appealing strategy for producing sustainable fuels, if we can find the right materials to make it work efficiently. Scientists of all backgrounds are coming together to see if we can beat nature at her own game.

Andrea Listorti; James Durrant; Jim Barber

2009-01-01

339

Artificial photosynthesis: Solar to fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial photosynthesis is an appealing strategy for producing sustainable fuels, if we can find the right materials to make it work efficiently. Scientists of all backgrounds are coming together to see if we can beat nature at her own game.

Listorti, Andrea; Durrant, James; Barber, Jim

2009-12-01

340

Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.  

PubMed

This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

Sanchez, Luis

2010-03-01

341

Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.  

PubMed

This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail. PMID:22470985

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

342

Fabrication of Artificial Heart Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of the work was to develop microfiber surfaces on nonpermeable materials for use in cell culture and intimal lining development for implantable artificial heart devices. Nylon 6,6 fabrics with one micron filament diameter were used...

E. S. Nuwayser W. W. Cooper D. G. Goldstein J. H. Porter M. Tan

1971-01-01

343

Artificial atoms on semiconductor surfaces  

PubMed Central

Semiconductor nanocrystals are called artificial atoms because of their atom-like discrete electronic structure resulting from quantum confinement. Artificial atoms can also be assembled into artificial molecules or solids, thus, extending the toolbox for material design. We address the interaction of artificial atoms with bulk semiconductor surfaces. These interfaces are model systems for understanding the coupling between localized and delocalized electronic structures. In many perceived applications, such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and solar energy conversion, interfacing semiconductor nanocrystals to bulk materials is a key ingredient. Here, we apply the well established theories of chemisorption and interfacial electron transfer as conceptual frameworks for understanding the adsorption of semiconductor nanocrystals on surfaces, paying particular attention to instances when the nonadiabatic Marcus picture breaks down. We illustrate these issues using recent examples from our laboratory.

Tisdale, W. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

2011-01-01

344

A functioning artificial secretory cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell model was equipped with an analog composed of complimentary DNA constructs. The DNA constructs hybridize in a zipper-like fashion to bring about docking of the artificial secretory vesicles and following the addition of Ca2+ artificial exocytosis was completed. Exocytotic events recorded from the artificial cell closely approximate exocytosis in live cells. The results together with simulations of vesicular release demonstrate that the molecular flux in this model is attenuated and we suggest that this is the result of restricted diffusion through a semi-stable fusion pore or a partitioning of the signalling molecule out of the fused vesicle membrane.

Simonsson, Lisa; Kurczy, Michael E.; Trouillon, Raphaël; Hook, Fredrik; Cans, Ann-Sofie

2012-11-01

345

Development of Hdl Artificial Heart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An implantable flueric-amplifier-controlled artificial heart has been developed. Clinical evaluations of the various models of this heart have been made. An early version of the implantable heart demonstrated its ability to substitute successfully for a c...

C. E. Lanham J. M. Calkins J. W. Joyce

1969-01-01

346

Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional componen...

C. S. Anken

1993-01-01

347

Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and exper...

C. Guenther D. L. Hicks J. W. Swegle

1994-01-01

348

Who needs an artificial pancreas? (?).  

PubMed

The development of a closed-loop "artificial pancreas" would be a welcome advance for both endocrinologists and diabetic patients struggling to attain near normal glycemic control. While great strides in automatically controlling blood sugar in the fasting, sedentary state have been made through complex mathematical modeling, management of blood sugar excursions due to food and exercise have been more problematic. An artificial pancreas is not feasible at this time because of limitations inherent in the currently available technology. PMID:23601378

Winikoff, Janet; Drexler, Andrew

2013-09-01

349

2014 Artificial Gravity Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because artificial gravity (AG) has the unique feature - in contrast to the traditional countermeasures - of protecting all physiological systems in all individuals against the effects of weightlessness, and because it has become of concern that astronauts might experience increased intracranial pressures in space, it should be considered to use AG for human health protection during future deep space missions. The following AG scenarios should be evaluated: 1) Intermittent intra-vehicular, 2) intermittent part-of-vehicle, or 3) continuous whole-vehicle centrifugation. A technical feasibility study has indicated that continuous whole-vehicle centrifugation is possible during a transit to Mars but that the physiological requirements are needed before the final configuration can be determined. Results of previous ground studies have shown some protective effects on muscle, bone, central nervous system, heart and circulation of intermittent short-radius centrifugation, but more research is needed to better understand the relationship between physiological responses and G-levels between 0 and 1 for definition of 1) minimum requirements for AG engineering, and 2) protective effects of Martian and Lunar surface G-levels. AG rodent research on ISS can be a starting point for this, which is possible from 2015 with the NASA and JAXA rodent habitats. Several ground based short-radius human centrifuges are available worldwide today for intermittent AG research, whereas only a few long-radius centrifuges exist for long-duration exposures (US and Russia). An international AG research program encountering animal investigations on ISS and short- and long-radius centrifugations in humans on the ground should be initiated by NASA as soon as possible for definition of the life science AG technical requirements for future human deep space missions.

Cromwell, Ronita

2014-01-01

350

Parallel multi-computers and artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the present state and future direction of multicomputer parallel architectures for artificial intelligence research and development of artificial intelligence applications. The book provides a survey of the large variety of parallel architectures, describing the current state of the art and suggesting promising architectures to produce artificial intelligence systems such as intelligence systems such as intelligent robots. This book integrates artificial intelligence and parallel processing research areas and discusses parallel processing from the viewpoint of artificial intelligence.

Uhr, L.

1986-01-01

351

Understanding Carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

... Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 ... if it can help you manage diabetes. Low-Calorie Sweeteners Low-calorie sweeteners are also called artificial ...

352

Bitterness of the Non-nutritive Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Varies With Polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31  

PubMed Central

Demand for nonnutritive sweeteners continues to increase due to their ability to provide desirable sweetness with minimal calories. Acesulfame potassium and saccharin are well-studied nonnutritive sweeteners commonly found in food products. Some individuals report aversive sensations from these sweeteners, such as bitter and metallic side tastes. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided insight into the cause of perceptual differences across people. For example, common alleles for the genes TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 explain variable response to the bitter drugs ofloxacin in vitro and propylthiouracil in vivo. Here, we wanted to determine whether differences in the bitterness of acesulfame potassium could be predicted by common polymorphisms (genetic variants) in bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs). We genotyped participants (n = 108) for putatively functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 TAS2Rs and asked them to rate the bitterness of 25 mM acesulfame potassium on a general labeled magnitude scale. Consistent with prior reports, we found 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R31 were associated with acesulfame potassium bitterness. However, TAS2R9 alleles also predicted additional variation in acesulfame potassium bitterness. Conversely, single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R4, TAS2R38, and near TAS2R16 were not significant predictors. Using 1 single nucleotide polymorphism each from TAS2R9 and TAS2R31, we modeled the simultaneous influence of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on acesulfame potassium bitterness; together, these 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms explained 13.4% of the variance in perceived bitterness. These data suggest multiple polymorphisms within TAS2Rs contribute to the ability to perceive the bitterness from acesulfame potassium.

2013-01-01

353

Bitterness of the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium varies with polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.  

PubMed

Demand for nonnutritive sweeteners continues to increase due to their ability to provide desirable sweetness with minimal calories. Acesulfame potassium and saccharin are well-studied nonnutritive sweeteners commonly found in food products. Some individuals report aversive sensations from these sweeteners, such as bitter and metallic side tastes. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided insight into the cause of perceptual differences across people. For example, common alleles for the genes TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 explain variable response to the bitter drugs ofloxacin in vitro and propylthiouracil in vivo. Here, we wanted to determine whether differences in the bitterness of acesulfame potassium could be predicted by common polymorphisms (genetic variants) in bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs). We genotyped participants (n = 108) for putatively functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 TAS2Rs and asked them to rate the bitterness of 25 mM acesulfame potassium on a general labeled magnitude scale. Consistent with prior reports, we found 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R31 were associated with acesulfame potassium bitterness. However, TAS2R9 alleles also predicted additional variation in acesulfame potassium bitterness. Conversely, single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R4, TAS2R38, and near TAS2R16 were not significant predictors. Using 1 single nucleotide polymorphism each from TAS2R9 and TAS2R31, we modeled the simultaneous influence of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on acesulfame potassium bitterness; together, these 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms explained 13.4% of the variance in perceived bitterness. These data suggest multiple polymorphisms within TAS2Rs contribute to the ability to perceive the bitterness from acesulfame potassium. PMID:23599216

Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Hayes, John E

2013-06-01

354

Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial123  

PubMed Central

Background: Consumption of liquid calories from beverages has increased in parallel with the obesity epidemic in the US population, but their causal relation remains unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how changes in beverage consumption affect weight change among adults. Design: This was a prospective study of 810 adults participating in the PREMIER trial, an 18-mo randomized, controlled, behavioral intervention trial. Measurements (weight, height, and 24-h dietary recall) were made at baseline, 6 mo, and 18 mo. Results: Baseline mean intake of liquid calories was 356 kcal/d (19% of total energy intake). After potential confounders and intervention assignment were controlled for, a reduction in liquid calorie intake of 100 kcal/d was associated with a weight loss of 0.25 kg (95% CI: 0.11, 0.39; P < 0.001) at 6 mo and of 0.24 kg (95% CI: 0.06, 0.41; P = 0.008) at 18 mo. A reduction in liquid calorie intake had a stronger effect than did a reduction in solid calorie intake on weight loss. Of the individual beverages, only intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was significantly associated with weight change. A reduction in SSB intake of 1 serving/d was associated with a weight loss of 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P = 0.006) at 6 mo and of 0.65 kg (95% CI: 0.22, 1.09; P = 0.003) at 18 mo. Conclusions: These data support recommendations to limit liquid calorie intake among adults and to reduce SSB consumption as a means to accomplish weight loss or avoid excess weight gain. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000616.

Chen, Liwei; Appel, Lawrence J; Loria, Catherine; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Champagne, Catherine M; Elmer, Patricia J; Ard, Jamy D; Mitchell, Diane; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Caballero, Benjamin

2009-01-01

355

Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.  

PubMed

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ? 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ? 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ?1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults. PMID:22551801

Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

2012-06-01

356

Parental and Home Environmental Facilitators of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Overweight and Obese Latino Youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore parental and home environmental facilitators of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and water consumption among obese/overweight Latino youth. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 55 overweight/obese Latino youth aged 10-18 and 55 parents, recruited from school-based clinics and a school in one West-coast district. All youth consumed SSBs regularly and lived in a home where SSBs were available. We used qualitative methods to examine key themes around beliefs about SSBs and water, facilitators of SSB and water consumption, and barriers to reducing SSB consumption. Results A few parents and youth believed that sports drinks are healthy. Although nearly all felt that water is healthy, most parents and about half of youth thought that tap water is unsafe. About half of parent-child dyads had discordant beliefs regarding their perceptions of tap water. About half of parents believed that home-made culturally relevant drinks (e.g., aguas frescas), which typically contain sugar, fruit, and water, were healthy due to their “natural” ingredients. Participants cited home availability as a key factor in SSB consumption. About half of parents set no rules about SSB consumption at home. Among those with rules, most parent-child pairs differed on their beliefs about the content of the rules, and youth reported few consequences for breaking rules. Conclusions Obesity programs for Latino youth should address misconceptions around water, and discuss culturally relevant drinks and sports drinks as potential sources of weight gain. Healthcare providers can help parents set appropriate rules by educating about the risks of keeping SSBs at home.

Bogart, Laura M.; Cowgill, Burt O.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Uyeda, Kimberly; Sticklor, Laurel A.; Alijewicz, Katie E.; Schuster, Mark A.

2013-01-01

357

Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain over 4 Years in a Thai National Cohort - A Prospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide. However, little is known about their contribution to weight gain in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate weight change associated with SSB consumption between 2005 and 2009 in a large national cohort of Thai university students. Methods Questionnaire data were collected from a large Thai cohort (the Thai Health-Risk Transition: a National Cohort Study). The analysis was based on responses from 59 283 of the 60 569 (98%) cohort members who had valid SSB consumption and weight variables in 2005 and 2009. The relationship between SSB consumption in 2005 and self-reported weight change was analysed using multiple linear regression models controlled for socio-demographic, activity and (non-validated) dietary factors shown to influence weight. Results Higher frequency of SSB consumption in 2005 was significantly associated with greater weight gain between 2005 and 2009 in all age groups and in both sexes (p<0.0001); persons who consumed SSBs at least once a day in 2005 gained 0.5 kg more than those who consumed SSBs less than once a month. The estimated weight gain for the average person in the sample was 1.9 kg (95% C I 1.95–1.96). The difference in weight gain between those who increased their consumption frequency ( once per day) between 2005 and 2009 compared to those who maintained it was 0.3 kgs, while persons who reduced their consumption frequency (once a day to > once a month) gained 0.2 kgs less than those whose consumption remained unchanged. Conclusion SSB consumption is independently associated with weight gain in the Thai population. Research and health promotion in Thailand and other economically transitioning countries should focus on reducing their contribution to population weight gain and to diet-related chronic diseases.

Lim, Lynette; Banwell, Cathy; Bain, Chris; Banks, Emily; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

2014-01-01

358

Impact of Individual and Worksite Environmental Factors on Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Overweight Employees  

PubMed Central

Introduction The worksite environment may influence employees’ dietary behaviors. Consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) affect weight management; however, little research has evaluated the influence of worksite factors on beverage consumption. Our purpose was to determine whether individual and worksite factors are associated with water and SSB intake among overweight and obese employees. Methods Data were collected as part of baseline assessments for a worksite-based, weight-management intervention trial. Height and weight of participants (N = 1,482; 74% female; mean age = 47 y [standard deviation (SD) = 11y]; mean weight = 208 lbs [SD = 46 lbs]) were assessed, and participants completed a validated beverage intake questionnaire. Environmental characteristics of worksites (N = 28) were audited. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify worksite conditions that may support healthier beverage intake patterns. Results Most participants were white (75% of sample) with at least some college education or a college degree (approximately 82% of sample). Mean water and SSB intake were 27 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz) and 17 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz), respectively; SSB intake (191 kcal [SD = 218 kcal]) exceeded the recommended discretionary energy intake. Statistical models did not identify any significant predictors of water intake. Female sex and increasing level of education and household income were associated with lower SSB intake; baseline body weight and greater number of worksite water coolers and vending machines were associated with higher SSB intake. The QCA identified worksite type (ie, not manual labor) as a condition necessary for healthier beverage consumption; a worksite break policy of 2 or more per day may lead to unhealthy beverage consumption. Lower SSB consumption was noted among older participants, female participants, and among participants with higher education and income levels. Conclusion Workplace factors influence beverage consumption among overweight employees. Limiting vending machine availability and implementing policies that promote weight management may improve employee health.

You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Wall, Sarah; Harden, Samantha; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

2014-01-01

359

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among US Adults in 6 States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is linked to weight gain. Our objective was to examine state-specific SSB intake and behavioral characteristics associated with SSB intake. Methods We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 38,978 adults aged 18 years or older from 6 states: Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with SSB intake from regular soda and fruit drinks. Results Overall, 23.9% of adults drank SSBs at least once a day. Odds of drinking SSBs 1 or more times per day were significantly greater among younger adults; males; non-Hispanic blacks; adults with lower education; low-income adults or adults with missing income data; adults living in Delaware, Iowa, and Wisconsin versus those living in Minnesota; adults with fruit intake of less than 1 time a day versus 1 or more times a day; adults who were physically inactive versus highly active adults; and current smokers versus nonsmokers. Odds for drinking SSBs 1 or more times per day were significantly lower among adults with 100% fruit juice intake of less than 1 time per day versus 1 or more times per day and among adults who drank alcohol versus those who did not drink alcohol. Conclusion SSB intake varied by states and certain sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. States can use findings from this study to tailor efforts to decrease SSB intake and to encourage consumption of more healthful beverages (eg, water) among their high-risk populations.

Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M.

2014-01-01

360

Serum carbon isotope values change in adults in response to changes in sugar-sweetened beverage intake.  

PubMed

Serum carbon isotope values [13C-to-12C serum carbon isotope ratio (?(13)C)], which reflect consumption of corn- and cane-based foods, differ between persons consuming high and low amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). In this study, we determined whether serum ?(13)C changes in response to change in SSB intake during an 18-mo behavioral intervention trial. Data were from a subset of 144 participants from the PREMIER trial, a completed behavioral intervention (Maryland, 1998-2004). SSB intake was assessed using 2 24-h dietary recall interviews. Blinded serum samples were assayed for ?(13)C by natural abundance stable isotope mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation were used. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 13.8 ± 14.2 fl oz/d, and mean ?(13)C serum value was -19.3 ± 0.6 units per mil (designated ‰). A reduction of 12 oz (355 mL)/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day) was associated with 0.17‰ (95% CI: 0.08‰, 0.25‰ P < 0.0001) reduction in serum ?(13)C values over 18 mo (equivalent to a 1% reduction in ?(13)C from baseline). After adjusting for potential confounders, a reduction of 12 oz/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day), over an 18-mo period, was associated with 0.12‰ (95% CI: 0.01‰, 0.22‰ P = 0.025) reduction in serum ?(13)C. These findings suggest that serum ?(13)C can be used as a measure of dietary changes in SSB intake. PMID:24717368

Fakhouri, Tala H I; Jahren, A Hope; Appel, Lawrence J; Chen, Liwei; Alavi, Reza; Anderson, Cheryl A M

2014-06-01

361

Establishment of regenerative callus and cell suspension system of licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra ) for the production of the sweetener glycyrrhizin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative callus and cell suspension of licorice,Glycyrrhiza glabra, is a prerequisite to the possible production of the non-nutritive sweetener “Glycyrrhizin” in cell suspension. The primary\\u000a embryogenic callus (PEC), initiated from young leaflets of four-weeks-oldin vitro-grown plantlets regenerated by shoot culture, was developed on modified Gamborg’s B5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D,\\u000a Kinetin and low level sucrose (B5DK), at concentrations of 1.0,

Nagat A. Mousa; P. Siaguru; S. Wiryowidagdo; M. E. Wagih

2007-01-01

362

Artificial Gravity Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused, investigator-initiated project to investigate system-specific adaptation to and from rotating environments. The AG Research Project also includes two major animal research subprojects: 1) a directed, managed ground-based subproject using rodents and, possibly, sub-human primates, to address mechanistic issues that cannot be studied in humans, to rapidly develop higher sample numbers than can be achieved in the human subprojects, and to establish feasible parameter operating bands to reduce the breadth of the human subprojects, and 2) a flight subproject using rodents to estimate the physiological effects of long term exposure to hypogravity and to investigate the effects of contamination by terrestrial gravity in estimating AG effectiveness. The animal flight subproject would be performed aboard ISS using the CAM module in approximately the 2008-201 1 timeframe. The paper will first present an overview of the key biomedical research questions to be answered. It will then describe the overall approaches to be utilized in developing and implementing the AG Research Project, including definition of the intended scientific research, management and development approaches, identification of roles and responsibilities, risk management, and definition of project deliverables. The primary focus of the paper will be on the first of the three ground-based human research subprojects, since it is the only one currently in development and is scheduled to start active subject investigations in April of 2005.

Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

2005-01-01

363

Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

1984-01-01

364

Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

1984-01-01

365

Chemometric brains for artificial tongues.  

PubMed

The last years showed a significant trend toward the exploitation of rapid and economic analytical devices able to provide multiple information about samples. Among these, the so-called artificial tongues represent effective tools which allow a global sample characterization comparable to a fingerprint. Born as taste sensors for food evaluation, such devices proved to be useful for a wider number of purposes. In this review, a critical overview of artificial tongue applications over the last decade is outlined. In particular, the focus is centered on the chemometric techniques, which allow the extraction of valuable information from nonspecific data. The basic steps of signal processing and pattern recognition are discussed and the principal chemometric techniques are described in detail, highlighting benefits and drawbacks of each one. Furthermore, some novel methods recently introduced and particularly suitable for artificial tongue data are presented. PMID:21092902

Oliveri, Paolo; Casolino, M Chiara; Forina, Michele

2010-01-01

366

Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

2002-01-01

367

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

2013-12-10

368

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

ScienceCinema

The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

2013-12-19

369

Artificial Intelligence: Promises or Results. Inteligencia Artificial: Promessas ou Resultados.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer as a tool to help man in his mental tasks is compared with other traditional tools such as farm tractors, automobiles, telephones, etc. Artificial intelligence is defined and examples are given of intelligent behavior by machines and their so...

C. Derennaesouza

1980-01-01

370

Molecular cloning and characterization of (+)-epi-?-bisabolol synthase, catalyzing the first step in the biosynthesis of the natural sweetener, hernandulcin, in Lippia dulcis.  

PubMed

Hernandulcin, a C15 sesquiterpene ketone, is a natural sweetener isolated from the leaves of Lippia dulcis. It is a promising sugar substitute due to its safety and low caloric potential. However, the biosynthesis of hernandulcin in L. dulcis remains unknown. The first biochemical step of hernandulcin is the synthesis of (+)-epi-?-bisabolol from farnesyl diphosphate, which is presumed to be catalyzed by a unique sesquiterpene synthase in L. dulcis. In order to decipher hernandulcin biosynthesis, deep transcript sequencings (454 and Illumina) were performed, which facilitated the molecular cloning of five new sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs from L. dulcis. In vivo activity evaluation of these cDNAs in yeast identified them as the sesquiterpene synthases for ?-copaene/?-cadinene, bicyclogermacrene, ?-caryophyllene, trans-?-bergamotene, and ?-bisabolol. The engineered yeast could synthesize a significant amount (~0.3 mg per mL) of ?-bisabolol in shake-flask cultivation. This efficient in vivo production was congruent with the competent kinetic properties of recombinant ?-bisabolol synthase (K(m) 4.8 ?M and k(cat) 0.04 s(-1)). Detailed chemical analyses of the biosynthesized ?-bisabolol confirmed its configuration to be (+)-epi-?-bisabolol, the core skeleton of hernandulcin. These results demonstrated that enzymatic, stereoselective synthesis of (+)-epi-?-bisabolol can be achieved, promising the heterologous production of a natural sweetener, hernandulcin. PMID:22867794

Attia, Mohamed; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2012-11-01

371

Chemical Approaches to Artificial Photosynthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of ...

T. J. Meyer

1989-01-01

372

Chemical approaches to artificial photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In artificial photosynthesis, the goal is to mimic the ability of green plants and other photosynthetic organisms in their use of sunlight to make high-energy chemicals. This is a difficult problem chemically, which accounts for much of the complexity of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. Nonetheless, a number of promising approaches have appeared in recent years based on semiconductors, membranes, vesicles,

Thomas J. Meyer

1989-01-01

373

PROLOG programming for artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is aimed at students and researchers in computer science, logic programming, programming languages and artificial intelligence. Japan's Fifth Generation Project has made Prolog the language which will form the basis for the new generation of computer systems. The author introduces Prolog as efficient language for non-numeric programming. The syntax and semantics are discussed and examples are used to

1986-01-01

374

Artificial Life in Computer Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

2007-01-20

375

Wave Attenuation by Artificial Seaweed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of wave tank tests was conducted at this Center (CERC) to determine the ability of a field of low specific gravity artificial seaweed to attenuate wave action. Wave gages were located on both sides of the seaweed field to measure wave attenuation...

J. P. Ahrens

1976-01-01

376

Building Explainable Artificial Intelligence Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As artificial intelligence (AI) systems and behavior models in military simulations become increasingly complex, it has been difficult for users to understand the activities of computer-controlled entities. Prototype ex- planation systems have been added to simulators, but designers have not heeded the lessons learned from work in explaining expert system behavior. These new explanation systems are not modular and not

Mark G. Core; Michael Van Lent; Dave Gomboc; Steve Solomon; Milton Rosenberg

2006-01-01

377

Theories of Artificial Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is one of the most commonly used paradigms for the study of implicit learning and the contrast between rules, similarity, and associative learning. Despite five decades of extensive research, however, a satisfactory theoretical consensus has not been forthcoming. Theoretical accounts of AGL are reviewed, together…

Pothos, Emmanuel M.

2007-01-01

378

Keratoprosthesis. Implantation of artificial corneas.  

PubMed

Keratoprosthesis (implantation of artificial, plastic cornea) is indicated in severe cases with corneal leucoma (non-transparent, cicatrized cornea) in which keratoplasty (corneal transplantation) is not possible or has repeatedly failed. In the past 40 years we implanted 37 artificial corneas (7 Cardona type, 29 Konstantinov type, 1 Fjodorov type). The visual acuity increase was temporary (lasting from a few weeks to a few months) in 25 patients. The visual acuity was at least 0.2 three years following the implantation of keratoprosthesis in 12 patients. One patient had 1.0 vision 10 years after surgery. Our results indicate that the implantation of artificial corneal is still an "ultimum refugium", an operation that can be justified only in monocular patients, in eyes that cannot be and/or had unsuccessfully been operated on with repeated keratoplasties. The visual improvement is temporary, but in some cases may last for several years. Still this is the only procedure by which useful vision can be provided, for shorter or longer time intervals, for patients suffering from corneal blindness (nontransparent cornea in otherwise functioning eye) whose only eye cannot be treated with corneal transplantation. Keratoprosthesis with better biocompatibility, better fixation techniques, and wider visual fields have to be developed before the implantation of artificial cornea can be looked upon as a surgical procedure with which full optical rehabilitation can be achieved. PMID:9408276

Berta, A

1997-01-01

379

Graphene Electrodes for Artificial Muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced graphene oxides (RGOs) thin films were fabricated in order to apply for the compliant electrodes of artificial muscles. The RGO was chemically prepared by chemical oxidation of natural graphite via Hummers method and following reduction using hydrazine. The RGO electrodes were coated on both sides of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by using spray coater. The resulting PDMS dielectric elastomers with RGO

Kyoungho Min; Ji Young Jung; Tae Hee Han; Cheolsoo Jung; Soon Man Hong; Chong Min Koo

2011-01-01

380

Building a cheaper artificial brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for building artificial brains that is much cheaper than the first author's earlier attempt. What initially cost $500,000, now costs about $3000. The much cheaper approach uses a Celoxica(.com) programmable board containing a Xilinx Virtex II FPGA chip with 3 million programmable logic gates, to evolve neural networks at electronic speeds. The genetic algorithm (GA)

H. de Garis; Wang Ce; T. Batty

2005-01-01

381

Actuator Device for Artificial Leg.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An actuator device is provided for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes an articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly...

J. L. Burch

1975-01-01

382

Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents the first experimental evidence of plasma modifications associated with ion outflows

G. M. Milikh; K. Papadopoulos; H. Shroff; C. L. Chang; T. Wallace; E. V. Mishin; M. Parrot; J. J. Berthelier

2008-01-01

383

Artificial-Satellite-Analysis Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial Satellite Analysis Program (ASAP) is general orbit-predicting computer program incorporating sufficient orbit-modeling accuracy for design and planning of missions and analysis of maneuvers. Suitable for study of planetary-orbit missions with spacecraft trajectories of reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) nature. Not written for specific mission and intended use for almost any planetary orbiting mission. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Kwok, Johnny H.

1989-01-01

384

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

Lawlor, Joseph

385

Endotracheal artificial larynx -- preliminary report.  

PubMed

In experimental animals a one stage surgical procedure has been developed which at laryngectomy allows for the creation of a wide and patent tracheopharyngeal fistula. An endotracheal artificial larynx has been developed which has been found effective in prevention of aspiration in experimental animals. Bench studies indicate that an adequate voice probably can be obtained with this device. PMID:7206027

Dayal, V S; Joy, M L; Moon, R E; Lo, A

1981-02-01

386

Artificial Intelligence and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines artificial intelligence (AI) in relation to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Provides a brief background of AI work, examples of expert systems, examples of ICAI work, and addresses problems facing AI workers that have implications for science education. Proposes a revised model of the Karplus/Renner…

Good, Ron

1987-01-01

387

Analysis of Artificial Meteoritic Spherules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial meteoritic spherules, ranging in size from 10 to 150 microns, have been produced in the laboratory by melting samples of an iron and a stony-iron meteorite with an electric arc welder and an acetylene torch. Microprobe chemical analyses showed ...

F. W. Wright P. W. Hodge

1965-01-01

388

Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

1992-01-01

389

Artificial Materials for Terahertz Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. What? Artificial materials are three dimensional surfaces which can manipulate, focus and filter electro- magnetic radiation. These materials provide engineered properties which may be difficult to obtain or even unavailable in nature. At Durham University, we design, fabricate and test materials which can operate in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (typically 300 GHz to 10 THz). The

Andrew Gallant

2007-01-01

390

Natural and Artificial Spin Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrical frustration among spins in magnetic materials can lead to exotic low temperature states including ``spin ice'', in which the local moments mimic the frustration of hydrogen ion positions in frozen water. We have performed extensive studies of spin ice materials and related compounds, and recently have begun study of an artificial geometrically frustrated magnet which shares many of the

Peter Schiffer

2006-01-01

391

Artificial Intelligence Databases: A Survey and Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and describes online databases containing references to materials on artificial intelligence, robotics, and expert systems, and compares them in terms of scope and usage. Recommendations for conducting online searches on artificial intelligence and related fields are offered. (CLB)

Stern, David

1990-01-01

392

Artificial Viscosity in 1D Spherical Geometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An artificial viscosity formulation based on the conservation equations for viscous compressible hydrodynamics is considered. The method uses tensor analysis to properly transform Richtmyer and von Neumann's artificial viscosity to non-planar geometries. ...

W. P. Crowley

1987-01-01

393

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research is a refereed journal, covering all areas of Artificial Intelligence, which is distributed free of charge over the internet. Links to other AI sites from the home page.

1993-01-01

394

Artificial spin ice: The heat is on  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model magnetic systems known as artificial spin ices have almost always been found in frozen, athermal states. But an artificial spin ice that is designed to be thermally active has now been imaged as it explores its frustrated energy landscape.

Marrows, Christopher

2013-06-01

395

Consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries may reduce urinary tract infection incidence in susceptible women - a modified observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, and over 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetimes. Antibiotics are used for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs but can lead to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate nutritional strategies for prevention of UTIs. Cranberry juices and supplements have been used for UTI prophylaxis, but with variable efficacy. Because dried cranberries may contain a different spectrum of polyphenolics than juice, consuming berries may or may not be more beneficial than juice in decreasing the incidence of UTIs in susceptible women. The primary objectives of this study were to determine if consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries (SDC) decreases recurrent UTIs and whether this intervention would alter the heterogeneity, virulence factor (VF) profiles, or numbers of intestinal E. coli. Methods Twenty women with recurrent UTIs were enrolled in the trial and consumed one serving of SDC daily for two weeks. Clinical efficacy was determined by two criteria, a decrease in the six-month UTI rates pre- and post-consumption and increased time until the first UTI since beginning the study. Strain heterogeneity and virulence factor profiles of intestinal E. coli isolated from rectal swabs were determined by DNA fingerprinting and muliplex PCR, respectively. The numbers of intestinal E. coli eluted from rectal swabs pre- and post-consumption were also quantified. Results Over one-half of the patients did not experience a UTI within six months of SDC consumption, and the mean UTI rate per six months decreased significantly. Kaplan-Meier analysis of infection incidence in women consuming SDC compared to patients in a previous control group showed a significant reduction in time until first UTI within six months. The heterogeneity, VF profiles, and prevalence of intestinal E. coli strains were not significantly different after cranberry consumption. Conclusions Results of this study indicate a beneficial effect from consuming SDC to reduce the number of UTIs in susceptible women. Because there were no changes in the heterogeneity or VF profiles of E. coli, additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action of SDC for reduction of UTIs.

2013-01-01

396

Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children3  

PubMed Central

Background: During the nutrition transition in Chile, dietary changes were marked by increased consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor products, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Obesity is now the primary nutritional problem in posttransitional Chile. Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects on body composition of delivering milk beverages to the homes of overweight and obese children to displace SSBs. Design: We randomly assigned 98 children aged 8–10 y who regularly consumed SSBs to intervention and control groups. During a 16-wk intervention, children were instructed to drink 3 servings/d (?200 g per serving) of the milk delivered to their homes and to not consume SSBs. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results: For the intervention group, milk consumption increased by a mean (± SEM) of 452.5 ± 37.7 g/d (P<0.0001), and consumption of SSBs decreased by ?711.0 ± 33.7 g/d (P < 0.0001). For the control group, milk consumption did not change, and consumption of SSBs increased by 71.9 ± 33.6 g/d (P = 0.04). Changes in percentage body fat, the primary endpoint, did not differ between groups. Nevertheless, the mean (± SE) accretion of lean body mass was greater (P = 0.04) in the intervention (0.92 ± 0.10 kg) than in the control (0.62 ± 0.11 kg) group. The increase in height was also greater (P = 0.01) in the intervention group (2.50 ± 0.21 cm) than in the control group (1.77 ± 0.20 cm) for boys but not for girls. Conclusion: Replacing habitual consumption of SSBs with milk may have beneficial effects on lean body mass and growth in children, despite no changes in percentage body fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00149695.

Albala, Cecilia; Ebbeling, Cara B; Cifuentes, Mariana; Lera, Lydia; Bustos, Nelly; Ludwig, David S

2008-01-01

397

Novel candidate genes influencing natural variation in potato tuber cold sweetening identified by comparative proteomics and association mapping  

PubMed Central

Background Higher plants evolved various strategies to adapt to chilling conditions. Among other transcriptional and metabolic responses to cold temperatures plants accumulate a range of solutes including sugars. The accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose in mature potato tubers during exposure to cold temperatures is referred to as cold induced sweetening (CIS). The molecular basis of CIS in potato tubers is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation to environmental stress but also in applied research, since high amounts of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed food products such as potato chips. CIS-tolerance varies considerably among potato cultivars. Our objective was to identify by an unbiased approach genes and cellular processes influencing natural variation of tuber sugar content before and during cold storage in potato cultivars used in breeding programs. We compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the tuber proteomes of cultivars highly diverse for CIS. DNA polymorphisms in genomic sequences encoding differentially expressed proteins were tested for association with tuber starch content, starch yield and processing quality. Results Pronounced natural variation of CIS was detected in tubers of a population of 40 tetraploid potato cultivars. Significant differences in protein expression were detected between CIS-tolerant and CIS-sensitive cultivars before the onset as well as during cold storage. Identifiable differential proteins corresponded to protease inhibitors, patatins, heat shock proteins, lipoxygenase, phospholipase A1 and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap). Association mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms supported a role of Lap in the natural variation of the quantitative traits tuber starch and sugar content. Conclusions The combination of comparative proteomics and association genetics led to the discovery of novel candidate genes for influencing the natural variation of quantitative traits in potato tubers. One such gene was a leucine aminopeptidase not considered so far to play a role in starch sugar interconversion. Novel SNP’s diagnostic for increased tuber starch content, starch yield and chip quality were identified, which are useful for selecting improved potato processing cultivars.

2013-01-01

398

Factors associated with artificial feeding in Shanghai.  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with artificial feeding were analyzed for 3285 infants in Shanghai. Boys, those from more highly educated families, and those born by assisted delivery or by cesarean section were more likely to be artificially fed than were girls, those from less educated families, and those born by spontaneous delivery. Infants whose birth weight was around 3750 g had the lowest probability of artificial feeding; higher and lower birth weights were positively associated with artificial feeding.

Chen, Y

1992-01-01

399

Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

Tilmann, Martha J.

400

PROLOG programming for artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book is aimed at students and researchers in computer science, logic programming, programming languages and artificial intelligence. Japan's Fifth Generation Project has made Prolog the language which will form the basis for the new generation of computer systems. The author introduces Prolog as efficient language for non-numeric programming. The syntax and semantics are discussed and examples are used to illustrate the non-procedural aspects which distinguish Prolog from other languages. The applications of Prolog are then demonstrated in the many areas of artificial intelligence, including heuristic search, game playing and expert systems. Contents: An overview of Prolog; Syntax and meaning of Prolog programs; Lists, operators, arithmetic; Using structures: examples programs; Controlling backtracking; Input and output; More built-in procedures; Programming style and technique. Operations on data structures; Balanced trees; Basic problem-solving strategies; Best-first: a heuristic search principle; Problem reduction and/or graphs; Expert systems; Game playing; Pattern directed systems.

Bratko, I.

1986-01-01

401

Toward the wearable artificial kidney.  

PubMed

The evolution of technology in hemodialysis has gone through several steps including the feasibility phase, the search for reliability, the implementation of automation to improve efficiency and the quest towards increased tolerance and treatment adequacy. Today, a new challenge is appearing on the scene and it concerns miniaturization, transportability, wearability and the possibility of developing implantable devices for renal replacement therapies. Although we are not there yet, a new series of papers have recently been published disclosing interesting and promising results on the application of wearable ultrafiltration systems (WUF) and wearable artificial kidneys (WAK). Some of these use extracorporeal blood cleansing as a method of blood purification while others use peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality. This manuscript presents the initial results with these new devices and proposes an effort to make a quantum leap in technology making the wearable artificial kidney a reality rather than a dream. PMID:18638240

Ronco, Claudio; Davenport, Andrew; Gura, Victor

2008-07-01

402

The History of Artificial Intelligence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite what some might think, artificial intelligence is a concept that is hundreds of years old and a variety of individuals have worked on a number of curious projects in an attempt to plumb the depths of this idea. This collection from the Stanford University Libraries brings together a dozen or so audio and video files that document the history of these explorations. The project was supported by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, via a grant awarded by the National Science Foundation. The films, which can be found under the tab "Browse by Title", include lectures of motion and vision and a very early film on a remote-controlled lunar vehicle. Some of the files are not publicly accessible to those not affiliated with Stanford University, but there is enough here to warrant several visits.

403

Artificial anisotropy and polarizing filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculated spectral transmittance of a multilayer laser mirror is used to determine the effective index of the single layer equivalent to the multilayer stack. We measure the artificial anisotropy of photoresist thin films whose structure is a one-dimensional, subwavelength grating obtained from interference fringes. The limitation of the theory of the first-order effective index homogenization is discussed. We designed normal-incidence, polarizing coating and a polarization rotator by embedding anisotropic films in simple multilayer structures.

Flory, Francois; Escoubas, Ludovic; Lazarides, Basile

2002-06-01

404

Artificial compound eye zoom camera.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a highly compact image capturing system with variable field of view but without any mechanically moving parts. The camera combines an ultra-thin artificial apposition compound eye with one variable focal length liquid lens. The change of optical power of the liquid lens when applying a voltage results in a change of the magnification of the microlens array imaging system. However, its effect on focusing of the individual microlenses can be neglected due to their small focal length. PMID:19029582

Duparré, Jacques; Wippermann, Frank; Dannberg, Peter; Bräuer, Andreas

2008-12-01

405

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating three-dimensional, steady and unsteady, laminar and turbulent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared in this work. Each method is described in detail along with appropriate physical and numerical boundary conditions. Analysis of well-posedness and numerical solutions to test problems for each method are provided. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, stability and robustness is used to establish the relative positive and negative characteristics of each method.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2003-01-01

406

Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now,\\u000a however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle.\\u000a BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior\\u000a of this fiber is similar

Yasuyuki Suzuki; Kazuyuki Daitoku; Masahito Minakawa; Kozo Fukui; Ikuo Fukuda

2008-01-01

407

Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

1991-01-01

408

sicks OR allulose OR Sucralose OR trichlorosucrose OR stevia OR stevioside* OR steviol OR rebaudioside* OR "reb OR a" OR "monk OR fruit" OR mogroside* OR "luo OR han OR guo" OR "luo OR han OR kuo" OR luohanguo OR luohankuo OR "lo OR han OR guo" OR lohanguo OR "lo OR han OR kuo" OR lohankuo OR lohoguo OR "la OR han OR qua" OR aspartame OR grosvenorii  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean sicks OR allulose OR Sucralose OR trichlorosucrose OR stevia OR stevioside* OR steviol OR rebaudioside* OR "reb OR a" OR "monk OR fruit" OR mogroside* OR "luo OR han OR guo" OR "luo OR han OR kuo" OR luohanguo OR luohankuo OR "lo OR han OR guo" OR lohanguo OR "lo OR han OR kuo" OR lohankuo OR lohoguo OR "la OR han OR qua" OR aspartame OR grosvenorii ?

409

(Sucralose OR trichlorosucrose OR stevia OR stevioside* OR steviol OR rebaudioside* OR "monk OR fruit" OR mogroside* OR "luo OR han OR guo" OR "luo OR han OR kuo" OR luohanguo) OR (luohankuo OR "lo OR han OR guo" OR lohanguo OR "lo OR han OR kuo" OR lohankuo OR lohoguo OR "la OR han OR qua" OR aspartame OR grosvenorii OR psicose OR allulose)  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: (Sucralose OR trichlorosucrose OR stevia OR stevioside* OR steviol OR rebaudioside* OR "monk OR fruit" OR mogroside* OR "luo OR han OR guo" OR "luo OR han OR kuo" OR luohanguo) OR (luohankuo OR "lo OR han OR guo" OR lohanguo OR "lo OR han OR kuo" OR lohankuo OR lohoguo OR "la OR han OR qua" OR aspartame OR grosvenorii OR psicose OR allulose) ?

410

sicks OR allulose OR Sucralose OR trichlorosucrose OR stevia OR stevioside* OR steviol OR rebaudioside* OR "reb OR a" OR "monk OR fruit" OR mogroside* OR "luo OR han OR guo" OR "luo OR han OR kuo" OR luohanguo OR luohankuo OR "lo OR han OR guo" OR lohanguo OR "lo OR han OR kuo" OR lohankuo OR lohoguo OR "la OR han OR qua" OR aspartame OR grosvenorii  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: sicks OR allulose OR Sucralose OR trichlorosucrose OR stevia OR stevioside* OR steviol OR rebaudioside* OR "reb OR a" OR "monk OR fruit" OR mogroside* OR "luo OR han OR guo" OR "luo OR han OR kuo" OR luohanguo OR luohankuo OR "lo OR han OR guo" OR lohanguo OR "lo OR han OR kuo" OR lohankuo OR lohoguo OR "la OR han OR qua" OR aspartame OR grosvenorii ?

411

Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials  

PubMed Central

The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author’s studies are described. (1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism. (2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures. (3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers. (4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires). A subject of particular interest in the author’s research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author’s research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint.

SHINJO, Teruya

2013-01-01

412

Miniature curved artificial compound eyes  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stephane; Ruffier, Franck; Bruckner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphael; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

2013-01-01

413

Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.  

PubMed

Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials. PMID:23773031

Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

2013-10-30

414

Sweetening Statistical Lemons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes Jay Mathews'"Newsweek" article ranking the 100 "best" American high schools by a Challenge Index dividing the number of advanced placement/international baccalaureate tests taken by the number of graduating seniors. Clifford Adelman's research on good academic content and good teachers provides more useful criteria. (MLH)

Perreault, George

2000-01-01

415

Sweetening Ontologies with DOLCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the DOLCE upper level ontology, the first module of a Foundational Ontologies Library being developed within the WonderWeb project. DOLCE is presented here in an intuitive way; the reader should refer to the project deliverable for a detailed axiomatization. A comparison with WordNet's top-level taxonomy of nouns is also provided, which shows how DOLCE, used

Aldo Gangemi; Nicola Guarino; Claudio Masolo; Alessandro Oltramari; Luc Schneider

2002-01-01

416

Characterization of acid-stable glucose isomerase from Streptomyces sp., and development of single-step processes for high-fructose corn sweetener (HFCS) production.  

PubMed

The glucose isomerase from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86 was purified by chromatographic procedures, showing one single protein band in the SDS-PAGE. The enzyme had high acid stability, and there was no loss in enzyme activity at pH 5.0 after incubation at 60 degrees C for 30 hr. The enzyme had sufficients activity at 60 degrees C, pH 5.5, (which is the reaction condition for a single-step process with a glucoamylase from A. niger), and at 58 degrees C, pH 6.0, (condition with a glucoamylase from R. niveus). By using this acid-stable glucose isomerase, a single-step process to produce high-fructose corn sweetener (HFCS) from liquefied starch was formed without any reductant or other reagents for enzyme stabilization. The HFCS produced was about fifty percent fructose and less than 1.5% unknown oligosaccharides. PMID:10879462

Kaneko, T; Takahashi, S; Saito, K

2000-05-01

417

Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: not a "holy grail" but a cup at least half comment on "food taxes: a new holy grail?".  

PubMed

In this commentary, we argue for the implementation of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax as a tool to help address the global obesity and diabetes epidemics. Consumption of SSBs has increased exponentially over the last several decades, a trend that has been an important contributor to the obesity and diabetes epidemics. Prior evidence demonstrates that a SSB tax will likely decrease SSB consumption without significantly increasing consumption of other unhealthy food or beverages. Further, this tax is unlikely to have effects on income inequality and should not contribute to weight-based discrimination. A SSB tax also should raise revenue for government entities that already pay, through health care expenditures and health programs, for the consequences of excess SSB consumption. PMID:24596861

Block, Jason P; Willett, Walter C

2013-08-01

418

The carbon isotope ratio of alanine in red blood cells is a new candidate biomarker of sugar-sweetened beverage intake.  

PubMed

An objective dietary biomarker would help clarify the contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake to obesity and chronic disease risk. Previous studies have proposed the carbon isotope ratio (?(13)C) as a biomarker of SSB intake but found associations that were of modest size and confounded by other components of the diet. We investigated whether the ?(13)C values of nonessential amino acids (?(13)CNEAA) in RBCs could provide valid biomarkers that are more specific to SSBs. We assessed the associations of RBC ?(13)CNEAA with SSB intake in a study population of 68 Yup'ik people, using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure ?(13)CNEAA and four 24-h dietary recalls to assess intake. Among RBC nonessential amino acids, alanine ?(13)C (?(13)Calanine) was strongly correlated with intake of SSBs, added sugar, and total sugar (r = 0.70, 0.59, and 0.57, respectively; P < 0.0001) but uncorrelated with other dietary sources of elevated ?(13)C. We also evaluated whether sweetener intake could be noninvasively assessed using hair ?(13)Calanine in a subset of the study population (n = 30). Hair ?(13)Calanine was correlated with RBC ?(13)Calanine (r = 0.65; P < 0.0001) and showed similar associations with SSB intake. These results show that ?(13)Calanine in RBCs provides a valid and specific biomarker of SSB intake for the Yup'ik population and suggest RBCs and hair ?(13)Calanine as candidate biomarkers of SSB intake for validation in the general U.S. population. Ultimately, these biomarkers could clarify our understanding of whether and how SSB intake contributes to chronic disease. PMID:23616504

Choy, Kyungcheol; Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

2013-06-01

419

The Carbon Isotope Ratio of Alanine in Red Blood Cells Is a New Candidate Biomarker of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake12  

PubMed Central

An objective dietary biomarker would help clarify the contribution of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake to obesity and chronic disease risk. Previous studies have proposed the carbon isotope ratio (?13C) as a biomarker of SSB intake but found associations that were of modest size and confounded by other components of the diet. We investigated whether the ?13C values of nonessential amino acids (?13CNEAA) in RBCs could provide valid biomarkers that are more specific to SSBs. We assessed the associations of RBC ?13CNEAA with SSB intake in a study population of 68 Yup’ik people, using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure ?13CNEAA and four 24-h dietary recalls to assess intake. Among RBC nonessential amino acids, alanine ?13C (?13Calanine) was strongly correlated with intake of SSBs, added sugar, and total sugar (r = 0.70, 0.59, and 0.57, respectively; P < 0.0001) but uncorrelated with other dietary sources of elevated ?13C. We also evaluated whether sweetener intake could be noninvasively assessed using hair ?13Calanine in a subset of the study population (n = 30). Hair ?13Calanine was correlated with RBC ?13Calanine (r = 0.65; P < 0.0001) and showed similar associations with SSB intake. These results show that ?13Calanine in RBCs provides a valid and specific biomarker of SSB intake for the Yup’ik population and suggest RBCs and hair ?13Calanine as candidate biomarkers of SSB intake for validation in the general U.S. population. Ultimately, these biomarkers could clarify our understanding of whether and how SSB intake contributes to chronic disease.

Choy, Kyungcheol; Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert B.; O'Brien, Diane M.

2013-01-01

420

Natural and artificially initiated lightning.  

PubMed

Recent research on lightning has been motivated, in part, by the desire to prevent spectacular accidents, such as occurred in 1969 during the launch of Apollo 12 and in 1987 during the launch of Atlas-Centaur 67, and by the need to protect advanced ground-based and airborne systems that utilize low voltage, solid-state electronics. The present understanding of both natural and artificially initiated (triggered) lightning is reviewed, and suggestions are given for future research that can improve our understanding both of the physics of lightning and the parameters that are important for protection. PMID:17788696

Uman, M A; Krider, E P

1989-10-27

421

Attitude measurement by artificial vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitude measurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuring attitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical algorithm allowing these measurements to be performed in real time is described. An implementation in a CMOS retina circuit is also presented. These points are illustrated by experiments confirming the feasibility of the device.

Truchetet, F.; Aubreton, O.; Gorria, P.; Laligant, O.

2006-01-01

422

Research and applications: Artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in the field of artificial intelligence is discussed. The focus of recent work has been the design, implementation, and integration of a completely new system for the control of a robot that plans, learns, and carries out tasks autonomously in a real laboratory environment. The computer implementation of low-level and intermediate-level actions; routines for automated vision; and the planning, generalization, and execution mechanisms are reported. A scenario that demonstrates the approximate capabilities of the current version of the entire robot system is presented.

Raphael, B.; Duda, R. O.; Fikes, R. E.; Hart, P. E.; Nilsson, N. J.; Thorndyke, P. W.; Wilber, B. M.

1971-01-01

423

Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

Anken, Craig S.

1993-01-01

424

Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

Hill, Gary C.

1992-01-01

425

Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

Yazdani, M.

1986-01-01

426

Artificial reefs: from waste to resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste materials, often referred to as “materials-of-opportunity,” have been the primary components used for constructing artificial reefs. Ships, barges, airplanes, automobiles, concrete debris, tires, and many other waste items have been disposed of at sea, with the added benefit of providing artificial reef habitat for environmental enhancement, fishing reefs, and interesting dive sites for eco-tourism. The latest development in artificial

Lee E. Harris; Benjamin J. Mostkoff; G. Zadikoff

1996-01-01

427

Polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many polymeric materials have already been used in the field of artificial organs. However, the materials used in artificial\\u000a organs are not necessarily created with the best material selectivity and materials design; therefore, the development of\\u000a synthesized polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs based on well-defined designs is required. The approaches to\\u000a the development of biocompatible polymeric materials fall into

Hiroyoshi Kawakami

2008-01-01

428

Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities\\u000a where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short-\\u000a or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge\\u000a requires permeable surface soils. Where

Herman Bouwer

2002-01-01

429

Artificial muscle: facts and fiction.  

PubMed

Mechanical devices are sought to support insufficient or paralysed striated muscles including the failing heart. Nickel-titanium alloys (nitinol) present the following two properties: (i) super-elasticity, and (ii) the potential to assume different crystal structures depending on temperature and/or stress. Starting from the martensite state nitinol is able to resume the austenite form (state of low potential energy and high entropy) even against an external resistance. This one-way shape change is deployed in self-expanding vascular stents. Heating induces the force generating transformation from martensite to the austenite state while cooling induces relaxation back to the martensite state. This two-way shape change oscillating between the two states may be used in cyclically contracting support devices of silicon-coated nitinol wires. Such a contractile device sutured to the right atrium has been tested in vitro in a bench model and in vivo in sheep. The contraction properties of natural muscles, specifically of the myocardium, and the tight correlation with ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria is briefly outlined. Force development by the nitinol device cannot be smoothly regulated as in natural muscle. Its mechanical impact is forced onto the natural muscle regardless of the actual condition with regard to metabolism and Ca2+-homeostasis. The development of artificial muscle on the basis of nitinol wires is still in its infancy. The nitinol artificial muscle will have to prove its viability in the various clinical settings. PMID:22183715

Schaub, Marcus C

2011-01-01

430

[Kolff and the artificial kidney].  

PubMed

Willem Kolff (1911-2009), son of a physician, studied medicine in Leiden and specialised in internal medicine in Groningen. It was there that he started attempts to apply the phenomenon of dialysis in patients suffering from renal failure. He built the first prototypes of dialysis machines after his appointment as an internist in the municipal hospital in Kampen, during the Second World War. Indeed, in the first 15 patients he managed to decrease urea levels, resulting in temporary clinical improvement, but eventually they all died. It was not until after the war that dialysis helped a patient survive an episode of acute glomerulonephritis. After 1950 he continued his work on artificial organs in the United States (first in Cleveland and later, after 1967, in Salt Lake City). Although most of his work from then on revolved around the development of an artificial heart, he also contributed to the design of a compact, disposable apparatus for dialysis, the 'twin coil'. Haemodialysis also became feasible for patients with chronic renal failure after the 'Scribner shunt' (1960) provided easy access to the circulation. Peritoneal dialysis is another option. Excess mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease, is still a largely unsolved problem. PMID:23594869

van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P; Nurmohamed, S Azam

2013-01-01

431

Artificial-Society-Based Classroom Behavior Dynamic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the concept and framework of artificial classroom (AC) for the first time by employing artificial societies. Our solution is to use the artificial society approach for modeling artificial classroom. In the artificial society approach, agent-based simulation is used to explore and understand classroom misbehaviors issues. Student agents are selected as three kinds of typical agents and actions

Lijun Wang; Chunxiao Zhao

2009-01-01

432

The Biological Relevance of Artificial Life: Lessons from Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is no fundamental reason why A-life couldn't simply be a branch of computer science that deals with algorithms that are inspired by, or emulate biological phenomena. However, if these are the limits we place on this field, we miss the opportunity to help advance Theoretical Biology and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of life. The history of Artificial Intelligence provides a good example, in that early interest in the nature of cognition quickly was lost to the process of building tools, such as "expert systems" that, were certainly useful, but provided little insight in the nature of cognition. Based on this lesson, I will discuss criteria for increasing the biological relevance of A-life and the probability that this field may provide a theoretical foundation for Biology.

Colombano, Silvano

2000-01-01

433

The association between the availability of sugar-sweetened beverage in school vending machines and its consumption among adolescents in California: a propensity score matching approach. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data.

434

The history of the artificial eye.  

PubMed

The history of the artificial eye, from antiquity to the present, is described. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century, glass eyes replaced the earlier metal ones--not always well tolerated. In 1835, cryolite glass was used instead of lead glass; to this day it remains the lightest and most desirable substance for making artificial eyes. PMID:396850

Martin, O; Clodius, L

1979-08-01

435

Artificial Intelligence in Financial Distress Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the failure of many high profile firms, bankruptcy prediction has become a topic of high interest. In this paper we have briefly reviewed the various techniques for the financial distress prediction. These techniques consist of statistical techniques like logit and probit models, multiple discriminant analysis, multivariate CUSUM methods etc. and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques like Artificial Neural

Kuldeep Kumar; Clarence Tan

436

Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function.

Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibanez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

2011-01-01

437

Societal and Ethical Considerations of Artificial Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present state of artificial heart research and development is analyzed in light of public perceptions affected by accounts of the experiences of those who received the Jarvik-7.On the assumption that research will continue, it is argued that the therapeutic goals of the artificial heart can be realized, and funding be obtained, only in an atmosphere of positive publicity. To

Michael Paquin

1986-01-01

438

Generalized Artificial Selection Fast Plants Schedule  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fill-in-the-blank timeline is a planning tool for teachers to use when figuring out when to begin the steps associated with conducting a two-generation artificial selection experiment using Fast Plants. Teachers preparing for any selection experiment will find this timeline helpful, including those planning for the AP Biology Lab 1 of Big Idea 1: Evolution, Artificial Selection.

Lauffer, Hedi B.

439

Characterization of artificial neural network algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tradeoffs must be made when artificial neural network models are implemented efficiently. One popular artificial neural network model, the back-propagation algorithm, promises to be a powerful and flexible learning model. The effects on its performance when the model is modified for efficient hardware implementation are discussed. The modifications examined concern limited precision architectures, sign\\/threshold propagation, sum weight changes, and the

Tom Baker; Dan Hammerstrom

1989-01-01

440

A Theory of Limits in Artificial Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The paper presents a theory of selection limits in artificial selection. It is, however, developed primarily in terms of single genes. (2) For a single gene with selective advantage s, the chance of fixation (the expected gene frequency at the limit) is a function only of Ns, where N is the effective population size. In artificial selection based on

A. Robertson

1960-01-01

441

From the Cover: Artificial ecosystem selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial selection has been practiced for centuries to shape the properties of individual organisms, providing Darwin with a powerful argument for his theory of natural selection. We show that the properties of whole ecosystems can also be shaped by artificial selection procedures. Ecosystems initiated in the laboratory vary phenotypically and a proportion of the variation is heritable, despite the fact

William Swenson; David Sloan Wilson; Roberta Elias

2000-01-01

442

Artificial Intelligence in Education: An Exploration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a brief outline of the development of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) which includes psychology, education, cognitive science, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Highlights include learning environments; learner modeling; a situated approach to learning; and current examples of AIED research. (LRW)

Cumming, Geoff

1998-01-01

443

Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

Devedzic, Vladan

2004-01-01

444

Artificial Animals in Realistic Virtual Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a virtual marine ecosystem inhab- ited by realistic artificial life that emulates the appearan ce, movement, and behavior of real fishes. Each artificial fish is an autonomous agent in a simulated physical world. It has (i) a three-dimensional body with internal muscle ac- tuators and functional fins, which deforms and locomotes in accordance with biomechanic and hydrodynamic

Demetri Terzopoulos

1996-01-01

445

Artificial leather production in the automotive industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is focused on the process of artificial leather production in the automotive industry (e.g. the artificial leather on a car dashboard). One successful manufacturing process is the heating of the mould surface by infrared heaters located above the mould. We will describe one model of mould warming, as well as a method to calculate the heat radiation intensity

Jaroslav Mlynek; Radek Srb

2012-01-01

446

Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

2006-01-01

447

Threshold energies in the artificial retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser threshold energies for artificial retinal damage from ultrashort (i.e. less than or equal to 1 ns) laser pulses are investigated as a function of both pulse width and spot size. A piece of film acts as the absorbing layer and is positioned at the focus of the Cain artificial eye (17 mm in water). We performed experiments at the

Dale J. Payne; Richard A. Hopkins; Brent Eilert; Gary D. Noojin; Benjamin A. Rockwell

1998-01-01

448

What's happening in artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

New developments reported this year are primarily in the areas of electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), beam pumps, and gas lift. The available information includes new products, techniques for extending run life, controllers, monitors and various other products. Specific topics in this article include: ESP turn key leases for temporary lifting; Horizontal pumps; Gas diffusion coatings for ESP bushings and sleeves; ESP variable rate current-voltage recording monitor; Power tubing ESP status; Low volume, high efficiency ESP stage; ESP improvements for horizontal and abrasive conditions; ESP computer design program effort; Well analyzer; Beam pump controller with variable frequency drive; Hydraulic pumping units; Mobile swab unit for marginal wells; Device for unseating downhole pumps; Gas lift valve test stand; Plunger lift controllers; Resettable ESP packer; Power generation from wellhead gas; and Artificial lift PC design program.

Lea, J.F. (Amoco Production Research Co., Tulsa, OK (US)); Winkler, H.W.

1991-05-01

449

Artificial intelligence for subject interviewing  

SciTech Connect

This paper has two goals: to discuss, in general terms, issues related to applying artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to computerized interviewing; and to describe two AI-based interviewing systems developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With respect to the former, AI techniques can be used effectively to collect data of complex representation, provide flexibility in collecting data, and improve data validity through real-time reviews. One AI system, ARK, elicits subjects' beliefs on an open-ended range of issues and topics through menu-driven, dialogue-based interactions. The other system, LES, elicits, uncertainty assessments related to events, statements and propositions and tailors questions for subjects to explore their uncertainty processing heuristics.

Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.; Arrowood, L.; Hake, K.

1990-01-01