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1

Sweeteners - artificial  

MedlinePLUS

... in carbonated low-calorie beverages and other products. Neotame is an artificial sweetener used in many diet ... lifetime. The artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K, saccharin, neotame, and sucralose are all FDA approved. Aspartame is ...

2

Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.  

PubMed

Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate containing table sweeteners. PMID:12623659

Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

2003-02-01

3

Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... or brain cancer ( 2 ). Acesulfame potassium, Sucralose, and Neotame In addition to saccharin and aspartame, three other ... approval as a general purpose sweetener in 1999. Neotame, which is similar to aspartame, was approved by ...

4

Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, artificial sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K and binary sweetener blend of aspartame x acesulfame-K\\u000a were assessed for stability during storage in whey lemon beverage. A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of aspartame, acesulfame-K and their degradation products in whey lemon beverage.\\u000a HPLC analytical conditions were standardized over C18 column for simultaneous separation

Sumit Arora; Ashish M. Shendurse; Vivek Sharma; Balbir K. Wadhwa; Ashish K. Singh

5

Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

2004-10-01

6

Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame, a high intensity sweetener, is used extensively worldwide in over 5,000 products. Upon ingestion, aspartame is completely metabolized to two amino acids and methanol (approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid, and 10% methanol). The effects of aspartame on cognitive function, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 48 adult (21 men, 27 women) heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKUH). PKUH

Friedrich Trefz; Leo de Sonneville; Peter Matthis; Christian Benninger; Brigitte Lanz-Englert; Horst Bickel

1994-01-01

7

PLS-UV Spectrophotometric Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Ternary Mixture of Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame-K and Saccharin) in Commercial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame (Apt), Acesulfame-K (Ace-K) and Saccharin (Sac), low-calorie, high-potency artificial sweeteners are currently\\u000a used in carbonated beverages, dietary food and drinks. Their increased application in food and drink products has given a\\u000a new impetus to develop fast and accurate methods for their determination. Absorption spectra of Apt, Ace-K and Sac strongly\\u000a overlap. Therefore a direct determination of these analytes in

Fatma Turak; Mahmure Üstün Özgür; Abdürrezzak Bozdo?an

8

Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: Regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. PMID:23891579

Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

2013-07-23

9

Assessment of Intakes of Artificial Sweeteners in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the mean and maximum intake levels of the artificial sweeteners acesul- fame potassium, aspartame, cyclamate and sucralose in chil- dren with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to compare each intake level to respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Quantitative and qualitative estimates of foods consumed by 56 children (age: 2 years to

Lisa Devitt; Denis Daneman; Jennifer Buccino

2004-01-01

10

Molecular Mechanism of Species-dependent Sweet Taste toward Artificial Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species towards the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than that of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds.

Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

2011-01-01

11

Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species-selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species-dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds. PMID:21795555

Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

2011-07-27

12

Caffeine, Artificial Sweetener, and Fluid Intake in Anorexia Nerovsa  

PubMed Central

Objective The current paper provides an analysis of the use of artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and excess fluids in patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Method Seventy subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) were recruited to participate in an ecologic momentary assessment study which included nutritional analysis using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R), a computer based dietary recall system. Results When subtypes were compared, AN-restricting subtype (AN-R) subjects and AN-Binge-Purge (AN-B/P) subjects did not differ in quantity of aspartame, caffeine, or water consumed. Daily water consumption was related to daily vomiting frequency in AN-B/P but not to daily exercise frequency in either AN-R or AN-B/P subjects. Conclusion Caffeine, water, and aspartame consumption can be variable in AN patients and the consumption of these substances appears to be only modestly related to purging behavior.

Marino, Joanna M.; Ertelt, Troy E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Lancaster, Kathy; Mitchell, James E.; Fischer, Sarah; Doyle, Peter; le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott

2010-01-01

13

The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effects of aspartame-sweetened and sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on food intake and appetite ratings of female restrained eaters. Subjects: Fourteen female students, shown to have eating restraint. Methods: Subjects were given four drinks (330 ml) of aspartame-sweetened lemonade, sucrose-sweetened lemonade and carbonated mineral water on three separate days. Seven of the subjects were informed of the drink

JH Lavin; NW Read

1997-01-01

14

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2010-04-01

15

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food...145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the...

2009-04-01

16

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened canned apricots. 145.116 Section 145.116 Food...145.116 Artificially sweetened canned apricots. (a) Artificially sweetened canned apricots is the food which conforms to the...

2010-04-01

17

Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.  

PubMed

Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents. PMID:18850355

Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

2008-01-01

18

In vivo cytogenetic studies on aspartame.  

PubMed

Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester) is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol) was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight). Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI). However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration. PMID:20689731

Alsuhaibani, Entissar S

2010-06-20

19

The potential toxicity of artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

Since their discovery, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been controversial. Artificial sweeteners provide the sweetness of sugar without the calories. As public health attention has turned to reversing the obesity epidemic in the United States, more individuals of all ages are choosing to use these products. These choices may be beneficial for those who cannot tolerate sugar in their diets (e.g., diabetics). However, scientists disagree about the relationships between sweeteners and lymphomas, leukemias, cancers of the bladder and brain, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and systemic lupus. Recently these substances have received increased attention due to their effects on glucose regulation. Occupational health nurses need accurate and timely information to counsel individuals regarding the use of these substances. This article provides an overview of types of artificial sweeteners, sweetener history, chemical structure, biological fate, physiological effects, published animal and human studies, and current standards and regulations. PMID:18604921

Whitehouse, Christina R; Boullata, Joseph; McCauley, Linda A

2008-06-01

20

Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine).  

PubMed

Aspartame, a high intensity sweetener, is used extensively worldwide in over 5,000 products. Upon ingestion, aspartame is completely metabolized to two amino acids and methanol (approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid, and 10% methanol). The effects of aspartame on cognitive function, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 48 adult (21 men, 27 women) heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKUH), PKUH subjects whose carrier status had been proven by DNA analysis ingested aspartame (either 15 or 45 mg/kg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks on each treatment using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline weeks -2 and -1, and during treatment at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. Samples for plasma amino acids and urinary organic acids were also collected during these visits. EEGs were evaluated by conventional and spectral analysis at baseline week -1 and treatment weeks 12 and 24. The results of the neuropsychological tests demonstrated that aspartame had no effect on cognitive function. Plasma phenylalanine significantly increased, within the normal range for PKUH, at 1 and 3 h following the morning dose of aspartame in the group receiving the 45 mg/kg per day dose only. There were no significant differences in the conventional or spectral EEG analyses, urinary organic acid concentrations, and adverse experiences when aspartame was compared with placebo. This study reaffirms the safety of aspartame in PKUH and refutes the speculation that aspartame affects cognitive performance, EEGs, and urinary organic acids. PMID:8168806

Trefz, F; de Sonneville, L; Matthis, P; Benninger, C; Lanz-Englert, B; Bickel, H

1994-04-01

21

Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration

C. M. Lino; I. M. Costa; A. Pena; R. Ferreira; S. M. Cardoso

2008-01-01

22

Saccharin and aspartame. Are they safe to consume during pregnancy?  

PubMed

Saccharin and aspartame are commonly used artificial sweeteners. Some of the currently available information on their safety in pregnancy was reviewed, with recommendations formulated on their use in the periconceptional period and pregnancy. PMID:3351801

London, R S

1988-01-01

23

Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings  

PubMed Central

America’s obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed [1,2]. While people often choose “diet” or “light” products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale’s Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

Yang, Qing

2010-01-01

24

Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.  

PubMed

America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

Yang, Qing

2010-06-01

25

Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the

P Humphries; E Pretorius; H Naude

2007-01-01

26

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...made from a fruit juice ingredient as specified in paragraph...of this section and an artificial sweetening ingredient as specified in paragraph...fruit jelly. (c) The artificial sweetening ingredients referred to in...

2009-04-01

27

[Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners in beverage by ultra performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

An ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame and neotame) in a single injection was developed. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with gradient program and detection at 220 nm. The good linearities between the concentrations of all analytes and peak area responses were achieved over the range from 0.5 to 20.0 mg/L. The average recoveries in samples were 80.5% - 95.2% with the relative standard deviations of 0.50% - 8.7%. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and powdered tabletop sweeteners. PMID:19449553

Ji, Chao; Sun, Yanyan; Li, Xiuqin; Chu, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhengxing

2009-01-01

28

Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability,

Jae-Yong Kim; Juyi Seo; Kyung-Hyun Cho

2011-01-01

29

Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data have demonstrated an association between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. Evidence of a causal relationship linking artificial sweetener use to weight gain and other metabolic health effects is limited. However, recent animal studies provide intriguing information that supports an active metabolic role of artificial sweeteners. This systematic review examines the current literature on artificial sweetener consumption in children and its health effects. Eighteen studies were identified. Data from large, epidemiologic studies support the existence of an association between artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and weight gain in children. Randomized controlled trials in children are very limited, and do not clearly demonstrate either beneficial or adverse metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners. Presently, there is no strong clinical evidence for causality regarding artificial sweetener use and metabolic health effects, but it is important to examine possible contributions of these common food additives to the global rise in pediatric obesity and diabetes.

Brown, Rebecca J.; De Banate, Mary Ann; Rother, Kristina I.

2010-01-01

30

Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40°C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v\\/v) acetonitrile as eluent,

Qing-Chuan Chen; Jing Wang

2001-01-01

31

Clinical safety of aspartame.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener commonly used in soft drinks and many foods. Even with high doses, the metabolites of this sweetener do not accumulate in toxic amounts. To date, no definite symptom complex has been connected with aspartame, and it is considered safe for use in all populations, including diabetics, phenylketonuric heterozygotes and pregnant women. PMID:2644789

Yost, D A

1989-02-01

32

Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT).  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 microg/L for cyclamate, about 40 microg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 microg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 microg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin approximately cyclamate > sucralose. PMID:19533103

Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

2009-06-16

33

Consumption of Aspartame-Containing Beverages and Incidence of Hematopoietic and Brain Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a few animalexperiments, aspartame has been linked to hematopoietic and brain cancers. Most animal studies have found no increase in the risk of these or other cancers. Data on humans are sparse for either cancer. Concern lingers regarding this widely used artificial sweetener. Objective: We investigated prospectively whether aspartame consumption is associated with the risk of hematopoietic cancers

Unhee Lim; Amy F. Subar; Traci Mouw; Patricia Hartge; Lindsay M. Morton; David Campbell; Albert R. Hollenbeck; Arthur Schatzkin

2006-01-01

34

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade. 146.121 Section 146.121 Food...concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade conforms to the definition and...

2013-04-01

35

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade. 146.121 Section 146.121 Food...concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade conforms to the definition and...

2010-04-01

36

21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade. 146.121 Section 146.121 Food...concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade. (a) Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade conforms to the definition and...

2009-04-01

37

The in vitro effects of artificial and natural sweeteners on the immune system using whole blood culture assays.  

PubMed

This article investigates the effects of commercially available artificial (aspartame, saccharin, sucralose) and natural sweeteners (brown sugar, white sugar, molasses) on the immune system. Human whole blood cultures were incubated with various sweeteners and stimulated in vitro with either phytohemagglutinin or endotoxin. Harvested supernatants were screened for cytotoxicity and cytokine release. Results showed that none of the artificial or natural sweeteners proved to be cytotoxic, indicating that no cell death was induced in vitro. The natural sweetener, sugar cane molasses (10 ug/mL), enhanced levels of the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 while all artificial sweeteners (10 ug/mL) revealed a suppressive effect on IL-6 secretion (P < 0.001). Exposure of blood cells to sucralose-containing sweeteners under stimulatory conditions reduced levels of the biomarker of humoral immunity, Interleukin-10 (P < 0.001). The cumulative suppression of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-10 levels induced by sucralose may contribute to the inability in mounting an effective humoral response when posed with an exogenous threat. PMID:24063614

Rahiman, F; Pool, E J

2014-01-01

38

Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.  

PubMed

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

Swithers, Susan E

2013-07-10

39

Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of sweeteners on cancer risk has been widely debated over the last few decades. To provide additional information on saccharin and other sweeteners (mainly aspartame), we considered data from a large network of case-control studies. Methods: An integrated network of case-control studies has been conducted between 1991 and 2004 in Italy. Cases were 598 patients with incident,

S. Gallus; L. Scotti; E. Negri; R. Talamini; S. Franceschi; M. Montella; A. Giacosa; L. Dal Maso; C. La Vecchia

2007-01-01

40

Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both

Guido K. W. Frank; Tyson A. Oberndorfer; Alan N. Simmons; Martin P. Paulus; Julie L. Fudge; Tony T. Yang; Walter H. Kaye

2008-01-01

41

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Artificially sweetened fruit jelly. 150.141 Section 150.141 Food...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ...for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products...

2010-04-01

42

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...mixture of any edible organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a...artificially sweetened fruit cocktailâ. ...prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...pectinâ. When any organic salt or acid or...

2010-04-01

43

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...foods made from a fruit ingredient as specified in paragraph...of this section and an artificial sweetening ingredient as specified in paragraph...fruit jam. (c) The artificial sweetening ingredients referred to in...

2009-04-01

44

Artificial sweetener use among individuals with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Women,with eating disorders report using large quantities of artificially sweetened products, but this has not been quanti- fied. Objective: The authors,assessed,the use of selected artificially sweetened,low- calorie products among,women,with eat- ing disorders compared,with controls. Method: Thirty women,with,anorexia nervosa,(18 with,the,restricting sub- type,[AN-R] and,12 with,the,binge\\/ purge subtype [AN-B\\/P]), 48 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 32 healthy,control,women,completed,a survey of frequency,and,amount,of con-

Diane A. Klein; Gillian S. Boudreau; Michael J. Devlin; B. Timothy Walsh

2006-01-01

45

Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.  

PubMed

An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 ?g/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products. PMID:22543693

Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

2012-04-28

46

A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

2007-01-01

47

Investigation of Polymorphism in Aspartame and Neotame Using Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been studying the artificial sweeteners aspartame (l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) and neotame (N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) as compounds which exhibit polymorphism. 13C CP\\/MAS NMR shows that aspartame exists in three distinct forms at room temperature, depending on preparation conditions. For two of the forms, there exists three resonances for each carbon, indicating three crystallographically inequivalent sites and therefore three distinct

Mark T Zell; Brian E Padden; David J. W Grant; Stephen A Schroeder; Kurt L Wachholder; Indra Prakash; Eric J Munson

2000-01-01

48

Analytical methodologies for determination of artificial sweeteners in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial high-intensity sweeteners are used increasingly frequently for food production. The food industry tends to highlight beneficial aspects of their use (e.g., tooth friendliness, increasing the quality of life of those suffering from different forms of diabetes and the possibility of weight control without anyone sacrificing their favorite “unhealthy” drinks or snacks). However, some consumers are deeply concerned about the

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2009-01-01

49

Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new

Ravi Kant

2005-01-01

50

Artificial sweetener reduces nociceptive reaction in term newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sucrose has been shown to have an analgesic effect in preterm and term neonates. Sucrose, however, has a high osmolarity and may have deleterious effects in infants with fructose intolerance. Furthermore, it may favour caries. We therefore investigated the effects of a commercially available artificial sweetener (10 parts cyclamate and 1 part saccharin), glycine (sweet amino acid) or breast

H. U. Bucher; R. Baumgartner; N. Bucher; M. Seiler; J. C. Fauchčre

2000-01-01

51

Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by\\u000a pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive\\u000a nanoporous pigments that are comprised of indicators immobilized in an\\u000a organic-ally modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to\\u000a detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at\\u000a millimolar concentrations, as well as commonly used individual-serving\\u000a sweetener packets. The array

Christopher J. Musto; Sung H. Lim; Kenneth S. Suslick

2009-01-01

52

Modified apolipoprotein (apo) AI by artificial sweetener causes severe premature cellular senescence and atherosclerosis with impairment of functional and structural properties of apoAI in lipid-free and lipid-bound state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term consumption of artificial sweeteners (AS) has been the recent focus of safety concerns. However, the potential risk\\u000a of the AS in cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism has not been investigated sufficiently. We compared the influence\\u000a of AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) and fructose in terms of functional and structural correlations of apolipoprotein\\u000a (apo) A-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL),

Wookju Jang; Nam Ho Jeoung; Kyung-Hyun Cho

2011-01-01

53

A Laboratory Preparation of Aspartame Analogs Using Simultaneous Multiple Parallel Synthesis Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This laboratory experiment provides a unique opportunity for students to synthesize three analogues of aspartame, a commonly used artificial sweetener. The students are introduced to the powerful and useful method of parallel synthesis while synthesizing three dipeptides in parallel using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and simultaneous…

Qvit, Nir; Barda, Yaniv; Gilon, Chaim; Shalev, Deborah E.

2007-01-01

54

Amygdala response to sucrose consumption is inversely related to artificial sweetener use  

PubMed Central

Controversy exists over whether exposure to artificial sweeteners degrades the predictive relationship between sweet taste and its post-ingestive consequences. Here we tested whether brain response to caloric sucrose is influenced by individual differences in self-reported artificial sweetener use. Twenty-six subjects participated in fMRI scanning while consuming sucrose solutions. A negative correlation between artificial sweetener use and amygdala response to sucrose ingestion was observed. This finding supports the hypothesis that artificial sweetener use may be associated with brain changes that could influence eating behavior.

Rudenga, KJ; Small, DM

2011-01-01

55

Aspartame: review of safety.  

PubMed

Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use. PMID:12180494

Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Benninger, Christian; Blackburn, George L; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Geha, Raif S; Hertelendy, Zsolt; Koestner, Adalbert; Leon, Arthur S; Liepa, George U; McMartin, Kenneth E; Mendenhall, Charles L; Munro, Ian C; Novotny, Edward J; Renwick, Andrew G; Schiffman, Susan S; Schomer, Donald L; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Spiers, Paul A; Tephly, Thomas R; Thomas, John A; Trefz, Friedrich K

2002-04-01

56

Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive.  

PubMed

The artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester), is consumed, primarily in beverages, by a very large number of Americans, causing significant elevations in plasma and, probably, brain phenylalanine levels. Anecdotal reports suggest that some people suffer neurologic or behavioral reactions in association with aspartame consumption. Since phenylalanine can be neurotoxic and can affect the synthesis of inhibitory monoamine neurotransmitters, the phenylalanine in aspartame could conceiveably mediate neurologic effects. If mice are given aspartame in doses that elevate plasma phenylalanine levels more than those of tyrosine (which probably occurs after any aspartame dose in humans), the frequency of seizures following the administration of an epileptogenic drug, pentylenetetrazole, is enhanced. This effect is simulated by equimolar phenylalanine and blocked by concurrent administration of valine, which blocks phenylalanine's entry into the brain. Aspartame also potentiates the induction of seizures by inhaled fluorothyl or by electroconvulsive shock. Perhaps regulations concerning the sale of food additives should be modified to require the reporting of adverse reactions and the continuing conduct of mandated safety research. PMID:3319565

Maher, T J; Wurtman, R J

1987-11-01

57

Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a link to aspartame?  

PubMed

In the past two decades brain tumor rates have risen in several industrialized countries, including the United States. During this time, brain tumor data have been gathered by the National Cancer Institute from catchment areas representing 10% of the United States population. In the present study, we analyzed these data from 1975 to 1992 and found that the brain tumor increases in the United States occurred in two distinct phases, an early modest increase that may primarily reflect improved diagnostic technology, and a more recent sustained increase in the incidence and shift toward greater malignancy that must be explained by some other factor(s). Compared to other environmental factors putatively linked to brain tumors, the artificial sweetener aspartame is a promising candidate to explain the recent increase in incidence and degree of malignancy of brain tumors. Evidence potentially implicating aspartame includes an early animal study revealing an exceedingly high incidence of brain tumors in aspartame-fed rats compared to no brain tumors in concurrent controls, the recent finding that the aspartame molecule has mutagenic potential, and the close temporal association (aspartame was introduced into US food and beverage markets several years prior to the sharp increase in brain tumor incidence and malignancy). We conclude that there is need for reassessing the carcinogenic potential of aspartame. PMID:8939194

Olney, J W; Farber, N B; Spitznagel, E; Robins, L N

1996-11-01

58

Determination of the artificial sweetener Sucralose® by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial intense sweetener 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-?-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-?-D-galactopyranose (Sucralose®) was determined by capillary electrophoresis with indirect ultraviolet absorption in a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid buffer at pH 12.1. The method allowed determination of Sucralose in low-calorie soft drinks, without any sample clean-up over a linear range of 42–1000 mg l (r=0.9991). The limits of detection and determination were 28 and 42 mg l, respectively, and

J. Stroka; N. Dossi; E. Anklam

2003-01-01

59

Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA. PMID:16332631

Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

2005-11-01

60

Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men123  

PubMed Central

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. Results: There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, including multivitamins, family history, high triglycerides at baseline, high blood pressure, diuretics, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, total energy, and body mass index, the HR was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.40; P for trend < 0.01). Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend < 0.01) but not in the multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.21; P for trend = 0.13). The replacement of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (?237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index.

de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

2011-01-01

61

Results of Long-Term Carcinogenicity Bioassay on Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed to Aspartame Administered in Feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame (APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners in the world. Its ever-growing use in more than 6000 products, such as soft drinks, chewing gum, candy, desserts, etc., has been accom- panied by rising consumer concerns regarding its safety, in particular its potential long-term carcinogenic effects. In light of the inadequacy of the carcinogenicity bioassays performed in

FIORELLA BELPOGGI; MORANDO SOFFRITTI; MICHELA PADOVANI; DAVIDE DEGLI ESPOSTI; MICHELINA LAURIOLA; FRANCO MINARDI

2006-01-01

62

Determination of aspartame in beverages using an alcohol oxidase enzyme electrode.  

PubMed

A new method for the determination of the artificial sweetener aspartame is described. alpha-Chymotrypsin is used to cleave the methyl ester group of aspartame, producing methanol hydrolytically. The methanol is detected using an electrode which is constructed by physically trapping yeast alcohol oxidase enzyme at the tip of a dissolved oxygen electrode. The decrease in oxygen concentration, which occurs as methanol is enzymatically oxidized to formaldehyde, is measured amperometrically. Aspartame levels in diet soft drinks as determined by the proposed method and by liquid chromatography are in excellent agreement. The relative standard deviation of the measurements is 0.83%. The methanol present in diet cola as a result of aspartame degradation can also be measured by using the electrode without alpha-chymotrypsin. PMID:2654124

Smith, V J; Green, R A; Hopkins, T R

63

Artificial sweetener use among children: epidemiology, recommendations, metabolic outcomes, and future directions  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This review summarizes the existing literature pertaining to the epidemiology and current recommendations for pediatric artificial sweetener use and presents the results of studies investigating metabolic responses to artificial sweeteners among children. Observational and interventional studies testing the effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, short-term satiety, glycemia, and glucoregulatory hormones are described. In addition, this review touches on the growing body of literature about taste, craving, and addiction to sweet taste. Gaining an understanding of the research previously conducted and the gaps that remain will inform future clinical and translational research, in order to develop evidence-based recommendations for artificial sweetener use in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity.

Sylvetsky, Allison; Rother, Kristina I.; Brown, Rebecca

2011-01-01

64

Potentiometric determination of saccharin in commercial artificial sweeteners using a silver electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, precise, rapid and low-cost potentiometric method for saccharin determination in commercial artificial sweeteners is proposed. Saccharin present in several samples of artificial sweeteners is potentiometrically titrated with silver nitrate solution using a silver wire as the indicator electrode, coupled to a titroprocessor. The best pH range was from 3.0 to 3.5 and the detection limit of sodium saccharin

Joăo Carloni Filho; Alberto Oppermann Santini; Ana Lúcia M Nasser; Helena Redigolo Pezza; José Eduardo de Oliveira; Cristo Bladimiros Melios; Leonardo Pezza

2003-01-01

65

Aspartame use by persons with diabetes.  

PubMed

Sixty-two subjects having either insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes completed a randomized, double-blind study comparing effects of aspartame or a placebo on blood glucose control. Twenty-nine subjects consumed 2.7 g aspartame per day for 18 wk, given as aspartame-containing capsules with meals, while 33 subjects took identical appearing placebo capsules. After 18 wk, no changes were seen in fasting or 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels or glycohemoglobin levels in either the aspartame- or placebo-treated groups. Adverse reactions were no more common in the group taking aspartame. We conclude that use of aspartame as a low-calorie sweetener does not adversely affect glycemic control of persons with diabetes. PMID:3902420

Nehrling, J K; Kobe, P; McLane, M P; Olson, R E; Kamath, S; Horwitz, D L

66

SuperSweet--a resource on natural and artificial sweetening agents  

PubMed Central

A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.

Ahmed, Jessica; Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Worth, Catherine L.; Eckert, Andreas; Preissner, Robert

2011-01-01

67

Aspartame. Review of safety issues. Council on Scientific Affairs.  

PubMed

This report examines the safety issues related to the nutritive sweetener aspartame, including possible toxic effects of aspartame's component amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and its major decomposition products, methanol and diketopiperazine, and the potential synergistic effect of aspartame and dietary carbohydrate on brain neurochemicals. Available evidence suggests that consumption of aspartame by normal humans is safe and is not associated with serious adverse health effects. Individuals who need to control their phenylalanine intake should handle aspartame like any other source of phenylalanine. PMID:2861297

1985-07-19

68

Aspartame intolerance.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a food additive marketed under the brand name Nutrasweet. Aspartame is a white, odorless, crystalline powder and consists of two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. It is 180 times as sweet as sugar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first allowed its use in dry foods in July 1981 and then approved its use in carbonated beverages in July 1983. It has subsequently been approved for use in a number of materials including multivitamins, fruit juices, stick-type confections, breath mints, and iced tea. The FDA requires the statement "phenylketonurics: contains phenylalanine" on labels of food products containing aspartame because individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) must restrict their intake of phenylalanine. Aspartame is judged to be free of long-term cancer risks. Aspartame is not stable under certain conditions including baking and cooking, and prolonged exposure to acid conditions. In such situations it loses its sweetness. Products formed from aspartame include its component amino acids (phenylalanine and aspartic acid), methanol, and diketopiperazine (DKP). Animal studies show DKP to be nontoxic. Methanol occurs in small amounts and does not exceed that formed during consumption of many foods including fresh fruits and vegetables. FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors aspartame's safety in part through reports of adverse reactions. After aspartame was approved for use in carbonated beverages, the FDA received an increased number of reports concerning adverse reactions related to aspartame. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reviewed these reports, which included complaints of neurologic, gastrointestinal, andallergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3061324

Garriga, M M; Metcalfe, D D

1988-12-01

69

Aspartame—a new food ingredient reply to the critical comments of woodrow C. Monte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame, a recently marketed dipeptide sweetening agent, was discovered accidentally in 1965. Following extensive research and development, the product was approved for various uses by the FDA in 1974, 1981 and 1983. Aspartame has not been without its critics, however. W.C. Monte of Arizona has repeatedly criticized aspartame on television and in filings with regulatory agencies and the courts, who

Frank M. Sturtevant

1985-01-01

70

First European conference on aspartame: Putting safety and benefits into perspective. Synopsis of presentations and conclusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Conference was held in Paris in 2006 to review the safety and benefits arising from the replacement of sucrose with the intense sweetener aspartame. The intakes of aspartame are only about 10% of the acceptable daily intake, even by high consumers, so that the safety margin is about 3 orders of magnitude. The safety of aspartame was confirmed in

A. G. Renwick; H. Nordmann

2007-01-01

71

Effects of an artificial sweetener on health, performance, and dietary preference of feedlot cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined the effects of a saccharin-based artificial sweetener (Sucram) on health, performance, and dietary preference of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 200 steer calves (initial BW = 190.4 ± 1.47 kg) were fed a 65% concentrate diet supplemented with or without 200 mg of Sucram\\/kg (DM basis) during a 56-d receiving-growing period. Feeding Sucram did not affect overall

J. P. McMeniman; J. D. Rivera; P. Schlegel; W. Rounds; M. L. Galyean

2006-01-01

72

Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the postmarketing period.  

PubMed

Prior to marketing, the safety of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer was demonstrated by the results of over 100 scientific studies in animals and humans. In the postmarketing period, the safety of aspartame was further evaluated through extensive monitoring of intake, postmarketing surveillance of anecdotal reports of alleged health effects, and additional research to evaluate these anecdotal reports and other scientific issues. The results of the extensive intake evaluation in the United States, which was done over an 8-year period, and the results of studies done in other countries demonstrated intakes which were well below the acceptable daily intakes set by the FDA and regulatory bodies in other countries, as well as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Evaluation of the anecdotal reports of adverse health effects, the first such system for a food additive, revealed that the reported effects were generally mild and also common in the general population and that there was no consistent or unique pattern of symptoms that could be causally linked to consumption of aspartame. Finally, the results of the extensive scientific research done to evaluate these allegations did not show a causal relationship between aspartame and adverse effects. Thus, the weight of scientific evidence confirms that, even in amounts many times what people typically consume, aspartame is safe for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. PMID:11754527

Butchko, H H; Stargel, W W

2001-12-01

73

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.125(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2013-04-01

74

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2013-04-01

75

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.135(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2013-04-01

76

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2013-04-01

77

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2013-04-01

78

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2013-04-01

79

Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener?containing food

M. C. F. Toledo; S. H. Ioshi

1995-01-01

80

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES...DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives ...When aspartame is used as a sugar substitute tablet for sweetening...When the additive is used in a sugar substitute for table...

2013-04-01

81

Associations of Sugar and Artificially Sweetened Soda with Albuminuria and Kidney Function Decline in Women  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Sugar-sweetened soda is reported to be associated with increased risk for diabetes and albuminuria, but there are currently limited data on how sugar or artificially sweetened soda may be related to kidney function decline. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study identified 3318 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study with data on soda intake and albuminuria; of these, 3256 also had data on estimated GFR (eGFR) change between 1989 and 2000. Cumulative average beverage intake was derived from the 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998 food frequency questionnaires. Serving categories included <1/mo (referent), 1 to 4/mo, 2 to 6/wk, 1 to 1.9/d, and ?2/d. Microalbuminuria (MA) was considered a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 25 to 355 ?g/mg. For kidney function change, the primary outcome was a ?30% decline in eGFR over 11 years; rapid eGFR decline defined as ?3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year was also examined. Results Consumption of ?2 servings per day of artificially sweetened (diet) soda was independently associated with eGFR decline ?30% (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.01) and ?3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.55). No increased risk for eGFR decline was observed for <2 servings per day of diet soda. No associations were noted between diet soda and MA or sugar soda and MA or eGFR decline. Conclusions Consumption of ?2 servings per day of artificially sweetened soda is associated with a 2-fold increased odds for kidney function decline in women.

Curhan, Gary C.

2011-01-01

82

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used is water artificially...of both. Such packing medium may be thickened with...

2013-04-01

83

Commentary on Rossheim & Thombs (2011): Artificial Sweeteners, Caffeine, and Alcohol Intoxication in Bar Patrons  

PubMed Central

Background This commentary discusses the paper by Rossheim and Thombs (2011), which examined the relationship between type of alcohol mixer (regular caffeinated cola, diet caffeinated cola, energy drink or no mixer) and breath alcohol readings in bar patrons. Methods The significance of the findings of this study and new unaddressed questions for the field are discussed. Results Rossheim and Thombs (2011) reported that breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings were highest when patrons reported the consumption of caffeine mixers that were artificially sweetened (i.e., diet cola), after adjusting for potential confounds. Women were more likely to consume diet cola-caffeinated mixed drinks. Conclusions The findings from this field study raise several new interesting questions. Given the reported gender difference in consumption of diet cola-caffeinated mixed drinks, more research is needed regarding gender differences in gastric emptying time for alcoholic beverages mixed with artificially sweetened versus sucrose sweetened caffeinated drinks. In addition, the recent explosion in the energy drink market has resulted in the availability of sugar free or diet versions of most energy drink products. The implications of mixing diet energy drinks with alcohol are unknown.

Marczinski, Cecile A.

2011-01-01

84

Aspartame stability in commercially sterilized flavored dairy beverages.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to evaluate the stability of aspartame in commercially sterilized skim milk beverages that contained different buffer salts, buffer concentrations, and flavor. The effects of pH and temperature on aspartame stability in these dairy beverages were also studied. The pH and storage temperature appeared to be the two most important factors for a successful dairy beverage sweetened with aspartame. The half-lives were 1 to 4 d at 30 degrees C and 24 to 58 d at 4 degrees C. Decreasing the pH from 6.7 to 6.4 doubled the stability of aspartame. The type and concentration of buffer had only a minor influence on the aspartame stability. The addition of vanilla did not enhance the degradation of aspartame in dairy beverages. PMID:8120202

Bell, L N; Labuza, T P

1994-01-01

85

Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.  

PubMed

Sugar consumption, especially in the form of fructose, has been hypothesized to cause kidney disease. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic evidence that sugar consumption increases CKD risk. Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors, including increasing serum uric acid levels, diabetes, and obesity. Sugar may also harm the kidney via other mechanisms. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition. To date, 5 epidemiologic studies have directly evaluated the relationship between sugar consumption (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and CKD. Although most studies suggest that the risk of CKD is elevated among consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages, only 2 studies report statistically significant associations. Three studies have also examined diet soda consumption, with two reporting positive and significant associations. Confounding by unmeasured lifestyle factors may play a role in the positive results whereas poor measurement of sugar and artificial sweetener intake could explain null results. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that sugar causes kidney disease remains plausible, and alternative research designs may be needed. PMID:23439375

Karalius, Vytas P; Shoham, David A

2013-03-01

86

In vivo cytogenetic studies on blends of aspartame and acesulfame-K.  

PubMed

Aspartame and acesulfame-K, non-nutritive sweeteners, are permitted individually in diets and beverages. These sweeteners of different classes, used in combination, have been found to possess a synergistic sweetening effect. Whether they also have a synergistic genotoxic effect is unknown. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to blends of aspartame (3.5, 35, 350mg/kg body weight) and acesulfame-K (1.5, 15 and 150mg/kg body weight) by gavage. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analysed for chromosome aberrations. Statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame in combination with acesulfame-K is not significantly genotoxic. PMID:10685017

Mukhopadhyay, M; Mukherjee, A; Chakrabarti, J

2000-01-01

87

A facile HPLC method for optical purity and quantitative measurements of phenylalanine from the hydrolyzed aspartame under different pH and temperature after its derivatization with a fluorescent reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  In this paper, the artificial sweetener aspartame is deliberately hydrolyzed under different pH and temperature in the matrix,\\u000a and time period for the hydrolysis. The HPLC analysis is then performed to quantitatively measure the amount and the optical\\u000a purity of phenylalanine produced as a result of hydrolysis in the matrix after its functionalization with a fluorescent reagent.\\u000a The results show

T.-J. Hsien; S. Chen

2007-01-01

88

Storage Stability of Aspartame in Orange Flavored Soft Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, “orange flavored soft drinks” samples sweetened with 100% aspartame (0.5 g\\/L) were stored in three different pH values and temperatures. The samples with the pH values of 2.75, 3.25 and 4.57 were kept in 20°C, 30°C and 40°C temperatures along the period of 5 months. Remaining aspartame was determined at the first, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Tulin Yakici; Muhammet Arici

2012-01-01

89

The synthesis of artificial sweeteners (phenylglycine-analogues of aspartame) in order to evaluate changes in the ?-glycophore component  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the role and function of the third component (X, or ?) in the AH, B glycophore that is a prerequisite for sweet taste, its identity and position in a series of dipeptides was studied. Four isomers of aspartyl-?-phenylglycine methyl ester 4 (isomers 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d) were synthesised and their taste reveals (1) the effect

Sabine C Ebeling

1998-01-01

90

Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener. PMID:17828671

Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

2007-01-01

91

Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects.  

PubMed

This study reviews clinical studies testing the effects of various doses of aspartame on blood levels of phenylalanine, aspartate, and methanol in normal subjects and known phenylketonuric heterozygotes. The effect of aspartame on the phenylalanine-to-large neutral amino acid ratio under various feeding situations is shown. The clinical studies of aspartame in diabetic subjects are limited to observations of its effects on blood levels of glucose, lipids, insulin, and glucagon. These studies clearly demonstrate the safety of this high-intensity sweetener for use by humans. PMID:2653751

Filer, L J; Stegink, L D

1989-01-01

92

Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the

Marco Scheurer; Florian R. Storck; Heinz-J. Brauch; Frank T. Lange

2010-01-01

93

Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time there are four intense sweeteners that are available in a number of countries: acesulfame?K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin. Extensive toxicity databases are available on each sweetener and these have been assessed by both national and international regulatory authorities. This review considers briefly the critical toxicity of each sweetener that is the basis for establishing the no

A. G. Renwick

1990-01-01

94

Potential New Artificial Sweetener from Study of Structure-Taste Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-(Methoxymethyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde syn-oxime is a new sweetening agent developed by systematic synthesis and taste evaluation of 80 new oximes analogous to the little-used oxime sweetener, perillartine.

E. M. Acton; H. Stone

1976-01-01

95

Potential intake of intense sweeteners in Brazil.  

PubMed

A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities of Campinas, Săo Paulo and Curitiba, Paraná. Potential daily intakes by individuals were calculated for each sweetener by combining each person's consumption of sweetener-containing food and beverages with information generated by the determination of the concentrations of the sweeteners used in these products. The data showed that 72% of the studied population consumed saccharin, 67% cyclamate and 40% aspartame. The main reasons alleged for the use of intense sweeteners were weight-control diet (36%), diabetes (35%) and weight loss (23%). Table-top sweeteners were the major source of sweeteners, followed by soft drinks. The median daily intake of aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin represented approximately 2.9, 15.5, and 16-4% of the corresponding ADI, respectively. Diabetics in general had a much higher intake within the studied population. PMID:8608854

Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H

96

Genomic, genetic and functional dissection of bitter taste responses to artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

Bitter taste perception is initiated by TAS2R receptors, which respond to agonists by triggering depolarization of taste bud cells. Mutations in TAS2Rs are known to affect taste phenotypes by altering receptor function. Evidence that TAS2Rs overlap in ligand specificity suggests that they may also contribute joint effects. To explore this aspect of gustation, we examined bitter perception of saccharin and acesulfame K, widely used artificial sweeteners with aversive aftertastes. Both substances are agonists of TAS2R31 and -43, which belong to a five-member subfamily (TAS2R30-46) responsive to a diverse constellation of compounds. We analyzed sequence variation and linkage structure in the ?140 kb genomic region encoding TAS2R30-46, taste responses to the two sweeteners in subjects, and functional characteristics of receptor alleles. Whole-gene sequences from TAS2R30-46 in 60 Caucasian subjects revealed extensive diversity including 34 missense mutations, two nonsense mutations and high-frequency copy-number variants. Thirty markers, including non-synonymous variants in all five genes, were associated (P< 0.001) with responses to saccharin and acesulfame K. However, linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the region was high (D', r(2) > 0.95). Haplotype analyses revealed that most associations were spurious, arising from LD with variants in TAS2R31. In vitro assays confirmed the functional importance of four TAS2R31 mutations, which had independent effects on receptor response. The existence of high LD spanning functionally distinct TAS2R loci predicts that bitter taste responses to many compounds will be strongly correlated even when they are mediated by different genes. Integrative approaches combining phenotypic, genetic and functional analysis will be essential in dissecting these complex relationships. PMID:21672920

Roudnitzky, Natacha; Bufe, Bernd; Thalmann, Sophie; Kuhn, Christina; Gunn, Howard C; Xing, Chao; Crider, Bill P; Behrens, Maik; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Wooding, Stephen P

2011-06-13

97

Administration of aspartame in non-insulin-dependent diabetics.  

PubMed

A study was designed to determine the effect of the consumption of the nutritive sweetener aspartame on non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Forty-three adult diabetics between the ages of 21 and 70 completed a 90-day study; all were diabetics whose conditions were managed by diet and/or hypoglycemic agents. Participants in the blind study were instructed to continue their usual diet and to take two capsules of an assigned preparation three times daily with meals, either the aspartame or the placebo. The 1.8 g of aspartame administered is approximately three times the expected daily consumption of aspartame if used as a sweetener to replace sugar. Throughout the study subjects were examined for (1) symptoms of intolerance, (2) fasting plasma phenylalanine levels exceeding 4 mg/100 ml, and (3) deterioration of diabetic control. At the conclusion of the study subjects exhibited no symptoms that could be traced to the administration of aspartame or the placebo, and diabetic control was unaffected by the chronic administration of these substances. Aspartame seems to be well tolerated by non-insulin-dependent diabetics. PMID:1011296

Stern, S B; Bleicher, S J; Flores, A; Gombos, G; Recitas, D; Shu, J

1976-11-01

98

[Simultaneous determination of neotame, alitame and aspartame in foods by HPLC].  

PubMed

Simultaneous determination of three artificial sweeteners, neotame (NE), alitame (AL) and aspartame (APM) in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Chopped or homogenized samples were packed into cellulose tubing with 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid containing 10% sodium chloride, and dialyzed against 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 24-48 hours. The dialyzate was passed through an Oasis MCX cartridge, and the cartridge was washed with water and methanol. Then the three sweeteners were eluted from the cartridge with a mixture of 0.5 mol/L ammonium chloride-acetonitrile (3 : 2). The sweeteners were separated on a Cosmosil 5C18-AR column using a gradient mode with a mobile phase of 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and were detected at 210 nm. The recoveries of NE, AL and APM from 8 kinds of foods spiked with 10 and 100 microg/g were 86-100% and 89-104%, respectively. The detection limits of NE, AL and APM were 1 microg/g in samples. Furthermore, the three sweeteners were successfully identified by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:18344656

Matsumoto, Hiroko; Hirata, Keiko; Sakamaki, Narue; Hagino, Kayo; Ushiyama, Hirofumi

2008-02-01

99

Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and colours in soft drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid capillary electrophoresis method was developed simultaneously to determine artificial sweeteners, preservatives and colours used as additives in carbonated soft drinks. Resolution between all additives occurring together in soft drinks was successfully achieved within a 15-min run-time by employing the micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode with a 20 mM carbonate buffer at pH 9.5 as the aqueous phase and 62

Richard A Frazier; Elizabeth L Inns; Nicolo Dossi; Jennifer M Ames; Harry E Nursten

2000-01-01

100

Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes\\u000a were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray\\u000a ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline\\u000a modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for

Marco Scheurer; Heinz-J. Brauch; Frank T. Lange

2009-01-01

101

Sweetened beverages  

MedlinePLUS

... you feel like drinking something sweet, choose a beverage that is made with artificial (man-made) sweeteners. ... Drinking a lot of many beverages can lead to gaining extra pounds. Even though they are just liquid, these drinks can add a lot of calories to ...

102

Sweetener/sweetness-induced changes in flavor perception and flavor release of fruity and green character in beverages.  

PubMed

Green leaf volatile (GLV) mixtures, commercial orange flavors, and commercial strawberry flavors were applied to beverage bases in which concentrations of citric acid as well as a sweetener (sucrose or aspartame/acesulfame-K) were varied. Sensory profiling showed that flavor-specific fruity character increased as perceptible sweetness increased, independent of whether the sweetness resulted from sucrose (a change from 9 to 12 Brix) or aspartame/acesulfame-K (a change from 0.2 to 0.4 Brix). Sweetness was affected only by the tastants in the base and not by the flavors, although flavor-specific interactions between sweetener type and sweetener level occurred. Flavor release from the sucrose bases was compared to flavor release from bases containing aspartame/acesulfame-K by static headspace measurements and by MS-Nose measurements using an artificial throat. These measurements showed greater flavor volatility from bases having low Brix (fewer soluble solids). This negative Brix effect was also evident in the sensory data for perception of some GLV green notes. The headspace data could not support a positive Brix effect, the typical salting out, which would correspond to the observed perceptual enhancement of fruity notes. PMID:16569060

King, Bonnie M; Arents, Paul; Bouter, N; Duineveld, C A A; Meyners, M; Schroff, S I; Soekhai, S T

2006-04-01

103

Patterns of artificial sweetener use and weight change in an American Cancer Society prospective study.  

PubMed

Extreme obesity and leanness are risk factors for many types of cancer. An earlier American Cancer Society study (1959-1972) found a nearly twofold increased risk for death from all causes in men and women who weighed 40% or more above average for their age and height, and found elevated cancer rates as well. A new (1982), ongoing ACS prospective study of 1.2 million men and women continues to find increased death rates from all causes and from cancer in the very heavy and the very lean. Artificial sweetener (AS) use is an important correlate of relative weight in this population. The relationship between weight change during the year preceding enrollment and AS usage was studied in a highly homogeneous subgroup of 78694 women ages 50-69 years. The percentage of users increased with body mass index (BMI) and was inversely related to age. Users were significantly more likely than non-users to gain weight, regardless of initial BMI. Among those who gained weight, the average number of lbs gained by AS users was higher (by 0.5-1.5 lb) than the amount gained by non-users. Within the entire cohort, AS users of both sexes ate chicken, fish and vegetables significantly more often than did non-users and consumed beef, butter, white bread, potatoes, ice cream and chocolate significantly less often, suggesting that our weight change results are not explicable by differences in food consumption patterns. PMID:3190221

Stellman, S D; Garfinkel, L

1988-01-01

104

Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species  

PubMed Central

Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

2011-01-01

105

Re-engineering an artificial sweetener: transforming sucralose residuals in water via advanced oxidation.  

PubMed

Sucralose is an artificial sweetener persistently present in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environments impacted by human activity. It has a potential to accumulate in the water cycle due to its resistance to common water and wastewater treatment processes. This study examined UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and found that hydroxyl substitution of the chlorine atoms on the sucralose molecule can form a carbohydrate consisting of fructose and sugar alcohol, very similar to environmentally benign sucrose. The second-order reaction rate constant for loss of parent molecule via reaction with hydroxyl radical was determined to be (1.56 ± 0.03)·10(9) M(-1)s(-1). The degradation pathway involves substitution of a single chlorine by a hydroxyl group, with cyclic moiety being a preferential site for initial dechlorination. Further reaction leads to full dechlorination of the molecule, presumably via hydroxyl group substitution as well. No direct photolysis by UV wavelengths above 200 nm was observed. Because of its photostability when exposed to UV wavelengths ?200 nm, known stability with ozone, limits of quantification by mass spectrometry close to or below environmental concentrations (<5 ?g/L) without preconcentration, and otherwise stable nature, sucralose can be used as an in situ hydroxyl radical probe for UV-based and ozone-based AOP processes. As a compound safe for human consumption, sucralose makes a suitable full scale hydroxyl radical probe fit even for drinking water treatment plant applications. Its main drawback as a probe is lack of UV detection and as a result a need for mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:23410009

Keen, Olya S; Linden, Karl G

2013-03-04

106

Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin, GLP-1, and GIP, and gastric emptying (by a breath test) in 7 healthy humans after intragastric infusions of 1) 50 g sucrose in water to a total volume of 500 ml (approximately 290 mosmol/l), 2) 80 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l, 0.4 mM sucralose), 3) 800 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l, 4 mM sucralose), and 4) 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l), all labeled with 150 mg 13C-acetate. Blood glucose increased only in response to sucrose (P<0.05). GLP-1, GIP, and insulin also increased after sucrose (P=0.0001) but not after either load of sucralose or saline. Gastric emptying of sucrose was slower than that of saline (t50: 87.4+/-4.1 min vs. 74.7+/-3.2 min, P<0.005), whereas there were no differences in t50 between sucralose 0.4 mM (73.7+/-3.1 min) or 4 mM (76.7+/-3.1 min) and saline. We conclude that sucralose, delivered by intragastric infusion, does not stimulate insulin, GLP-1, or GIP release or slow gastric emptying in healthy humans. PMID:19221011

Ma, Jing; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M; Young, Richard; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

2009-02-12

107

Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.  

PubMed

The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI values. No subject exceeded the ADI of aspartame or saccharin on any day of the study. For cyclamate, the mean daily intake over the 7-day period exceeded the ADI in 4 subjects. The results indicate that at the time of the study the then valid German sweetener regulation protected the consumer adequately, and that the sweetener intake was in 99.8% of all examined persons within recommended limits. PMID:1374988

Bär, A; Biermann, C

1992-03-01

108

Calculation of the intake of three intense sweeteners in young insulin-dependent diabetics.  

PubMed

In 1994, European Directive 94/35/CE authorised the use as food additives of five intense sweeteners for which Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) were established. The same directive stipulated that member states should organise a monitoring system to determine the consumption of these substances. Diabetic children are normally considered to constitute a group with a high consumption of sweeteners (European Commission, 1998. Report on Methodology for the Monitoring of Food Additives Intake across the European Union. Report of the Scientific Cooperation, Task 4.2 SCOOP/INT/REPORT/2. European Commission Directorate General III, Brussels.). A stepwise approach to the food additive intake in the general population had shown that three of the five authorised intense sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame K) are used at particularly high levels in sugar-free foods and are also very commonly utilised as table-top sweeteners. This paper presents the results of a food intake survey conducted in a group of French, insulin-dependent children in 1997, aimed at estimating the Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) for these three sweeteners and comparing this with the relevant ADI values. A 5-day diary questionnaire was used to estimate the intake of sugar-free, artificially sweetened foods and table-top sweeteners. When assessing the intake of each additive, all sugar-free products were assumed to be sweetened using a single sweetener at its maximum authorised level. This study was performed in five age groups, and based on the mean and 97.5th percentile of the distribution of consumption, demonstrated that it was unlikely that total exposure could rise above the ADI. PMID:11397521

Garnier-Sagne, I; Leblanc, J C; Verger, P

2001-07-01

109

Effect of bulking agents on the quality of artificially sweetened misti dahi (caramel colored sweetened yoghurt) prepared from reduced fat buffalo milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misti dahi, the sweetened variety of dahi, is a popular fermented dairy product of eastern India. It is analogous with sweetened yoghurt, but has pleasant caramel colour and flavour. High sugar content in misti dahi may pose a hurdle for its successful marketing in other parts of the country in the present health foods regime. It is imperative to use

P. Narender Raju; Dharam Pal

2011-01-01

110

Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.

JAN POKORNÝ

111

Administration of aspartame in non?insulin?dependent diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was designed to determine the effect of the consumption of the nutritive sweetener aspartame on non?insulin?dependent diabetics. Forty?three adult diabetics between the ages of 21 and 70 completed a 90?day study; all were diabetics whose conditions were managed by diet and\\/or hypoglycemic agents. Participants in the blind study were instructed to continue their usual diet and to take

Sol B. Stern; S. J. Bleicher; A. Flores; G. Gombos; D. Recitas; J. Shu

1976-01-01

112

Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature. PMID:19275236

Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

2009-04-22

113

Habitual high and low consumers of artificially-sweetened beverages: Effects of sweet taste and energy on short-term appetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of sweet taste and energy on subsequent short-term appetite in female habitual high and low consumers of artificially-sweetened beverages. The study was based on the proposal that effects of sweet taste on appetite may differ as a result of the habitual experience of sweetness with or without energy. Following a repeated measures design, 10 female

K. M. Appleton; J. E. Blundell

2007-01-01

114

Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients.  

PubMed

Twelve normal subjects and 10 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were given, in random order at intervals of greater than or equal to 1 wk, three drinks of the same beverage: one unsweetened, one sweetened with 400 mg aspartame, and one sweetened with 135 mg saccharin. The amount of sweetener approximated that in 1 L of sugar-free soft drink. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured for 3 h after ingestion of the test beverage. Plasma glucose declined slightly throughout the test period, probably due to fasting, with no differences between the three treatments. Neither sweetener affected peak insulin levels in subjects with or without diabetes. Analysis of area under the curve showed that mean insulin levels were statistically significantly higher after aspartame than after saccharin or unsweetened beverage in normal subjects only, but the magnitude of the difference was small and unlikely to be of physiological importance in the absence of differences in glucose levels. Furthermore, the differences could largely be accounted for by a decrease in insulin values after both unsweetened beverage and saccharin, with no change from baseline after aspartame. Glucagon levels showed time-to-time variation but no overall differences. We conclude that ingestion of aspartame- or saccharin-sweetened beverages by fasting subjects, with or without diabetes, did not affect blood glucose homeostasis. PMID:3046854

Horwitz, D L; McLane, M; Kobe, P

1988-03-01

115

Structure, dynamics, and stability of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of aspartame and neotame.  

PubMed

Studies of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame show that its stability is significantly enhanced in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD). At a 5:1 beta-CyD/aspartame molar ratio, the stability of aspartame is 42% greater in 4 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) compared to solutions prepared without beta-CyD. Solution-state (1)H NMR experiments demonstrate the formation of 1:1 beta-CyD/aspartame complexes, stabilized by the interaction of the phenyl-ring protons of aspartame with the H3 and H5 protons of beta-CyD. Inclusion complex formation clearly accounts for the observed stability enhancement of aspartame in solution. The formation of inclusion complexes in solution is also demonstrated for beta-CyD and neotame, a structural derivative of aspartame containing an N-substituted 3,3-dimethylbutyl group. These complexes are stabilized by the interaction of beta-CyD with both phenyl-ring and dimethylbutyl protons. Solid-state NMR experiments provide additional characterization, clearly demonstrating the formation of inclusion complexes in lyophilized solids prepared from solutions of beta-CyD and either aspartame or neotame. PMID:11308366

Garbow, J R; Likos, J J; Schroeder, S A

2001-04-01

116

[The use of low-calorie sweeteners].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the type of sweeteners and their impact on the human body. There have been described in details the sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame K, sugar alcohols, fructose, D-tagatose, steviol glycosides and maple syrup which are present in currently available food products. According to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), aspartame and steviol glycosides were found to be safe for consumption. Whereas fructose, a component representing a large number of component products, according to the Polish Diabetes Association from 2012, should not be consumed by diabetics. The increase of popularity of products containing sweeteners causes that the search for new resources is constantly current and is the subject of research. PMID:23894781

Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Kurzawa, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

2013-05-01

117

Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0–24.9) and 12 obese

Stephen D. Anton; Corby K. Martin; Hongmei Han; Sandra Coulon; William T. Cefalu; Paula Geiselman; Donald A. Williamson

2010-01-01

118

Aspartame: in perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following recent reports in the press and similar ones appearing on the Internet speculating about the safety of aspartame, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) whose remit includes food safety and standards issues in the UK have received a number of enquiries from the general public. This article provides background to the issue and includes the current regulatory position in the

John Caseley; Wendy Dixon

2001-01-01

119

Sweet taste of aspartame and sucrose: effects on diet-induced thermogenesis.  

PubMed

Among factors that affect diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) are the sensory characteristics of food. The aim of this study was to test whether the sweet flavour obtained with a low-energy sweetener (aspartame) or with sucrose have a different effect on DIT. Following a standardized breakfast, 24 healthy male subjects were served three test lunches in a randomized fashion. Lunch contained soft white cheese added with maltodextrins and aspartame, or sucrose, or maltodextrins only (non-sweetened control) (each 900 kcal). Energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry) was monitored during the five postprandial hours. For the first two periods of measurement (30-60 and 90-120 min after meal ingestion), postprandial energy expenditure was significantly increased with sucrose compared to maltodextrins and maltodextrins plus aspartame, whereas no significant difference was found between maltodextrins and maltodextrins plus aspartame. No significant difference between lunches was observed for DIT expressed as incremental area above premeal baseline energy expenditure. Plasma glucose area under the curve was significantly lower for sucrose compared to maltodextrins plus aspartame. Plasma insulin area under the curve was significantly lower for sucrose compared to the other tests foods. In conclusion: (1) variation in sweet-taste induced by aspartame or by sucrose does not seem to have a major effect on DIT in healthy humans; (2) differences in energy expenditure observed in the early postprandial period suggest a substrate effect. PMID:10888287

Prat-Larquemin, L; Oppert, J M; Bellisle, F; Guy-Grand, B

2000-06-01

120

Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is enhanced by supplementation of the diet of weaning piglets with artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

In an intensive livestock production, a shorter suckling period allows more piglets to be born. However, this practice leads to a number of disorders including nutrient malabsorption, resulting in diarrhoea, malnutrition and dehydration. A number of strategies have been proposed to overcome weaning problems. Artificial sweeteners, routinely included in piglets' diet, were thought to enhance feed palatability. However, it is shown in rodent models that when included in the diet, they enhance the expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) and the capacity of the gut to absorb glucose. Here, we show that supplementation of piglets' feed with a combination of artificial sweeteners saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone enhances the expression of SGLT1 and intestinal glucose transport function. Artificial sweeteners are known to act on the intestinal sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3 and its partner G-protein, gustducin, to activate pathways leading to SGLT1 up-regulation. Here, we demonstrate that T1R2, T1R3 and gustducin are expressed together in the enteroendocrine cells of piglet intestine. Furthermore, gut hormones secreted by the endocrine cells in response to dietary carbohydrates, glucagon-like peptides (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP), are co-expressed with type 1 G-protein-coupled receptors (T1R) and gustducin, indicating that L- and K-enteroendocrine cells express these taste elements. In a fewer endocrine cells, T1R are also co-expressed with serotonin. Lactisole, an inhibitor of human T1R3, had no inhibitory effect on sweetener-induced SGLT1 up-regulation in piglet intestine. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in sweetener up-regulation of SGLT1 will allow the identification of nutritional targets with implications for the prevention of weaning-related malabsorption. PMID:20338074

Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Arora, Daleep K; Batchelor, Daniel J; Coulter, Erin A; Daly, Kristian; Ionescu, Catherine; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2010-03-26

121

Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. PMID:23561080

Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

2013-02-11

122

Male rats show an indifference-avoidance response for increasing concentrations of the artificial sweetener sucralose.  

PubMed Central

Sucralose is a non-nutritive halogenated sucrose derivative that has been described by humans as tasting predominately sweet with little or no aftertaste. In this study we examined the preference for sucralose in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. A standard 24 hr two-bottle test was used to compare a wide range of sucralose concentrations (0.0003–10g/L; 0.8 ?M–25 mM) with water. The rats did not prefer sucralose to water at low concentrations (0.0003–0.3 g/L) and avoided sucralose at high concentrations (1–10g/L). Although there are many similarities in the taste preference of humans, mice, and rats, these results suggest that male rats do not prefer sucralose and avoid it at high concentrations. An awareness of the potential species differences in preference testing for novel sweeteners is critical for the taste and nutritional research communities.

Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

2006-01-01

123

Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

This study compared the effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the usual diet of individuals with well-controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A double-blind, cross-over design was used with each 6-wk study period. During the sucrose period, 45 g sucrose (9% of total daily energy) was added, 10 g with each main meal and 5 g with each between-meal beverage. An equivalent sweetening quantity of aspartame (162 mg) was ingested during the aspartame period. The addition of sucrose did not have a deleterious effect on glycemic control, lipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin action. No differences were observed between sucrose and aspartame. Sucrose added as an integral part of the diabetic diet does not adversely affect metabolic control in well-controlled NIDDM subjects. Aspartame is an acceptable sugar substitute for diabetic individuals but no specific advantage over sucrose was demonstrated. PMID:2672774

Colagiuri, S; Miller, J J; Edwards, R A

1989-09-01

124

Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise  

PubMed Central

Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame), and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45?min rest?+?60?min self-paced intense exercise) differing only in their fluid intake: 1) carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C)); 2) 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA)); 3) water (W); and 4) aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A)). Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43%) between pre-exercise and 30?min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

2012-01-01

125

An evaluation of the effect of aspartame on weight loss.  

PubMed

This study explores whether the addition of aspartame-sweetened foods and beverages to a low fat, hypocaloric diet enhances compliance and resulting weight loss. Fifty-nine obese (130-225% of ideal body weight), free living men and women were randomly assigned to either a Balanced Deficit Diet (BDD) or a BDD supplemented with aspartame. Over a 12-week weight loss period, volunteers attended weekly support group meetings including behavior modification training and exercise instruction. Males achieved a clinically significant weight loss (greater than 23 lb) in both study groups, while females lost an average of 12.8 lb in the control group vs. 16.5 lb in the experimental group. In both treatment groups, sleep, general energy level, level of physical activity, and feeling of well-being showed clinically meaningful improvement. This study suggests possible advantages to supplementing a BDD with aspartame-sweetened foods as part of a multidisciplinary weight loss program. The small sample size prohibits definitive conclusions but does provide the protocol for a larger, outpatient clinical trial. PMID:3190220

Kanders, B S; Lavin, P T; Kowalchuk, M B; Greenberg, I; Blackburn, G L

1988-01-01

126

Body weight, body-weight concerns and eating styles in habitual heavy users and non-users of artificially sweetened beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated reported body weight, concerns about body weight and eating styles in habitual heavy users (consume>825ml\\/day) and habitual non-users of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Groups of habitual heavy users (N=51) and non-users (N=69) were compared on measures of weight using self-reported body mass index (BMI), and measures of weight concern and eating style using the Dutch Eating Behaviors

K. M. Appleton; M. T. Conner

2001-01-01

127

The lipophilicity of artificial and natural sweeteners estimated by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and computed by various methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromatographic behavior of some artificial and natural sweeteners was established by reverse phase high performance thin-layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC) on RP-18, RP-18W, RP-8, CN and NH2 stationary phases. The mobile phases were mixtures of acetonitrile–water in different proportions of volume, chosen to create a suitable migration during the chromatographic process. The lipophilicity was described through different chromatographic descriptors such as

Rodica Domnica Briciu; Agata Kot-Wasik; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik; Costel Sârbu

2010-01-01

128

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.161 Artificially...

2010-04-01

129

Effect of Aspartame on Oxidative Stress and Monoamine Neurotransmitter Levels in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal\\u000a circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ?g\\/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625–45 mg\\/kg)\\u000a was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione\\u000a (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite

Omar M. E. Abdel-SalamNeveen; Neveen A. Salem; Jihan Seid Hussein

130

Snacks and sweetened drinks - children  

MedlinePLUS

... waters, especially ones made with sugar or corn syrup. These drinks are full of calories and can lead to weight gain, even in active children. If needed, choose beverages with artificial (man-made) sweeteners. Children aged 2 - ...

131

Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels  

PubMed Central

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload.

Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

2010-01-01

132

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's... (c)(1) When aspartame is used as a sugar...product. The level of aspartame used in these products...the Determination of Aspartame and Diketopiperazine...Center for Food Safety and Applied...

2009-04-01

133

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's... (c)(1) When aspartame is used as a sugar...product. The level of aspartame used in these products...the Determination of Aspartame and Diketopiperazine...Center for Food Safety and Applied...

2010-01-01

134

First European conference on aspartame: putting safety and benefits into perspective. Synopsis of presentations and conclusions.  

PubMed

A Conference was held in Paris in 2006 to review the safety and benefits arising from the replacement of sucrose with the intense sweetener aspartame. The intakes of aspartame are only about 10% of the acceptable daily intake, even by high consumers, so that the safety margin is about 3 orders of magnitude. The safety of aspartame was confirmed in the EFSA Opinion of a recent controversial rodent cancer bioassay. There is increasing evidence that even modest reductions in the intake of calories can reduce the risk factors associated with a number of diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key issue addressed at the conference was whether the replacement of sucrose with aspartame could result in a prolonged decrease in calorie intake that was of similar magnitude to that necessary to produce a health benefit. A recent meta-analysis of published data showed that an adequate, prolonged weight reduction could be achieved with aspartame. It was recognised that risk assessment alone gave an unbalanced impression to regulators and consumers, and that in the future quantitative risk-benefit analyses should be able to provide more comprehensive advice. PMID:17397982

Renwick, A G; Nordmann, H

2007-02-22

135

Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.  

PubMed

A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

1986-04-01

136

Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards.  

PubMed

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should reevaluate its position on aspartame as being safe under all conditions. Animal bioassay results predict human cancer risks, and a recent animal study confirms that there is a potential aspartame risk to humans. Aspartame is produced and packaged in China for domestic use and global distribution. Japan, France, and the United States are also major producers. No study of long-term adverse occupational health effects on aspartame workers have been conducted. The FDA should consider sponsoring a prospective epidemiologic study of aspartame workers. PMID:18085058

Huff, James; LaDou, Joseph

137

Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400?mg?l were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1–80 years. The estimated

T. Leth; N. Fabricius; S. Fagt

2007-01-01

138

Acceptable daily intake and the regulation of intense sweeteners.  

PubMed

At the present time there are four intense sweeteners that are available in a number of countries: acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin. Extensive toxicity databases are available on each sweetener and these have been assessed by both national and international regulatory authorities. This review considers briefly the critical toxicity of each sweetener that is the basis for establishing the no adverse effect level in animal studies. The calculation of an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for human intake employs a large safety factor applied to the no-effect level. The magnitude of the safety factor for each sweetener is discussed in relation to the ADI values recommended by the Scientific Committee for Food in 1985. PMID:1697543

Renwick, A G

139

Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener.  

PubMed

Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200-300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended with other non-calorie or carbohydrate sweeteners. It is stable under dry conditions, and has much better stability than aspartame or neotame in aqueous food systems. Studies undertaken for the development of a purification process and for the full characterization of the properties of rebiana are reported here. PMID:18554769

Prakash, I; Dubois, G E; Clos, J F; Wilkens, K L; Fosdick, L E

2008-05-16

140

Aspartame as a texturizing agent in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheological studies of aqueous aspartame blends with d-fructose, d-glucose, maltose and sucrose revealed that only sucrose-aspartame blends provided an increase in the viscosity. Polarimetric studies of the blends together with computer MM+ simulations involving energy optimization for such blends and for solutions of saccharides showed that the energies of hydration of sucrose and aspartame are similar and higher than those

Józef Mazurkiewicz; Krzysztof R?bilas; P. Tomasik

2001-01-01

141

FDA Statement on European Aspartame Study  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Carcinogenicity Bioassays to Evaluate the Potential Biological Effects, in Particular Carcinogenic, of Aspartame Administered in Feed to Sprague ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

142

Intestinal absorption of aspartame decomposition products in adult rats.  

PubMed

The dipeptide sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine, 1-methyl ester; alpha-APM) is relatively stable in dry powder form. However, when exposed to elevated temperature, extremes of pH and/or moisture, alpha-APM is converted into a variety of products. In aqueous solution alpha-APM decomposes to yield methanol, two isomeric forms of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine (Asp-Phe) [alpha-Asp-Phe and beta-Asp-Phe], and APM's diketopiperazine cyclo-Asp-Phe. Depending on beverage storage conditions, individuals drinking alpha-APM-sweetened beverages may consume small quantities of these three compounds. Relatively little has been published about the metabolism of beta-Asp-Phe and cyclo-Asp-Phe. We compared the absorption and metabolism of alpha-Asp-Phe, beta-Asp-Phe, and cyclo-Asp-Phe with that of L-phenylalanine (Phe) in adult rats. Steady-state perfusion studies of rat jejunum indicated rapid carrier-assisted uptake of Phe and alpha-Asp-Phe, but only slow passive diffusion of beta-Asp-Phe and cyclo-Asp-Phe from the lumen. Homogenates of rat intestinal mucosa, liver, and cecal contents, as well as homogenates of pure cultures of Escherichia coli B, catalyzed the hydrolysis of alpha-Asp-Phe, but not cyclo-Asp-Phe. Homogenates of E coli and rat cecal contents, but not homogenates of rat liver or intestinal mucosa catalyzed the hydrolysis of beta-Asp-Phe. PMID:1961131

Lipton, W E; Li, Y N; Younoszai, M K; Stegink, L D

1991-12-01

143

Amperometric bienzymic sensor for aspartame.  

PubMed

An amperometric enzyme electrode for the determination of aspartame was developed by covalent immobilization of alcohol oxidase and alpha-chymotrypsin. A platinum based hydrogen peroxide electrode was used as the detector. Excellent sensitivity was obtained using batch, flow-through and flow injection methods with detection limits of 2 x 10(-7), 4 x 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol l-1, respectively. Different strategies for eliminating interfering compounds, including the introduction of an additional alcohol oxidase-catalase membrane and signal subtraction using an alcohol electrode, were employed. A recovery study on seven food samples was carried out and the results were satisfactory. PMID:9246818

Compagnone, D; O'Sullivan, D; Guilbault, G G

1997-05-01

144

The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

145

Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners to promote eating enjoyment, optimal nutrition, and health. PMID:14760578

2004-02-01

146

Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety.  

PubMed

Aspartame has been previously shown to increase satiety. This study aimed to investigate a possible role for the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in this effect. The effects of the constituents of aspartame, phenylalanine and aspartic acid, were also examined. Six subjects consumed an encapsulated preload consisting of either 400 mg aspartame, 176 mg aspartic acid+224 mg phenylalanine, or 400 mg corn flour (control), with 1.5 g paracetamol dissolved in 450 ml water to measure gastric emptying. A 1983-kJ liquid meal was consumed 60 min later. Plasma CCK, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, and insulin were measured over 0-120 min. Gastric emptying was measured from 0 to 60 min. Plasma GLP-1 concentrations decreased following the liquid meal (60-120 min) after both the aspartame and amino acids preloads (control, 2096.9 pmol/l min; aspartame, 536.6 pmol/l min; amino acids, 861.8 pmol/l min; incremental area under the curve [AUC] 60-120 min, P<.05). Desire to eat was reduced from 60 to 120 min following the amino acids preload (control, -337.1 mm min; aspartame, -505.4 mm min; amino acids, -1497.1 mm min; incremental AUC 60-120 min, P<.05). However, gastric emptying rates, plasma CCK, GIP, insulin, and glucose concentrations were unaffected. There was a correlation between the increase in plasma phenylalanine and decrease in desire to eat after the liquid meal following the constituent amino acids (r=-.9774, P=.004). In conclusion, it is unlikely that aspartame increases satiety via CCK- or GLP-1-mediated mechanisms, but small changes in circulating phenylalanine concentrations may influence appetite. PMID:12782208

Hall, W L; Millward, D J; Rogers, P J; Morgan, L M

2003-04-01

147

Simultaneous determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection—Development and single-laboratory validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of multiple sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin and sucralose in carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks, canned or bottled fruits and yoghurt. The procedure involves an extraction of the nine sweeteners with a buffer solution,

Andrzej Wasik; Josephine McCourt; Manuela Buchgraber

2007-01-01

148

Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647  

PubMed Central

The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/?) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/? mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/? mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/? mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/? mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/? mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl?/? mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances.

Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

149

Retention behaviour of some high-intensity sweeteners on different SPE sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide information about application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for isolation of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin, sucralose and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) from aqueous solutions. The influence of several types of LC–MS compatible buffers (different pH values and compositions) on their recovery has been studied and discussed. A number of

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2010-01-01

150

How aspartame prevents the toxicity of ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is found as a frequent contaminant of a large variety of food and feed and beverage such as beer, coffee and win. It is produced as a secondary metabolite of moulds from Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Ochratoxin A has been shown experimentally to inhibit protein synthesis by competition with phenylalanine its structural analogue and also to enhance oxygen reactive radicals production. The combination of these basic mechanisms with the unusual long plasma half-life time (35 days in non-human primates and in humans), the metabolisation of OTA into still active derivatives and glutathione conjugate both potentially reactive with cellular macromolecules including DNA could explain the multiple toxic effects, cytotoxicity, teratogenicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. A relation was first recognised between exposure to OTA in the Balkan geographical area and Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) with a high incidence (nearly 50 times higher than normal) of urinary tract tumours. Exposure rates of OTA are measurable in blood of humans and animals and are established in several countries including Scandinavia, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Japan and Northern Africa mainly Tunisia and Egypt. The impact of OTA exposure in non- endemic areas in the world is not known, the rates of exposure being not correlated with the disease records, especially in developed countries, due to lake of well- designed epidemiological studies, genetic polymorphism and maybe to dietary contents of radical scavengers and antioxidants. However the incidence and mortality rates of renal cancer are increasing in European countries and Northern Africa which could be a global resultant of human exposure to natural compounds in food such as mycotoxins and especially ochratoxin A. In addition to special care to prevent the growth of moulds and detoxification measures there was a need for the prevention of the OTA-induced toxic effects once the toxin is ingested. For this purpose several compound have been studied including some therapeutic agents such as piroxicam which cannot be proposed for a large scale use in humans for preventive purpose. Among other compounds, Aspartame, already used as sweetener has shown a real effectiveness in vivo confirmed largely in vitro. When rats exposed to OTA (289 micrograms/kg) by oral route every two days are given 25 mg/kg similarly for several weeks, all the toxic effects including genotoxicity are very efficiently prevented as shown for example by the disappearance of DNA- adducts in tissues excised from treated animals. Aspartame is also effective in washing out the toxin when given afterwards to animals intoxicated by the same oTA doses for several weeks. In vitro, provided that it is added in cell culture medium before OTA it prevent significantly the inhibition of protein synthesis and lipid peroxidation induced by the toxin. Obviously the molecular mechanism mediating the preventive effect of Aspartame is the delivery of phenylalanine by cleavage of the peptide but also the direct effect of the peptide on the bending capacity and transport of the toxin in vivo and in vitro. As a matter of fact when Aspartame is given to animals or added in culture medium the amount of peptide found unchanged (10-15%) may account for a preventive effect as entire peptide. PMID:9760456

Creppy, E E; Baudrimont, I; Anne-Marie

1998-07-01

151

Rationale for further medical and health research on high-potency sweeteners.  

PubMed

High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for "sweetener-drug interactions" and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

Schiffman, Susan S

2012-04-26

152

Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners.

2012-01-01

153

The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications. PMID:22827164

Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namie?nik, Jacek

2012-07-24

154

Effects of three sweeteners on rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis initiated by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine.  

PubMed

The effects of three sweeteners, sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside, on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats initiated by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were evaluated. Male F344 rats were given 0.01% BBN in their drinking water for 4 weeks and then the test sweeteners in their diet for 32 weeks. All surviving rats were sacrificed after 36 weeks, and examined histologically. Treatment with sodium saccharin significantly increased the incidence and extent of preneoplastic lesions, papillary or nodular (PN) hyperplasia, in rats treated with BBN for 4 weeks. Administration of 5% aspartame or 5% stevioside in the diet did not, however, affect the incidence or extent of PN hyperplasia in BBN-treated rats. No preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder were observed in rats treated with the test sweeteners only. The results with sodium saccharin were consistent with those in our previous experiments. The data also suggest that aspartame and stevioside do not promote bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:6500232

Hagiwara, A; Fukushima, S; Kitaori, M; Shibata, M; Ito, N

1984-09-01

155

Safety of long-term large doses of aspartame.  

PubMed

Safety of long-term administration of 75 mg/kg of aspartame per day was evaluated with the use of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design in 108 male and female volunteers aged 18 to 62 years. Subjects received either aspartame or placebo in capsule form three times daily for 24 weeks. No persistent changes over time were noted in either group in vital signs; body weight; results of standard laboratory tests; fasting blood levels of aspartame's constituent amino acids (aspartic acid and phenylalanine), other amino acids, and methanol; or blood formate levels and 24-hour urinary excretion of formate. There also were no statistically significant differences between groups in the number of subjects experiencing symptoms or in the number of symptoms per subject. These results further document the safety of the long-term consumption of aspartame at doses equivalent to the amount of aspartame in approximately 10 L of beverage per day. PMID:2802896

Leon, A S; Hunninghake, D B; Bell, C; Rassin, D K; Tephly, T R

1989-10-01

156

First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100-150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all organs and tissues collected was routinely performed on each animal of all experimental groups. The results of the study show for the first time that APM, in our experimental conditions, causes a) an increased incidence of malignant-tumor-bearing animals with a positive significant trend in males (p < or = 0.05) and in females (p < or = 0.01), in particular those females treated at 50,000 ppm (p < or = 0.01); b) an increase in lymphomas and leukemias with a positive significant trend in both males (p < or = 0.05) and females (p < or = 0.01), in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (p < or = 0.01), 50,000 (p < or = 0.01), 10,000 (p < or = 0.05), 2,000 (p < or = 0.05), or 400 ppm (p < or = 0.01); c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend (p < or = 0.01), of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter and their precursors (dysplasias) in females treated at 100,000 (p < or = 0.01), 50,000 (p < or = 0.01), 10,000 (p < or = 0.01), 2,000 (p < or = 0.05), or 400 ppm (p < or = 0.05); and d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of peripheral nerves with a positive trend (p < or = 0.05) in males. The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM is a multipotential carcinogenic agent, even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, much less than the current acceptable daily intake. On the basis of these results, a reevaluation of the present guidelines on the use and consumption of APM is urgent and cannot be delayed. PMID:16507461

Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Degli Esposti, Davide; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

2006-03-01

157

Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to aspartame administered in feed.  

PubMed

Aspartame (APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners in the world. Its ever-growing use in more than 6000 products, such as soft drinks, chewing gum, candy, desserts, etc., has been accompanied by rising consumer concerns regarding its safety, in particular its potential long-term carcinogenic effects. In light of the inadequacy of the carcinogenicity bioassays performed in the 1970s and 1980s, a long-term mega-experiment on APM was undertaken at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation on groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (100-150/sex/group), 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment. APM was administered in feed at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. Treatment lasted until spontaneous death of the animals. The results of the study demonstrate that APM causes: (a) an increased incidence of malignant tumor-bearing animals, with a positive significant trend in both sexes, and in particular in females treated at 50,000 ppm (P < or = 0.01) when compared to controls; (b) an increase in lymphomas-leukemias, with a positive significant trend in both sexes, and in particular in females treated at doses of 100,000 (P < or = 0.01), 50,000 (P < or = 0.01), 10,000 (P < or = 0.05), 2000 (P < or = 0.05), and 400 ppm (P < or = 0.01); (c) a statistically significant increased incidence, with a positive significant trend, of transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter in females and particularly in those treated at 100,000 ppm (P < or = 0.05); and (d) an increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the peripheral nerves, with a positive trend in males (P < or = 0.05). The results of this mega-experiment indicate that APM, in the tested experimental conditions, is a multipotential carcinogenic agent. PMID:17119233

Belpoggi, Fiorella; Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Degli Esposti, Davide; Lauriola, Michelina; Minardi, Franco

2006-09-01

158

Retention behaviour of some high-intensity sweeteners on different SPE sorbents.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to provide information about application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for isolation of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin, sucralose and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) from aqueous solutions. The influence of several types of LC-MS compatible buffers (different pH values and compositions) on their recovery has been studied and discussed. A number of commercially available SPE cartridges, such as Chromabond C18ec, Strata-X RP, Bakerbond Octadecyl, Bakerbond SDB-1, Bakerbond SPE Phenyl, Oasis HLB, LiChrolut RP-18, Supelclean LC-18, Discovery DSC-18 and Zorbax C18 were tested in order to evaluate their applicability for the isolation of analytes. Very high recoveries (better than 92%) of all studied compounds were obtained using formic acid-N,N-diisopropylethylamine buffer adjusted to pH 4.5 and C(18)-bonded silica sorbents. Behaviour of polymeric sorbents strongly depends on their structure. Strata-X RP behaves much like a C(18)-bonded silica sorbent. Recoveries obtained using Oasis HLB were comparable with those observed for silica-based sorbents. The only compound less efficiently (83%) retained by this sorbent was cyclamate. Bakerbond SDB-1 shows unusual selectivity towards aspartame and alitame. Recoveries of these two sweeteners were very low (26 and 42%, respectively). It was also found that aspartame and alitame can be selectively separated from the mixture of sweeteners using formic acid-triethylamine buffer at pH 3.5. PMID:20875571

Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namie?nik, Jacek

2010-08-06

159

[Simultaneous determination of six synthetic sweeteners in food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method for the determination of six synthetic sweeteners (sodium cyclamate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame and neotame) in food was developed. The synthetic sweeteners were extracted by methanol-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was separated on a C18 column using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate/acetonitrile as mobile phase, and then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearities (r > 0.998) were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 20-500 microg/L. The recoveries obtained ranged from 81.3% to 106.0% at three spiked concentrations, with the relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of synthetic sweeteners in food. PMID:21381416

Liu, Xiaoxi; Ding, Li; Liu, Jinxia; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Libing; Chen, Bo

2010-11-01

160

Effects of aspartame on diabetic rats and diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The effects of aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) on plasma glucose and insulin levels were investigated in diabetic rats and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The oral administration of 0.45 mg aspartame per 100g body weight, which is equivalent to 150 mg of glucose in sweetness, to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats had no effect on the plasma glucose or insulin levels. Also, 225 mg oral aspartame loading, which is equivalent to 75 g of glucose in sweetness, to patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus did not increase plasma glucose or insulin levels, although 75 g of oral glucose loading increased plasma glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients as expected. Aspartame ingestion for three days at a dose of 24-48 mg per day and the intake of snacks flavored with 240 mg of aspartame also did not increase fasting plasma glucose levels. These results suggest that acute administration of aspartame has no influence on plasma glucose or insulin levels in diabetic rats and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:3908628

Shigeta, H; Yoshida, T; Nakai, M; Mori, H; Kano, Y; Nishioka, H; Kajiyama, S; Kitagawa, Y; Kanatsuna, T; Kondo, M

1985-10-01

161

Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6?J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50?mg/Kgbw/day) caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) P?Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6?J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

2012-01-01

162

Effect of an Aspartame-Ethanol Mixture on Daphnia magna Cardiac Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame in conjunction with alcohol has been shown to increase the blood alcohol level in humans faster than alcohol and sucrose (Wu et al., 2006). To determine the potential effects of various mixtures of ethanol and aspartame on the nervous system, the heart rate of Daphnia magna (D.magna, water flea) was measured in deionized water (control), ethanol, aspartame, and five

Stephanie Schleidt; Danielle Indelicato; Ashley Feigenbutz; Cierra Lewis

163

[Determination of five synthetic sweeteners in wines using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS) method for the determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame) in wines has been developed. The HPLC separation was carried out on an Ultimate C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm). Several parameters, including the composition and pH of the mobile phase, column temperature and the monitor ions, were optimized for improving the chromatographic performance and the sensitivity of determination. The results demonstrated that the separation can be completed in less than 5 min by gradient elution with 20 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (pH 3.8) and methanol as the mobile phase. The column temperature was kept at 45 degrees C. When the analytes were detected by ESI -MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring mode, the detection limits were 0.6, 5, 1, 0.8 and 0.2 microg/L for acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 87.2% to 103%. The relative standard deviations were not more than 1.2%. This method is rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of low concentration of the synthetic sweeteners, which are illegally added to wines and other foods with complex matrices. PMID:21261041

Ji, Chao; Feng, Feng; Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Li; Chu, Xiaogang

2010-08-01

164

Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.  

PubMed

This article discusses the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example. The safety implications of the ADI and consumption levels are also discussed. Aspartame has been assigned an ADI of 40 mg/kg/day by the World Health Organization and regulatory authorities in Europe and Canada, and of 50 mg/kg/day by the US Food and Drug Administration. A number of different methods have been used to measure consumption levels of food additives. Consumption estimations for aspartame from one such method, the food intake survey, have been done in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Finland. APM consumption in all age groups and selected subpopulations, even at the 90th percentile, is approximately 2-10 mg/kg/day and is thus well below the ADI. PMID:1894884

Butchko, H H; Kotsonis, F N

1991-06-01

165

Aspartame consumption in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake.  

PubMed

Whereas humans use aspartame as a sugar substitute, evidence to date from rats suggests that aspartame does not taste sweet or, more generally, hedonically positive to them. The present study provided a strong test of the appetitive properties of aspartame in rats by examining consumption of aspartame and, for comparison, several sugars by two lines of rats selectively bred for high (HiS) versus low (LoS) saccharin consumption. The HiS and LoS lines differed in consumption of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and saccharin solutions. Overall, the rats showed a weak but significant preference for aspartame. However, no line differences in aspartame consumption were observed. Thus, even among rats specifically bred on the basis of their responsiveness to sweet tastes, aspartame tastes minimally sweet or good. PMID:9855493

De Francisco, J C; Dess, N K

1998-11-15

166

Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners authorised in the EU; acesulfame-K (ACS-K), aspartame\\u000a (ASP), alitame (ALI), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), neotame (NEO), saccharin (SAC)\\u000a and sucralose (SCL) in a variety of food samples (i.e. beverages, dairy and fish products). After extraction

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2011-01-01

167

Chemical stability of encapsulated aspartame in cakes without added sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulated aspartame (APM), developed to protect the APM molecule during baking, has not been evaluated for stability during baking and subsequent product storage. Thus, the objectives of this project were to determine the APM recovery in various cake formulations after baking and to evaluate APM degradation kinetics during product storage. The recovery of encapsulated APM after baking was 33–34% while

Clinton R. Wetzel; Leonard N. Bell

1998-01-01

168

Non-nutritive sweeteners: Review and update.  

PubMed

Obesity has become an epidemic, not just in the United States, but also across the globe. Obesity is a result of many factors including poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, hormonal issues, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as many psychological issues. Direct and indirect costs associated with obesity-related morbidity and mortality have been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. Of the many avenues for treatment, dietary interventions are the most common. Numerous diets have been popularized in the media, with most being fads having little to no scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness. Amidst this rise of weight loss diets, there has been a surge of individual products advertised as assuring quick weight loss; one such product group is non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Sugar, a common component of our diet, is also a major contributing factor to a number of health problems, including obesity and increased dental diseases both in adults and children. Most foods marketed towards children are sugar-laden. Obesity-related health issues, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension, once only commonly seen in older adults, are increasing in youth. Manufacturers of NNS are using this as an opportunity to promote their products, and are marketing them as safe for all ages. A systematic review of several databases and reliable websites on the internet was conducted to identify literature related to NNS. Keywords that were used individually or in combination included, but were not limited to, artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners, non-caloric sweeteners, obesity, sugar substitutes, diabetes, and cardiometabolic indicators. The clinical and epidemiologic data available at present are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the benefits of NNS in displacing caloric sweeteners as related to energy balance, maintenance or decrease in body weight, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Although the FDA and most published (especially industry-funded) studies endorse the safety of these additives, there is a lack of conclusive evidence-based research to discourage or to encourage their use on a regular basis. While moderate use of NNS may be useful as a dietary aid for someone with diabetes or on a weight loss regimen, for optimal health it is recommended that only minimal amounts of both sugar and NNS be consumed. PMID:23845273

Shankar, Padmini; Ahuja, Suman; Sriram, Krishnan

2013-07-08

169

[Carbohydrate sweeteners and obesity].  

PubMed

The U.S. prevalence of obesity increases since the mid-70s of the 20th century. Around that time high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)--mixture of fructose and glucose was introduced as a sweetener replacing sucrose in the food production. HFCS containing 55% fructose and 42-45% glucose (HFCS55) has dominated the American soft drink industry and HFCS has recently become commonly used in Poland. The coincidence of HFCS introduction and obesity epidemic raised widely publicized suspicions of a causal relationship between the two. As a possible mechanism, a higher content of fructose in the HFCS55, as compared with sucrose was suggested -fructose is known to increase serum uric acid level, induce hepatic lipogenesis and not stimulate postprandial hyperinsulinemia, a main activator of leptin release. Few comparative studies of HFCS and sucrose have largely failed to reveal any different impacts on the metabolic parameters, yet they were mainly short-term. It has been recently shown that obesity is linked with changes in the intenstinal flora. Among the causes of allegedly different effects of sucrose and HFCS on metabolism, their influence on the gut microbiome has not been examined. Some bacterial types do not hydrolyze sucrose which may determine different compositions of gut flora with the use of both sweeteners. Studies involving quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA in the stool, both in animals and in humans, shall shed light on the issue that has recently so much absorbed the U.S. public opinion. PMID:23029710

Wystrychowski, Grzegorz; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Grzeszczak, W?adys?aw; Wystrychowski, Antoni

2012-01-01

170

Sweetness and intensity of artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments, groups of Os judged either the sweetness or the entire taste intensity of solutions of sucrose, cyclamate\\u000a salts, cyclamate-saccharin mixtures, and sodium saccharin. The sensory functions obtained by magnitude estimation suggest\\u000a that over the middle range of concentration the sweetness and intensity of the foregoing substances grow as power functions\\u000a of concentration. As a first approximation, the

Howard R. Moskowitz

1970-01-01

171

Artificial Sweeteners: Any Effect on Blood Sugar?  

MedlinePLUS

... for managing diabetes with a hectic lifestyle Diabetes in school: Tips for parents Diabetes and weight loss: Tips ... your diet Diabetes and summer: Safety tips Diabetes in school: Tips for teachers Avoid cold-weather pitfalls when ...

172

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive sweeteners and nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) when consumed within an eating plan that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes, as well as individual health goals and personal preference. A preference for sweet taste is innate and sweeteners can increase the pleasure of eating. Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy. They occur naturally in foods or may be added in food processing or by consumers before consumption. Higher intake of added sugars is associated with higher energy intake and lower diet quality, which can increase the risk for obesity, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On average, adults in the United States consume 14.6% of energy from added sugars. Polyols (also referred to as sugar alcohols) add sweetness with less energy and may reduce risk for dental caries. Foods containing polyols and/or no added sugars can, within food labeling guidelines, be labeled as sugar-free. NNS are those that sweeten with minimal or no carbohydrate or energy. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as food additives or generally recognized as safe. The Food and Drug Administration approval process includes determination of probable intake, cumulative effect from all uses, and toxicology studies in animals. Seven NNS are approved for use in the United States: acesulfame K, aspartame, luo han guo fruit extract, neotame, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose. They have different functional properties that may affect perceived taste or use in different food applications. All NNS approved for use in the United States are determined to be safe. PMID:22709780

Fitch, Cindy; Keim, Kathryn S

2012-04-25

173

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a...

2009-04-01

174

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription...of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the methylester of a...

2010-04-01

175

Aspartame consumption in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

DE FRANCISCO, J. C. AND N. K. DESS. Aspartame consumption in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake. PHYSIOL BEHAV 65(2) 393–396, 1998.—Whereas humans use aspartame as a sugar substitute, evidence to date from rats suggests that aspartame does not taste sweet or, more generally, hedonically positive to them. The present study provided a strong test of the

Jeffrey C De Francisco; Nancy K Dess

1998-01-01

176

Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.  

PubMed

For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized. PMID:22224551

DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

2012-01-03

177

Beta-Ketocarboxyl and Phosphonate Dihydrochalcone Sweeteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns synthetic sweeteners. More particularly, it concerns a new group of substituted dihydrochalcone compounds, their use as sweeteners for edible compositions such as foodstuffs, and certain amino dihydrochalcone intermediates.

G. E. Dubois

1981-01-01

178

27 CFR 24.305 - Sweetening record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sweetens natural wine with sugar or juice (unconcentrated or concentrated...wine before sweetening; (b) If concentrate is used, the degrees Brix of the concentrate; (c) If sugar or juice, or both, are used, the...

2013-04-01

179

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

Szöll?Si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

2011-09-01

180

Gender Dimorphism in Aspartame-Induced Impairment of Spatial Cognition and Insulin Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have linked aspartame consumption to impaired retention of learned behavior in rodents. Prenatal exposure to aspartame has also been shown to impair odor-associative learning in guinea pigs; and recently, aspartame-fed hyperlipidemic zebrafish exhibited weight gain, hyperglycemia and acute swimming defects. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, on changes in blood glucose parameters, spatial learning and memory in C57BL/6J mice. Morris Water Maze (MWM) testing was used to assess learning and memory, and a random-fed insulin tolerance test was performed to assess glucose homeostasis. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and MWM performance outcome variables. At 17 weeks of age, male aspartame-fed mice exhibited weight gain, elevated fasting glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to controls (P<0.05). Females were less affected, but had significantly raised fasting glucose levels. During spatial learning trials in the MWM (acquisition training), the escape latencies of male aspartame-fed mice were consistently higher than controls, indicative of learning impairment. Thigmotactic behavior and time spent floating directionless was increased in aspartame mice, who also spent less time searching in the target quadrant of the maze (P<0.05). Spatial learning of female aspartame-fed mice was not significantly different from controls. Reference memory during a probe test was affected in both genders, with the aspartame-fed mice spending significantly less time searching for the former location of the platform. Interestingly, the extent of visceral fat deposition correlated positively with non-spatial search strategies such as floating and thigmotaxis, and negatively with time spent in the target quadrant and swimming across the location of the escape platform. These data suggest that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero, may affect spatial cognition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J mice, particularly in males.

Collison, Kate S.; Makhoul, Nadine J.; Zaidi, Marya Z.; Saleh, Soad M.; Andres, Bernard; Inglis, Angela; Al-Rabiah, Rana; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A.

2012-01-01

181

Incidence of brain tumors in rats fed aspartame.  

PubMed

The brain tumorigenicity of aspartame (APM) and of its diketopiperazine (DKP) was studied in 860 SCL Wistar rats. APM at dietary levels of 1 g/kg, 2 gK/, 4 g/kg or APM + DKP (3:1) 4 g/kg was fed for 104 weeks. One atypical astrocytoma was found in a control rat and 2 astrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas and 1 ependymoma were scattered among the 4 test groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of brain tumors between control and test groups. It is concluded that neither AMP nor DKP caused brain tumors in rats in this study. PMID:7245229

Ishii, H

1981-03-01

182

Aspartame degradation as a function of "water activity".  

PubMed

The incorporation of aspartame into an increasing number of foods necessitates evaluation of its degradation kinetics as a function of "water activity" (aw). The kinetics of degradation were followed in model systems as a function of initial pH, temperature, and aw. An increase in aw, for each 0.1 units in the 0.3 to 0.7 range, resulted in about a 30-80% increase in degradation rate, which then decreased only slowly up to dilute solution. The presence of oil increased the degradation rate at high aw, but glucose had no effect on the rate of aspartame loss. The activation energies for loss ranged from 25 to 20 kcal/mole, decreasing as aw increased, as expected. The rates as a function of pH showed that the actual pH of the water in the condensed phase, based on the Bronsted relationship, may be very different than the initial pH. This caused a shift in the pH at which the fastest rate of degradation occurred, as aw increased. PMID:1746339

Bell, L N; Labuza, T P

1991-01-01

183

An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

B?y?k, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

2009-10-01

184

Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic

Zolta´n Kova´cs; Attila Gere; La´szlo´ Si´pos; Zolta´n Ko´kai; Andra´s Fekete

2011-01-01

185

Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake behavior is not so simple and still many people tend to consume more calories than they burn and

P. A. M. Smeets

2010-01-01

186

A biosensor based on graphite epoxy composite electrode for aspartame and ethanol detection.  

PubMed

A gelatin membrane with carboxyl esterase and alcohol oxidase was subsequently integrated onto the surface of a graphite epoxy composite electrode (GECE). The developed biosensors showed linearity in the range of 2.5-400 microM for aspartame and 2.5-25 microM for ethanol with response times of 170 and 70s for each analyte, respectively. The resulting bienzyme biosensor was used for aspartame detection in diet coke samples and ethanol detection in beer and wine samples. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the developed biosensor is a selective, practical and economic tool for aspartame and ethanol detection in real samples. PMID:17723395

Kirgöz, Ulkü Anik; Odaci, Dilek; Timur, Suna; Merkoçi, Arben; Alegret, Salvador; Be?ün, Nurgün; Telefoncu, Azmi

2006-04-25

187

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

... food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods, including: Antibiotics given to food producing animals Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate ...

188

Statistical analysis of salivary pH changes after the intake of black tea and yerba maté supplemented with sweeteners.  

PubMed

Many studies have demonstrated the effect of various beverages on hard tissues of the mouth. Sugar consumption has also been avoided because it is associated with caries activity, and artificial sweetener research has been promoted. In this paper, data about the buffer capacity of black tea and yerba mate supplemented with sugar or one of two artificial sweeteners (Barny diet and NutraSweet) were examined. Salivary pH variations after the ingestion of both infusions were statistically analysed. A factorial design of four variables (Infusion, Sweetener, Concentration and Time) and their effects were considered independently and combined. The addition of sucrose lowered the pH of the infusions while black tea showed a greater buffer capacity than yerba mate. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were obtained when salivary pH values were compared between infusions supplemented with sugar or artificial sweeteners. When a factorial design was used to examine differences between Barny diet and NutraSweet, no significant two- or three-way interactions could be observed. This statistical analysis showed a small significant variation in salivary pH after the ingestion of black tea or yerba mate with sugar but not with artificial sweeteners at the recommended concentrations. PMID:10453132

López de Bocanera, M E; Koss de Stisman, M A; Bru de Labanda, E; Chervonagura de Gepner, A

1999-06-01

189

Sensory evaluation of mixtures of maltitol or aspartame, sucrose and an orange aroma.  

PubMed

The suitability of Beidler's mixture equation for mixtures of sucrose and maltitol as well as for mixtures of sucrose and aspartame was examined in the presence of an orange aroma. The mean scores for the attribute sweet remained constant for each combination of sucrose and maltitol and for each combination of sucrose and aspartame. Therefore, Beidler's mixture equation can be used to choose combinations of sucrose and maltitol and of sucrose and aspartame giving the same sweetness. Quantitative descriptive analysis of different solutions indicated that the flavour profiles of sucrose and maltitol did not differ significantly at a constant concentration of orange aroma. However, flavour profiles of solutions with increasing aspartame concentrations (but constant aroma levels) showed significantly higher scores for the attributes sour, chemical and aftertaste. Addition of orange aroma provided the different solutions with a more distinct flavour. The mean scores for the attributes orange, sour, fruity and aftertaste increased significantly for most of the sucrose-maltitol mixtures. This effect of orange aroma was even more pronounced in solutions containing combinations of sucrose and aspartame. Further comments on the attribute aftertaste showed similar terms for the different solutions, the most often mentioned being orange, sour, fruity and chemical for solutions containing the orange aroma. The aftertaste of solutions containing relatively more aspartame was mainly described as sweet and chemical. PMID:9530970

Nahon, D F; Roozen, J P; de Graaf, C

1998-02-01

190

Effect of aspartame on plasma amino acid profiles of diabetic patients with chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

A randomized, double-blind study was conducted to determine the possible effects of aspartame on the plasma amino acid profiles of 23 diabetic patients with renal failure who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Subjects were given a single dose of 10 mg aspartame/kg (approximately equivalent to 25 packets of Equal [NutraSweet Consumer Products, Inc, Chicago, IL] or the amount of phenylalanine in a 300-mL glass of milk) or a placebo in a crossover study design. Three postdialysis blood samples were drawn just before and 1 and 2 h after aspartame or placebo consumption. After aspartame consumption statistically significant increases in only two amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, were noted at 1 and 2 h when compared with placebo values. The increases in phenylalanine were within the normal postprandial range for healthy subjects; no other increases in essential or nonessential amino acids, except for tyrosine, were detected. This study supports the view that aspartame is safe for diabetic subjects with chronic renal failure. PMID:2729170

Gupta, V; Cochran, C; Parker, T F; Long, D L; Ashby, J; Gorman, M A; Liepa, G U

1989-06-01

191

Using Models to Understand and Design Sweeteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most sweeteners have been discovered accidentally, many models have been devised to aid in understanding structure-taste relationships. Because of the diversity of structures which may exhibit sweet taste, it is difficult to devise a comprehensive model. In fact, it may not be appropriate to fit all sweeteners into a single model since multiple receptors may be involved. This paper describes the evolution of sweetness receptor models, culminating in computer-derived models which have successfully been used in the design of new sweeteners and in predicting how sweet new analogs will be.

Walters, D. Eric

1995-08-01

192

Whole-nerve chorda tympani responses to sweeteners in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice  

PubMed Central

The C57BL/6ByJ (B6) strain of mice exhibits higher preferences than does the 129P3/J (129) strain for a variety of sweet-tasting compounds. We measured gustatory afferent responses of the whole chorda tympani nerve in these two strains using a broad array of sweeteners and other taste stimuli. Neural responses were greater in B6 than in 129 mice to the sugars sucrose and maltose, the polyol D-sorbitol, and the non-caloric sweeteners NaSaccharin, acesulfame-K, SC-45647, and sucralose. Lower neural response thresholds were also observed in the B6 strain for most of these stimuli. The strains did not differ on their neural responses to amino acids that are thought to taste sweet to mice, with the exception of L-proline, which evoked larger responses in the B6 strain. Aspartame and thaumatin, which taste sweet to humans but are not strongly preferred by B6 or 129 mice, did not evoke neural responses that exceeded threshold in either strain. The strains generally did not differ in their neural responses to NaCl, quinine, and HCl. Thus, variation between the B6 and 129 strains in the peripheral gustatory system may contribute to differences in their consumption of many sweeteners.

Inoue, Masashi; McCaughey, Stuart A.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

2013-01-01

193

Simultaneous determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection--development and single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of multiple sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin and sucralose in carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks, canned or bottled fruits and yoghurt. The procedure involves an extraction of the nine sweeteners with a buffer solution, sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction cartridges followed by an HPLC-ELSD analysis. The trueness of the method was satisfactory with recoveries ranging from 93 to 109% for concentration levels around the maximum usable dosages for authorised sweeteners and from 100 to 112% for unauthorised compounds at concentration levels close to the limit of quantification (LOQs). Precision measures showed mean repeatability values of <4% (expressed as relative standard deviation) for highly concentrated samples and <5% at concentration levels close to the LOQs. Intermediate precision was in most cases <8%. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 15 microg g(-1) and the LOQs below 30 microg g(-1) in all three matrices. Only dulcin showed slightly higher values, i.e., LODs around 30 microg g(-1) and LOQs around 50 microg g(-1) PMID:17540386

Wasik, Andrzej; McCourt, Josephine; Buchgraber, Manuela

2007-05-06

194

27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

2013-04-01

195

The effect of aspartame metabolites on human erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) with neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in human erythrocyte membranes after incubation with the sum of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (met) and aspartic acid (aspt), or with each one separately. Erythrocyte membranes were obtained from 12 healthy individuals and were incubated with ASP hydrolysis products for

Stylianos Tsakiris; Aglaia Giannoulia-Karantana; Irene Simintzi; Kleopatra H. Schulpis

2006-01-01

196

Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one

Gülden Ba?yi?it; Hakan Kulea?an; Aynur G. Karahan

2006-01-01

197

Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of free amino acids in adult humans administered abuse doses of aspartame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of amino acids were measured in 18 fasting adult subjects (9 male, 9 female) administered abuse doses of aspartame (100, 150, and 200 mg\\/kg body weight) dissolved in 500 ml orange juice. Six subjects were studied at each dose. Plasma aspartate concentrations increased significantly (p ?0.05) over baseline values after ingestion of each dose. However, the

Lewis D. Stegink; L. J. Filer Jr; George L. Baker

1981-01-01

198

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sweetened condensed milk. 131.120 Section 131.120 Food and...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.120 Sweetened...

2013-04-01

199

Hypothalamic morphology following ingestion of aspartame or MSG in the neonatal rodent and primate: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal mice received oral doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 g\\/kg or aspartame at levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g\\/kg. Hypothalamic lesions were encountered at dose levels equal to or exceeding 0.5 g\\/kg (MSG) and 1.0 g\\/kg (aspartame). Aspartame administration resulted in a much smaller hypothalamic lesion than did equal

W. Ann Reynolds; Veronica Butler

1976-01-01

200

The Role of Sweeteners in the Diet of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Had children sample beverage and plain cottage cheese sweetened with either sugar or Sweet One as part of a sensory difference test, as well as rank four vanilla puddings sweetened with sugar and three FDA approved sweeteners. Found that participants could tell the difference in beverage but not cottage cheese, and that there was no consensus on…

Soliah, LuAnn; And Others

1997-01-01

201

The quantitative prediction of bitterness-suppressing effect of sweeteners on the bitterness of famotidine by sweetness-responsive sensor.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was the quantitative prediction of the bitterness-suppressing effect of sweeteners (sucrose or sugar alcohols) on the bitterness of famotidine (or quinine sulfate as control) solutions using an artificial taste sensor. Firstly, we examined the response characteristics of the sensor response to sweetness. The sensor membrane is charged negatively in the presence of sweeteners, which tend to receive protons from one of the components of the sensor membrane. The magnitude of the sensor response was shown to increase in direct proportion to the concentration of the sweetener. Secondly, we used direct or indirect methods to evaluate and predict the bitterness-suppressing effect of sweeteners on 1 mg/ml famotidine and 81.4 microM quinine sulfate solutions. In direct method, a regression between the sensor output of the sweetness-responsive sensor and the bitterness intensity obtained in human gustatory tests of famotidine solutions containing sweeteners at various concentrations, was performed. As a result, we were able to predict directly the bitterness intensity of the mixed solution. Finally, we also evaluated the bitterness intensity of the dissolution media of commercially available, orally disintegrating tablets containing famotidine by the combined usage of bitterness- and sweetness-responsive sensor. We found that the sugar alcohols in the tablet seem to be effective in the bitterness-suppression of famotidine from these tablets, especially in the initial phase (within 30 s) of the disintegration process. PMID:17473460

Hashimoto, Yoshimi; Matsunaga, Chiharu; Tokuyama, Emi; Tsuji, Eriko; Uchida, Takahiro; Okada, Hiroaki

2007-05-01

202

Carbonation May Help Artificially Sweetened Soda 'Trick' the Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... published in the September issue of the journal Gastroenterology . The researchers used functional MRI to monitor changes ... study author Rosario Cuomo, an associate professor of gastroenterology at Federico II University in Naples, Italy, said ...

203

Do Artificial Sweeteners ingested in Pregnancy affect the Offspring?  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATS treated with approximately 20 mg\\/kg of cyclamate each day have been found to behave abnormally1 and it is believed that the behavioural changes may be induced during meiosis and embryonic development2. The offspring are hyperactive and slow to develop a response to food reward and, once trained, they are deficient, in comparison with controls, in tasks requiring response inhibition.

David Stone; Edward Matalka; Barbara Pulaski

1971-01-01

204

[Organoleptic study of a new dihydrochalcone artificial sweetener].  

PubMed

The compound CH-401-Na (1-[2-hydroxy-4-(3-sulphopropyloxy)phenyl]-3-[3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl]-propanone-1-Na) was studied. Its sweeting power in aqueous solution is 1000 (as compared to that of a 1% sucrose solution); the values for salts formed with 10 other cations range from 750 to 1150. In contrast to the sweet taste of sucrose, that of CH-401-Na is perceived not at the tip of the tongue but at the root of the tongue and at both sides of the oral cavity. It persists for a longer period than that of sucrose. This effect depends to some extent on the cation. The addition of inorganic salts accelerates the extinction of sweet taste. In lemonades, almost 90% of sucrose may be replaced by CH-401-salts. The taste of CH-401-Na is unpleasant in foods having a bitter taste (coffee, cola) and in low-moisture products. PMID:846563

Rajky-Medveczky, G; Takács-Palásti, M; Bolla-Pusztai, E; Szejtli, J

1977-01-01

205

21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination...calcium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, or any combination...of this section permits the use of pectin,...

2013-04-01

206

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Section 145.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2010-04-01

207

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...Section 145.116 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2009-04-01

208

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...Section 145.136 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2009-04-01

209

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...Section 145.126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2009-04-01

210

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Section 145.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2010-04-01

211

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...Section 145.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2009-04-01

212

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Section 145.171 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a quantity...

2010-04-01

213

Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook, June 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examines world and U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for beet and cane sugar, and high fructose corn syrup. U.S. deliveries of total sweeteners for human food and beverage use for 2011 are estimated at 20.381 million tons, almost the...

S. Haley

2012-01-01

214

U.S. Corn Sweetener Statistical Compendium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains time-series data on U.S. corn sweeteners: fructose syrup, glucose syrup, and dextrose. Data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS), the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of the Census, and sel...

F. Gray P. Buzzanell W. Moore

1993-01-01

215

Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners authorised in the EU; acesulfame-K (ACS-K), aspartame (ASP), alitame (ALI), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), neotame (NEO), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SCL) in a variety of food samples (i.e. beverages, dairy and fish products). After extraction with a buffer composed of formic acid and N,N-diisopropylethylamine at pH 4.5 in ultrasonic bath, extracts were cleaned up using Strata-X 33 ?m Polymeric SPE column. The analytes were separated in gradient elution mode on C(18) column and detected by mass spectrometer working with an electrospray source in negative ion mode. To confirm that analytical method is suitable for its intended use, several validation parameters, such as linearity, limits of detection and quantification, trueness and repeatibilty were evaluated. Calibration curves were linear within a studied range of concentrations (r(2)???0.999) for six investigated sweeteners (CYC, ASP, ALI, DUL, NHDC, NEO). Three compounds (ACS-K, SAC, SCL) gave non-linear response in the investigated concentration range. The method detection limits (corresponding to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3) were below 0.25 ?g mL(-1) (?g g(-1)), whereas the method quantitation limits (corresponding to S/N ratio of 10) were below 2.5 ?g mL(-1) (?g g(-1)). The recoveries at the tested concentrations (50%, 100% and 125% of maximum usable dose) for all sweeteners were in the range of 84.2?÷?106.7%, with relative standard deviations <10% regardless of the type of sample matrix (i.e. beverage, yoghurt, fish product) and the spiking level. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the nine sweeteners in drinks, yoghurts and fish products. The procedure described here is simple, accurate and precise and is suitable for routine quality control analysis of foodstuffs. PMID:21465096

Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namie?nik, Jacek

2011-04-05

216

Sampling and Analytical Method for Workplace Monitoring of Aspartame in Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame™ (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester; Nutra-sweet[rgrave]; Nutrasweet Company, Chicago, Illinois) is a dipeptide methyl ester that imparts a sweet taste sensation. It has been approved for use in the United States since 1981. In the course of a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study to examine potential worker health effects at a food plant in the U.S., a

William N. Albrecht; Gregory A. Burr; Charles E. Neumeister

1989-01-01

217

The Determination of Aspartame in Diet Soft Drinks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for the qualitative and quantitative determination of aspartame (Nutrasweet) in diet soft drinks is described. A high performance liquid chromatography method is used which requires a 250 × 4.6 mm ?-cyclodextrin bonded silica gel column and a mobile phase of methanol\\/1% triethyl ammonium acetate (pH 4.5). The effluent was monitored at 214 nm. The method was applied

Haleem J. Issaq; Donna Weiss; Cynthia Ridlon; Stephen D. Fox; Gary M. Muschik

1986-01-01

218

Effect of aspartame on plasma amino acid profiles of diabetic patients with chronic renal failure13  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, double-blind study was conducted to determine the possible effects ofaspartame on the plasma amino acid profiles of23 diabetic patients with renal failure who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Subjects were given a single dose of 10 mg aspartame\\/kg (approximately equivalent to 25 packets of EqUal#{174} (NutraSweet Consumer Products, mc, Chicago, IL) or the amount of phenylalanine in a 300-mL

Vineeta Gupta; Carolyn Cochran; Thomas FParker; Dewey L Long; Jessie Ashby

219

Determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

An interlaboratory trial was conducted to validate an analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis with evaporative light-scattering detection for the simultaneous determination of 9 intense sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin, and sucralose in carbonated and noncarbonated soft drinks and canned or bottled fruits. Seven laboratories participated in the validation study. The majority of the samples fortified with levels close to the limit of quantification had relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values <15%. In most cases, the recovery rates ranged between 90 and 105%, demonstrating satisfactory performance of the method. For samples fortified at levels comparable to the prescribed legal limits stipulated in the current European Union legislation, the method produces acceptably accurate, repeatable, and reproducible results. Trueness, expressed in terms of recovery rates, was demonstrated in most cases by values ranging from 90 to 108%. Comparability of results obtained by individual testing laboratories was good (RSDR values <10%) for the majority of results. Moreover, HorRat values of <1.1 suggested good performance of the method for all sweeteners and matrixes tested. PMID:19382579

Buchgraber, Manuela; Wasik, Andrzej

220

Effects of Sweetness and Energy in Drinks on Food Intake Following Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K

Neil A King; Katherine Appleton; Peter J Rogers; John E Blundell

1999-01-01

221

21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries....

2009-04-01

222

21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries....

2010-04-01

223

Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners – A risk benefit assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and

T. Husřy; B. Mangschou; T. Ř. Fotland; S. O. Kolset; H. Nřtvik Jakobsen; I. Třmmerberg; C. Bergsten; J. Alexander; L. Frost Andersen

2008-01-01

224

Time to maximum sweetness intensity of binary and ternary blends of sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to determine what effect, if any, the blending of sweeteners has on the time to maximum sweetness intensity of sweeteners. In this study that is comprised of three separate experiments, trained panelists evaluated the time to maximum sweetness intensity of sweeteners tested in both binary and ternary combinations. Sixteen sweeteners that varied widely

Susan S. Schiffman; Elizabeth A. Sattely-Miller; Ihab E. Bishay

2007-01-01

225

Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

2012-11-01

226

Detection of Clostridium botulinum in natural sweetening.  

PubMed

Various sugar products were examined for contamination with C. botulinum spores. Type A, B and C spores were detected in three of 56 samples of sugar for apiculture, which may attest the significance of bee-feed as a source of contamination of honey. The heavy contamination of honey with C. botulinum spores sometimes encountered, however, can not be explained unless some other factors, e.g., that allowing germination and multiplication of the spores somewhere during honey production, are found. Type A spores were detected in some samples of raw sugar and molasses and also in two of 41 samples of brown sugar lump, but not in refined sugar or other various samples taken at a sugar factory or in sugar cane left on the field in Okinawa. The fact that some natural sweetenings are contaminated with C. botulinum spores, even in low concentrations, may be food-hygienically important. PMID:1445754

Nakano, H; Yoshikuni, Y; Hashimoto, H; Sakaguchi, G

1992-06-01

227

Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200–300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended with other non-calorie or carbohydrate sweeteners. It is stable under

I. Prakash; G. E. DuBois; J. F. Clos; K. L. Wilkens; L. E. Fosdick

2008-01-01

228

Safety and Efficacy of Aspartame-Based Liquid Versus Sucrose-Based Liquids Used for Dilution in Oral Sodium Phosphate Solutions for Colonoscopy Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear\\u000a liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as\\u000a the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different\\u000a OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based

Sherman M. Chamberlain; J. Carter Balart; Kostas Sideridis; Jefrey Salek; Subbaramiah Sridhar; William O. Thompson

2007-01-01

229

Comparative Study of the Separation and Determination of Aspartame and Its Decomposition Products in Bulk Material and Diet Soft Drinks by Hplc and Ce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct separation of aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) LL-?-APM, and several decomposition products namely LL-?-aspartame (LL-?-APM), L-?-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine (?-AP), L-?-aspartyl-L-phenyl alanine (?-AP), and diketopiperazine (DKP) was accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Chirobiotic T (Teicoplanin) column, and capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) methods. The presence of any of these decomposition products in diet soft drinks labeled to contain the

Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein; Soliman A. Bakr

1997-01-01

230

Determination of aspartame and phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct spectrofluorimetric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of spectrofluorimetric detection is proposed in this work for the determination of aspartame and its main hydrolysis product phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation was achieved on a LiChrosorb RP18 column with the mobile phase methanol–acetonitrile–phosphate buffer (2:17:81), pH 4.3. Native fluorescence of the two analytes (?ex=205 nm, ?em=284 nm) was used for detection. The

Kazimierz Wróbel; Katarzyna Wróbel

1997-01-01

231

Nonnutritive sweeteners, energy balance and glucose homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review recent work on potential mechanisms underlying a paradoxical positive association between the consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) and weight gain. Recent findings Several potential mechanism, not mutually exclusive, are hypothesized. First, by dissociating sweetness from calories, NNS could interfere with physiological responses that control homeostasis. Second, by changing the intestinal environment, NNS could affect the microbiota and in turn trigger inflammatory processes that are associated with metabolic disorders. Third, by interacting with novel sweet-taste receptors discovered in the gut, NNS could affect glucose absorptive capacity and glucose homeostasis. This last is the mechanism that has received the most attention recently. Some animal studies, but not all, found that NNS activate gut sweet taste-pathways that control incretin release and up-regulate glucose transporters. Human studies found that, at least for healthy fasted subjects, the sole interaction of NNS with sweet-taste gut receptors is insufficient to elicit incretin responses. The reasons for discrepancy between different studies is unknown but could be related to the species of mammal tested and the dose of NNS used. Summary Whether NNS are metabolically inactive, as previously assumed, is unclear. Further research on the potential effects of NNS on human metabolism is warranted.

Pepino, M. Yanina; Bourne, Christina

2012-01-01

232

Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.  

PubMed

Temporal patterns over the past three to four decades have shown a close parallel between the rise in added sugar intake and the global obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) epidemics. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include the full spectrum of soft drinks, fruit drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, are composed of naturally derived caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fruit juice concentrates. Collectively they are the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US diet. Over the past 10 years a number of large observational studies have found positive associations between SSB consumption and long-term weight gain and development of T2D and related metabolic conditions. Experimental studies provide insight into potential biological mechanisms and illustrate that intake of SSBs increases T2D and cardiovascular risk factors. SSBs promote weight gain by incomplete compensation of liquid calories and contribute to increased risk of T2D not only through weight gain, but also independently through glycemic effects of consuming large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars and metabolic effects of fructose. PMID:22289979

Malik, Vasanti S; Hu, Frank B

2012-01-31

233

Quantitative determination of caffeine in carbonated beverages by an HPLC method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to adapt and use the HPLC method proposed by SR EN 12856\\/2001 standard for the determination of some artificial sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin) for the quantification, in a single run, of the caffeine too. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity range, reproducibility, repeatability, analytical recovery and robustness. In this paper

Nour Violeta; Ionica Mir

234

Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

2013-09-01

235

Aspartame decreases evoked extracellular dopamine levels in the rat brain: an in vivo voltammetry study.  

PubMed

Conflicting reports exist concerning the effect aspartame (APM, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) has upon brain biogenic amines. In the following study, in vivo voltammetry was utilized to measure evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum of rats in order to assess APM's effect. Time-course experiments revealed a significant decline in evoked extracellular DA levels within 1h of a single systemic dose (500mg/kg i.p.) when compared to vehicle-injected controls. The effect was frequency dependent and showed a significant decrease utilizing high frequency stimulation parameters (50 and 60Hz). In order to further determine APM's potential to alter evoked extracellular DA levels, extended stimulation periods were employed to deplete releasable stores both before and after APM administration in intact and 6-OHDA partially lesioned animals. The extended stimulation periods were applied at 60Hz for 2,5,10 and 20s durations. APM decreased DA levels under these conditions in both intact and 6-OHDA partially lesioned animals by an average of 34% and 51%, respectively. Kinetic analysis performed on frequency series indicated that the diminished DA levels corresponded to a significant reduction in DA release. These findings suggest that APM has a relatively potent effect of decreasing evoked extracellular DA levels when administered systemically under the conditions specified. PMID:17976663

Bergstrom, Brian P; Cummings, Deirdre R; Skaggs, Tricia A

2007-09-29

236

Canadian gas plant uses amine unit to sweeten liquid ethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that treating liquid ethane with amine to remove COâ has proven successful at Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd's Fort Saskatchewan gas plant. Experience at the plant indicates that, if recommended operating procedures and guidelines are followed, an amine contactor tower is economical and reliable for sweetening liquid hydrocarbons. The Fort Saskatchewan COâ-removal facility is unique, in that

Wesch

1992-01-01

237

Converting to DEA\\/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine

MICHAEL L. SPEARS; KATHY M. HAGAN; JERRY A. BULLIN; CARL J. MICHALIK

1996-01-01

238

IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SWEETENED BEVERAGES AND ADIPOSITY?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four mechanisms were reviewed to explain the possible association between sweetened beverages and increased overweight or obesity: excess caloric intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, lack of effect of liquid calories on satiety, and displacement of milk. The findings were inconsistent across st...

239

Price behaviour in the US sweetener market: a cointegration approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweetener market in the United States is complicated because of the substitution possibilities between high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sugar. This study focuses on the relationship between raw sugar prices and the prices for high fructose corn syrup. Sugar and HFCS are imperfect substitutes for several industrial uses. Sugar can be used for all industrial uses, but HFCS

Charles B. Moss; Andrew Schmits

2002-01-01

240

Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.  

PubMed

Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable. PMID:23598553

Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

2013-05-10

241

Sugar and Sweetener: Situation and Outlook Report, March 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The outlook for sugar and sweetener production worldwide and in the United States is presented. Areas covered are the following: (1) the latest U.S. data releases for 1991; (2) the world sugar situation in terms of the production/consumption balance, trad...

1991-01-01

242

Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten soda drinks may lead to elevations in uric acid levels. Here we determined whether soda drinking is associated with hyperuricemia and, as a potential consequence, reduced kidney function. At baseline, 15,745 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study completed a dietary questionnaire and had measurements of their serum creatinine and

Andrew S Bomback; Vimal K Derebail; David A Shoham; Cheryl A Anderson; Lyn M Steffen; Wayne D Rosamond; Abhijit V Kshirsagar

2010-01-01

243

Equilibrium studies of aspartame and some of its degradation products with hydrogen(I) and copper(II) under physiological conditions using potentiometric pH measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium studies of N-L-?-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester (aspartame) and some of its degradation products (L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid) with hydrogen(I) and copper(II) were carried out under physiological conditions (I=0.15 M (NaCl) in water, 37°C) using potentiometric titrations. The concentration stability constants of binary and ternary complexes of copper(II) with aspartame, L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid, as well as those of the binary complexes

Sherif Kholeif; Giorgio Anderegg

1997-01-01

244

Remineralization of Artificial Caries-like Lesions in Human Enamel in situ by Chewing Sorbitol Gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine quantitatively the effect on the potential for in situ remineralization of artificial caries-like lesions in human enamel when sugar-free gum containing mainly sorbitol as sweetener was chewed after meals and snacks. Artificial white-spot lesions were created in extracted human premolars and divided into three parts. One part was used as reference and

S. A. Leach; G. T. R. Lee; W. M. Edgar

1989-01-01

245

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2013-04-01

246

Iron sponge: still a top option for sour gas sweetening  

SciTech Connect

Engineering, research, and field data have been updated to present a detailed evaluation of gas sweetening via the iron sponge process. The iron sponge process is one of the oldest known methods for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur compounds from gas streams. The technique originated in Europe over 100 years ago and is still widely used today for gas sweetening. The process entails passing sour gas (i.e., a gas stream containing hydrogen sulfide and/or mercaptans) across a bed of hydrated iron oxide. The subsequent reaction with hydrogen sulfide produces iron sulfides and a small amount of byproduct water. The earliest operators actually employed a naturally occurring form of the hydrated iron oxide, referred to as bog iron or bog ore, but which is more correctly known as limonite (i.e., hydrous iron oxides that mineralogically are composed of various mixtures of goethite and/or legidocrocite).

Anerousis, J.P.; Whitman, S.K.

1985-02-18

247

Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream: Interactions Between Sweeteners and Stabilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recrystallization in ice creams that were made with various combinations of four sweeteners (20 DE (dextrose equivalent) corn syrup solids, 42 DE corn syrup solids, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup), and four stabilizers (gelatin, locust bean gum, xan- than gum, and carrageenan) was investigated. Ice creams were stored at three different temperatures (-5.2, -9.5, and -15°C). For a given

Talia Miller-Livney; Richard W. Hartel

1997-01-01

248

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.  

PubMed

An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. PMID:21802146

Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

2011-07-29

249

Initial Licking Responses of Mice to Sweeteners: Effects of Tas1r3 Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have established that the T1R3 receptor plays a central role in the taste-mediated ingestive response to sweeteners by mice. First, transgenic mice lacking the gene for T1R3, Tas1r3, show dramatically reduced lick responsiveness to most sweeteners. Second, strains with the taster allele of Tas1r3 (T strains) are more sensitive to low sweetener concentrations than strains with the nontaster

John I. Glendinning; Susan Chyou; Ivy Lin; Maika Onishi; Puja Patel; Kun Hao Zheng

2005-01-01

250

Stevioside and Stevia sweetener in food: application, stability and interaction with food ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the natural sweetener stevioside during different processing and storage conditions as well as the effects\\u000a of its interaction with water-soluble vitamins, food relevant organic acids and other common low calorie sweeteners and its\\u000a application in coffee and tea beverages were evaluated. Incubation of the solid sweetener stevioside at elevated temperatures\\u000a for 1 h showed good stability up to

Gerhard Kroyer

2010-01-01

251

Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and their Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Context: Non-nutritive sweeteners can bind to sweet-taste receptors present not only in the oral cavity, but also on enteroendocrine and pancreatic islet cells. Thus, these sweeteners may have biological activity by eliciting or inhibiting hormone secretion. Because consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is common in the United States, understanding the physiological effects of these substances is of interest and importance. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed (1960–2012) search was performed to identify articles examining the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gastrointestinal physiology and hormone secretion. Evidence Synthesis: The majority of in vitro studies showed that non-nutritive sweeteners can elicit secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in enteroendocrine or islet cells. In rodents, non-nutritive sweeteners increased the rate of intestinal glucose absorption, but did not alter gut hormone secretion in the absence of glucose. Most studies in humans have not detected effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on gut hormones or glucose absorption. Of eight human studies, one showed increased glucose-stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion after diet soda consumption, and one showed decreased glucagon secretion after stevia ingestion. Conclusions: In humans, few studies have examined the hormonal effects of non-nutritive sweeteners, and inconsistent results have been reported, with the majority not recapitulating in vitro data. Further research is needed to determine whether non-nutritive sweeteners have physiologically significant biological activity in humans.

Rother, Kristina I.

2012-01-01

252

Artificial Limbs  

MedlinePLUS

... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, a prosthesis, ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as before.

253

40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

2013-07-01

254

Active conformations of neotame and other high-potency sweeteners.  

PubMed

We carried out extensive conformational analysis of three high-potency sweeteners: neotame, superaspartame, and SC-45647. We then identified six possible pharmacophore features (carboxylate, two hydrophobic groups, and three NH groups) and wrote a computer program to exhaustively compare intramolecular distances among all possible sets of five-point pharmacophores (carboxylate + two hydrophobic groups + two NH groups) for the three compounds. The best pharmacophore model superimposes low-energy conformers of the three compounds in such a way that the five pharmacophore points match well both sterically and with respect to orientation of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. PMID:10737757

Walters, D E; Prakash, I; Desai, N

2000-03-23

255

The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. Methods We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. Results 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529

de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

2013-01-01

256

Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease.  

PubMed

The metabolism of high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten soda drinks may lead to elevations in uric acid levels. Here we determined whether soda drinking is associated with hyperuricemia and, as a potential consequence, reduced kidney function. At baseline, 15,745 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study completed a dietary questionnaire and had measurements of their serum creatinine and uric acid. After 3 and 9 years of follow-up, multivariate odds ratios from logistic regressions for binary outcome of hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) were evaluated. Compared to participants who drank less, consumption of over one soda per day was associated with increased odds of prevalent hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. The odds ratio for chronic kidney disease significantly increased to 2.59 among participants who drank more than one soda per day and had a serum uric acid level over 9.0 mg/dl. In longitudinal analyses, however, drinking more than one soda per day was not associated with hyperuricemia or chronic kidney disease. Neither preexistent hyperuricemia nor development of hyperuricemia modified the lack of association between soda drinking and incident chronic kidney disease. Thus our study shows that high consumption of sugar-sweetened soda was associated with prevalent but not incident hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. PMID:20032963

Bomback, Andrew S; Derebail, Vimal K; Shoham, David A; Anderson, Cheryl A; Steffen, Lyn M; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

2009-12-23

257

Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine. PMID:17406813

Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O

2007-04-04

258

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

Firschein, O.

1984-01-01

259

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also…

Thornburg, David D.

1986-01-01

260

Artificial blood  

PubMed Central

Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

Sarkar, Suman

2008-01-01

261

The influence of sweeteners in probiotic Petit Suisse cheese in concentrations equivalent to that of sucrose.  

PubMed

As in the case of probiotic functional foods in recent years, demand has increased notably for light or diet foods with added sweeteners. However, little is known about the effect of different sweeteners on the microorganisms present. Thus, the objective of the current study was to establish the ideal sucrose concentration and equivalent concentrations of different sweeteners and to determine, by microbiological analyses, the influence of these compounds on the viability of the starter and probiotic cultures used in the production of strawberry-flavored Petit Suisse cheese during its shelf life. The ideal sucrose concentration was determined using the just-about-right (JAR) scale, and the equivalent concentrations of the sweeteners were subsequently determined by the magnitude estimation method. Microbiological analyses were also carried out to check the viability of the cultures during the product's shelf life. The results showed that the compounds Neotame (NutraSweet, Chicago, IL) and stevia presented, respectively, the greatest and least sweetening power of the sweeteners tested. None of the sweeteners used in this study exerted a negative effect on the viability of the starter or probiotic cultures, and thus we were able to obtain a probiotic, functional food with reduced calorie content. PMID:23810599

Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Pereira, E P R; Rodrigues, J B; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

2013-06-28

262

Implicit media frames: Automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framing of issues in the mass media plays a crucial role in the public\\u000aunderstanding of science and technology. This article contributes to research\\u000aconcerned with diachronic analysis of media frames by making an analytical\\u000adistinction between implicit and explicit media frames, and by introducing an\\u000aautomated method for analysing diachronic changes of implicit frames. In\\u000aparticular, we apply

Iina Hellsten; James Dawson; Loet Leydesdorff

2010-01-01

263

Artificially Sweetened Versus Regular Mixers Increase Gastric Emptying and Alcohol Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMixed alcoholic drinks are increasingly being consumed in “diet” varieties, which could potentially empty more rapidly from the stomach and thereby increase the rate of alcohol absorption when compared with “regular” versions containing sugar.

Keng-Liang Wu; Reawika Chaikomin; Selena Doran; Karen L. Jones; Michael Horowitz; Christopher K. Rayner

2006-01-01

264

Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca 2+ influx  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionConsumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69–77]. We evaluated the

Jaydip Dasgupta; Ruth A. Elliott; Angie Doshani; Douglas G. Tincello

2006-01-01

265

21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this section are pectin, agar-agar, carob bean gum (also called locust bean gum), guar gum, gum karaya, gum tragacanth...5 percent and not more than 31.5 percent on a dry-weight basis), carrageenan or salts of...

2013-04-01

266

Artificial urushi.  

PubMed

A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

2001-11-19

267

Converting to DEA/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity  

SciTech Connect

Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine (DEA) to a DEA/MDEA (methyl DEA) mixture after analysis by TSWEET, a process-simulation program. After conversion, CO{sub 2} levels in the sales gas fell to less than pipeline specifications. Data were taken for the absorber at a constant amine circulation of 120 gpm. A comparison of the performance data to the values calculated by the program proved the accuracy of TSWEET. The conversion and performance of the plant are described.

Spears, M.L. [Union Pacific Resources, Bryan, TX (United States); Hagan, K.M. [Union Pacific Resources, Ft. Worth, TX (United States); Bullin, J.A.; Michalik, C.J. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Bryan, TX (United States)

1996-08-12

268

Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora  

PubMed Central

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli.

Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

2009-01-01

269

Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora.  

PubMed

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

2009-04-14

270

Artificial Aerosols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains the technical proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Aerosols held in Vail, Colorado, June 19-20, 1979. The workshop reviewed the state-of-the-art of chemically, aerodynamically or pyrotechnically produced aerosols and identified f...

A. Deepak L. H. Ruhnke

1980-01-01

271

Artificial Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Development is a field of Evolutionary Computation inspired by the developmental processes and cellular growth\\u000a seen in nature. Multiple models of artificial development have been proposed in the past, which can be broadly divided into\\u000a those based on biochemical processes and those based on a high level grammar. Two of the most important aspects to consider\\u000a when designing a

Arturo Chavoya

2009-01-01

272

Does the Sale of Sweetened Beverages at School Affect Children's Weight?  

PubMed Central

In response to the increase in children’s weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between children’s access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages.

Cunningham, Solveig A.; Zavodny, Madeline

2011-01-01

273

Enhancement of sweetness ratings of aspartame by a vanilla odor presented either by orthonasal or retronasal routes.  

PubMed

When taste stimuli are presented with specific odor stimuli, the perceived intensity of taste is enhanced, a phenomenon called odor-induced taste enhancement. There is a possibility, however, that the odor substances might have stimulated the taste receptors in the oral cavity as well as odor receptors in the nasal cavity because the odor substances were dissolved in the taste solutions in some preceding studies. Schifferstein and Verlegh (1996) found that the odor-induced taste enhancement effect was not found when the subjects wore a nose clip to prevent the olfactory perception. Thus, it was suggested that the odor-induced taste enhancement did not result from the stimulation of receptors in the oral cavity. To confirm and extend their study, we presented the odor stimuli simultaneously with, but not dissolved in, the taste stimuli with a more advanced approach to stimulus presentation. The participants reported enhancement of sweetness ratings for aspartame when the taste stimuli were presented with a vanilla odor. This odor induced taste enhancement was found when the gaseous odor stimuli were presented either by the retronasal route or by the orthonasal route. There was little possibility that the vanilla odor stimulated the taste receptors during the orthonasal stimulation because the odor stimuli were presented directly into the nasal cavity. Thus, we could show that the odor-induced taste enlancement is elicited by olfactory perception. These results also suggested that there is little functional difference between retronasal and orthonasal olfaction. PMID:11565908

Sakai, N; Kobayakawa, T; Gotow, N; Saito, S; Imada, S

2001-06-01

274

Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength, food-related parenting practices

Horst van der K; S. Kremers; A. Ferreira; A. Singh; A. Oenema; J. Brug

2007-01-01

275

Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and in- volvement) are associated with adolescents' con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n 5 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength,

Klazine van der Horst; Stef Kremers; Isabel Ferreira; Amika Singh; Anke Oenema; Johannes Brug

2006-01-01

276

Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-9  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods.

Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

2012-01-01

277

Misperceptions of Peer Norms as a Risk Factor for Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Secondary School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that excess calories from sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with weight gain among youth. There is limited knowledge, however, regarding perception of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms. This study examined the extent of misperception about peer sugar-sweetened beverage consumption norms and the association of perceived peer norms with personal self-reported consumption. Among 3,831 6th- to 12th-grade students in eight

Jessica M. Perkins; H. Wesley Perkins; David W. Craig

2010-01-01

278

Artificial Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model chemical and biochemical systems as collectives of interacting stochastic automata, with each automaton representing\\u000a a molecule that undergoes state transitions. In this artificial biochemistry, automata interact by the equivalent of the law of mass action. We investigate several simple but intriguing automata collectives\\u000a by stochastic simulation and by ODE analysis.

Luca Cardelli

2009-01-01

279

Artificial receptors.  

PubMed

Herein I will provide a brief overview of artificial receptors with emphasis on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and their applications. Alternative techniques to produce artificial receptors such as in silico designed and modelled polymers as well as different receptors designed using libraries of more or less natural composition will also be mentioned. Examples of these include aptamers and bio-nanocomposites. The physical presentation of the receptors is important and may depend on the application. Block polymerization of MIPs and grinding to particles of suitable size used to be the preferred technique, but today beaded materials can be produced in sizes down to nanobeads and also nanofibers can be used to increase available surface area and thereby capacity. For sensor applications it may be attractive to include the artificial receptors in surface coatings or in membrane structures. Different composite designs can be used to provide additional desirable properties. MIPs and other artificial receptors are gaining rapidly increasing attention in very shifting application areas and an attempt to provide a systematic account for current applications has been made with examples from separation, solid-phase extraction, analysis, carbohydrate specific experiments, and MIPs-directed synthesis. PMID:17985098

Danielsson, Bengt

2008-01-01

280

Solvent shows greater efficiency in sweetening of gas  

SciTech Connect

BASF A.G. has developed a new physical solvent, Sepasolv MPE, for removing hydrogen sulfide from natural, coal, or synthesis gas. A special mixture of oligoethylene glycol methyl isopropyl ethers, with a mean molecular weight of 316, Sepasolv performs better than chemical solvents when the H/sub 2/S pressure exceeds one bar, since the amount of H/sub 2/S dissolved by Sepasolv increases linearly with pressure. Other desirable characteristics of Sepasolv include its selectivity, manifested by solubility ratios of 8.6:1 and 224:1 for H/sub 2/S/CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S/CH/sub 4/, respectively, at 0/sup 0/C; high stability, even during regeneration with air; a relatively low vapor pressure, so that an afterwash is not required for recovery of the Sepasolv; a low pour point (-25/sup 0/C); viscosities of 15.0 and 7.2 Pa-sec at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/C, respectively; and noncorrosivity. The first large-scale industrial use of Sepasolv is in Wintershall A.G.'s Dueste plant at Barnstorf, West Ger., which sweetens sour natural gas to 150 mg/cu m total sulfur content and 5 mg/cu m H/sub 2/S content. The use of Sepasolv permits regeneration at 140/sup 0/C and 1.4 bar, for which steam requirements are 3600 kg/hr, much lower than with chemical solvents.

Wolfer, W. (Wintershall A.G.); Schwartz, E.; Vodrazka, W.; Volkamer, K.

1980-01-21

281

Young children's screen habits are associated with consumption of sweetened beverages independently of parental norms.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the associations between children's screen habits and their consumption of sweetened beverages. Because parents might be disposed to regulate their child's screen and dietary habits in a similar direction, our specific aim was to examine whether these associations were independent of parental norms. METHODS: In the Swedish sample of the European Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study, parents filled in questionnaires about their 2 to 9-year-old children's (n = 1,733) lifestyle and diets. RESULTS: Associations between screen habits and sweetened beverage consumption were found independent of parental norms regarding sweetened beverages. A longitudinal analysis revealed that sweetened beverage consumption at 2-year follow-up was predicted by exposure to commercial TV at baseline (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.9). Cross-sectional analysis showed that the likelihood of consuming sweetened beverages at least 1-3 times per week increased for each hour/day watching television (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2-1.9), and for being exposed to commercials (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3-2.1). TV viewing time and commercial exposure contributed to the associations independently of each other. CONCLUSIONS: The results strengthen the assumption that it is possible to influence children's dietary habits through their TV habits. PMID:23625133

Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabriele; Prell, Hillevi; Hense, Sabrina; Lissner, Lauren; Mĺrild, Staffan; Reisch, Lucia; Berg, Christina

2013-04-27

282

Dietary lipids and sweeteners regulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinal growth factor derived from enteroendocrine L cells. Although food intake is known to increase GLP-2 secretion, its regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown as a result of its very short half-life in venules. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of luminal nutrients on the stimulation of GLP-2 secretion in vivo using lymph samples and to clarify the involvement of the sweet taste receptor in this process in vitro. Lymph samples were collected from the thoracic duct after bolus administration of dietary lipids or sweetening agents into the duodenum of rats. Human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells were also used to compare the effects of various nutrients on GLP-2 secretion. GLP-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA in vivo and in vitro. GLP-2 secretion was enhanced by polyunsaturated fatty acid- and monounsaturated fatty acid-rich dietary oils, dietary carbohydrates, and some kinds of sweeteners in rats; this effect was reproduced in NCI-H716 cells using ?-linolenic acid (?LA), glucose, and sweeteners. GLP-2 secretion induced by sweetening agents was inhibited by lactisole, a sweetness-antagonizing inhibitor of T1R3. In contrast, lactisole was unable to inhibit GLP-2 secretion induced by ?LA alone. Our results suggested that fatty acid- and sweetener-induced GLP-2 secretion may be mediated by two different pathways, with the sweet taste receptor involved in the regulation of the latter. PMID:23370677

Sato, Shingo; Hokari, Ryota; Kurihara, Chie; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Hozumi, Hideaki; Ueda, Toshihide; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Tomita, Kengo; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro

2013-01-31

283

Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.  

PubMed

The agonist-receptor-transducer model of D. Ennis is applied to beverage formulations sweetened with high fructose corn syrup, sucralose, and other high-potency sweeteners, confirming the utility of the model, and supports the growing volume of evidence for multiple binding sites on the sweetness receptor. The model is further simplified to require less parameters for other sweetener blend systems whenever potency information is available for the single sweeteners. PMID:20492262

Wolf, P A; Bridges, J R; Wicklund, R

2010-03-01

284

Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have reported that, compared with glucose- sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the pre- dominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. Objective: We

Kimber L Stanhope; Steven C Griffen; Brandi R Bair; Michael M Swarbrick; Nancy L Keim; Peter J Havel

285

Artificial Rheotaxis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self propelled colloids realize a controlled realization of an artificial bacterium. However living systems present a range of advanced properties such as the migration in gradients, or taxis, based on complex conformational change of proteins. For example, rheotaxis, the directed movement of an organism resulting from a fluid flow, has been reported notably for fish, e.g. salmon, or spermatozoa. Here, we present experimental observations of artificial rheotaxis, i.e. upstream migration of self propelled particles in the presence of a flow. We will present a simple model to account for this surprising effect. In the absence of biological component, this effect is intriguing and questions the ingredients at stake in the living matter.

Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Hanson, Kasey; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Pine, David; Chaikin, Paul

2013-03-01

286

Artificial Companions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What will an artificial Companion be like? Who will need them and how much good or harm will they do? Will they change our\\u000a lives and social habits in the radical way technologies have in the past: just think of trains, phones and television? Will\\u000a they force changes in the law so that things that are not people will be

Yorick Wilks

2004-01-01

287

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-11

288

Artificial vision.  

PubMed

A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases. PMID:21775943

Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

2011-09-01

289

Sweetener-Ethanol Complex in Brazil, the United States, and Mexico: Do Corn and Sugar Prices Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar is a major commodity, produced and traded around the world, but it is no longer the only sweetener. For example, in the United States, roughly 50 percent of the sweetener market is made up of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which is also making inroads into Mexico. This is not the case, however, for the European Union and countries

Andrew Schmitz; James L. Seale Jr.; Troy G. Schmitz

2003-01-01

290

Sugar sweetened beverage consumption and behavioral correlates in a pilot study of high school students in Austin, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been reliably linked to obesity in adolescents. A wide variety of beverages sweetened with sugar are available to this population. The objective of this secondary data analysis was to assess the consumption of SSB by category and to identify behaviors that occur concurrently with the consumption of soda, sport drinks and fruit-flavored drinks

Christina S Hoppe

2012-01-01

291

Amiloride reduces the taste intensity of Na+ and Li+ salts and sweeteners.  

PubMed Central

The diuretic amiloride, a potent inhibitor of sodium transport in a variety of epithelial systems, was applied to the human tongue. Application of amiloride reduced the taste intensity of sodium and lithium salts and of sweeteners ranging widely in chemical structure. The sweeteners included saccharides, glycosides, dipeptides, proteins, and amino acids. Amiloride did not affect perception of potassium or calcium salts, bitter and sour tastes, or amino acids without a sweet or salty component. These findings were supported by neurophysiological studies in rat, which showed that amiloride diminished the NaCl response relative to KCl. The results are consistent with the position that an amiloride-sensitive transport mechanism is involved in taste perception of sodium and lithium salts and of sweeteners.

Schiffman, S S; Lockhead, E; Maes, F W

1983-01-01

292

Simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero by on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection and ultraviolet detection coupled two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

An innovative two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for the simultaneous analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products of Coca-Cola Zero. A C8 reversed-phase chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection was used as the first dimension for the determination of aspartame, and a ligand-exchange chromatographic column with on-line postcolumn derivation fluorescence detection was employed as the second dimension for the analysis of amino acid enantiomers. The fluorimetric derivative reagent of amino acid enantiomers was o-phthaldialdehyde. The hydrolysis of aspartame in Coca-Cola Zero was induced by electric-heating or microwave heating. Aspartame was quantified by the matrix matched external standard calibration curve with a linear concentration range of 0-50 ?g mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9984). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1.3 ?g mL(-1) and 4.3 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The amino acid enantiomers was analyzed by the matrix matched internal standard calibration method (D-leucine as the internal standard) with a linear concentration range of 0-10 ?g mL(-1) (r(2)=0.9988-0.9997). The LODs and LOQs for L- and D-aspartic acid and L- and D-phenylalanine were 0.16-0.17 ?g mL(-1) and 0.52-0.55 ?g mL(-1), respectively, that was 12-13 times more sensitive than ultraviolet detection. The overall analysis accuracy for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 90.2-99.2% and 90.4-96.2%, respectively. The overall analysis precision for aspartame and amino acid enantiomers was 0.1-1.7% and 0.5-6.7%, respectively. Generally, the extent of aspartame hydrolysis increases with the increase of electro-thermal temperature, microwave power, and the duration of hydrolysis time. D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine can be observed with the electro-thermal racemization at the hydrolysis temperature 120°C for 1 day and only D-aspartic acid can be observed at the hydrolysis temperature 90°C for 2 and 3 days. For the microwave induced hydrolysis, only L-aspartic acid was detected at the power 560 W for 1 min and 320 W for 3 min. PMID:21481403

Cheng, Cheanyeh; Wu, Shing-Chen

2011-04-08

293

Impact of Dairy and Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Diet and Weight of a Multiethnic Population of Head Start Mothers  

PubMed Central

Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall mean±standard error=30.8±0.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.8±0.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.4±0.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A.

O'NEIL, CAROL E.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.

2009-01-01

294

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, temporal patterns in SSB intake have shown a close parallel between the upsurge in obesity and rising levels of SSB consumption. SSBs are beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit-juice concentrates, all of which result in similar metabolic effects. They include the full spectrum of soft drinks, carbonated soft drinks,

Frank B. Hu; Vasanti S. Malik

2010-01-01

295

Separation and Determination of Stevia Sweeteners by Capillary Electrophoresis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the separation of steviol glycosides in stevia sweeteners including stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C and dulcoside A by capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography was investigated. A simple and efficient capillary electrophoretic method was developed. The results were compared with those obtained by HPLC. The individual steviol glycosides were obtained by HPLC fraction collection, and peaks

J. Liu; S. F. Y. Li

1995-01-01

296

Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

2012-01-01

297

Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

298

Taxing Caloric Sweetened Beverages: Potential Effects on Beverage Consumption, Calorie Intake, and Obesity: ERS Report Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyzed the effects of a hypothetical tax on caloric sweetened sodas, fruit drinks, sports and energy drinks, and powdered mixes. The study found that consumers facing a higher price induced by a tax would react by adjusting their choices amon...

B. H. Lin J. Y. Lee T. A. Smith

2010-01-01

299

Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some

Paolo Bagnaresi; Anna Moschella; Ottavio Beretta; Federico Vitulli; Paolo Ranalli; Pierdomenico Perata

2008-01-01

300

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: Impact on weight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 years. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary p...

301

Developing Media Interventions to Reduce Household Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2010, the city of Philadelphia launched a media campaign to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in homes with children as a strategy to combat obesity. Using the integrative model (IM) of behavioral change and prediction, a theory-based precampaign survey of Philadelphia parents was conducted to determine the most effective message content. Results indicated that intention to eliminate

Amy Jordan; Jessica Taylor Piotrowski; Amy Bleakley; Giridhar Mallya

2012-01-01

302

Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

2012-01-01

303

Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

2007-01-01

304

The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

Harrington, Susan

2008-01-01

305

Formulation of health drinks using natural sweetener, its HPTLC method development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Mulethi, Awala, Shatavari, Gokharu, Arjun, Giloy, Safed musli, Kalimirchi, Haldi, Jaiphal was used as an active ingredients and aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceutical in health dinks. The product was developed by treating concentrates of each crude drug with purified water. TLC profile, HPTLC method development and validation were carried out using Gallic acid

S. B. Bhise; V. R. Salunkhe

306

Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

2012-01-01

307

An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level.

Charles Rhodes

2012-01-01

308

Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered…

van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

309

Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

2012-01-01

310

Inflatable artificial sphincter  

MedlinePLUS

Artificial sphincter (AUS) - urinary ... and you will not feel pain. An artificial sphincter has three parts: A cuff, which fits around ... Lower belly (men and women) Once the artificial sphincter is in place, you will use the pump ...

311

Artificial gravity.  

PubMed

NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients. PMID:15852559

Scott, William B

2005-04-25

312

Phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of selected natural sweeteners available on the Polish market.  

PubMed

Seventeen natural sweeteners available on the Polish market were screened for total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS(·+)). In addition, we analyzed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus strains: both those susceptible and those resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity differ widely among different samples of sweeteners. Phenolic content, expressed as a gallic acid equivalent, ranged from 0 mg kg(-1) in white, refined sugar, xylitol and wheat malt syrup to 11.4 g kg(-1) in sugarcane molasses. Antioxidant activity was lowest in refined white sugar, xylitol, brown beet sugar, liquid fructose, and rape honey; it was average in spelt syrup and corn syrup, and highest in sugar cane, beet molasses, date and barley syrups. Despite the great variety of sweeteners, a strong correlation was noted between the concentration of phenolics and antioxidant properties, as determined by the ABTS(·+) method (r = 0.97) and the FRAP assay (r = 0.77). The strongest antibacterial activity was observed in sugarcane molasses, which was lethal to S. aureus strains at 2 and 4% concentrations in medium for susceptible and MRSA strains respectively. Other sweeteners kill bacteria in 6-15% solutions, whereas some did not show any antibacterial activities against S. aureus strains, even at 20% concentrations. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, some of the tested sweeteners have potential therapeutic value as supporting agents in antibiotic therapy. PMID:24007486

Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Tomczyk-Ulanowska, Kinga

2013-01-01

313

21 CFR 168.180 - Table sirup.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...65 percent soluble sweetener solids by weight...nutritional purposes and artificial sweeteners are not considered...nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Butter... (5) Natural and artificial flavorings,...

2009-04-01

314

21 CFR 168.180 - Table sirup.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...65 percent soluble sweetener solids by weight...nutritional purposes and artificial sweeteners are not considered...nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (2) Butter... (5) Natural and artificial flavorings,...

2010-04-01

315

Natural sweetening of food products by engineering Lactococcus lactis for glucose production.  

PubMed

We show that sweetening of food products by natural fermentation can be achieved by a combined metabolic engineering and transcriptome analysis approach. A Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris strain was constructed in which glucose metabolism was completely disrupted by deletion of the genes coding for glucokinase (glk), EII(man/glc) (ptnABCD), and the newly discovered glucose-PTS EII(cel) (ptcBAC). After introducing the lactose metabolic genes, the deletion strain could solely ferment the galactose moiety of lactose, while the glucose moiety accumulated extracellularly. Additionally, less lactose remained in the medium after fermentation. The resulting strain can be used for in situ production of glucose, circumventing the need to add sweeteners as additional ingredients to dairy products. Moreover, the enhanced removal of lactose achieved by this strain could be very useful in the manufacture of products for lactose intolerant individuals. PMID:16844396

Pool, Wietske A; Neves, Ana Rute; Kok, Jan; Santos, Helena; Kuipers, Oscar P

2006-05-23

316

Effect of sweetening agents in acidic beverages on associated erosion lesions.  

PubMed

Accurate diagnosis of erosion defects caused by acidic beverages is essential when designing a comprehensive management strategy that includes combating possible recurrence. The manifestations of erosion lesions associated with acidic beverages are diverse, as seen in the differences and similarities of lesions associated with various regular and diet varieties of beverages. Erosion lesions caused by regular sugar-sweetened beverages display signs similar to dental caries, while lesions resulting from diet, non-sugar-sweetened soft drinks have defects similar to mechanical wear of the dentition. Aggravating factors such as toothbrushing or compromised oral home care could influence the features of erosion lesions. These diverse characteristics of erosion lesions could make identification difficult. This article describes pertinent signs of erosion defects associated with the regular and diet varieties of acidic beverages and discusses their causative factors. This information is designed to avert an improper diagnosis that would derail any restorative intervention and alter a proper preventive management course. PMID:22782045

Bassiouny, Mohamed A

317

A new species of Trichosporonoides isolated from sweetened orange/mango drink in Australia.  

PubMed

Trichosporonoides australiense sp. nov.: a basidiomycetous yeast-like fungus is described and illustrated with information on some physiological characteristics based on a single strain isolated from sweetened orange/mango in Australia. The differences between it and already described members of the genus are discussed. The new species may be distinguished principally by its inability to ferment sucrose and maltose. A dichotomous key to all described members of the genus is provided. PMID:2615798

Ramirez, C

1989-10-01

318

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.  

PubMed

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5-15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight. PMID:19815021

Figlewicz, D P; Ioannou, G; Bennett Jay, J; Kittleson, S; Savard, C; Roth, C L

2009-10-06

319

Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined

D. P. Figlewicz; G. Ioannou; J. Bennett Jay; S. Kittleson; C. Savard; C. L. Roth

2009-01-01

320

Quality characteristics of red raspberry fruit spread made with four sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red raspberry fruit spreads sweetened with sugar (S) or raspberry, red grape, or apple juice concentrates were processed by inversion and analyzed for chemical, physical, and sensory properties at 1, 12, and 24 weeks. All pH values were between 3.0 and 3.5 while all aw were above 0.81. Samples were dark red but became duller over time. Viscosities and total

L. H. McKee; C. Garcia-Whitehead; M. Remmenga

2002-01-01

321

Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.  

PubMed

The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams. PMID:11534468

Kmiecik, W; Lisiewska, Z; Jaworska, G

2001-08-01

322

Self-Reported Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize sugar-sweetened beverage intake of college students.Research Methods and Procedures: Undergraduates in an urban southern community campus were surveyed anonymously about sugared beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, sweet ice tea) in the past month.Results: Two hundred sixty-five undergraduates responded (66% women, 46% minority, 100% of volunteers solicited). Most students (95%) reported sugared beverage intake

Delia Smith West; Zoran Bursac; Donna Quimby; T. Elaine Prewitt; Thea Spatz; Creshelle Nash; Glen Mays

2006-01-01

323

Greater Consumption of Sweetened Beverages and Added Sugars Is Associated with Obesity among US Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This study sought to examine the associations of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and of added sugars with total and abdominal obesity in American adults aged 20–39 years who participated in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the U.S. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a sample of 947 adults (aged 20–39 years): 424

Odilia I. Bermudez; Xiang Gao

2010-01-01

324

Effect of Sweetener, Stabilizer, and Storage Temperature on Ice Recrystallization in Ice Cream  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In ice cream manufacturing, control of ice crystal growth,through,proper formulation,and storage tem- perature is important,for stability during storage. The objective of this study was,to investigate the influence of sweetener (sucrose, 20 dextrose equivalent corn syrup, 42 dextrose equivalent corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup), with and without stabilizer, on ice recrystallization in ice cream,at three storage temperatures.

Tadashi Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartelt

1996-01-01

325

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

326

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others,\\u000afor the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for\\u000abio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The aim of this study is to assess\\u000athe green, blue

P. W. Gerbens-Leenes; A. Y. Hoekstra

2009-01-01

327

A novel process for extraction of natural sweetener from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) is a very useful technique for recovering bioactive molecules from natural materials using subcritical compressed liquid water in the temperature range of 50–150°C. A novel process has been developed for making a natural sweetener from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots involving selective chemical reaction and easy separation, for recovering mono-ammonium glycyrrhizate (MAG) using hot water with

Mamata Mukhopadhyay; Palash Panja

2008-01-01

328

Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.  

PubMed

The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

2013-02-11

329

Technological and functional applications of low-calorie sweeteners from lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively used for centuries as starter cultures to carry out food fermentations and are looked upon as burgeoning "cell factories" for production of host of functional biomolecules and food ingredients. Low-calorie sugars have been a recent addition and have attracted a great deal of interest of researchers, manufacturers, and consumers for varied reasons. These sweeteners also getting popularized as low-carb sugars have been granted generally recommended as safe (GRAS) status by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (USFDA) and include both sugars and sugar alcohols (polyols) which in addition to their technological attributes (sugar replacer, bulking agent, texturiser, humectant, cryoprotectant) have been observed to exert a number of health benefits (low calories, low glycemic index, anticariogenic, osmotic diuretics, obesity control, prebiotic). Some of these sweeteners successfully produced by lactic acid bacteria include mannitol, sorbitol, tagatose, and trehalose and there is a potential to further enhance their production with the help of metabolic engineering. These safe sweeteners can be exploited as vital food ingredients for development of low-calorie foods with added functional values especially for children, diabetic patients, and weight watchers. PMID:19200114

Patra, F; Tomar, S K; Arora, S

330

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms123  

PubMed Central

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials.

Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

331

Comparative effects of xylitol- and sucrose-sweetened chew tablets and chewing gums on plaque quantity.  

PubMed

The effects of chewing gums and chew tablets sweetened with sucrose or xylitol on the quantity and adhesivity of dental plaque were studied with 14 volunteer dental students (mean age 23.2). The subjects participated in a four-phase study in which one of four different test products was used during each period. The 3-d periods were interspaced with 4-d normalization phases. The following four experimental products were tested: chewing gums (CG) and chew tablets (CT), sweetened with sucrose (s) or xylitol (x). The amount of plaque was determined through an automatic planimetric procedure on teeth treated with Dentotest. The total plaque areas before brushing were significantly larger in the CTs group compared with the CTx group. After brushing, the plaque areas remained larger in the CTs group. In the determination of the thick plaque areas, the use of CTx was associated with significantly smaller plaque scores than the use of CTs. In the adhesivity studies CGx consistently yielded the lowest plaque scores, but the differences between x and s were not significant. The comparison between CT and CG suggested that CTx produced significantly smaller plaque scores than CGx before brushing, but not after. This finding was considered to result from the differences involved in the texture and chemical composition between tablets and chewing gums. The present study showed that the use of CGx and CTx was associated with clinically more advantageous plaque effects than the use of corresponding products sweetened with sucrose. PMID:6952539

Rekola, M

1981-10-01

332

Experience with Sugar Modifies Behavioral but not Taste-Evoked Medullary Responses to Sweeteners in Mice.  

PubMed

Dietary exposure to sugars increases the preference for and intake of sugar solutions in mice. We used brief-access lick tests and multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) to investigate the role of taste in diet-induced changes in sucrose responsiveness. We exposed C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice to either a sucrose diet (chow, water, and a 500mM sucrose solution) or a control diet (chow and water) for 3 days. In B6 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet decreased the appetitive response (i.e., number of trials initiated) but had no effect on the consummatory response (i.e., rate of licking) to 500mM sucrose and 20mM saccharin. In 129 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet increased the appetitive response but had no effect on the consummatory response to the sweetener solutions. In the NST recordings, the B6 mice exhibited larger multiunit responses to sweeteners than 129 mice, but there was no effect of the sucrose diet in either strain. Our results indicate that sucrose exposure alters the appetitive response of B6 and 129 mice to sweeteners in diametrically opposed ways and that these changes are mediated by structures in the gustatory neuraxis above the NST (e.g., ventral forebrain). PMID:24084168

McCaughey, Stuart A; Glendinning, John I

2013-10-01

333

Effect of light and sweeteners on color in an amaretto-type liqueur.  

PubMed

Studies on the color loss in an amaretto-type liqueur under controlled light conditions showed a clear dependence of the decoloration rate on the light intensity, and complete color stability in the absence of light. The principal sweetener used in the preparation of the liqueur strongly affected the rate of color loss under irradiation, color stability being much greater for the formulations containing sucrose or no added sweetener instead of fructose 42. These differences were more pronounced in experiments conducted with chemically well-defined mixtures that contained either of the 2 azo dyes used in the coloration of the amaretto, tartrazine, and Allura Red, and various alternative sweeteners, in 28% (v/v) ethanol solution: D-fructose and, to a lesser extent, D-glucose, at concentrations of 14% (w/v), were effective in bringing about photodecoloration, while no color loss was detected in the presence of sucrose, or in the absence of any added sugar. The results are interpreted in terms of a redox reaction of reducing sugars with the diarylazo compounds, the function of the light being the conversion of the azo compound from the predominant trans configuration to the cis configuration, which on geometric grounds lends itself better to a concerted, cyclical redox reaction with the reducing sugar. PMID:21535589

Castańeda-Olivares, F; Pless, R C; González-Jasso, E

334

A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.)

Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.

2012-01-01

335

Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products.

Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

2012-01-01

336

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

337

Proceedings: Artificial Reef Conference. Artificial Reefs Around the World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The section, Artificial Reefs Around the World, includes the following articles 'Artificial Reefs in France', 'Some Problems that may be Faced in the Construction of an Artificial Reef', 'Historical Review of Artificial Reef Activities in Japan', and 'A B...

W. H. Clark

1974-01-01

338

Intentionality in Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question of whether Artificial Intelligence can have intentionality. This question is part of a larger discussion of whether or not Artificial Intelligence can ever be 'conscious'. Ultimately, I come to the conclusion that while we can see how intentionality can be transferred, it has yet to be shown that intentionality can be created within Artificial Intelligence.

Christopher D. Tennenbaum

2011-01-01

339

Artificial intelligence and statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six

Gale

1987-01-01

340

An independent analysis of the National Cancer Institute study on non-nutritive sweeteners and bladder cancer.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the possible relation between use of non-nutritive sweeteners and bladder cancer using data obtained from the National Cancer Institute Bladder Cancer Study under the Freedom of Information Act. In the general study group, there was no evidence for an association between non-nutritive sweeteners and bladder cancer. Control for a variety of factors through multivariate techniques diminished the plausibility of earlier interpretations of these data, which had raised the possibility that certain subgroups of users or non-nutritive sweeteners might be at an increased risk for bladder cancer. We found that the putative effects of non-nutritive sweeteners were not consistent among subgroups with similar baseline risk, did not display consistent dose-response trends, and were subject to considerable sampling error. We concluded that the data provided little evidence that non-nutritive sweeteners increase risk for bladder cancer among subgroups of users, and that definitive evidence on this question is beyond the reach of conventional research.

Walker, A M; Dreyer, N A; Friedlander, E; Loughlin, J; Rothman, K J; Kohn, H I

1982-01-01

341

The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague–Dawley rats on bone mass and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of sugar beverages has increased among adolescents. Additionally, the replacement of sucrose with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as the predominant sweetener has resulted in higher fructose intake. Few studies have investigated the effect of drinking different sugar-sweetened beverages on bone, despite suggestions that sugar consumption negatively impacts mineral balance. The objective of this study was to determine the

Embedzayi Tsanzi; Heather R. Light; Janet C. Tou

2008-01-01

342

SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 from 10 USA/UK population samples. Associations of SSB, diet beverages, and sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) with BP were assessed by multiple linear regression. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake related directly to BP, P-values 0.005 to <0.001 (systolic BP), 0.14 to <0.001 (diastolic BP). Sugar-sweetened beverage intake higher by 1 serving/day (355 ml/24-h) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +1.6/+0.8 mm Hg (both P <0.001); +1.1/+0.4 mm Hg (P <0.001/<0.05) with adjustment for weight, height. Diet beverage intake was inversely associated with BP, P 0.41 to 0.003. Fructose- and glucose-BP associations were direct, with significant sugar-sodium interactions: for individuals with above-median 24-h urinary sodium excretion, fructose intake higher by 2 SD (5.6 %kcal) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +3.4/+2.2 mm Hg (both P <0.001); 2.5/1.7 mm Hg (both P 0.002) with adjustment for weight, height. Observed independent, direct associations of SSB intake and BP are consistent with recent trial data. These findings, plus adverse nutrient intakes among SSB consumers, and greater sugar-BP differences for persons with higher sodium excretion, lend support to recommendations that intake of SSB, sugars, and salt be substantially reduced.

Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

2011-01-01

343

Modifying the temporal profile of the high-potency sweetener neotame.  

PubMed

It is possible, using hydrophobic organic acids (such as cinnamate) or hydroxyamino acids (such as serine and tyrosine), to modify the temporal profile of the high-potency sweetener neotame. On the basis of Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that it is unlikely that this effect is due to direct interaction between the neotame molecule and the taste modifier. It is shown, using conformational analysis and molecular modeling, that the taste modifiers can adopt low-energy conformers which mimic the proposed active conformation of neotame, which suggests that the modifiers may compete for binding at the receptor site. PMID:11262029

Prakash, I; Bishay, I E; Desai, N; Walters, D E

2001-02-01

344

Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup.  

PubMed

Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages. We have also tested whether prolonged consumption of high-fructose diets leads to increased caloric intake or decreased energy expenditure, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity. Results from a study conducted in rhesus monkeys produced equivocal results. Carefully controlled and adequately powered long-term studies are needed to address these hypotheses. In both short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages substantially increases postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations compared with glucose-sweetened beverages. In the long-term studies, apolipoprotein B concentrations were also increased in subjects consuming fructose, but not in those consuming glucose. Data from a short-term study comparing consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, and sucrose suggest that high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose increase postprandial triacylglycerol to an extent comparable with that induced by 100% fructose alone. Increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages along with increased prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes underscore the importance of investigating the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in carefully controlled experiments. PMID:19064538

Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

2008-12-01

345

Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high fructose corn syrup  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory has investigated two hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) The endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) Fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we demonstrated that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-hour plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans compared with consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages. We have also tested whether prolonged consumption of high-fructose diets could lead to increased caloric intake or decreased energy expenditure, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity. Results from a study conducted in rhesus monkeys produced equivocal results. Carefully controlled and adequately powered long-term studies are needed to address these hypotheses. In both short- and long-term studies we demonstrated that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages substantially increases postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations compared with glucose-sweetened beverages. In the long-term studies, apolipoproteinB concentrations were also increased in subjects consuming fructose, but not those consuming glucose. Data from a short-term study comparing consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sucrose, suggest that HFCS and sucrose increase postprandial triacylglycerol to an extent comparable to that induced by 100% fructose alone. Increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages along with increased prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes underscore the importance of investigating the metabolic consequences fructose consumption in carefully controlled experiments.

Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

2011-01-01

346

The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague-Dawley rats on bone mass and strength.  

PubMed

Consumption of sugar beverages has increased among adolescents. Additionally, the replacement of sucrose with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as the predominant sweetener has resulted in higher fructose intake. Few studies have investigated the effect of drinking different sugar-sweetened beverages on bone, despite suggestions that sugar consumption negatively impacts mineral balance. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drinking different sugar-sweetened beverages on bone mass and strength. Adolescent (age 35d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=8-9/group) to consume deionized distilled water (ddH2O, control) or ddH2O containing 13% w/v glucose, sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) for 8weeks. Tibia and femur measurements included bone morphometry, bone turnover markers, determination of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone strength by three-point bending test. The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on mineral balance, urinary and fecal calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed no difference in the bone mass or strength of rats drinking the glucose-sweetened beverage despite their having the lowest food intake, but the highest beverage and caloric consumption. Only in comparisons among the rats provided sugar-sweetened beverage were femur and tibia BMD lower in rats drinking the glucose-sweetened beverage. Differences in bone and mineral measurements appeared most pronounced between rats drinking glucose versus fructose-sweetened beverages. Rats provided the glucose-sweetened beverage had reduced femur and tibia total P, reduced P and Ca intake and increased urinary Ca excretion compared to the rats provided the fructose-sweetened beverage. The results suggested that glucose rather than fructose exerted more deleterious effects on mineral balance and bone. PMID:18328797

Tsanzi, Embedzayi; Light, Heather R; Tou, Janet C

2008-02-15

347

Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The human diet has altered markedly during the past four decades, with the introduction of Trans hydrogenated fat, which extended the shelf-life of dietary oils and promoted a dramatic increase in elaidic acid (Trans-18.1) consumption. Food additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASP) were introduced to increase food palatability and reduce caloric intake. Nutrigenomics studies in small-animal models are an established platform for analyzing the interactions between various macro- and micronutrients. We therefore investigated the effects of changes in hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression induced by the food additives ASP, MSG or a combination of both additives in C57Bl/6 J mice fed a Trans fat-enriched diet. METHODS: Hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression profiles, together with body characteristics, glucose parameters, serum hormone and lipid profiles were examined in C57Bl/6 J mice consuming one of the following four dietary regimens, commencing in utero via the mother's diet: [A] Trans fat (TFA) diet; [B] MSG + TFA diet; [C] ASP + TFA diet; [D] ASP + MSG + TFA diet. RESULTS: Whilst dietary MSG significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and serum leptin levels in TFA-fed mice, the combination of ASP + MSG promoted the highest increase in visceral adipose tissue deposition, serum free fatty acids, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and TNFalpha levels. Microarray analysis of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed a reduction in hepatic and adipose tissue PPARGC1a expression concomitant with changes in PPARGC1a-related functional networks including PPARalpha, delta and gamma. We identified 73 DEGs common to both adipose and liver which were upregulated by ASP + MSG in Trans fat-fed mice; and an additional 51 common DEGs which were downregulated. CONCLUSION: The combination of ASP and MSG may significantly alter adiposity, glucose homeostasis, hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression in TFA-fed C57Bl/6 J mice. PMID:23783067

Collison, Kate S; Makhoul, Nadine J; Zaidi, Marya Z; Inglis, Angela; Andres, Bernard L; Ubungen, Rosario; Saleh, Soad; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

2013-06-19

348

Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

2010-12-01

349

Plant-derived sweetening agents: saccharide and polyol constituents of some sweet-tasting plants.  

PubMed

Samples of the sweet-tasting species Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Compositae) (aerial parts), Boscia salicifolia Oliv. (Capparidaceae) (stem bark), Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) (peduncles) and Inga spectabilis Willd. (Leguminosae) (arils) were acquired as part of a continuing search for high-intensity natural sweeteners of plant origin. Following their preliminary safety evaluation, the sweetness of these plants was traced to large amounts of sugars and polyols by taste-guided fractionation, which were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The combined yields of sugars and polyols in the A. hispidum, B. salicifolia, H. dulcis, and I. spectabilis samples investigated were 6.9, 10.1, 18.4 and 12.1% w/w, respectively. These yields are much higher than the total saccharide and polyol content (2.4% w/w) of the sweet dried fruits of Thladiantha grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), a species which has previously been reported to contain more than 1% w/w of the intensely sweet triterpene, mogroside V. The dried leaves of Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Hérit. (Symplocaceae), which were not appreciably sweet, were found to contain only 2.0% w/w of sugars. The results of this investigation, therefore, suggest that unless the saccharide and/or polyol content of a plant part is well over 5% w/w, then it is unlikely to exhibit an overtly sweet taste, unless an intense sweetener is present. PMID:2314108

Hussain, R A; Lin, Y M; Poveda, L J; Bordas, E; Chung, B S; Pezzuto, J M; Soejarto, D D; Kinghorn, A D

1990-02-01

350

Dietary sweeteners containing fructose: overview of a workshop on the state of the science.  

PubMed

The occurrence and impact of fructose in the American food supply has garnered much recent attention in the popular press as well as the scientific community. This paper provides an overview of a workshop cosponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute North America and the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, titled "State of the Science on Dietary Sweeteners Containing Fructose." Papers in the workshop addressed the chemical composition and properties of dietary sweeteners that contain fructose, the sources and amount of fructose in the American diet, and the metabolism of fructose in the human body. Further, the authors of each paper assessed the strength of the existing data linking dietary fructose intake and risk for overweight, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other disorders. The assessment considered factors in study design, including the amount fed, the food form, the length of the study, the characteristics of the subjects, the specific methodology, and other potential confounders including diet. In addition to papers assessing the basic science of fructose, some papers also addressed consumer concern about sugars and fructose in the diet, the way fructose and other sugars are presented in the media, and the resulting confusion of consumers about fructose and other sugars in the diet. The purpose of the papers in the aggregate was to clarify what data exist about fructose and what the gaps are in the data and to help both scientists and consumers understand issues surrounding fructose in the food supply. PMID:19386822

Jones, Julie M

2009-04-22

351

Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Respondents were majority female (66%), white (89%), ? high school education (79%), and averaged 41.4 (±13.5) years. A validated beverage questionnaire was used to measure SSB. Eleven TPB constructs were assessed with a 56-item instrument. Analyses included descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVAs, Cronbach alphas, and multiple regressions. Results Sugar-sweetened beverage intake averaged 457 (±430) kilocalories/day. The TPB model provided a moderate explanation of SSB intake (R2=0.38; F=13.10, P<0.01). Behavioral intentions had the strongest relationships with SSB consumption, followed by attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. The six belief constructs did not predict significant variance in the models. Conclusions and Implications Future efforts to comprehensively develop and implement interventions guided by the TPB hold promise for reducing SSB intake.

Estabrooks, Paul; Davy, Brenda; Chen, Yvonnes; You, Wendy

2011-01-01

352

Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

353

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean

D. E. Smith; A. S. Bakshi; S. A. Gay

1985-01-01

354

Prospective Study of Pre-Gravid Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE — Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was related to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in several recent studies among middle- or older- aged populations. Studies on SSB consumption and glucose intolerance among pregnant women, however, are lacking. We therefore examined the association between regular SSB consumption before pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes

LIWEI CHEN; FRANK B. HU; EDWINA YEUNG; WALTER WILLETT; CUILIN ZHANG

2009-01-01

355

Licorice ?-Amyrin 11Oxidase, a Cytochrome P450 with a Key Role in the Biosynthesis of the Triterpene Sweetener Glycyrrhizin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene ?-amyrin, an initial product of

Hikaru Seki; Kiyoshi Ohyama; Satoru Sawai; Masaharu Mizutani; Toshiyuki Ohnishi; Hiroshi Sudo; Tomoyoshi Akashi; Toshio Aoki; Kazuki Saito; Toshiya Muranaka

2008-01-01

356

Artificial Insemination: Intrauterine Insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Artificial insemination has been used to treat infertility since the eighteenth century, and continues to be commonly performed.\\u000a This chapter explores the medical indications for use of artificial insemination and provides evidence-based recommendations\\u000a for therapeutic use.

Pieternel Steures; Ben W. J. Mol; Fulco Veen

357

Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats.  

PubMed

Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety. PMID:22561130

Swithers, Susan E; Laboy, Alycia F; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T L

2012-04-26

358

Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.  

PubMed

High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping <8 hours (OR=1.18), watching television >2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on <5 days during the 7 days before the survey (OR=1.19), and current cigarette use (OR=2.01). The significant associations with poor self-reported academic grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions. PMID:22709642

Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

2011-12-22

359

Demographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with Daily Sugar-sweetened Soda Consumption in New York City Adults  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption was defined as drinking one or more 12-oz servings of sugar-sweetened soda on an average day; 9,865 adults, aged 18 years and older, provided valid responses. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with frequent consumption, and linear regression models were used to assess the relation of frequent consumption to BMI. An estimated 27.5% of NYC adults are frequent sugar-sweetened soda consumers. Frequent consumption is independently associated with low household income (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.1 for <200% vs. ?600% federal poverty level) and with ethnic group and nativity (e.g., OR?=?3.1, 95% CI 2.6–3.7 for U.S.-born blacks vs. whites). Men report more consumption then women, but an association of less education with frequent consumption is stronger among women. Adjusting for demographics, frequent consumption is associated with more television viewing and with less physical activity. Adjusting for demographics and behaviors, frequent consumption was associated with higher BMI among women (0.7 BMI units, 95% CI 0.1–1.2) but not among men. Disparities in sugar-sweetened soda consumption mirror obesity disparities. Improved surveillance and interventions are needed to better quantify and reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, especially in groups most impacted by obesity.

Rehm, Colin D.; Van Wye, Gretchen; Young, Candace; Frieden, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

360

Sugar-sweetened and diet beverage consumption is associated with cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among youth with type 1 diabetes is high and associated with age, gender, and race/ethnicity. It has also been shown that youth with type 1 diabetes often do not follow dietary recommendations. The objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to explore the association of sugar-sweetened and diet beverage intake with A1c, plasma lipids, adiponectin, leptin, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in youth with type 1 diabetes. We examined data from 1,806 youth age 10-22 years with type 1 diabetes, of which 22% were minority (10% Hispanic, 8% African Americans, 4% other races) and 48% were female. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet beverage, and mineral water intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical covariates, physical activity and total energy intake, high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (at least one serving per day vs. none), was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides, but not with A1c. High diet beverage intake was associated with higher A1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. These associations were partially confounded by body mass index, saturated fat and total fiber intake. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake may have an adverse effect on CVD risk in youth with type 1 diabetes. Diet beverage intake may be a marker of unhealthy lifestyle which, in turn, is associated with worse metabolic control and CVD risk profile in these youth. Youth with diabetes should be encouraged to minimize sugar-sweetened beverage intake. PMID:21249401

Bortsov, Andrey V; Liese, Angela D; Bell, Ronny A; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Hamman, Richard F; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Lawrence, Jean M; Maahs, David M; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M; Thomas, Joan; Williams, Desmond E; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

2011-01-20

361

Artificial consciousness, artificial emotions, and autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays for robots, the notion of behavior is reduced to a simple factual concept at the level of the movements. On another hand, consciousness is a very cultural concept, founding the main property of human beings, according to themselves. We propose to develop a computable transposition of the consciousness concepts into artificial brains, able to express emotions and consciousness facts.

Alain Cardon

2006-01-01

362

Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often heard in Artificial Life (A-Life) circles that contemporary biology studies life-as-we-know-it (an Earth based, carbon chain phenomenon), whereas A-Life takes as its domain of study life-as-it-could-be. But lacking a clear definition of \\

Brian L. Keeley

363

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

PubMed Central

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings.

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

364

Sweeteners - sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... for type 2 diabetes , metabolic syndrome , and high blood pressure . Sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol may have ... and beverages containing sugar, and to check your blood sugar levels ... alcohols may have fewer calories, read labels carefully for ...

365

The cytogenetic effects of food sweetener maltitol in human peripheral lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The effects of the low-calorie artifical sweetener maltitol (E965), a sugar alcohol (Polyol), on sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus formation (MN) were investigated in human peripheral lymphocytes. Maltitol did not induce SCE at all concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL) and treatment periods (24 and 48 h). Maltitol induced CA, although not statistically significantly. Maltitol induced the frequency of MN at 24 and 48 h in a non-dose-dependent manner. In addition, maltitol did not decrease the replication index (RI) and the mitotic index (MI) at all concentrations and treatment periods. Maltitol did not alter the pH and osmolality of the medium. In conclusion, it can be concluded that maltitol has a weak genotoxic potential and it appears non-cytotoxic to human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro. PMID:16777705

Canimo?lu, Semir; Rencüzo?ullari, Eyyüp

2006-01-01

366

Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.  

PubMed

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability. PMID:21866177

Pomeranz, Jennifer L

2011-08-25

367

DFT and experimental study on the IR spectra and structure of acesulfame sweetener  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-intensity non-nutritive sweetener 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3K)-on-2,2-dioxide (Acesulfame-potassium, Additive E-950) and its neutral molecule have been studied by both quantum chemical calculations and infrared spectra. Density functional theory has been exploited to calculate structural parameters and relative stability of lactim and lactam tautomers of acesulfame in different environment. Theoretical results agree very well with the experimental findings and suggested that the lactam tautomer may be the most stable form in the gas phase and nonpolar solvents, while in polar DMSO one the lactim form dominates. The detailed IR spectra of both tautomers of acesulfame molecule and acesulfame anion were reported. In addition, the changes in both spectra and structures (steric and electronic), caused by the conversion of molecule into corresponding anion are discussed.

Popova, Angelina D.; Velcheva, Evelina A.; Stamboliyska, Bistra A.

2012-02-01

368

Artificial Coral Reefs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet...and the most threatened. Artificial reefs may help stem the loss of these valuable and beautiful habitats, with shipwrecks, old subway cars, and other structures taking the place of living coral or rocky outcrops. The following Web sites introduce artificial reefs, reef ecology, and some ongoing efforts to establish reef communities in the U.S. and beyond. PBS's NATURE offers a fascinating look at the artificial reefs created by the thousands of shipwrecks and downed planes from World War II that riddle the South Pacific (1). This is the companion Web site to the documentary War Wrecks of the Coral Seas, and it includes some great multimedia features. The next site comes from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and contains an excellent photo gallery of coral ecosystems around the world (2). The collection includes six pages of artificial reef photos taken in the Pacific. The following site comes from the online companion to the BBC's acclaimed documentary series The Blue Planet. Based on the episode The Web of Life, this site offers a fun, multimedia challenge for learning about and testing one's knowledge of coral reefs (3). The site includes a section on artificial reefs (click on Take it Further). Next, an August 2001 segment from National Public Radio's All Things Considered explores efforts to create artificial reefs using decommissioned New York City subway cars -- a project of Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control in the Division of Fish and Wildlife (4). Likewise, the non-profit group Artificial Reefs of the Keys is working to bring a de-commissioned military ship to the Florida Keys (5). The New Jersey Scuba Diver Web site provides an excellent introduction to artificial reef ecology; focused on reefs in New Jersey, of course. The mini-tutorial comes courtesy of William Figly, Principal Fisheries Biologist for the New Jersey Artificial Reef Program (6). The Fall 2001 issue of California Wild, the magazine of the California Academy of Sciences, addresses the benefits and concerns of off shore oil rigs becoming artificial reefs (7). Finally, visitors will find dozens of news articles and Web links related to artificial reefs in this entry, a page from the New England Artificial Reef Society Web site (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

369

Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy  

PubMed Central

Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

2011-01-01

370

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review123  

PubMed Central

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle.

Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B

2011-01-01

371

Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed

In recent decades, temporal patterns in SSB intake have shown a close parallel between the upsurge in obesity and rising levels of SSB consumption. SSBs are beverages that contain added caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or fruit-juice concentrates, all of which result in similar metabolic effects. They include the full spectrum of soft drinks, carbonated soft drinks, fruitades, fruit drinks, sports drinks, energy and vitamin water drinks, sweetened iced tea, cordial, squashes, and lemonade, which collectively are the largest contributor to added sugar intake in the US. It has long been suspected that SSBs have an etiologic role in the obesity epidemic, however only recently have large epidemiological studies been able to quantify the relationship between SSB consumption and long-term weight gain, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Experimental studies have provided important insight into potential underlying biological mechanisms. It is thought that SSBs contribute to weight gain in part by incomplete compensation for energy at subsequent meals following intake of liquid calories. They may also increase risk of T2DM and CVD as a contributor to a high dietary glycemic load leading to inflammation, insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function. Additional metabolic effects from the fructose fraction of these beverages may also promote accumulation of visceral adiposity, and increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and hypertension due to hyperuricemia. Consumption of SSBs should therefore be replaced by healthy alternatives such as water, to reduce risk of obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:20138901

Hu, Frank B; Malik, Vasanti S

2010-02-06

372

Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.  

PubMed

The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55% fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content. Twenty-three sugar-sweetened beverages along with four standard solutions were analyzed for sugar profiles using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an independent, certified laboratory. Total sugar content was calculated as well as percent fructose in the beverages that use HFCS as the sole source of fructose. Results showed that the total sugar content of the beverages ranged from 85 to 128% of what was listed on the food label. The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59% (range 47-65%) and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65% fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels. This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed. PMID:20948525

Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Goran, Michael I

2010-10-14

373

Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States123  

PubMed Central

Background: Low-calorie and no-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) have emerged as alternatives to added sugars. Research suggests that consumption among all Americans is increasing, yet it is unknown whether consumption trends differ among population subgroups. Objective: Our study aimed to assess recent national trends in LCS consumption among children and other demographic subgroups in the United States. Design: We used NHANES data collected in five 2-y cycles from 1999–2000 to 2007–2008. Consumption of foods and beverages with LCSs was estimated by using one 24-h dietary recall. Estimates of the proportion of the population consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs (prevalence of consumption) were weighted to obtain nationally representative results. Trends in prevalence of LCS consumption and mean intake of beverages sweetened with LCSs were tested by using chi-square tests for trend and F tests. Results: In 2007–2008, the percentage of children and adults consuming foods and beverages containing LCSs increased. The prevalence of consuming beverages with LCSs increased from 6.1% to 12.5% among children (P-trend < 0.0001) and from 18.7% to 24.1% among adults (P < 0.001). Increases in the prevalence of consumption of calorie-containing beverages with LCSs were observed among all weight, age, socioeconomic, and race-ethnicity subgroups in both children and adults. However, little change in consumption of no-calorie beverages with LCSs or LCS-containing foods was found. Conclusions: The consumption of LCS-containing beverages has doubled among US children over the past decade. Further research is needed to understand the health effects of this trend.

Welsh, Jean A; Brown, Rebecca J; Vos, Miriam B

2012-01-01

374

Reduced Availability of Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues.

Janet E. Whatley Blum; Anne-Marie Davee; Christina M. Beaudoin; Paul L. Jenkins; Lori A. Kaley; Debra A. Wigand

2008-01-01

375

The interplay of public health law and industry self-regulation: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools.  

PubMed

It is increasingly recognized that sugar-sweetened beverage consumption contributes to childhood obesity. Most states have adopted laws that regulate the availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in school settings. However, such policies have encountered resistance from consumer and parent groups, as well as the beverage industry. The beverage industry's recent adoption of voluntary guidelines, which call for the curtailment of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, raises the question, Is further policy intervention in this area needed, and if so, what form should it take? We examine the interplay of public and private regulation of sugar-sweetened beverage sales in schools, by drawing on a 50-state legal and regulatory analysis and a review of industry self-regulation initiatives. PMID:17901427

Mello, Michelle M; Pomeranz, Jennifer; Moran, Patricia

2007-09-27

376

Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation  

PubMed Central

Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating.

Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

2012-01-01

377

Electrode for Artificial Pacemaker.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent discloses an electrode for implantation in the heart to control atrio-ventricular block by artificial pacemaker including plural electrically conductive wires grouped in a bundle with spring metal arcuate prongs formed on one end thereof. A she...

G. M. Thomas J. W. Boretos D. C. Syracuse J. A. Clark A. J. Vita

1977-01-01

378

Artificial Hydration and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... the fluid under the skin. This is called hypodermoclysis, or subcutaneous fluid replacement. Another method of artificial ... a family member or another caregiver can do hypodermoclysis at home after a doctor or nurse shows ...

379

Artificial life down under.  

PubMed

For many years, Australian researchers have been contributing to the areas of artificial life and complex adaptive systems. This report highlights some of the Australian-based activities in these areas. PMID:16053577

Abbass, Hussein A

2005-01-01

380

Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their\\u000a software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists\\u000a when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary\\u000a condition for making this

Kyle E. Jennings

2010-01-01

381

30526 artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the four major methods of artificial lift: sucker-rod pumping, gas lift, electrical submersible pumping (ESP) and hydraulic pumping. Though more than 80% of artificially lifted wells worldwide are rod-pumped, the large majority of these wells are low-volume, stripper-type producers. For this reason, sucker-rod pumping papers comprise less than 40% of the 26 SPE papers selected.

Not Available

1989-01-01

382

Artificial anal sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of a fully implanted artificial anal sphincter for management of severe fecal incontinence. METHODS: An artificial anal sphincter was implanted in 12 patients who failed conventional management for severe fecal incontinence. Careful patient follow-up was recorded during a mean 58-month follow-up. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative manometric assessment. Functional and patient

W. Douglas Wong; Linda L. Jensen; David C. C. Bartolo; David A. Rothenberger

1996-01-01

383

Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3-7 y. old children at multi-item laboratory lunches  

PubMed Central

Dietary survey data show that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is negatively associated with intake of milk, but these findings have yet to be confirmed by laboratory feeding studies. The objectives of the present study were to analyze children’s intake across 2 laboratory-based ad libitum lunches to 1) investigate the relationships between intake of sweetened beverages, milk, and calcium and 2) explore relationships between beverage consumption and child age and weight status. Data were extracted from a cohort of 126, 3–7 year (y.)-old twins from diverse ethnic backgrounds who participated in a cross-sectional study (conducted from November 1999 – September 2002) designed to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to eating and body weight. At 2 visits, children ate ad libitum from lunches that offered a variety of sugar-sweetened and calcium-rich beverages. Total beverage and nutrient intakes were computed from the test meals. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed on the final visit. Regression analyses tested the associations among intake of sweetened beverages, calcium, and milk (primary aim) and whether these variables were associated with child age and weight status (secondary aim). Sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with both milk (p < 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.01) intakes, and these relationships remained after controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity (p < 0.01). Child age was negatively associated with milk intake (r=?0.22, p < 0.01) but positively associated with intake of sweetened beverages (r=0.27, p < 0.01). Results support the notion that sugar-sweetened beverages displace milk in a single meal, and this phenomenon may vary with child age. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, future investigations are needed to determine the long-term implications of this consumption pattern. The possibility that limiting sweetened beverages may help optimize dietary calcium during childhood is a topic that merits further research.

Keller, Kathleen L.; Kirzner, Jared; Pietrobelli, Angelo; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Faith, Myles S.

2009-01-01

384

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.  

PubMed

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. PMID:20236611

Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

2010-03-15

385

Contribution of thermal, rheological and physical measurements to the determination of sensorially perceived quality of ice cream containing bulk sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of rheological measurements, thermal analysis and physical properties such as overrun, instrumental hardness and melting behavior on sensorial profile mapping of vanilla ice cream was evaluated. Samples with different functional characteristics were prepared partially substituting sucrose by bulk sweeteners. Creaminess apart from thermal properties (glass transition temperature-Tg, ice crystal uniformity-??mcurve and unfrozen water content-UFW) was poorly related with

Christos Soukoulis; Evagellia Rontogianni; Constantina Tzia

2010-01-01

386

Association between Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Mass Index, Proportion of Body Fat and Body Fat Distribution in Mexican Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the relationships between sweetened beverage (SB) consumption and the following indicators of overweight\\/fatness among Mexican adolescents: body mass index, body composition and body fat distribution. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on sociodemographic conditions,

E. Denova-Gutiérrez; A. Jiménez-Aguilar; E. Halley-Castillo; G. Huitrón-Bravo; J. O. Talavera; D. Pineda-Pérez; J. C. Díaz-Montiel; J. Salmerón

2008-01-01

387

The influence of caffeine on energy content of sugar-sweetened beverages: ‘the caffeine–calorie effect’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Caffeine is a mildly addictive psychoactive chemical and controversial additive to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The objective of this study is to assess if removal of caffeine from SSBs allows co-removal of sucrose (energy) without affecting flavour of SSBs, and if removal of caffeine could potentially affect population weight gain.Subjects\\/Methods:The research comprised of three studies; study 1 used three-alternate forced choice

R S J Keast; D Sayompark; G Sacks; B A Swinburn; L J Riddell; RSJ Keast

2011-01-01

388

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental–observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18–29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick B. van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

389

Demographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with Daily Sugar-sweetened Soda Consumption in New York City Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of\\u000a sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg\\/m2). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption\\u000a was defined as drinking one

Colin D. Rehm; Thomas D. Matte; Gretchen Van Wye; Candace Young; Thomas R. Frieden

2008-01-01

390

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

391

Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,209 students (grades 9-12) were used. SSB intake was based on intake of 4 nondiet beverages [soda, other (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, or flavored milk), sports drinks, and energy drinks]. Nationwide, 64.9% of high school students drank SSB ?1 time/d, 35.6% drank SSB ?2 times/d, and 22.2% drank SSB ?3 times/d. The most commonly consumed SSB was regular soda. Factors associated with a greater odds for high SSB intake (?3 times/d) were male gender [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.41,1.95); P < 0.05], being non-Hispanic black [OR = 1.87 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.29); P < 0.05], eating at fast-food restaurants 1-2 d/wk or eating there ?3 d/wk [OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 1.05, 1.50); P < 0.05 and OR = 2.94 (95% CI = 2.31, 3.75); P < 0.05, respectively] and watching television >2 h/d [OR = 1.70 (95% CI = 1.44, 2.01); P < 0.05]. Non-Hispanic other/multiracial [OR = 0.67 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.95); P < 0.05] and being physically active ?60 min/d on <5 d/wk were associated with a lower odds for high SSB intake [OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.95); P < 0.05]. Weight status was not associated with SSB intake. Differences in predictors by type of SSB were small. Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations. PMID:22223568

Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

2012-01-05

392

Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

2013-11-01

393

Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.  

PubMed

During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. PMID:24121558

Sacha, G M; Varona, P

2013-10-11

394

Inteligencia Artificial E Possivel (Is Artificial Intelligence Possible).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial intelligence is the part of Computer Science which deals with the building of computer systems that show characteristics normally associated with intelligence in human behavior. Artificial intelligence has two major goals: (1) a programmatic on...

E. L. F. Senne S. A. Sandri

1984-01-01

395

The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats.  

PubMed

Caloric sweetened beverages have been suggested to be a major dietary contributor to weight gain, particularly among adolescents. Dietary recommendations are for moderating intakes of added sugars; however, the question remains whether certain types of sugars should be limited. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drinking different caloric sweetened beverages on the development of adiposity, metabolic, and endocrine disorders. Young (age 28 days) female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8-9 rats/group) were randomly assigned to drink either deionized distilled water (ddH2O) or ddH2O sweetened with 13% (w/v) glucose, sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup 55 (HFCS-55) for 8 weeks. Rats drinking caloric sweetened solutions failed to completely compensate for liquid calories ingested by reducing their consumption of solid food. This resulted in greater total energy intake compared to the ddH2O control; however, there was no significant difference in total energy intake between rats drinking sucrose, fructose or HFCS-55. Of the different caloric sweeteners, only rats drinking HFCS-55 had greater (P < 0.05) final body weights and fat mass compared to the rats drinking ddH2O or glucose solution. This may have occurred because drinking HFCS-55 solution promoted a faster body weight gain. Adiposity induced by caloric sweetened water was not accompanied by metabolic disorders indicated by the absence of dyslipidemia and no differences in fasting serum glucose, insulin or C-peptide among the treatment groups. However, rats drinking HFCS-55 showed lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged estrus. Based on this study, the type of caloric sweetener added to beverages should be considered when making dietary recommendation for reducing excess body weight and related health risk. PMID:19359658

Light, Heather R; Tsanzi, Embedzayi; Gigliotti, Joseph; Morgan, Keri; Tou, Janet C

2009-04-09

396

Twenty-four Hour Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles Following Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup-, Sucrose- Fructose-, and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals  

PubMed Central

Background We have reported that compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations, and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the U.S. Objective We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose, and in a subset of subjects with pure fructose and glucose. Design 34 men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 hours. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. Results In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS were consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate, but comparably high as after pure fructose. Conclusions Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

Stanhope, Kimber L.; Griffen, Steven C.; Bair, Brandi R.; Swarbrick, Michael M.; Keim, Nancy L.; Havel, Peter J.

2011-01-01

397

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in relation to stroke: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have recently received great attention in the field of diet-disease relations. Limited data are available linking SSBs intake to the risk of stroke. This study was conducted to examine the association between habitual intake of SSBs and risk of stroke among Iranian population. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Alzahra University Hospital, Iran. Cases were stroke patients and controls were selected among hospitalized patients without prior history of stroke. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual intakes of SSBs. Total intake of SSBs was not significantly different between cases and controls (48.2 ± 6.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 g/day, p = 0.90). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios for stroke across increasing tertiles of SSB consumption were 1.00, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.46-1.54) and 0.85 (0.43-1.66) (p(trend) = 0.12). No statistically significant association was found between habitual intakes of SSBs and stroke. PMID:22694119

Niknam, Mahdieh; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Shakeri, Forough; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

2012-06-14

398

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

2011-01-01

399

Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.  

PubMed

Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology. PMID:22932228

Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

2012-08-26

400

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: implications for weight management.  

PubMed

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents. PMID:22573780

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-05-09

401

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: impact on weight management.  

PubMed

The application of low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) in foods and beverages has increased over the past 35 y. At the same time, many characteristics of the American diet have changed, including variations in fat and carbohydrate content and composition, increased nutrient additions, and new dietary patterns due to changing lifestyles and attitudes toward food and the changing cost of food. During this same time period, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased from ~30 to 70% of adults in the United States. Clearly, these trends lead to a variety of hypotheses and efforts to explain the role of LCS in this association. The aim of this review is to gain clarity on the role of LCS in weight management and their impact on diet quality. In addition, because the majority of studies aimed at identifying associations between LCS and these outcomes are based on observational data, the pitfalls in designing and evaluating data from observational studies are also discussed. We conclude that there is no evidence that LCS can be claimed to be a cause of higher body weights in adults. Similarly, evidence supporting a role for LCS in weight management is lacking. Due to the confounders in most observational studies, randomized controlled trials are needed to advance understanding. PMID:22573781

Anderson, G Harvey; Foreyt, John; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Allison, David B

2012-05-09

402

The Use of Low-Calorie Sweeteners by Children: Implications for Weight Management123  

PubMed Central

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents.

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J.; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-01-01

403

On artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a science which does not quite fit in with other categories of sciences. Although it can be compared with mathematics, physical sciences, and cognitive or behavioural psychology, each of these comparisons leads to different difficulties. There is therefore a case for considering AI as a protoscience in search of a general framework of description which will

J. A. Campbell

1986-01-01

404

Artificial intelligence and symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of massive parallelism and the renewed interest in neural networks gives a new need to evaluate the relationship of symbolic processing and artificial intelligence. The physical symbol hypothesis has encountered many difficulties coping with human concepts and common sense. Expert systems are showing more promise for the early stages of learning than for real expertise. There is a

Chris Moss; Liu Feng

1989-01-01

405

An adaptive artificial hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the basic approaches to the artificial hand design is given. The importance of new ideas in this field using progress in automatic control theory is stressed. The most importemt feature of the new hand is the two level control. The movements of the hand can be controlled by signals produced by man as well as by external

R. Tomovic; G. Boni

1962-01-01

406

The artificial eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, restoring sight to the blind has been counted as nothing less than miraculous. Today, computer engineering, ophthalmology and biology are uniting in an effort to achieve just that. This article on bio-electronic vision or popularly, “the artificial eye” explains briefly how far the field has come and how far it has yet to go. The following topics are

M. Ponnavaillo; V. P. Kumar

1999-01-01

407

Implantable biohybrid artificial organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biohybrid artificial organs encompass all devices which substitute for an organ or tissue function and incorporate both synthetic materials and living cells. This review concerns implantable immunoisolation devices in which the tissue is protected from immune rejection by enclosure within a semipermeable membrane. Two critical areas are discussed in detail: (i) Device design and performance as it relates to maintenance

Clark K. Colton

1995-01-01

408

Psychological distress mediates the association between daytime sleepiness and consumption of sweetened products: cross-sectional findings in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60?years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5% having excessive scores (>12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8% having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5?g/day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the potential effects of other sleep variables in this relationship.

Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

2013-01-01

409

High-rate artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

Clegg, J.D.

1988-03-01

410

Developing an artificial intelligence engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer games become more complex and consumers demand more sophisticated computer controlled agents, developers are required to place a greater emphasis on the artificial intelligence aspects of their games. One source of sophisticated AI techniques is the artificial intelligence research community. This paper discusses recent efforts by our group at the University of Michigan Artificial Intelligence Lab to apply

M. Van Lent; J. Laird

1999-01-01

411

Artificial intelligence at CSM  

SciTech Connect

The recent developments in artificial intelligence have been cited as being the most significant technological advancement in computer science in the twentieth century. Machines that can mimic human reasoning will have a great impact upon our civilization. The way we think, learn, and work will be changed in a profound way. It is for these reasons that the Colorado School of Mines, in order to maintain its reputation of quality engineering education, has entered the AI field. CSM presently is evaluating artificial intelligence for applications in the mineral industries; decision support systems, process control, machine vision, data acquisition and analysis, etc. Future plans are to move AI out of the research laboratories and into the curriculum. An understanding of the concepts and unlimited power of the application of AI will enhance the engineering methods of Mines graduates. 6 references.

Braun, G.; Jones, J.E.

1985-08-01

412

Artificial structures on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

Van Flandern, T.

2002-05-01

413

Artificially structured magnetic materials  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.

Falco, C.M.

1990-09-28

414

Artificial Bowel Sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fecal incontinence is a socially devastating problem. The treatment algorithm depends on the etiology of the disease. Large\\u000a anal sphincter defects can be treated by sphincter replacement procedures: the dynamic graciloplasty and the artificial bowel\\u000a sphincter (ABS). The best indications for the ABS are lesions of the anal sphincters that are inaccessible to local repair\\u000a and not responsive to sacral

Giovanni Romano; Francesco Bianco; Luisa Caggiano

415

Artificial game presenter avatars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose artificial game presenter avatars embodying affective behavior to draw player-adapted social feedback during gameplay and introducing extra challenges to players called mini games, such as hangman and random card selection. The avatar's AI was designed as an extension of the traditional sense-think-act loop of game characters to address the need for emotional reflection and adaptive reaction. We provide

Anthony Savidis; Effie Karouzaki

2009-01-01

416

An implantable artificial pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artificial implantable pancreas is seen as the optimal means of therapy in patients with severe diabetes mellitus. The\\u000a implantable pancreas consists of three modules; (i) the dosing unit, (ii) the control circuit and (iii) a glucose sensor for\\u000a the realisation of a feedback system. Intensive research has been devoted to essential items, such as a dosing valve with\\u000a only

W. Schubert; P. Baurschmidt; J. Nagel; R. Thull; M. Schaldach

1980-01-01

417

Economics and artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This volume gives a overview of artificial intelligence and the use of computers in economics. Areas covered include statistics and macro economic forecasting, the use of automated techniques for economic studies and decision-making processes. The book looks at how much computers are used in business, and how far they will affect the design of markets and the structure of organizations in the future.

Roos, J.L.

1987-01-01

418

Whither Artificial Reproduction?  

PubMed Central

Artificial reproduction now offers sub fertile couples a number of options which raise scientific and ethical questions. This article discusses the Canadian and British experiences in formulating regulations and legislation in this important field. Current work on mammalian embryo research foretells the direction which human research will take. This article stresses the need for family physicians' participation in the ethical decisions that accompany these new developments.

Percival-Smith, Robin

1985-01-01

419

Uncertainty in artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

Dealing with uncertainty is central to Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy. Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

Kanal, L.N.; Lemmer, J.F.

1986-01-01

420

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

421

Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment.  

PubMed

Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda, has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 ?g/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations >9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be well below 1 (PEC/PNEC=0.08), thus indicating a limited risk to the environment using traditional ecological risk assessment approaches. PMID:23032567

Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Nizzetto, Luca; Huggett, Duane B

2012-09-30

422

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine patterns of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among U.S. adults with type 2 diabetes in 2003–2006. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 to estimate SSB consumption levels among 1,090 adults (aged ?20 years) with type 2 diabetes overall and by diagnosis and control status of their diabetes. RESULTS In 2003–2006, 45% of adults with diabetes consumed SSBs on a given day, obtaining an average of 202 calories and 47 g of sugar. Undiagnosed adults with diabetes were significantly more likely to consume SSBs than diagnosed adults (60 vs. 38% diagnosed/uncontrolled [P < 0.001] and 43% diagnosed/controlled [P = 0.001]) and were less likely to consume diet beverages (18 vs. 50% diagnosed/uncontrolled [P < 0.001] and 40% diagnosed/controlled [P < 0.001]). Men consumed significantly more SSBs than women (P = 0.027), younger adults (aged 20–44) more than older adults (45–64 and ?65; P < 0.001), non–Hispanic black more than whites (P = 0.010); and low-income individuals (quartile 1) more than higher-income individuals (quartile 3, P = 0.040; quartile 4, P = 0.013). For most demographic and body weight categories, adults who were undiagnosed consumed more sugar from SSBs than adults who were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS SSB consumption is high among adults with diabetes, particularly among those who are undiagnosed.

Bleich, Sara N.; Wang, Y. Claire

2011-01-01

423

Association between commercial and traditional sugar-sweetened beverages and measures of adiposity in Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Objective Increasing trends in commercial sugar-sweetened beverages(SSB s) consumption have occurred in parallel with rising levels of obesity in Latin America, but data showing the relationship between these SSBs and obesity are limited. The current study examined the association between commercial and traditional SSBs and measures of adiposity in Costa Rica. Design A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in which the exposure, SSB intake, was defined as frequency of daily servings of fresco (a traditional homemade beverage), fruit drink (a commercially available SSB), soda, and fruit juice (made from fruits at home). Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between SSB intake and BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and skinfold thickness. Setting Central Valley, Costa Rica. Subjects Controls (N=2045) of a case-control study on diet and heart disease in Costa Rica. Results Fresco, fruit drink, soda, and fruit juice were consumed at least 1/d by 47%, 14%, 4%, and 14% of the population respectively. One serving/d of soda, fruit drink, and fresco was associated with 0.89, 0.49, and 0.21 kg/m2 higher BMI respectively (all P<0.05). Fruit drink (?1 s/d) was associated with higher waist to hip ratio (P=0.004), while soda and fresco were associated with higher skinfold thickness (P=0.02 and 0.01 respectively). Associations with fruit juice intake were modest and not statistically significant. Other factors associated with higher BMI were higher income and less education, smoking, and physical inactivity (all P<0.05). Conclusion Increasing intake of commercially available SSBs could be in part responsible for the high prevalence of obesity among Hispanic adults.

Rhee, Jinnie J.; Mattei, Josiemer; Campos, Hannia

2013-01-01

424

Polish artificial heart program.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika

2011-11-22

425

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

SciTech Connect

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean gum tended to have a lower energy demand than mix with large amounts of guar gum. This was especially pronounced in mixes with 50% 42 high fructose corn syrup and/or 50% 36 DE corn syrup solids.

Smith, D.E.; Bakshi, A.S.; Gay, S.A.

1985-01-01

426

Metabolic responses to prolonged consumption of glucose- and fructose-sweetened beverages are not associated with postprandial or 24-h glucose and insulin excursions123  

PubMed Central

Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown to be associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, ie, dietary glycemic index (GI). Objective: We determined whether the greater adverse effects of fructose than of glucose consumption were associated with glucose and insulin exposures. Design: The subjects were studied in a metabolic facility and consumed energy-balanced diets containing 55% of energy as complex carbohydrate for 2 wk (GI = 64). The subjects then consumed 25% of energy requirements as fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages along with their usual ad libitum diets for 8 wk at home and then as part of energy-balanced diets for 2 wk at the metabolic facility (fructose GI = 38, glucose GI = 83). The 24-h glucose and insulin profiles and fasting plasma glycated albumin and fructosamine concentrations were measured 0, 2, 8, and 10 wk after beverage consumption. Results: Consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages lowered glucose and insulin postmeal peaks and the 23-h area under the curve compared with the baseline diet and with the consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages (all P < 0.001, effect of sugar). Plasma glycated albumin concentrations were lower 10 wk after fructose than after glucose consumption (P < 0.01, effect of sugar), whereas fructosamine concentrations did not differ between groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that the specific effects of fructose, but not of glucose and insulin excursions, contribute to the adverse effects of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on lipids and insulin sensitivity. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01165853.

Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bremer, Andrew A; Vink, Roel G; Schaefer, Ernst J; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Beysen, Carine; Berglund, Lars; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

2011-01-01

427

Artificial mismatch hybridization  

DOEpatents

An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

Guo, Zhen (Madison, WI); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI)

1998-01-01

428

Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on plasma acylation stimulating protein, leptin, and adiponectin: Relationships with Metabolic Outcomes.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The effects of fructose and glucose consumption on plasma acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, and leptin concentrations relative to energy intake, body weight, adiposity, circulating triglycerides, and insulin sensitivity were determined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty two overweight/obese adults consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages (25% energy requirement) with their ad libitum diets for 8 weeks, followed by sweetened beverage consumption for 2 weeks with a standardized, energy-balanced diet. Plasma variables were measured at baseline, 2, 8, and 10 weeks, and body adiposity and insulin sensitivity at baseline and 10 weeks. RESULTS: Fasting and postprandial ASP concentrations increased at 2 and/or 8 weeks. ASP increases correlated with changes in late-evening triglyceride concentrations. At 10 weeks, fasting adiponectin levels decreased in both groups, and decreases were inversely associated with baseline intra-abdominal fat volume. Sugar consumption increased fasting leptin concentrations; increases were associated with body weight changes. The 24-h leptin profiles increased during glucose consumption and decreased during fructose consumption. These changes correlated with changes of 24-h insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of fructose and glucose beverages induced changes in plasma concentrations of ASP, adiponectin, and leptin. Further study is required to determine if these changes contribute to the metabolic dysfunction observed during fructose consumption. PMID:23512943

Rezvani, Reza; Cianflone, Katherine; McGahan, John P; Berglund, Lars; Bremer, Andrew A; Keim, Nancy L; Griffen, Steven C; Havel, Peter J; Stanhope, Kimber L

2013-03-20

429

Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. PMID:24070799

Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E

2013-04-23

430

Substantial decline in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among California's children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Few studies have looked at changes among risk factors that might help explain why childhood obesity prevalence in the US has leveled off in recent years. We present an analysis of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) that examines trends in childhood and adolescent obesity as well as trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Method: We compared 3 separate cross-sectional samples (2003, 2005, and 2007) from biennial CHIS for 3 age groups, age 2–5, age 6–11 and age 12–17. We calculated the prevalence of high SSB consumption (defined as having more than one SSB during the previous day). 2 measures of obesity were used – weight-for-age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for children aged 2–11, and body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for adolescents aged 12–17. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate adjusted odds ratios of high SSB consumption in 2005 and 2007 compared with the baseline year of 2003. Results: From 2003 to 2007, each age group experienced a substantial decline in high SSB consumption (16.4%–5.0% for age 2–5, P < 0.001; 22.5%–9.9% for age 6–11, P < 0.001; 35.7%–25.7% for age 12–17, P < 0.001). Declines in the prevalence of children’s obesity were significant among children age 2–5 (P < 0.001) and age 6–11 (P < 0.05) but not among adolescents (P = 0.42). Children and teenagers in 2005 and 2007 were significantly less likely than those surveyed in 2003 to have high SSB consumption after adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, and parental education (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Policy actions may have impacted the prevalence of SSB consumption in the population. Further research is needed to examine the contribution of declining SSB consumption on the leveling off of obesity trends and the extent to which these declines are attributable to new policies and programs.

Shi, Lu; van Meijgaard, Jeroen

2010-01-01

431

Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening  

PubMed Central

Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as ?-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as ?-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene-associated genes. Conclusion Our Global Match File strategy proved critical for accurately interpretating heterologous datasets, and suggests that similar approaches may be fruitful for other species. Transcript profiling of early events associated with CIS revealed a complex network of events involving sugars, redox and hormone signalling which may be either linked serially or act in parallel. The identification, at a sequence level, of various enzymes long known as having a role in CIS provides molecular tools for further understanding the phenomenon.

Bagnaresi, Paolo; Moschella, Anna; Beretta, Ottavio; Vitulli, Federico; Ranalli, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico

2008-01-01

432

Glycemic responses to sweetened dried and raw cranberries in humans with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

This study assessed the metabolic response to sweetened dried cranberries (SDC), raw cranberries (RC), and white bread (WB) in humans with type 2 diabetes. Development of palatable cranberry preparations associated with lower glycemic responses may be useful for improving fruit consumption and glycemic control among those with diabetes. In this trial, type 2 diabetics (n= 13) received WB (57 g, 160 cal, 1 g fiber), RC (55 g, 21 cal, 1 g fiber), SDC (40 g, 138 cal, 2.1 g fiber), and SDC containing less sugar (SDC-LS, 40 g, 113 cal, 1.8 g fiber + 10 g polydextrose). Plasma glucose (mmol/L) peaked significantly at 60 min for WB, and at 30 min for RC, SDC, and SDC-LS at 9.6 ± 0.4, 7.0 ± 0.4, 9.6 ± 0.5, and 8.7 ± 0.5, respectively, WB remained significantly elevated from the other treatments at 120 min. Plasma insulin (pmol/mL) peaked at 60 min for WB and SDC and at 30 min for RC and SDC-LS at 157 ± 15, 142 ± 27, 61 ± 8, and 97 ± 11, respectively. Plasma insulin for SDC-LS was significantly lower at 60 min than either WB or SDC. Insulin area under the curve (AUC) values for RC and SDC-LS were both significantly lower than WB or SDC. Phenolic content of SDC and SDC-LS was determined following extraction with 80% acetone prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electronspray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and found to be rich in 5-caffeoylquinic cid, quercetin-3-galactoside, and quercetin-3-galactoside, and the proanthocyanidin dimer epicatechin. In conclusion, SDC-LS was associated with a favorable glycemic and insulinemic response in type 2 diabetics. Practical Application: This study compares phenolic content and glycemic responses among different cranberry products. The study seeks to expand the palatable and portable healthy food choices for persons with type 2 diabetes. The novel use of polydextrose as a bulking agent making possible a reduction in caloric content and potential glycemic response is also characterized in this study. PMID:21535498

Wilson, Ted; Luebke, Justin L; Morcomb, Erin F; Carrell, Emily J; Leveranz, Megan C; Kobs, Lisa; Schmidt, Travis P; Limburg, Paul J; Vorsa, Nicholi; Singh, Ajay P

2010-10-01

433

The artificial endothelium.  

PubMed

As the world of critical care medicine advances, extracorporeal therapies (ECC) have become commonplace in the management of the high risk intensive care patient. ECC encompasses a wide variety of technologies from hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and plasmapheresis, to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and hepatic support. The development of internal man made organs is the next step with ventricular assist devices and artificial lungs. As we advance the technologies with smaller devices, and more intricate circuitry, we lack the keystone necessary to control the blood-biomaterial interface. For the last 50 years much has been learned about surface induced thrombosis and attempts have been made to prevent it with alternative systemic anticoagulation, circuitry surface modifications, or a combination of both. Despite these efforts, systemic or regional anticoagulation remain necessary for both laboratory and clinical application of ECC. As such, the development of an endothelial-like, biomimetic surface to reduce or perhaps even eliminate the blood activation/thrombus formation events that occur upon exposure to artificial surfaces is paramount. PMID:21289481

Reynolds, Melissa M; Annich, Gail M

2011-01-01

434

Microscopic artificial swimmers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L.; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A.; Bibette, Jérôme

2005-10-01

435

Artificial kagome spin ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometrical frustration is known to significantly modify the properties of many materials. Pyrochlore spin ice and hexagonal water ice are canonical systems that show the effects of frustration in both heat capacity and dynamical response. In both instances, microscopic ordering principles on the lattice lead to a macroscopic degeneracy of configurations. This degeneracy in spin ice may also be modified or lifted by lattice imperfections, external pressure, or magnetic field. Unfortunately, these effects are difficult to model or predict, because existing experimental techniques cannot directly observe the local ordering, near lattice defects or otherwise. To address this long outstanding problem, recent interest has focused on fabricating systems that allow the effects of frustration to be physically modeled and the resulting local configurations to be directly observed. In this dissertation, I present an artificial approach to kagome lattice. The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional structure composed of corner-sharing triangles and is an essential component of the pyrochlore spin ice structure. Our artificial kagome spin ice, constructed by magnetic nano-bar elements, mimics spin ice in 2D. The realized system rigorously obeys the ice rule (2-in 1-out or 1-in 2-out configuration at a vertex of three elements), thus providing a sought-after model system appropriate for further studies. To study the ground state of the artificial kagome system and to validate the artificial approach for spin ice study, we demagnetize the samples using rotating field and observe spin configurations using Lorentz TEM. The ice rule, short-range ordering and absence of long-range disorder, as well as the relatively low remnant magnetization are found in the system, which are signatures of spin ice materials in their ground states. To model our system and relate it to other spin study, we introduce magnetic charge model and Shannon entropy concept. The calculated charge correlation (charge ordering coefficient) and Shannon entropy suggest that the degeneracy of our lattice is lifted from a completely disordered kagome spin ice system, and close to a "true" ground state that is usually found as the kagome plateau in pyrochlore spin ice when applying a field in <111> direction. We also study the effects of external perturbations. When applying a magnetic field, chain-like spin flipping is found in the system, which can be explained by the magnetic charge model. When distorting the lattice by introducing an artificial strain, we observe partial ordering or symmetry breaking in the system, which is similar to the pressure effects in real spin ice. In the Appendix, I also introduce another study I have done, i.e. multiferroic thin film measurements. The focus of that chapter is the dielectric measurement for BaTiO3 (BTO) -CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin film material using a microwave microscope. The measurement has a quantitative spatial resolution of approximately 5 microm, and it provides a method for film quality check and the basis for a proposed ME coupling measurement.

Qi, Yi

436

Wet Artificial Life: The Construction of Artificial Living Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of artificial cell-like entities - chemical systems that are able to self-replicate and evolve - requires the integration of containers, metabolism, and information. In this chapter, we present possible candidates for these subsystems and the experimental achievements made toward their replication. The discussion focuses on several suggested designs to create artificial cells from nonliving material that are currently being pursued both experimentally and theoretically in several laboratories around the world. One particular approach toward wet artificial life is presented in detail. Finally, the evolutionary advantage of cellular aggregates over naked replicator systems and the evolutionary potential of the various approaches are discussed. The enormous progress toward man-made artificial cells nourishes the hope that wet artificial life might be achieved within the next several years.

Fellermann, Harold

437

Improving the french fry quality of russeted potatoes through transformation with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the Chipping cv. Snowden  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microtubers of two dual-purpose russeted potatoes were transformed with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the cv. Snowden using well know Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation system. Seventy-two and twenty-four distinct transformants of AOND95292-3Russ and ND7882b-7Russ, respectivel...

438

Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2009-01-01

439

The sugar balance in some British potato varieties during storage. II. The effects of tuber age, previous storage temperature, and intermittent refrigeration upon low-temperature sweetening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of sugar extraction and analysis employed are described in detail. The pattern of sweetening of potato tubers at 2 C could vary with their age when placed at this temperature, though not necessarily so. Gradual reduction of the storage temperature to 2 C, in contrast to rapid cooling, resulted in a marked reduction in the amount of sucrose

W. G. Burton

1969-01-01

440

Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

2008-01-01

441

DAIRY FOODS TECHNICAL NOTES Changes in Electrical Energy Requirements to Operate an Ice Cream Freezer as a Function of Sweeteners and Gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream for- mulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust

D. E. SMITH; A. S. BAKSHI; S. A. GAY

442

Licorice beta-amyrin 11-oxidase, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the triterpene sweetener glycyrrhizin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene beta-amyrin, an initial product of

Hikaru Seki; Kiyoshi Ohyama; Satoru Sawai; Masaharu Mizutani; Toshiyuki Ohnishi; Hiroshi Sudo; Tomoyoshi Akashi; Toshio Aoki; Kazuki Saito; Toshiya Muranaka

2008-01-01

443

Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2009-01-01

444

Food consumption and body weight changes with neotame, a new sweetener with intense taste: differentiating effects of palatability from toxicity in dietary safety studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety studies done with neotame, a sweetener with intense taste, demonstrate that changes in bodyweight (BW) and BW gain (BWG) are due to reduced food consumption (FC) rather than toxicity. When offered a choice, rats preferred basal diet to diet with relatively low concentrations of neotame. When no choice was available, rats ate less as concentrations increased, demonstrating reduced palatability.

Dale A. Mayhew; C. Phil Comer; W. Wayne Stargel

2003-01-01

445

Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

2013-01-01

446

The impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet quality, nutrient intake, and weight of a multi-ethnic population of Head Start mothers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the impact of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) intake on diet and weight in Head Start mothers, three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected on 609 Black (43%), Hispanic (33%), or White (24%) women in AL and TX. Women were divided into four beverage consumption groups: low milk/high SwB, ...

447

Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three papers in this volume concerning artificial intelligence and language comprehension were commissioned by the National Institute of Education to further the understanding of the cognitive processes that enable people to comprehend what they read. The first paper, "Artificial Intelligence and Language Comprehension," by Terry Winograd,…

National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Basic Skills Group. Learning Div.

448

Artificial muscle for locomotory prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the hopes, of the scientific frontier domains tangent with the artificial intelligence is and will probably remain for a long time, the realization of the artificial prosthesis and organs which could compensate for the people the incurable consequences of some accidents or severe diseases. From all the types of prosthesis existent on the market in the present, only

Traian Balan; E. Franti; T. Alexa; D. Tufis; G. Stefan; N. Claudia; P. L. Milea; C. Slav; R. Demco

2005-01-01

449

Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision re- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the prevailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artificial animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as autonomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems. To be opera- tive in

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

450

Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

Lubell, Adele

1987-01-01

451

Biologically Inspired Artificial Compound Eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field

Ki-Hun Jeong; Jaeyoun Kim; Luke P. Lee

2006-01-01

452

Artificial lift concepts and timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting the best time to install artificial lift is a hard decision, and escalating oil prices are changing previously accepted practices with regard to artificial lift. Operating practices (abandonment water cut, well spacing, capacity of lift system, separator pressure, etc.) all contribute to the decision-making process. Initial equipment cost, and present and predicted future also must be considered. This work

1980-01-01

453

Towards an artificial user: the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A user is a system capable of creating and pursuing individual goals. Is it possible to design and implement an artificial user? Traditional artificial systems focus on how achieving a given goal. Most learning algorithms look for an optimal solution of a problem, given a set of optimization criteria and a goal (or a set of goals). However, real

Riccardo Manzotti; Vincenzo Tagliasco

454

Artificial emotions as emergent phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although some researchers claim that emotion is unique to mammals, this paper describes a notion of artificial emotion as a phenomenon resulting from a series of modifications to emergent behaviors generated by a behavior-based artificial intelligence (AI) approach. Such modifications to behaviors are caused by stimuli (including those from humans) which a robot receives from its environment. The paper describes

Takashi Gomi; Joseph Ulvr

1993-01-01

455

Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

Lubell, Adele

1987-01-01

456

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior...

2009-04-01

457

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior...

2010-04-01

458

49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148...Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted when loading and...

2011-10-01

459

49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section 176.148...Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights, except arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted when loading and...

2012-10-01

460

Artificial Stem Cell Niches  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instruct