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1

Artificial Sweeteners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update, from Science NetLinks, features an interview with Purdue University psychologist Susie Swithers about new research suggesting that artificial sweeteners may promote overeating. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLink lessons and other related resources.

Science Update;

2004-08-02

2

Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

2012-12-01

3

Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K and sodium saccharin) by ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector is reported. The four artificial sweeteners were separated using KOH eluent generator. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of sweeteners has been greatly

Yan Zhu; Yingying Guo; Mingli Ye; Frits S. James

2005-01-01

4

Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?  

PubMed

Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

2004-10-01

5

Aspartame : artifice and the science of sweet  

E-print Network

Aspartame has become an extremely popular artificial sweetener since its entry into the American market in 1981. Humans have an evolutionary preference for sweet tastes, and artificial sweeteners became a mainstream ...

MacLachlan, Allison (Allison Stollery)

2011-01-01

6

The effects of blind substitution of aspartame-sweetened for sugar-sweetened soft drinks on appetite and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that habitual consumers of sugar experience “cravings” when deprived. Subjects (n = 27) who habitually consumed sugar-sweetened drinks were placed on a seven-day regime receiving either sugar-sweetened drinks, or aspartame-sweetened alternatives. A between-subjects design was used to prevent subjects comparing the drinks, which were given blind with the cover story that the study was testing a

Marie Reid; Richard Hammersley

1998-01-01

7

Racemization of Aspartic Acid and Phenylalanine in the Sweetener Aspartame at 100 degrees C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D\\/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate

Marcus F. Boehm; Jeffrey L. Bada

1984-01-01

8

Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

The racemization half-lives (i.e., the time required to reach a D/L = 0.33) at pH 6.8 for aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) were determined to be 13 and 23 hours, respectively, at 100 degrees C. Racemization at this pH does not occur in aspartame but rather in its diketopiperazine decomposition product. Our results indicate that the use of aspartame to sweeten neutral pH foods and beverages that are then heated at elevated temperature could generate D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. The nutritive consequences of these D-amino acids in the human diet are not well established, and thus aspartame should probably not be used as a sweetener when the exposure of neutral pH foods and beverages to elevated temperatures is required. At pH 4, a typical pH of most foods and beverages that might be sweetened with aspartame, the half-lives are 47 hours for aspartic acid and 1200 hours for phenylalanine at 100 degrees C. Racemization at pH 4 takes place in aspartame itself. Although the racemization rates at pH 4 are slow and no appreciable racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine should occur during the normal use of aspartame, some food and beverage components could conceivably act as catalysts. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether the use of aspartame as a sugar substitute might not in turn result in an increased human consumption of D-aspartic acid and D-phenylalanine. PMID:6591191

Boehm, M F; Bada, J L

1984-01-01

9

Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species-selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes, and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species-dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds. PMID:21795555

Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

2011-07-27

10

Molecular Mechanism of Species-dependent Sweet Taste toward Artificial Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

The heterodimer of Tas1R2 and Tas1R3 is a broadly acting sweet taste receptor, which mediates mammalian sweet taste toward natural and artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. Perception of sweet taste is a species selective physiological process. For instance, artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame taste sweet to humans, apes and Old World monkeys but not to New World monkeys and rodents. Although specific regions determining the activation of the receptors by these sweeteners have been identified, the molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste remains elusive. Using human/squirrel monkey chimeras, mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we reveal that the different responses of mammalian species towards the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame are determined by the steric effect of a combination of a few residues in the ligand binding pocket. Residues S40 and D142 in the human Tas1R2, which correspond to residues T40 and E142 in the squirrel monkey Tas1R2, were found to be the critical residues for the species dependent difference in sweet taste. In addition, human Tas1R2 residue I67, which corresponds to S67 in squirrel monkey receptor, modulates the higher affinity of neotame than that of aspartame. Our studies not only shed light on the molecular mechanism of species dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners, but also provide guidance for designing novel effective artificial sweet compounds. PMID:21795555

Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Kaur, Tanno; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Jiang, Peihua; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

2011-01-01

11

The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effects of aspartame-sweetened and sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on food intake and appetite ratings of female restrained eaters. Subjects: Fourteen female students, shown to have eating restraint. Methods: Subjects were given four drinks (330 ml) of aspartame-sweetened lemonade, sucrose-sweetened lemonade and carbonated mineral water on three separate days. Seven of the subjects were informed of the drink

JH Lavin; NW Read

1997-01-01

12

Study of thermal degradation of aspartame and its products of conversion in sweetener using isothermal thermogravimetry and HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame (APM) has been a center of discussion due to the toxicity of its metabolism products. This work studied the thermal degradation of aspartame and its products of conversion in a sweetener using isothermal thermogravimetry (TG), infrared (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The TG curves were performed using a Shimadzu Thermobalance, under air atmosphere, flow rate of 20mLmin?1 and

Marta M. Conceição; Valter J. Fernandes; Antonio G. Souza; Ticiano G. Nascimento; Cícero F. S. Aragão; Rui O. Macedo

2005-01-01

13

Separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners and citric acid by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, sodium cyclamate and acesulfame-K) and citric acid in a single injection is proposed. The separation was performed by an anion-exchange gradient program and determination by ultraviolet absorbance detection for sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K in combination with conductivity detection for sodium saccharin, sodium

Qing-chuan Chen; Shi-fen Mou; Ke-na Liu; Zu-ying Yang; Zhe-ming Ni

1997-01-01

14

Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Reaction By-Products Presentation type:Poster Section:Ocean Sciences Session:General Contribution Authors:Takashi Teraji (1) Takemitsu Arakaki (2) AGU# 10173629 (1) Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (a4269bj@yahoo.co.jp), (2) Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho, Okinawa, 903-0123, Japan (arakakit@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. In particular, we focused on the fate of aspartame by determining its bimolecular rate constants with hydroxyl radicals at various pH and temperature conditions and reaction by-products. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, which could be regarded as zero. We will report reaction rate constants at different pHs and reaction by-products which will be analyzed by GC-MS. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.

2011-12-01

15

The potential toxicity of artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

Since their discovery, the safety of artificial sweeteners has been controversial. Artificial sweeteners provide the sweetness of sugar without the calories. As public health attention has turned to reversing the obesity epidemic in the United States, more individuals of all ages are choosing to use these products. These choices may be beneficial for those who cannot tolerate sugar in their diets (e.g., diabetics). However, scientists disagree about the relationships between sweeteners and lymphomas, leukemias, cancers of the bladder and brain, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and systemic lupus. Recently these substances have received increased attention due to their effects on glucose regulation. Occupational health nurses need accurate and timely information to counsel individuals regarding the use of these substances. This article provides an overview of types of artificial sweeteners, sweetener history, chemical structure, biological fate, physiological effects, published animal and human studies, and current standards and regulations. PMID:18604921

Whitehouse, Christina R; Boullata, Joseph; McCauley, Linda A

2008-06-01

16

Determination of trace elements in liquid aspartame sweeteners by ICP OES and ICP-MS following acid digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  In order to determine inorganic constituents and contaminants in liquid aspartame sweeteners, different brands of this product\\u000a were analyzed by ICP OES and ICP-MS. The samples were submitted to acid digestion and parameters such as internal standardization\\u000a and wavelengths, in the case of ICP OES, and a recovery test were evaluated. The analytes studied were As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu,

Rafael A. de Sousa; Anderson S. Ribeiro; Mariana A. Vieira; Adilson J. Curtius; Nivaldo Baccan; Solange Cadore

2007-01-01

17

Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography.  

PubMed

In this paper, the separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K and sodium saccharin) by ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector is reported. The four artificial sweeteners were separated using KOH eluent generator. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of sweeteners has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, SO4(2)-, PO4(3)- and some organic acid such as formate, acetate, benzoate, and citrate did not interfere with the determination. With this method, good linear relationship, sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained. Detection limits of aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin were 0.87, 0.032, 0.019, 0.045 mg/L, respectively. Rate of recovery were between 98.23 and 105.42%, 99.48 and 103.57%, 97.96 and 103.23%, 98.46 and 102.40%, respectively. The method has successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and preserved fruits. PMID:16106861

Zhu, Yan; Guo, Yingying; Ye, Mingli; James, Frits S

2005-08-26

18

[Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners in beverage by ultra performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

An ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame and neotame) in a single injection was developed. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with gradient program and detection at 220 nm. The good linearities between the concentrations of all analytes and peak area responses were achieved over the range from 0.5 to 20.0 mg/L. The average recoveries in samples were 80.5% - 95.2% with the relative standard deviations of 0.50% - 8.7%. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and powdered tabletop sweeteners. PMID:19449553

Ji, Chao; Sun, Yanyan; Li, Xiuqin; Chu, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhengxing

2009-01-01

19

Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages and special nutritional products using high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

This paper presents two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods used for the separation and determination of artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulphame K, sodium saccharin, and sodium cyclamate in beverages and special nutritional products (special food intended for specific population groups). All four compounds are soluble in aqueous solutions and can easily be separated and determined by HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD). The first method involved separation of aspartame, acesulphame K, and sodium saccharin on a C18 column with an isocratic elution of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The second method was used to separate sodium cyclamate on a C18 column with methanol and water as mobile phase. Under optimum conditions, both methods showed good analytical performance, such as linearity, precision, and recovery. The methods were successfully applied for the analysis of real samples of soft drinks and special nutritional products. PMID:21705305

Serdar, Maja; Kneževi?, Zorka

2011-06-01

20

Cytotoxic effects of methanol, formaldehyde, and formate on dissociated rat thymocytes: A possibility of aspartame toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener added to many soft beverages and its usage is increasing in health-conscious\\u000a societies. Upon ingestion, this artificial sweetener produces methanol as a metabolite. In order to examine the possibility\\u000a of aspartame toxicity, the effects of methanol and its metabolites (formaldehyde and formate) on dissociated rat thymocytes\\u000a were studied by flow cytometry. While methanol

Y. Oyama; H. Sakai; T. Arata; Y. Okano; N. Akaike; K. Sakai; K. Noda

2002-01-01

21

Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT).  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 microg/L for cyclamate, about 40 microg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 microg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 microg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin approximately cyclamate > sucralose. PMID:19533103

Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

2009-07-01

22

Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements  

PubMed Central

The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

Swithers, Susan E.

2013-01-01

23

Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)  

MedlinePLUS

... Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS), to five* NNSs: Aspartame (NutraSweet® and Equal®) Acesulfame-K (Sweet One®) Neotame Saccharin (Sweet’N Low®) Sucralose (Splenda®) *Stevia (Truvia® and PureVia®) doesn’t have ...

24

Ecotoxicity of artificial sweeteners and stevioside.  

PubMed

Produced, consumed and globally released into the environment in considerable quantities, artificial sweeteners have been identified as emerging pollutants. Studies of environmental concentrations have confirmed the widespread distribution of acesulfame (ACE), cyclamate (CYC), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SUC) in the water cycle at levels that are among the highest known for anthropogenic trace pollutants. Their ecotoxicity, however, has yet to be investigated at a larger scale. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by systematically assessing the influence of ACE, CYC and SAC and complementing the data on SUC. Therefore we examined their toxicity towards an activated sewage sludge community (30min) and applying tests with green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus (24h), water fleas Daphnia magna (48h) and duckweed Lemna minor (7d). We also examined the effects caused by the natural sweetener stevioside. The high No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) yielded by this initial evaluation indicated a low hazard and risk potential towards these aquatic organisms. For a complete risk assessment, however, several kinds of data are still lacking. In this context, obligatory ecotoxicity testing and stricter environmental regulations regarding food additives appear to be necessary. PMID:24036324

Stolte, Stefan; Steudte, Stephanie; Schebb, Nils Helge; Willenberg, Ina; Stepnowski, Piotr

2013-10-01

25

Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10{sup -7} M to 10{sup -2} M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p < 0.01). The atropine-resistant response to EFS was marginally increased by acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M, aspartame 10{sup -7} M and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the maximum contractile response to {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP by 35% ({+-} 9.6%) (p < 0.05) and to KCl by 12% ({+-} 3.1%) (p < 0.01). Sodium saccharin also increased the response to KCl by 37% ({+-} 15.2%) (p < 0.05). These sweeteners shifted the calcium concentration-response curves to the left. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the log EC{sub 5} from -2.79 ({+-} 0.037) to -3.03 ({+-} 0.048, p < 0.01) and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M from -2.74 ({+-} 0.03) to 2.86 ({+-} 0.031, p < 0.05). The sweeteners had no significant effect on the contractile response to carbachol but they did increase the amplitude of spontaneous bladder contractions. Discussion: These results suggest that low concentrations of artificial sweeteners enhanced detrusor muscle contraction via modulation of L-type Ca{sup +2} channels.

Dasgupta, Jaydip [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom); Elliott, Ruth A. [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rae5@leicester.ac.uk; Doshani, Angie [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom); Tincello, Douglas G. [University of Leicester, Prolapse and Incontinence Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, LE2 7LX (United Kingdom)

2006-12-01

26

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2014-04-01

27

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2012-04-01

28

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2013-04-01

29

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2012-04-01

30

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.116 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2014-04-01

31

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2011-04-01

32

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.131 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2012-04-01

33

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2014-04-01

34

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2012-04-01

35

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.131 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2013-04-01

36

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.116 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2012-04-01

37

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2012-04-01

38

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.116 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2013-04-01

39

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.131 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2014-04-01

40

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2010-04-01

41

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2013-04-01

42

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2014-04-01

43

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2013-04-01

44

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned...organic salt or salts and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing agent, in a...

2014-04-01

45

21 CFR 145.136 - Artificially sweetened canned fruit cocktail.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and any edible organic acid or acids as a flavor-enhancing...artificially sweetened fruit cocktail”. (2...as prescribed for canned fruit cocktail by § 145.135...When any organic salt or acid or any mixture of...

2013-04-01

46

Aspartame: Review of Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents,

Harriett H. Butchko; W. Wayne Stargel; C. Phil Comer; Dale A. Mayhew; Christian Benninger; George L. Blackburn; Leo M. J. de Sonneville; Raif S. Geha; Zsolt Hertelendy; Adalbert Koestner; Arthur S. Leon; George U. Liepa; Kenneth E. McMartin; Charles L. Mendenhall; Ian C. Munro; Edward J. Novotny; Andrew G. Renwick; Susan S. Schiffman; Donald L. Schomer; Bennett A. Shaywitz; Paul A. Spiers; Thomas R. Tephly; John A. Thomas; Friedrich K. Trefz

2002-01-01

47

Sweet proteins - Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners  

PubMed Central

Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

Kant, Ravi

2005-01-01

48

Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.  

PubMed

An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 ?g/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products. PMID:22543693

Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

2012-07-01

49

Investigation of Polymorphism in Aspartame and Neotame Using Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been studying the artificial sweeteners aspartame (l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) and neotame (N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) as compounds which exhibit polymorphism. 13C CP\\/MAS NMR shows that aspartame exists in three distinct forms at room temperature, depending on preparation conditions. For two of the forms, there exists three resonances for each carbon, indicating three crystallographically inequivalent sites and therefore three distinct

Mark T Zell; Brian E Padden; David J. W Grant; Stephen A Schroeder; Kurt L Wachholder; Indra Prakash; Eric J Munson

2000-01-01

50

Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive nanoporous pigments made from indicators immobilized in an organically modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at millimolar concentrations as well as commonly used individual serving sweetener packets. The array has shown excellent reproducibility and long shelf-life and has been optimized to work in the biological pH regime. PMID:20337402

Musto, Christopher J.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

2009-01-01

51

Artificially sweetened beverages--do they influence cardiometabolic risk?  

PubMed

The sweeteners in artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) are potent stimulators of sweetness on the palate, yet contain no energy. This "mismatch" between sweetness and energy in ASB has raised concern about metabolism and health. This article provides a review of the recent literature on the effect of ASB on cardiometabolic risk factors and disease. Physiologic mechanisms are discussed, as well as epidemiologic studies. Prospective studies of ASB intake and the risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have revealed inconsistent results. Higher-quality studies suggest either no effect of ASB or perhaps a protective effect through replacement of calorically dense alternatives. Although some studies have reported that ASB may increase risk, these observations appear to be an artifact of reverse causality. The limited experimental evidence does not support an effect of ASB on obesity or chronic disease. Indeed, experimental studies in humans suggest ASB may be effective for weight loss when replacing sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:24190652

Pereira, Mark A; Odegaard, Andrew O

2013-12-01

52

Aspartame: Scientific Evaluation in the Postmarketing Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to marketing, the safety of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame for its intended uses as a sweetener and flavor enhancer was demonstrated by the results of over 100 scientific studies in animals and humans. In the postmarketing period, the safety of aspartame was further evaluated through extensive monitoring of intake, postmarketing surveillance of anecdotal reports of alleged health effects, and

Harriett H. Butchko; W. Wayne Stargel

2001-01-01

53

Sweeteners.  

PubMed

Polyols as sugar substitutes, intense sweeteners and some new carbohydrates are increasingly used in foods and beverages. Some sweeteners are produced by fermentation or using enzymatic conversion. Many studies for others have been published. This chapter reviews the most important sweeteners. PMID:23887731

von Rymon Lipinski, Gert-Wolfhard

2014-01-01

54

Metabolism of Aspartame in Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame (SC-18862, 3-amino-N-(a-carboxyphenethyl)succinarnic acid, methyl ester; the methyl ester of aspartyl-phenylalanine ) is a sweetening agent that organoleptically has about 180 times the sweetness of sugar. Because it so closely resembles naturally occurring dipeptides, it was believed that it would be digested in a similar manner. To show this, the metabolism of (14C) aspartame labeled separately in the methyl, aspartyl

J. A. OPPERMANN; E. MULDOON; ANDR. E. RANNEY

2009-01-01

55

Biosensor analysis of natural and artificial sweeteners in intact taste epithelium.  

PubMed

Sweeteners are commonly used as food additives in our daily life, which, however, have been causing a number of undesirable diseases since the last century. Therefore, the detection and quantification of sweeteners are of great value for food safety. In this study, we used a taste biosensor to measure and analyze different sweeteners, both natural and artificial sweeteners included. Electrophysiological activities from taste epithelium were detected by the multi-channel biosensors and analyzed with spatiotemporal methods. The longtime signal result showed different temporal-frequency properties with stimulations of individual sweeteners such as glucose, sucrose, saccharin, and cyclamate, while the multi-channel results in our study revealed the spatial expression of taste epithelium to sweet stimuli. Furthermore, in the analysis of sweetener with different concentrations, the result showed obvious dose-dependent increases in signal responses of the taste epithelium, which indicated promising applications in sweetness evaluation. Besides, the mixture experiment of two natural sweeteners with a similar functional unit (glucose and sucrose) presented two signal patterns, which turned out to be similar with responses of each individual stimulus involved. The biosensor analysis of common sweeteners provided new approaches for both natural and artificial sweeteners evaluation. PMID:24292144

Zhang, Fenni; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

2014-04-15

56

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage. PMID:25231862

Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Thaiss, Christoph A; Maza, Ori; Israeli, David; Zmora, Niv; Gilad, Shlomit; Weinberger, Adina; Kuperman, Yael; Harmelin, Alon; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Shapiro, Hagit; Halpern, Zamir; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

2014-10-01

57

Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. PMID:22922192

Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

2012-09-01

58

Mathematical approach to thermolysin-catalyzed synthesis of aspartame precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame precursor (N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester), an artificial sweetener, was synthesized enzymatically from N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-aspartic acid (Z-l-Asp) and l-phenylalanine methyl ester (l-PM) as substrates with thermolysin as an enzyme in an aqueous monophase system. A reversible Theorell-Chance mechanism is proposed to explain the synthesis, and its kinetic parameters were determined at pH 6.5 and 40°C. The rate equation of the enzymatic reaction,

Yoshihiko Murakami; Makoto Hirata; Akira Hirata

1996-01-01

59

Projected Aspartame Intake: Daily Ingestion of Aspartic Acid,  

E-print Network

The safety assessment of any food additive requires a knowledge of the pharmacology and toxicology of the additive and information regarding exposure. Population exposure is generally difficult to determine for a new compound and cannot be accurately established before its introduction. For this reason it is important to ensure that estimates of exposure be conservative. Usually this means consciously overestimating rather than underestimating intake exposure. Elsewhere in this volume there is extensive discussion of the metabolism and toxicology of aspartame and its degradation products phenylalanine, aspartic acid, methanol, and diketopiperazine. These extensive studies demonstrate that high doses of aspartame are well tolerated. However, it is important to estimate the probable range of aspartame intake that might be anticipated. We have used two approaches to estimate exposure to aspartame or its metabolites. The simplest involved the assumption that aspartame would replace the apparent per capita sugar intake. The per capita caloric sweetener intake was calculated, on the basis of disappearance, to be 156 g/day (1). Using a sweetener ratio of 180:1, this yields a daily estimated aspartame intake of 867 mg/day. Actual intake would be somewhat lower, since it is recognized that disappearance data overestimate consumption and not all of the sweetener applications can be replaced by aspartame. The second approach used to project aspartame intake involved developing a menu containing generous amounts of added sugars and assuming the substitution of aspartame for the added sweeteners. This menu is shown in Table 1. In Table 2

Roberta Roak-foltz; Gilbe Rt A. Leveille

60

Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.  

PubMed

The intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this is because of the sugar content or related lifestyle factors, whether similar associations hold for artificially sweetened soft drinks, and how these associations are related to BMI. We aimed to conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of evidence from prospective cohorts to explore these issues. We searched multiple sources for prospective studies on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were extracted from eleven publications on nine cohorts. Consumption values were converted to ml/d, permitting the exploration of linear and non-linear dose-response trends. Summary relative risks (RR) were estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis. The summary RR for sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks were 1·20/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·12, 1·29, P< 0·001) and 1·13/330 ml per d (95 % CI 1·02, 1·25, P= 0·02), respectively. The association with sugar-sweetened soft drinks was slightly lower in studies adjusting for BMI, consistent with BMI being involved in the causal pathway. There was no evidence of effect modification, though both these comparisons lacked power. Overall between-study heterogeneity was high. The included studies were observational, so their results should be interpreted cautiously, but findings indicate a positive association between sugar-sweetened soft drink intake and type 2 diabetes risk, attenuated by adjustment for BMI. The trend was less consistent for artificially sweetened soft drinks. This may indicate an alternative explanation, such as lifestyle factors or reverse causality. Future research should focus on the temporal nature of the association and whether BMI modifies or mediates the association. PMID:24932880

Greenwood, D C; Threapleton, D E; Evans, C E L; Cleghorn, C L; Nykjaer, C; Woodhead, C; Burley, V J

2014-09-14

61

UV Resonance Raman Detection of Artificial Sweetener in Soda Pop-  

E-print Network

. In this correspondance, the UVRR spectra of two soft drinks, Diet Coke and New Coke, are reported. UV ex- citation enhances phenylalanine ring modes in the ar- tifical sweetener Nutrasweet in Diet Coke. This artifical spectra of Diet Coke clearly shows scattering from the four resonantly enhanced phenylalanine ring

Asher, Sanford A.

62

Ethanol, nicotine, amphetamine, and aspartame consumption and preferences in C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a two-bottle choice paradigm, adult C57BL\\/6 and DBA\\/2 mice (11 males and 10 females per strain) were given access to tapwater and an ascending series of concentrations of ethanol, nicotine, amphetamine, and the artificial sweetener, aspartame. The C57 mice consumed more ethanol, nicotine, and amphetamine, and showed greater preferences for these substances, than did the DBA\\/2 mice. In contrast,

Charles J. Meliska; Andrzej Bartke

1995-01-01

63

Aspartame—a new food ingredient reply to the critical comments of woodrow C. Monte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame, a recently marketed dipeptide sweetening agent, was discovered accidentally in 1965. Following extensive research and development, the product was approved for various uses by the FDA in 1974, 1981 and 1983. Aspartame has not been without its critics, however. W.C. Monte of Arizona has repeatedly criticized aspartame on television and in filings with regulatory agencies and the courts, who

Frank M. Sturtevant

1985-01-01

64

Acute effects of aspartame on aggression and neurochemistry of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse relationship between serotonin and aggression was investigated in rats treated with aspartame, a sweetener thought to interfere with the synthesis of this neurotransmitter. Eleven adult, male Long-Evans rats received either aspartame (200–800 mg\\/kg, IP) or the vehicle prior to testing in a standard resident-intruder paradigm. Contrary to our hypothesis, aspartame significantly decreased aggression as shown by increased latencies

Amy L. Goerss; George C. Wagner; Wendy L. Hill

2000-01-01

65

Crystallization from microemulsions ? a novel method for the preparation of new crystal forms of aspartame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubilization and crystallization of the artificial sweetener aspartame (APM), in water/isooctane microemulsions stabilized with sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been investigated. The amount of aspartame that could be solubilized depended primarily on the amount of surfactant and on the temperature. The maximum AOT/aspartame molar ratio at the w/o interface is shown to be 6.2 at 25°C. It was concluded that the dipeptide is located at the w/o interface interspersed between surfactant molecules and that it acts as a cosurfactant. A new crystal form, APM III, was obtained by cooling of hot w/isooctane/AOT microemulsions containing solubilized aspartame. The new crystal form exhibits a distinct X-ray diffraction powder pattern, as well as changes in the FTIR spectra, thermogravimetric and DSC patterns. H-NMR spectra of APM III dissolved in D 2O were identical to the spectrum of commercial aspartame recorded under the same conditions. The new crystal form has greatly improved dissolution kinetics.

Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Garti, N.; Kamyshny, A.

1999-03-01

66

Tracking artificial sweeteners and pharmaceuticals introduced into urban groundwater by leaking sewer networks.  

PubMed

There is little quantitative information on the temporal trends of pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds, including artificial sweeteners, in urban groundwater and their suitability as tracers to inform urban water management. In this study, pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners were monitored over 6 years in a shallow urban groundwater body along with a range of conventional sewage tracers in a network of observation wells that were specifically constructed to assess sewer leakage. Out of the 71 substances screened, 24 were detected at above the analytical detection limit. The most frequent compounds were the iodinated X-ray contrast medium amidotrizoic acid (35.3%), the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (33.3%) and the artificial sweetener acesulfame (27.5%), while all other substances occurred in less than 10% of the screened wells. The results from the group of specifically constructed focus wells within 10 m of defective sewers confirmed sewer leaks as being a major entrance pathway into the groundwater. The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners corresponds well with predictions by pipeline leakage models, which operate on optical sewer condition monitoring data and hydraulic information. Correlations between the concentrations of carbamazepine, iodinated X-ray contrast media and artificial sweeteners were weak to non-existent. Peak concentrations of up to 4130 ng/l of amidotrizoic acid were found in the groundwater downstream of the local hospital. The analysis of 168 samples for amidotrizoic acid, taken at 5 different occasions, did not show significant temporal trends for the years 2002-2008, despite changed recommendations in the medical usage of amidotrizoic acid. The detailed results show that the current mass balance approaches for urban groundwater bodies must be adapted to reflect the spatially distributed leaks and the variable wastewater composition in addition to the lateral and horizontal groundwater fluxes. PMID:22609959

Wolf, Leif; Zwiener, Christian; Zemann, Moritz

2012-07-15

67

Stevia, cyclamate and saccharin - natural and artificial sweeteners - exert no effect on sulfane levels in tissues.  

PubMed

The interactions among natural and artificial sweeteners and endogenous sulfur metabolism have never been investigated. CBA strain mice were administered orally stevia, cyclamate or saccharin in doses of 5 mg/kg of body weight in water solutions each. The measurements of the free and acid-labile sulfane (H2S) tissue concentrations in brain, heart, liver and kidney were performed with Siegel spectrophotometric modified method. No differences in comparisons between hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the control group and each sweetener group within every tissue type were noted. In conclusion, stevia, cyclamate and saccharine do not change the endogenous sulfur metabolism to the extent of causing sulfane tissue levels alterations. PMID:24858558

Wilinski, Bogdan; Opoka, Wlodzimierz; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Wilinski, Jerzy

2013-01-01

68

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned figs...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2011-04-01

69

21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned figs...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.130(c), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2010-04-01

70

Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the relationship between artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption and long-term weight gain in the San Antonio Heart Study. From 1979 to 1988, height, weight, and ASB consumption were measured among 5,158 adult residents of San Antonio, Texas. Seven to eight years later, 3,682 participants (74% of survivors) were re-examined. Outcome measures were incidence of overweight\\/obesity (OW\\/OBinc) and

Sharon P. Fowler; Ken Williams; Roy G. Resendez; Kelly J. Hunt; Helen P. Hazuda; Michael P. Stern

2008-01-01

71

Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on Insulin Release and Cationic Fluxes in Rat Pancreatic Islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-l-Glucose pentaacetate, but not ?-d-galactose pentaacetate, was recently reported to taste bitter and to stimulate insulin release. This finding led, in the present study, to the investigation of the effects of both bitter and non-bitter artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Sodium saccharin (1.0–10.0 mM), sodium cyclamate (5.0–10.0 mM), stevioside (1.0 mM) and

Willy J. Malaisse; Anne Vanonderbergen; Karim Louchami; Hassan Jijakli; Francine Malaisse-Lagae

1998-01-01

72

Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanyl- methyl ester, 200 mg\\/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g\\/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and

Hidehiko Yokogoshi; Carolyn H Roberts; Benjamin Caballero; Richard J Wurtman

73

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2011-04-01

74

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned apricots...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2011-04-01

75

21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.170(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2010-04-01

76

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.125(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2010-04-01

77

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened with...

2010-04-01

78

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.180(a)(2), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened with...

2011-04-01

79

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2011-04-01

80

21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.175(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2010-04-01

81

21 CFR 145.116 - Artificially sweetened canned apricots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned apricots...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.115(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2010-04-01

82

21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries...that in lieu of a packing medium specified in § 145.125(a)(3), the packing medium used is water artificially...combination of both. Such packing medium may be thickened...

2011-04-01

83

Dietary sugar and artificial sweetener intake and chronic kidney disease: a review.  

PubMed

Sugar consumption, especially in the form of fructose, has been hypothesized to cause kidney disease. This review provides an overview of the epidemiologic evidence that sugar consumption increases CKD risk. Research supports a causal role of sugar in several kidney disease risk factors, including increasing serum uric acid levels, diabetes, and obesity. Sugar may also harm the kidney via other mechanisms. There is no evidence that sucrose is any safer for the kidney than high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) because both are similar in composition. To date, 5 epidemiologic studies have directly evaluated the relationship between sugar consumption (in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages) and CKD. Although most studies suggest that the risk of CKD is elevated among consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages, only 2 studies report statistically significant associations. Three studies have also examined diet soda consumption, with two reporting positive and significant associations. Confounding by unmeasured lifestyle factors may play a role in the positive results whereas poor measurement of sugar and artificial sweetener intake could explain null results. Nevertheless, the hypothesis that sugar causes kidney disease remains plausible, and alternative research designs may be needed. PMID:23439375

Karalius, Vytas P; Shoham, David A

2013-03-01

84

Comparative metabolism of aspartame in experimental animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame [SC?18862; 3?amino?H?(??carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid, methyl ester, the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine] is a sweetening agent that organoleptically has about 180 times the sweetness of sugar. The metabolism of aspartame has been studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and humans. The compound was digested in all species in the same way as are natural constituents of the diet. Hydrolysis of

R. E. Ranney; J. A. Oppermann; E. Muldoon; F. G. McMahon

1976-01-01

85

Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.  

PubMed

The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

2014-06-01

86

The effects of non-nutritive sweeteners in Florence’s Homestyle Cha-Cha.  

E-print Network

??Non-nutritive sweeteners are alternative sweeteners that provide the taste of sweetness without a caloric contribution. In this Florence’s HomeStyle Cha-Cha study, aspartame, acesulfame K, sodium… (more)

Boone, Leslie

2011-01-01

87

Results of loading doses of aspartame by two Phenylketonuric (PKU) children compared with two normal children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate tolerance tests with aspartame at 34 mg\\/kg?day and phenylalanine at 19 mg\\/kg?day were compared. The results reveal that slight serum elevation of phenylalanine and tyrosine occurred in the two PKU and the normal healthy adolescents. It would appear that the phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame is small enough to be of little clinical significance.

Richard Koch; G. Schaeffler; K. N. F. Shaw

1976-01-01

88

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... include yogurt, frozen desserts, pudding, dry dessert mixes, chewing gum and soft drinks. Aspartame can also be found ... it makes the taste last longer. For example, chewing gum made with aspartame maintains its sweet flavor longer ...

89

Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.  

PubMed

Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed. PMID:24687789

Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

2014-07-01

90

Structures of artificial sweeteners--cyclamic acid and sodium cyclamate with other cyclamates.  

PubMed

In the course of a study on artificial sweeteners, new crystal structures of cyclamic acid, sodium cyclamate, potassium cyclamate, ammonium cyclamate, rubidium cyclamate and tetra-n-propylammonium cyclamate have been determined. Cyclamic acid exists in its zwitterionic form in the crystalline state. The zwitterions are connected through hydrogen bonds of the N-H...O type to form two-dimensional sheets. The sodium, potassium, ammonium and rubidium cyclamates are isostructural, with the cyclamate moieties linked through hydrogen bonds into linear chains. Taking into account the connectivity through cations, two-dimensional layers with a hydrophobic surface are constructed. In tetra(n-propyl)ammonium cyclamate the large, non-coordinating cation apparently prevents the formation of chains and thereby facilitates the centrosymmetric head-to-head discrete dimeric arrangement of the cyclamate moieties. PMID:17507755

Leban, Ivan; Rudan-Tasic, Darja; Lah, Nina; Klofutar, Cveto

2007-06-01

91

Physicochemical and psychophysical characteristics of binary mixtures of bulk and intense sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlating psychophysical characteristics with physicochemical properties of sweeteners is of relevance to the understanding of the origin of sweetener synergy, an essential parameter for the food manufacturer. Psychophysical evaluation was carried out on bulk sweeteners (sucrose and maltitol) and intense sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfam-K, alitame) in mixtures. The concentrations of mixtures were calculated to be equisweet to 10% sucrose

F. Hutteau; M. Mathlouthi; M. O. Portmann; D. Kilcast

1998-01-01

92

[Simultaneous determination of neotame, alitame and aspartame in foods by HPLC].  

PubMed

Simultaneous determination of three artificial sweeteners, neotame (NE), alitame (AL) and aspartame (APM) in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Chopped or homogenized samples were packed into cellulose tubing with 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid containing 10% sodium chloride, and dialyzed against 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 24-48 hours. The dialyzate was passed through an Oasis MCX cartridge, and the cartridge was washed with water and methanol. Then the three sweeteners were eluted from the cartridge with a mixture of 0.5 mol/L ammonium chloride-acetonitrile (3 : 2). The sweeteners were separated on a Cosmosil 5C18-AR column using a gradient mode with a mobile phase of 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and were detected at 210 nm. The recoveries of NE, AL and APM from 8 kinds of foods spiked with 10 and 100 microg/g were 86-100% and 89-104%, respectively. The detection limits of NE, AL and APM were 1 microg/g in samples. Furthermore, the three sweeteners were successfully identified by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:18344656

Matsumoto, Hiroko; Hirata, Keiko; Sakamaki, Narue; Hagino, Kayo; Ushiyama, Hirofumi

2008-02-01

93

Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes\\u000a were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray\\u000a ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline\\u000a modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for

Marco Scheurer; Heinz-J. Brauch; Frank T. Lange

2009-01-01

94

Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice  

PubMed Central

With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Moaddel, Ruin

2013-01-01

95

Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species  

PubMed Central

Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

2011-01-01

96

Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE at elevated concentrations in aquifer zones dominated by local recharge indicated another point-source of domestic waste water. The combined analysis of ACE and conventional hydrochemical data proved to be useful to identify different sources of waste water. It is shown that the combination of physicochemical parameters and artificial sweeteners allow for a clear delineation of infiltration areas in the investigated aquifer system.

Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

2014-05-01

97

Solution properties and sweetness response of selected bulk and intense sweeteners.  

PubMed

Two bulk sweeteners (sucrose and maltitol) and four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, and sodium saccharin) are used in this study. Densities and sound velocity values of the sweeteners in solution are measured at 20 degrees C, and their apparent molar and specific volumes, their isentropic apparent molar and specific compressibilities, as well as their compressibility hydration numbers are calculated and reported. The introduction of solute molecules in water results in a volume change of the solvent as a result of attractive forces exerted by the solute molecules; such forces are in the form of electrostrictive or hydrogen-bonding forces, or charge-dipole attraction. Changes of molar volumes with increasing concentration give an indication of the extent of solute-solute interaction, whereas isentropic compressibilities give a direct measurement of the state of hydration of the solute molecules. The compressibility hydration numbers reported give an indication of the number of water molecules disturbed by the presence of each solute molecule in solution. Isentropic compressibilities seem to be a more sensitive parameter for distinguishing the bulk sweeteners from the artificial sweeteners. The sweetness response of the sweeteners is then explained in terms of their solution behaviors. PMID:10563984

Parke, S A; Birch, G G

1999-04-01

98

Investigation of synergism in binary mixtures of sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence and degree of synergism among all binary mixtures of 14 sweeteners varying in chemical structure. A trained panel evaluated binary combinations of the following sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two diterpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate),

S. S. Schiffman; B. J. Booth; B. T. Carr; M. L. Losee; E. A. Sattely-Miller; B. G. Graham

1995-01-01

99

Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial sweetener, aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation ?, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of ? by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 ? 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 ?m or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

1993-10-01

100

Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.

JAN POKORNÝ

101

Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.  

PubMed

Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature. PMID:19275236

Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

2009-04-22

102

Structure, dynamics, and stability of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of aspartame and neotame.  

PubMed

Studies of the high-intensity sweetener aspartame show that its stability is significantly enhanced in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD). At a 5:1 beta-CyD/aspartame molar ratio, the stability of aspartame is 42% greater in 4 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) compared to solutions prepared without beta-CyD. Solution-state (1)H NMR experiments demonstrate the formation of 1:1 beta-CyD/aspartame complexes, stabilized by the interaction of the phenyl-ring protons of aspartame with the H3 and H5 protons of beta-CyD. Inclusion complex formation clearly accounts for the observed stability enhancement of aspartame in solution. The formation of inclusion complexes in solution is also demonstrated for beta-CyD and neotame, a structural derivative of aspartame containing an N-substituted 3,3-dimethylbutyl group. These complexes are stabilized by the interaction of beta-CyD with both phenyl-ring and dimethylbutyl protons. Solid-state NMR experiments provide additional characterization, clearly demonstrating the formation of inclusion complexes in lyophilized solids prepared from solutions of beta-CyD and either aspartame or neotame. PMID:11308366

Garbow, J R; Likos, J J; Schroeder, S A

2001-04-01

103

Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (?2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (?80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

2011-01-01

104

Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.  

PubMed

Forty subjects participated in each of two experiments in which both lemon-line and cola-flavored beverages containing one of six sweeteners--sucrose, sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam-K, and two calcium cyclamate/sodium saccharin blends (10:1 and 3.5:1)--were evaluated on similarity and adjective scales. The similarity data suggest that drinks containing sucrose and aspartame cannot be discriminated from one another in either a lemon-line or cola medium in this experimental design. Sucrose and aspartame were also statistically equivalent on every adjective scale for both lemon-line and cola drinks. On both similarity judgments and adjective scales, acesulfam-K and sodium saccharin were most different from sucrose. The calcium cyclamate/sodium saccharin blends tended to be less similar than aspartame but not as different from sucrose as the acesulfam-K or sodium saccharin sweetened beverages. PMID:4011718

Schiffman, S S; Crofton, V A; Beeker, T G

1985-03-01

105

Resolution of an intense sweetener mixture by use of a flow injection sensor with on-line solid-phase extraction. Application to saccharin and aspartame in sweets and drinks.  

PubMed

An integrated solid-phase spectrophotometry-FIA method is proposed for simultaneous determination of the mixture of saccharin (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide; E-954) (SA) and aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; E-951) (AS). The procedure is based on on-line preconcentration of AS on a C18 silica gel minicolumn and separation from SA, followed by measurement, at lambda = 210 nm, of the absorbance of SA which is transiently retained on the adsorbent Sephadex G-25 placed in the flow-through cell of a monochannel FIA setup using pH 3.0 orthophosphoric acid-dihydrogen phosphate buffer, 3.75x10(-3) mol L(-1), as carrier. Subsequent desorption of AS with methanol enables its determination at lambda = 205 nm. With a sampling frequency of 10 h(-1), the applicable concentration range, the detection limit, and the relative standard deviation were from 1.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 0.30 microg mL(-1), and 1.0% (80 microg mL(-1), n = 10), respectively, for SA and from 10.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 1.4 microg mL(-1), and 1.6% (100 microg mL(-1), n = 10) for AS. The method was used to determine the amounts of aspartame and saccharin in sweets and drinks. Recovery was always between 99 and 101%. The method enabled satisfactory determination of blends of SA and AS in low-calorie and dietary products and the results were compared with those from an HPLC reference method. PMID:16804990

Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Valencia, M C; Arana Nicolás, E; García-Jiménez, J F

2006-05-01

106

Aspartame and Its Analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

1981-04-01

107

Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sizteen trained tasters provided sweetness and bitterness intensity ratings for 19 compounds including: acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, fructose, glucose, glycine, lactitol, maltitol, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neosugar (fructo-oligosaccharide), palatinit (isomalt), rebaudioside-A, sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, stevioside, sucralose, sucrose, and thaumatin. With increasing concentration, high-potency sweeteners including acesulfame-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sodium saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside tended to become more bitter. Low-potency sweeteners

Susan S. Schiffman; Barbara J. Booth; Michael L. Losee; Suzanne D. Pecore; Zoe S. Warwick

1995-01-01

108

Caffeine intensifies taste of certain sweeteners: role of adenosine receptor.  

PubMed

Caffeine, a potent antagonist of adenosine receptors, potentiates the taste of some but not all sweeteners. It significantly enhances the taste of acesulfam-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, d-tryptophan, thaumatin, stevioside, and sodium saccharin. Adenosine reverses the enhancement. Caffeine has no effect on aspartame, sucrose, fructose, and calcium cyclamate. These results suggest that the inhibitory A1 adenosine receptor plays an important local role in modulating the taste intensity of certain sweeteners and that several transduction mechanisms mediate sweet taste. PMID:3010333

Schiffman, S S; Diaz, C; Beeker, T G

1986-03-01

109

Distribution of artificial sweeteners in dust and soil in China and their seasonal variations in the environment of Tianjin.  

PubMed

A nationwide investigation on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASs) was conducted by collecting 98 paired outdoor dust and soil samples from mainland China. The ASs were widely detected in Chinese atmospheric dry deposition and soil samples, at concentrations up to 6450 and 1280 ng/g, respectively. To give a picture on AS distribution and source in the whole environment, the concentrations and seasonal variations of ASs in Tianjin were studied, including atmosphere, soil, and water samples. The AS levels were significantly higher in Haihe river at TJW (a sampling site in central city) in winter, while no obviously seasonal trends were obtained at BYL (close to a AS factory) and the site at a wastewater treatment plant. Saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame were the dominant ASs in both gas and particulate phase, with concentrations varying from 0.02 to 1940 pg/m(3). Generally, gas phase concentrations of the ASs were relatively higher in summer, while opposite results were acquired for particulate phase. Wet and dry deposition fluxes were calculated based on the measured AS levels. The results indicated that both wet and dry deposition could efficiently remove ASs in the atmosphere and act as important pollutant sources for the ASs in surface environment. PMID:24830929

Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Yao, Yiming; Zhao, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yanwei; Hu, Hongwei; Wang, Ruonan

2014-08-01

110

Effects of treatment with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, artificial sweeteners, and cyclophosphamide on adult rat urinary bladder in vitro.  

PubMed

The effect of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate and cyclophosphamide on rat bladder explants in vitro was studied. MNU administered as a single dose or in multiple treatments induced concentration-dependent changes in urothelial ultrastructure and cell surface topography. In a single treatment protocol, extensive cytotoxicity was observed in both the urothelium and stroma at concentrations of 500 to 1000 micrograms/ml, establishing a toxic threshold within this range. In a multiple treatment protocol, repeated doses of low concentrations of carcinogen (7 or 8 x 50 micrograms/ml, 6 x 100 micrograms/ml) induced hyperplastic and dysplastic changes in the urothelium with no cytotoxicity, but cytotoxic effects were observed following treatments of 4 x 200 micrograms/ml or 2 x 400 micrograms/ml. Sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, and cyclophosphamide induced changes in urothelial cell surface topography consistent with hyperplasia and preneoplasia. Prolonged exposure to saccharin or cyclamate followed by a single dose of MNU elicited more extensive abnormalities in the urothelium than either saccharin or cyclamate alone, suggesting that these artificial sweeteners have initiating activity in a multistage process. The ultrastructural changes induced by in vitro treatment showed a good correlation with the pathological changes observed in vivo in rats treated with MNU or fed either with saccharin or cyclamate. PMID:2444767

Norman, J T; Howlett, A R; Spacey, G D; Hodges, G M

1987-10-01

111

Relationship between artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened cola beverage consumption during pregnancy and preterm delivery in a multi-ethnic cohort: analysis of the Born in Bradford cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the intake of sugar-sweetened (SS) and artificially sweetened (AS) cola beverages during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery (PTD). At baseline (2007-2010), 8914 pregnant women were recruited to the Born in Bradford birth cohort study at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Women completed a questionnaire describing their health and lifestyle behaviours, including their consumption of AS and SS cola beverages reported as cups per day, which were then linked to maternity records. The relationship between SS and AS cola beverage consumption was examined using logistic regression analyses. No relationship was observed between daily AS cola beverage consumption and PTD. Women who drank four cups per day of SS cola beverages had higher odds of a PTD when compared with women who did not consume these beverages daily. We conclude that high daily consumption of SS cola beverages during pregnancy is associated with increases in the rate of PTD. PMID:24398641

Petherick, E S; Goran, M I; Wright, J

2014-03-01

112

21 CFR 172.804 - Aspartame.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aspartame. The food additive aspartame may be...accordance with good manufacturing practice as a...intermediate mix of the additive for manufacturing purposes shall bear...concentration of the additive contained...

2010-04-01

113

Diffusion of sucrose and aspartame in kappa-carrageenan and gellan gum gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sweetness release from the food to the human papillae, diffusion of the sweetener through the food is one of the steps. Information on diffusion behaviour of small molecules like sucrose has been studied mainly in connection with blanching or osmotic processes. In this paper, diffusion constants (D) of both sucrose (100 and 150g\\/l) and aspartame (0.8

S Bayarri; I Rivas; E Costell; L Durán

2001-01-01

114

Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... to rise until 1985. Moreover, increases in overall brain cancer incidence occurred primarily in people age 70 and ... associated with the development of lymphoma, leukemia, or brain cancer ( 2 ). Acesulfame potassium, Sucralose, and Neotame In addition ...

115

A study of the solution properties of selected binary mixtures of bulk and intense sweeteners in relation to their psychophysical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution properties of binary mixtures of two bulk sweeteners (sucrose and maltitol) and three intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium cyclamate) were studied. The parameters measured were apparent specific volumes, isentropic compressibilities and compressibility hydration numbers. An attempt has been made to correlate the solution properties of some of the mixtures with their sweetness responses. Both specific volume

Sneha A. Parke; Gordon G. Birch; Marie O. Portmann; David Kilcast

1999-01-01

116

A differential kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of three sulphanilamide artificial sweeteners with the aid of chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and saccharin sodium sweeteners in foodstuff samples has been researched and developed. This analytical method relies on the different kinetic rates of the analytes in their oxidative reaction with KMnO4 to produce the green manganate product in an alkaline solution. As the kinetic rates of acesulfame-K,

Yongnian Ni; Weiqiang Xiao; Serge Kokot

2009-01-01

117

Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. PMID:24612793

Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

2014-05-01

118

Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration.  

PubMed

Sixteen trained tasters provided sweetness and bitterness intensity ratings for 19 compounds including: acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, fructose, glucose, glycine, lactitol, maltitol, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neosugar (fructo-oligosaccharide), palatinit (isomalt), rebaudioside-A, sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, stevioside, sucralose, sucrose, and thaumatin. With increasing concentration, high-potency sweeteners including acesulfame-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sodium saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside tended to become more bitter. Low-potency sweeteners including fructose, sucrose, and lactitol tended to become less bitter with increasing concentration. PMID:7712215

Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Pecore, S D; Warwick, Z S

1995-01-01

119

Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener.  

PubMed

Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200-300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended with other non-calorie or carbohydrate sweeteners. It is stable under dry conditions, and has much better stability than aspartame or neotame in aqueous food systems. Studies undertaken for the development of a purification process and for the full characterization of the properties of rebiana are reported here. PMID:18554769

Prakash, I; Dubois, G E; Clos, J F; Wilkens, K L; Fosdick, L E

2008-07-01

120

Adaptation of sweeteners in water and in tannic acid solutions.  

PubMed

Repeated exposure to a tastant often leads to a decrease in magnitude of the perceived intensity; this phenomenon is termed adaptation. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of adaptation of the sweet response for a variety of sweeteners in water and in the presence of two levels of tannic acid. Sweetness intensity ratings were given by a trained panel for 14 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two terpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), two N-sulfonyl amides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), and one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone). Panelists were given four isointense concentrations of each sweetener by itself and in the presence of two concentrations of tannic acid. Each sweetener concentration was tasted and rated four consecutive times with a 30 s interval between each taste and a 2 min interval between each concentration. Within a taste session, a series of concentrations of a given sweetener was presented in ascending order of magnitude. Adaptation was calculated as the decrease in intensity from the first to the fourth sample. The greatest adaptation in water solutions was found for acesulfame-K, Na saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside. This was followed by the dipeptide sweeteners, alitame and aspartame. The least adaptation occurred with the sugars, polyhydric alcohols, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Adaptation was greater in tannic acid solutions than in water for six sweeteners. Adaptation of sweet taste may result from the desensitization of sweetener receptors analogous to the homologous desensitization found in the beta adrenergic system. PMID:8190776

Schiffman, S S; Pecore, S D; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Carr, B T; Sattely-Miller, E; Graham, B G; Warwick, Z S

1994-03-01

121

Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

2014-01-01

122

Determination of artificial sweeteners in beverages with green mobile phases and high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new analytical procedure involving the use of water and a low percentage of ethanol combined to high temperature liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in a variety of drink samples. The method permitted the analysis in 23min (including column reequilibration) and consuming only 0.85mL of a green organic solvent (ethanol). This methodology provided limits of detection (after 50-fold dilution) in the 0.05-10mg/L range, with recoveries (obtained from five different types of beverages) being in the 86-110% range and relative standard deviation values lower than 12%. Finally, the method was applied to 25 different samples purchased in Spain, where acesulfame and sucralose were the most frequently detected analytes (>50% of the samples) and cyclamate was found over the legislation limit set by the European Union in a sample and at the regulation boundary in three others. PMID:25236212

Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

2015-02-15

123

Long-term continuous synthesis of aspartame precursor in a column reactor with an immobilized thermolysin  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)-l-asparty-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, the precursor of the synthetic sweetener aspartame, was continuously synthesized in an immobilized thermolysin plug-flow type reactor at 25° C with the substrates (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid and l-phenylalanine methyl ester) dissolved in ethyl acetate. The immobilized enzyme was quite stable in ethyl acetate containing 2.5% 0.01 M 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulphonic acid-NaOH buffer, pH 6.0, and 20 mM CaCl2 with or

Kazuhiro Nakanishi; Akira Takeuchi; Ryuichi Matsuno

1990-01-01

124

The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

125

Postingestive inhibition of food intake by aspartame: Importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame administered in capsules (i.e., without tasting) 1 h before a meal significantly reduces the amount eaten in that meal. In the present study 36 young men and women were divided into 3 groups of 12 to receive aspartame (400 mg) or placebo (400 mg starch) on separate occasions either 5 min (Group A), 30 min (Group B) or 60

Peter J. Rogers; Victoria J. Burley; Lorraine A. Alikhanizadeh; John E. Blundell

1995-01-01

126

Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively. PMID:2802596

Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

1989-10-01

127

Aspartame: Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Answer Set Programming  

E-print Network

Aspartame: Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Answer Set Programming M. Banbara1 , M experimentation with different implementations. The resulting system aspartame re-uses parts of sugar for parsing contrasting aspartame and sugar. 1 Introduction Encoding finite linear Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs

Schaub, Torsten

128

Simultaneous determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection—Development and single-laboratory validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of multiple sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin and sucralose in carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks, canned or bottled fruits and yoghurt. The procedure involves an extraction of the nine sweeteners with a buffer solution,

Andrzej Wasik; Josephine McCourt; Manuela Buchgraber

2007-01-01

129

Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior, and mood.  

PubMed

The effect of aspartame on the learning, behavior, and mood of children was evaluated in two experiments. After an overnight fast and a standard breakfast, 20 healthy 9- to 10-year-old children were given the treatments in a double-blind crossover design at 10:30 AM. Lunch was served at 12:00 noon. In experiment 1, the treatment consisted of an ice slurry of strawberry Kool-Aid containing 1.75 g/kg of carbohydrate (polycose) plus either aspartame (34 mg/kg) or the equivalent sweetness as sodium cyclamate and amino acids as alanine. In experiment 2, the treatment consisted of a drink of cold unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid, containing either 1.75 g/kg of sucrose or 9.7 mg/kg of aspartame. Measures of associative learning, arithmetic calculation, activity level, social interaction, and mood were unaffected by treatment in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the only significant treatment effect was that on the frequency of minor and gross motor behaviors, which were less frequent after the consumption of sucrose than after aspartame. Thus, the effect of aspartame on the short-term behavior of healthy 9- to 10-year-old children appears to be related to its absence of metabolic consequences rather than to its amino acid composition and putative neurochemical impact. PMID:1694294

Saravis, S; Schachar, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

1990-07-01

130

Psychophysical characterization of new sweeteners of commercial importance for the EC food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative psychophysical information on the perceptual characteristics of sucrose (as reference), sodium cyclamate, aspartame, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC) and maltitol were established through the determination and the modelling of their concentration-response (C-R) functions according to linear, Beidler or Hill equations, the recording of the time-intensity (T-I) curves with the determination of the T-I parameters for each sweetener, and the establishment of

Marie-Odile Portmann; David Kilcast

1996-01-01

131

Retention behaviour of some high-intensity sweeteners on different SPE sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide information about application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for isolation of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin, sucralose and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) from aqueous solutions. The influence of several types of LC–MS compatible buffers (different pH values and compositions) on their recovery has been studied and discussed. A number of

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2010-01-01

132

Characterization of aspartame-cyclodextrin complexation.  

PubMed

The inclusion complex formation of aspartame (guest) and various cyclodextrins (host) were examined using 1H NMR titration and capillary electrophoresis. Initially the protonation constants of aspartame were determined by NMR-pH titration with in situ pH measurement to yield log K1=7.83 and log K2=2.96. Based on these values the stability of the complexes formed by aspartame and 21 different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied at pH 2.5, pH 5.2 and pH 9.0 values where aspartame exists predominantly in monocationic, zwitterionic and monoanionic form, respectively. The host cyclodextrin derivatives differed in various sidechains, degree of substitution, charge and purity so that the effect of these properties could be examined systematically. Concerning size, the seven-membered beta-cyclodextrin and its derivatives have been found to be the most suitable host molecules for complexation. Highest stability was observed for the acetylated derivative with a degree of substitution of 7. The purity of the CD enhanced the complexation while the degree of substitution did not provide obvious consequences. Finally, geometric aspects of the inclusion complex were assessed by 2D ROESY NMR and molecular modelling which proved that the guest's aromatic ring enters the wider end of the host cavity. PMID:19586735

Sohajda, Tamás; Béni, Szabolcs; Varga, Erzsébet; Iványi, Róbert; Rácz, Akos; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla

2009-12-01

133

The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications. PMID:22827164

Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namie?nik, Jacek

2012-01-01

134

Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners  

PubMed Central

High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners. PMID:22539626

2012-01-01

135

Investigation of synergism in binary mixtures of sweeteners.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence and degree of synergism among all binary mixtures of 14 sweeteners varying in chemical structure. A trained panel evaluated binary combinations of the following sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two diterpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), two N-sulfonyl amides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), and one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone). Each sweetener was tested at three concentrations that were isosweet with 3%, 5%, and 7% sucrose. Two methods of analysis were performed to determine synergistic effects. In Method I, an ANOVA was performed for each intensity level to determine if the mean sweetness intensity ratings of each binary mixture were equal to nominal sweetness (i.e., additivity) or not equal to nominal sweetness (i.e., synergism or suppression). In Method II, an additional ANOVA was performed to determine if the sweetness intensity ratings of any given mixture were equal to or greater than the average of the sweetness ratings of the two pure components in that blend. PMID:7583335

Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Carr, B T; Losee, M L; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G

1995-01-01

136

Retention behaviour of some high-intensity sweeteners on different SPE sorbents.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to provide information about application of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for isolation of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin, sucralose and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) from aqueous solutions. The influence of several types of LC-MS compatible buffers (different pH values and compositions) on their recovery has been studied and discussed. A number of commercially available SPE cartridges, such as Chromabond C18ec, Strata-X RP, Bakerbond Octadecyl, Bakerbond SDB-1, Bakerbond SPE Phenyl, Oasis HLB, LiChrolut RP-18, Supelclean LC-18, Discovery DSC-18 and Zorbax C18 were tested in order to evaluate their applicability for the isolation of analytes. Very high recoveries (better than 92%) of all studied compounds were obtained using formic acid-N,N-diisopropylethylamine buffer adjusted to pH 4.5 and C(18)-bonded silica sorbents. Behaviour of polymeric sorbents strongly depends on their structure. Strata-X RP behaves much like a C(18)-bonded silica sorbent. Recoveries obtained using Oasis HLB were comparable with those observed for silica-based sorbents. The only compound less efficiently (83%) retained by this sorbent was cyclamate. Bakerbond SDB-1 shows unusual selectivity towards aspartame and alitame. Recoveries of these two sweeteners were very low (26 and 42%, respectively). It was also found that aspartame and alitame can be selectively separated from the mixture of sweeteners using formic acid-triethylamine buffer at pH 3.5. PMID:20875571

Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namie?nik, Jacek

2010-10-15

137

[Simultaneous determination of six synthetic sweeteners in food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method for the determination of six synthetic sweeteners (sodium cyclamate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame and neotame) in food was developed. The synthetic sweeteners were extracted by methanol-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was separated on a C18 column using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate/acetonitrile as mobile phase, and then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearities (r > 0.998) were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 20-500 microg/L. The recoveries obtained ranged from 81.3% to 106.0% at three spiked concentrations, with the relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of synthetic sweeteners in food. PMID:21381416

Liu, Xiaoxi; Ding, Li; Liu, Jinxia; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Libing; Chen, Bo

2010-11-01

138

[Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) in food. The sweeteners were extracted by 0.1% (v/v) formic acid buffer solution. The extract of sample was cleaned up and concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Then the sweeteners were separated on a C18 column (3 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid buffer (adjusted to pH = 3.5 with aqueous ammonia solution)-methanol (61: 39, v/v) as mobile phase, and finally detected by ELSD. The results showed that the reasonable linearity was achieved for all the analytes over the range of 30 - 1000 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.997. The recoveries for the five sweeteners ranged from 85.6% to 109.0% at three spiked concentrations with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 4.0%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 2.5 mg/L for both acesulfame-K and sucralose, 3 mg/L for saccharin sodium, 10 mg/L for sodium cyclamate, and 5 mg/L for aspartame. The method is simple, sensitive and low cost, and has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the five synthetic sweeteners in food. PMID:22715696

Liu, Fang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yuhong; Zhou, Junyi; Yan, Chao

2012-03-01

139

[Determination of five synthetic sweeteners in wines using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS/MS) method for the determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame) in wines has been developed. The HPLC separation was carried out on an Ultimate C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm). Several parameters, including the composition and pH of the mobile phase, column temperature and the monitor ions, were optimized for improving the chromatographic performance and the sensitivity of determination. The results demonstrated that the separation can be completed in less than 5 min by gradient elution with 20 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid (pH 3.8) and methanol as the mobile phase. The column temperature was kept at 45 degrees C. When the analytes were detected by ESI -MS/MS under multiple reaction monitoring mode, the detection limits were 0.6, 5, 1, 0.8 and 0.2 microg/L for acesulfame, sodium saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame and neotame, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 87.2% to 103%. The relative standard deviations were not more than 1.2%. This method is rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of low concentration of the synthetic sweeteners, which are illegally added to wines and other foods with complex matrices. PMID:21261041

Ji, Chao; Feng, Feng; Chen, Zhengxing; Sun, Li; Chu, Xiaogang

2010-08-01

140

Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of the B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by the B6 mice, but not by the 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 mice and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice, the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet-tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485

Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

2013-01-01

141

Heterogeneous nucleation of aspartame from aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waiting times, the time from the instant of quenching needed for a first nucleus to appear, were measured at constant supercoolings for primary nucleation of aspartame (?-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) from aqueous solutions, which were sealed into glass ampoules (solution volume = 3.16 cm 3). Since the waiting time became shorter by filtering the solution prior to quenching, the nucleation was concluded to be heterogeneously induced. The measured waiting time consisted of two parts: time needed for the nucleus to grow to a detactable size (growth time) and stochastic time needed for nucleation (true waiting time). The distribution of the true waiting time, is well explained by a stochastic model, in which nucleation is regarded to occur heterogeneously and in a stochastic manner by two kinds of active sites. The active sites are estimated to be located on foreign particles in which such elements as Si, Al and Mg were contained. The amount of each element is very small in the order of magnitude of ppb (mass basis) of the whole solution. The growth time was correlated with the degree of supercooling.

Kubota, Noriaki; Kinno, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kenji

1990-03-01

142

L-Cysteine and glutathione restore the reduction of rat hippocampal Na+, K+-ATPase activity induced by aspartame metabolites.  

PubMed

Studies have implicated aspartame (ASP) ingestion in neurological problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities after incubation with ASP or each of ASP metabolites, phenylalanine (Phe), methanol (MeOH) and aspartic acid (asp) separately. Suckling rat hippocampal homogenates or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were incubated with ASP metabolites. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Incubation of hippocampal or pure Na(+),K(+)-ATPase with ASP concentrations (expected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) after ASP consumption of 34, 150 or 200mg/kg resulted in hippocampal enzyme activity reduction of 26%, 50% or 59%, respectively, whereas pure enzyme was remarkably stimulated. Moreover, incubation with hippocampal homogenate of each one of the corresponding in the CSF ASP metabolites related to the intake of common, high/abuse doses of the sweetener, inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, while pure enzyme was activated. Hippocampal Mg(2+)-ATPase remained unaltered. Addition of l-cysteine (cys) or reduced glutathione (GSH) in ASP mixtures, related with high/toxic doses of the sweetener, completely or partially restored the inactivated membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, whereas the activated pure enzyme activity returned to normal. CSF concentrations of ASP metabolites related to common, abuse/toxic doses of the additive significantly reduced rat hippocampal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, whereas pure enzyme was activated. Cys or GSH completely or partially restored both enzyme activities. PMID:17602817

Simintzi, Irene; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Angelogianni, Panagoula; Liapi, Charis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

2007-07-31

143

Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners authorised in the EU; acesulfame-K (ACS-K), aspartame\\u000a (ASP), alitame (ALI), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), neotame (NEO), saccharin (SAC)\\u000a and sucralose (SCL) in a variety of food samples (i.e. beverages, dairy and fish products). After extraction

Agata Zygler; Andrzej Wasik; Agata Kot-Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik

2011-01-01

144

[Carbohydrate sweeteners and obesity].  

PubMed

The U.S. prevalence of obesity increases since the mid-70s of the 20th century. Around that time high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)--mixture of fructose and glucose was introduced as a sweetener replacing sucrose in the food production. HFCS containing 55% fructose and 42-45% glucose (HFCS55) has dominated the American soft drink industry and HFCS has recently become commonly used in Poland. The coincidence of HFCS introduction and obesity epidemic raised widely publicized suspicions of a causal relationship between the two. As a possible mechanism, a higher content of fructose in the HFCS55, as compared with sucrose was suggested -fructose is known to increase serum uric acid level, induce hepatic lipogenesis and not stimulate postprandial hyperinsulinemia, a main activator of leptin release. Few comparative studies of HFCS and sucrose have largely failed to reveal any different impacts on the metabolic parameters, yet they were mainly short-term. It has been recently shown that obesity is linked with changes in the intenstinal flora. Among the causes of allegedly different effects of sucrose and HFCS on metabolism, their influence on the gut microbiome has not been examined. Some bacterial types do not hydrolyze sucrose which may determine different compositions of gut flora with the use of both sweeteners. Studies involving quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA in the stool, both in animals and in humans, shall shed light on the issue that has recently so much absorbed the U.S. public opinion. PMID:23029710

Wystrychowski, Grzegorz; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Grzeszczak, W?adys?aw; Wystrychowski, Antoni

2012-01-01

145

Artificial Sweeteners May Raise Blood Sugar Levels  

MedlinePLUS

... study's co-author Eran Segal, a professor of computer science and applied mathematics at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. Even though the human and mouse studies mainly focused on saccharine, the ...

146

Thermoanalytical studies of some sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal decomposition behavior of acesulfame-K (ACK), aspartame (ASP), sodium cyclamate (SCL), saccharine (SAC), and sodium\\u000a saccharine (SSA) were investigated. After re-crystallization of the commercial samples the compounds were characterized by\\u000a using elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and thermoanalytical techniques (TG\\/DTG, DTA, and DSC). Evidences of hydrate water\\u000a loss were observed for SSA and ASP. Melting was detected for SSA and

Lucinéia Cristina de Carvalho; Milena Pinotti Segato; Ronaldo Spezia Nunes; Csaba Novak; Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro

2009-01-01

147

Demethylation Kinetics of Aspartame and L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of demethylation of aspartame and L-phenylalanine methyl ester were studied in aqueous solution at 25°C over the pH range 0.27–11.5. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for aspartame was resolved into individual contributions from methyl ester hydrolysis and diketopiperazine formation. pH – rate profiles were quantitatively described by chemically reasonable kinetic schemes. Aspartame is maximally stable at pH 4 (t90

Raymond D. Skwierczynski; Kenneth A. Connors

1993-01-01

148

An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

B?y?k, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

2009-10-01

149

Intestinal hydrolysis of aspartylphenylalanine--the metabolic product of aspartame.  

PubMed

Aspartame [Nutrasweet, Equal (Searle Consumer Products, Chicago, Ill.)] is the methyl ester of the dipeptide aspartylphenylalanine (Asp-Phe). After hydrolysis of the ester bond in the intestinal lumen, the dipeptide is apparently absorbed and digested in the same manner as dipeptides derived from protein digestion. We observed that Asp-Phe is hydrolyzed approximately equally well by three previously reported brush border dipeptidases. However, these enzymes have very low affinity for Asp-Phe, and a substantial amount of the dipeptide may be transported intact and hydrolyzed in the cytosol. Starch gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography of the cytosol of intestinal mucosa and of red blood cell lysate revealed only one peak with Asp-Phe hydrolase activity. This activity was distinct from the seven cytosolic peptidases that have been described previously. The reduction in Asp-Phe hydrolase activity in the brush border and cytosol of diseased intestinal mucosa was similar to the reduction in levels of other brush border and cytosol enzyme activities. If double-blind studies confirm that some people have symptoms caused by aspartame ingestion, it would be appropriate to test such individuals for deficiency of cytosolic Asp-Phe hydrolase activity. PMID:3743970

Tobey, N A; Heizer, W D

1986-10-01

150

The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

Stein, Paul J.

1997-09-01

151

A biosensor based on graphite epoxy composite electrode for aspartame and ethanol detection.  

PubMed

A gelatin membrane with carboxyl esterase and alcohol oxidase was subsequently integrated onto the surface of a graphite epoxy composite electrode (GECE). The developed biosensors showed linearity in the range of 2.5-400 microM for aspartame and 2.5-25 microM for ethanol with response times of 170 and 70s for each analyte, respectively. The resulting bienzyme biosensor was used for aspartame detection in diet coke samples and ethanol detection in beer and wine samples. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the developed biosensor is a selective, practical and economic tool for aspartame and ethanol detection in real samples. PMID:17723395

Kirgöz, Ulkü Anik; Odaci, Dilek; Timur, Suna; Merkoçi, Arben; Alegret, Salvador; Be?ün, Nurgün; Telefoncu, Azmi

2006-06-16

152

Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

Çak?r, S.; Co?kun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, ?.; ?çbudak, H.; Çak?r, O.

2002-08-01

153

Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake behavior is not so simple and still many people tend to consume more calories than they burn and

P. A. M. Smeets

2010-01-01

154

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2012-04-01

155

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2010-04-01

156

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2013-04-01

157

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2014-04-01

158

21 CFR 131.120 - Sweetened condensed milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...milk and safe and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. The finished food contains...solids. The quantity of nutritive carbohydrate sweetener used is sufficient to prevent...with or without coloring and nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners, may be used:...

2011-04-01

159

A biosensor based on graphite epoxy composite electrode for aspartame and ethanol detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gelatin membrane with carboxyl esterase and alcohol oxidase was subsequently integrated onto the surface of a graphite epoxy composite electrode (GECE). The developed biosensors showed linearity in the range of 2.5–400?M for aspartame and 2.5–25?M for ethanol with response times of 170 and 70s for each analyte, respectively. The resulting bienzyme biosensor was used for aspartame detection in diet

Ülkü Anik Kirgöz; Dilek Odaci; Suna Timur; Arben Merkoçi; Salvador Alegret; Nurgün Be?ün; Azmi Telefoncu

2006-01-01

160

Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat  

PubMed Central

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnas, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

161

Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.  

PubMed

Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n?=?10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

2014-01-01

162

Simultaneous determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection--development and single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of multiple sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin and sucralose in carbonated and non-carbonated soft drinks, canned or bottled fruits and yoghurt. The procedure involves an extraction of the nine sweeteners with a buffer solution, sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction cartridges followed by an HPLC-ELSD analysis. The trueness of the method was satisfactory with recoveries ranging from 93 to 109% for concentration levels around the maximum usable dosages for authorised sweeteners and from 100 to 112% for unauthorised compounds at concentration levels close to the limit of quantification (LOQs). Precision measures showed mean repeatability values of <4% (expressed as relative standard deviation) for highly concentrated samples and <5% at concentration levels close to the LOQs. Intermediate precision was in most cases <8%. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 15 microg g(-1) and the LOQs below 30 microg g(-1) in all three matrices. Only dulcin showed slightly higher values, i.e., LODs around 30 microg g(-1) and LOQs around 50 microg g(-1) PMID:17540386

Wasik, Andrzej; McCourt, Josephine; Buchgraber, Manuela

2007-07-20

163

Hypothalamic morphology following ingestion of aspartame or MSG in the neonatal rodent and primate: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal mice received oral doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 g\\/kg or aspartame at levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g\\/kg. Hypothalamic lesions were encountered at dose levels equal to or exceeding 0.5 g\\/kg (MSG) and 1.0 g\\/kg (aspartame). Aspartame administration resulted in a much smaller hypothalamic lesion than did equal

W. Ann Reynolds; Veronica Butler

1976-01-01

164

Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of free amino acids in adult humans administered abuse doses of aspartame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of amino acids were measured in 18 fasting adult subjects (9 male, 9 female) administered abuse doses of aspartame (100, 150, and 200 mg\\/kg body weight) dissolved in 500 ml orange juice. Six subjects were studied at each dose. Plasma aspartate concentrations increased significantly (p ?0.05) over baseline values after ingestion of each dose. However, the

Lewis D. Stegink; L. J. Filer Jr; George L. Baker

1981-01-01

165

Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg\\/kg aspartame 14C-labelled in the methanol carbon. At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several organs was investigated. Most of the radioactivity found (> 98 % min plasma, > 75 % min liver) was bound to protein. Label present in liver, plasma and kidney

C. Trocho; R. Pardo; I. Rafecas; J. Virgili; X. Remesar; J. A. Fernández-López; M. Alemany

1998-01-01

166

Sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in antibiotic preparations.  

PubMed

Even though a variety of adverse effects caused by sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in susceptible individuals have been reported, there is no good single reference with information about these substances in pediatric antimicrobials. Data on sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in 91 antimicrobial preparations were collected. Sucrose was present in 74 (85%) of 87 preparations, followed by saccharin in 30 (34%) preparations. Mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol were each present in 7 preparations. None of the preparations were free of sweeteners. Thirty-four (37%) of 91 preparations did not specify the flavoring content. While cherry was the most common flavoring used, there were 25 other flavorings. Thirteen different dyes and coloring agents were used in these antimicrobials. Red dye no. 40 was present in 45% of preparations. Tables detailing sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in different groups of antimicrobials (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, penicillins, sulfonamides, and others) and adverse effects reported with these inert ingredients are presented. These tables should be helpful to physicians in selecting an antimicrobial containing a different sweetener and/or dye when an adverse reaction occurs. PMID:2000275

Kumar, A; Weatherly, M R; Beaman, D C

1991-03-01

167

Bioelectronic Tongue Using Heterodimeric Human Taste Receptor for the Discrimination of Sweeteners with Human-like Performance.  

PubMed

The sense of taste helps humans to obtain information and form a picture of the world by recognizing chemicals in their environments. Over the past decade, large advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of taste detection and mimicking its capability using artificial sensor devices. However, the detection capability of previous artificial taste sensors has been far inferior to that of animal tongues, in terms of its sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic tongue using heterodimeric human sweet taste receptors for the detection and discrimination of sweeteners with human-like performance, where single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors were functionalized with nanovesicles containing human sweet taste receptors and used to detect the binding of sweeteners to the taste receptors. The receptors are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) composed of human taste receptor type 1 member 2 (hTAS1R2) and human taste receptor type 1 member 3 (hTAS1R3), which have multiple binding sites and allow a human tongue-like broad selectivity for the detection of sweeteners. This nanovesicle-based bioelectronic tongue can be a powerful tool for the detection of sweeteners as an alternative to labor-intensive and time-consuming cell-based assays and the sensory evaluation panels used in the food and beverage industry. Furthermore, this study also allows the artificial sensor to exam the functional activity of dimeric GPCRs. PMID:25126667

Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Ahn, Sae Ryun; Kim, Daesan; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Un-Kyung; Simons, Christopher T; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

2014-10-28

168

The Role of Sweeteners in the Diet of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Had children sample beverage and plain cottage cheese sweetened with either sugar or Sweet One as part of a sensory difference test, as well as rank four vanilla puddings sweetened with sugar and three FDA approved sweeteners. Found that participants could tell the difference in beverage but not cottage cheese, and that there was no consensus on…

Soliah, LuAnn; And Others

1997-01-01

169

Automated analysis of public debate on artificial sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framing of issues in the mass media plays a crucial role in the public understanding of science and technology. This article contributes to research concerned with diachronic analysis of media frames by making an analytical distinction between implicit and explicit media frames, and by introducing an automated method for analysing diachronic changes of implicit frames. In particular, we apply

Iina Hellsten; James Dawson; Loet Leydesdorff

170

Trihalogenated benzamides--a new class of artificial sweeteners.  

PubMed

2,4,6-tribromo-3-carboxyalkyl-benzamides and -carboxyalkoxy-benzamides are intensely sweet. With a recognition threshold value of about 1 mumol/l the 3-carboxyethyl compound is one of the sweetest compounds known. The intensity of the sweet taste depends upon the nature of the carboxyalkyl/carboxylalkoxy group. In respect to the acute toxicity to mice the compounds are similar to the sodium salt of saccharin and sodium cyclamate. The compounds are easily obtainable in good yield. PMID:6613356

Gries, H; Mützel, W; Belitz, H D; Wieser, H; Krause, I; Stempfl, W

1983-01-01

171

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...definition and standard of identity prescribed for...except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in §...

2014-04-01

172

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...definition and standard of identity prescribed for...except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in §...

2012-04-01

173

21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements...definition and standard of identity prescribed for...except that in lieu of a packing medium specified in §...

2013-04-01

174

Determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

An analytical procedure involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nine high-intensity sweeteners authorised in the EU; acesulfame-K (ACS-K), aspartame (ASP), alitame (ALI), cyclamate (CYC), dulcin (DUL), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), neotame (NEO), saccharin (SAC) and sucralose (SCL) in a variety of food samples (i.e. beverages, dairy and fish products). After extraction with a buffer composed of formic acid and N,N-diisopropylethylamine at pH 4.5 in ultrasonic bath, extracts were cleaned up using Strata-X 33 ?m Polymeric SPE column. The analytes were separated in gradient elution mode on C(18) column and detected by mass spectrometer working with an electrospray source in negative ion mode. To confirm that analytical method is suitable for its intended use, several validation parameters, such as linearity, limits of detection and quantification, trueness and repeatibilty were evaluated. Calibration curves were linear within a studied range of concentrations (r(2)???0.999) for six investigated sweeteners (CYC, ASP, ALI, DUL, NHDC, NEO). Three compounds (ACS-K, SAC, SCL) gave non-linear response in the investigated concentration range. The method detection limits (corresponding to signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3) were below 0.25 ?g mL(-1) (?g g(-1)), whereas the method quantitation limits (corresponding to S/N ratio of 10) were below 2.5 ?g mL(-1) (?g g(-1)). The recoveries at the tested concentrations (50%, 100% and 125% of maximum usable dose) for all sweeteners were in the range of 84.2?÷?106.7%, with relative standard deviations <10% regardless of the type of sample matrix (i.e. beverage, yoghurt, fish product) and the spiking level. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the nine sweeteners in drinks, yoghurts and fish products. The procedure described here is simple, accurate and precise and is suitable for routine quality control analysis of foodstuffs. PMID:21465096

Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namie?nik, Jacek

2011-06-01

175

Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a within-subjects design, we gave over- weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 mm after the preload was completed. Blood was drawn throughout and assayed for concentrations of

Judith Rodin

176

The Determination of Aspartame in Diet Soft Drinks by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for the qualitative and quantitative determination of aspartame (Nutrasweet) in diet soft drinks is described. A high performance liquid chromatography method is used which requires a 250 × 4.6 mm ?-cyclodextrin bonded silica gel column and a mobile phase of methanol\\/1% triethyl ammonium acetate (pH 4.5). The effluent was monitored at 214 nm. The method was applied

Haleem J. Issaq; Donna Weiss; Cynthia Ridlon; Stephen D. Fox; Gary M. Muschik

1986-01-01

177

Blood methanol concentrations in normal adult subjects administered abuse doses of aspartame  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood methanol concentrations were measured in 30 normal adult subjects administered aspartame, a dipeptide methyl ester. The doses studied included the 99th percentile of projected daily ingestion (34 mg\\/kg body weight) and three doses considered to be in the abuse range (100, 150, and 200 mg\\/kg body weight). Methanol concentrations were below the level of detection (0.4 mg\\/dl) in the

Lewis D. Stegink; Marvin C. Brummel; K. McMartin; L. J. Filer Jr; G. L. Baker; T. R. Tephly

1981-01-01

178

Determination of nine intense sweeteners in foodstuffs by high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

An interlaboratory trial was conducted to validate an analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis with evaporative light-scattering detection for the simultaneous determination of 9 intense sweeteners, i.e., acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamic acid, dulcin, neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin, and sucralose in carbonated and noncarbonated soft drinks and canned or bottled fruits. Seven laboratories participated in the validation study. The majority of the samples fortified with levels close to the limit of quantification had relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values <15%. In most cases, the recovery rates ranged between 90 and 105%, demonstrating satisfactory performance of the method. For samples fortified at levels comparable to the prescribed legal limits stipulated in the current European Union legislation, the method produces acceptably accurate, repeatable, and reproducible results. Trueness, expressed in terms of recovery rates, was demonstrated in most cases by values ranging from 90 to 108%. Comparability of results obtained by individual testing laboratories was good (RSDR values <10%) for the majority of results. Moreover, HorRat values of <1.1 suggested good performance of the method for all sweeteners and matrixes tested. PMID:19382579

Buchgraber, Manuela; Wasik, Andrzej

2009-01-01

179

Effect of an Abuse Dose of Aspartame upon Plasma and Erythrocyte Levels of Amino Acids in Phenylketonuric Heterozygous and Normal Adults1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma and erythrocyte levels of free amino acids were measured in five female subjects known to be heterozygous for phenylketonuria and six subjects assumed to be normal (three male, three female) who were ad ministered an abuse dose of aspartame (100 mg\\/kg) in orange juice. Small increases in plasma aspartate levels were noted 30 minutes after aspartame load ing in

LEWIS D. STEGINK; L. J. FILER JR.; GEORGE L. BAKER; ANDJEAN E. MCDONNELL

180

21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries....

2010-04-01

181

21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries....

2012-04-01

182

21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries....

2013-04-01

183

21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries...Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries....

2011-04-01

184

Exploring the Use of Stevia rebaudiana as a Sweetener in Comparison with Other Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stevia extract was prepared by boiling stevia leaf powder in water. Sweetness equivalence was tested by comparing sweetness of extract with sugar and other sweeteners like sugar free, equals, natura, sugar free natura and saccharine. Eleven recipes viz milk, coffee, tea, gajar halwa, milk shake, kheer, curd, lemon water, custard, halwa and lapsi were prepared using stevia extract and other

Renu Mogra; Versha Dashora

185

2008 Cable News Network Sweet! Researchers' device 'tastes' sweeteners  

E-print Network

is dipped into a food or drink, a series of color-coded dots reveals what type of sweetener is present. "It Highlights Business card-sized tool distinguishes between 14 types of sweetener Food service industry in food and drinks, say researchers, who add that it could be an early step toward developing a fully

Suslick, Kenneth S.

186

Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.  

PubMed

The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

2014-04-01

187

Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners – A risk benefit assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and

T. Husøy; B. Mangschou; T. Ø. Fotland; S. O. Kolset; H. Nøtvik Jakobsen; I. Tømmerberg; C. Bergsten; J. Alexander; L. Frost Andersen

2008-01-01

188

Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectrometry has undergone considerable changes in the past decade. The advent of "soft ionization" techniques such as electrospray ionization (ESI) affords the direct analysis of very polar molecules without need for the complex inefficient derivatization procedures often required in GC-MS. These ionization techniques make possible the direct mass spectral analysis of polar nonvolatile molecules such as DNA and proteins, which previously were difficult or impossible to analyze by MS. Compounds that readily take on a charge (acids and bases) lend themselves to ESI-MS analysis, whereas compounds that do not readily accept a charge (e.g. sugars) are often not seen or are seen only as inefficient adducts (e.g., M+Na+). To gain exposure to this state-of-the-art analytical procedure, high school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. They dilute a beverage sample and inject the diluted sample into the ESI-MS. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry. Depending upon the instructional goals, the outlined procedures can be used to quantify the content of caffeine and aspartame in beverages or to understand the capabilities of electrospray ionization.

Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen

2000-10-01

189

Effect of Dietary Aspartame on Plasma Concentrations of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine in Normal and Homozygous Phenylketonuric Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six normal subjects each ingested a single 12 - oz can of a diet cola (Diet Coke) providing 184 mg aspartame (APM), of which 104 mg is phenylalanine (Phe), and, on another occasion, a single 12 - oz can of regular cola (Coke Classic). Neither cola significantly affected plasma concentrations of Phe or tyrosine over the three-hour postingestion study period.

Stephanie A. Mackey; Cheston M. Berlin

1992-01-01

190

Time to maximum sweetness intensity of binary and ternary blends of sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to determine what effect, if any, the blending of sweeteners has on the time to maximum sweetness intensity of sweeteners. In this study that is comprised of three separate experiments, trained panelists evaluated the time to maximum sweetness intensity of sweeteners tested in both binary and ternary combinations. Sixteen sweeteners that varied widely

Susan S. Schiffman; Elizabeth A. Sattely-Miller; Ihab E. Bishay

2007-01-01

191

A review of the effectiveness of aspartame in helping with weight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Strategies to reverse the upward trend in obesity rates need to focus on both reduc- ing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. The provision of low- or reduced-energy-dense foods is one way of helping people to reduce their energy intake and so enable weight maintenance or weight loss to occur. The use of intense sweeteners as a substitute for

A. de la Hunty; S. Gibson; M. Ashwell

2006-01-01

192

Electrochemical study of the complexes of aspartame with Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions in the aqueous medium.  

PubMed

The voltammetric behaviours of aspartame in the presence of some metal ions (Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)) were investigated. In the presence of aspartame, copper ions reduced at two stages with quasi-reversible one-electron and, with increasing the aspartame (L) concentration, Cu(II)L(2) complex reduces at one-stage with irreversible two-electron reaction (-0.322 V). Zn(II)-aspartame complex (logbeta=3.70) was recognized by a cathodic peak at -1.320 V. Ni(II)-aspartame complex (logbeta=6.52) is reduced at the more positive potential (-0.87 V) than that of the hydrated Ni(II) ions (-1.088 V). In the case of the reduction of Ni(II) ions, aspartame serves as a catalyst. From electronic spectra data of the complexes, their stoichiometries of 1:2 (metal-ligand) in aqueous medium are determined. The greatness of these logarithmic values is agreement with Irwing-Williams series (NiZn). PMID:12747864

Cakir, Semiha; Coskun, Emine; Biçer, Ender; Cakir, Osman

2003-05-23

193

Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged

JOANNE F GUTHRIE; JOAN F MORTON

2000-01-01

194

Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200–300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended with other non-calorie or carbohydrate sweeteners. It is stable under

I. Prakash; G. E. DuBois; J. F. Clos; K. L. Wilkens; L. E. Fosdick

2008-01-01

195

Web of Science Niveau avanc  

E-print Network

TOPIC: aspartame OR saccharine OR sweetener* retrouvera tous les documents contenant au moins un de ces suivante TOPIC: aspartame AND cancer* retrouvera tous les documents contenant les termes aspartame ET

Dintrans, Boris

196

Determination of aspartame and phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with direct spectrofluorimetric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of spectrofluorimetric detection is proposed in this work for the determination of aspartame and its main hydrolysis product phenylalanine in diet soft drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation was achieved on a LiChrosorb RP18 column with the mobile phase methanol–acetonitrile–phosphate buffer (2:17:81), pH 4.3. Native fluorescence of the two analytes (?ex=205 nm, ?em=284 nm) was used for detection. The

Kazimierz Wróbel; Katarzyna Wróbel

1997-01-01

197

Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of aspartame (N-L-?-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) and its metabolites, applicable on a routine quality assurance basis, is described. Liquid samples (diet Coke, 7-Up, Pepsi, etc.) were injected directly onto a mini-cartridge reversed-phase column on a high-performance liquid chromatographic system, whereas solid samples (Equal, hot chocolate powder, pudding, etc.) were extracted with water. Optimising chromatographic conditions resulted

Bernard F. Gibbs; Inteaz Alli; Catherine N. Mulligan

1996-01-01

198

PKU (Phenylketonuria) in Your Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... eat: Milk, cheese, ice cream and other dairy products Eggs Meat and poultry Fish Nuts Beans Food or drinks that contain aspartame. This is an artificial sweetener that has lots of phenylalanine in it. It’s sold as NutraSweet® and Equal®. PKU meal plans are different for each baby and can ...

199

Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

2013-01-01

200

Research report The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and  

E-print Network

's energy content. Sweet-tasting foods are more calorically dense than less sweet foods, making sweetness containing non-caloric sweeteners (NCS), which sweeten food and drinks without adding calories. BecauseResearch report The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post

Cooper, Brenton G.

201

Improved water solubility of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in sweetener blends.  

PubMed

Significant technological advantages in terms of sweetness synergy and hence cost-saving can be obtained if neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is used in sweetener blends with other intense or bulk sweeteners. The combination of NHDC with sodium saccharin or sodium cyclamate is an excellent method to improve the water solubility at room temperature of NHDC. In the case of NHDC-sodium saccharin, two different methods for blend preparation, a simple mixture and a cosolubilized mixture, can be used, with similar results obtained for solubility and solution stability properties. To improve temporally the water solubility of NHDC in combination with sodium cyclamate, it is absolutely necessary to prepare cosolubilized blends. PMID:11170576

Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J; Del Baño, M J; Lorente, J

2001-01-01

202

Preference for sugars and nonnutritive sweeteners in young beagles.  

PubMed

Two-bowl choice tests were used to examined preference of puppies aged two to four months for compounds tasting sweet to humans. Puppies found many, but not all of the compounds highly palatable, and were sensitive to both type and amount of sugar or nonnutritive sweetener contained in a semi-moist dog food recipe. Lactose, fructose, and sucrose were well accepted, whereas maltose elicited indifference or rejection. Sodium cyclamate, but not sodium saccharin, was preferred at some concentrations to 15 percent sucrose sweetened semi-moist food used as the standard. Solutions of lactose, fructose, glucose and galactose were preferred to plain tap water. PMID:6205334

Ferrell, F

1984-01-01

203

Hydrogen-bonding and the sweet taste mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tripartite glucophores (AH-B,?) of some natural (sugars) and artificial (Aspartame, Acesulfame, Saccharin, NHDHC and Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweeteners are proposed. These propositions are based on the molecular structure and infrared spectra of the studied molecules. The role of water in the sweet taste mechanism of small carbohydrates and artificial sweeteners was derived from the Raman spectra of their aqueous solutions. Comparison of the intensities and frequencies of the calculated components of the experimental Raman band of water on the one hand and of aqueous solutions of sweeteners on the other permitted interpretation of the role of water in the sweetness mechanism.

Mathlouthi, M.; Portmann, M. O.

1990-09-01

204

The black agonist-receptor model of high potency sweeteners, and its implication to sweetness taste and sweetener design.  

PubMed

The dose responses of the most commonly used high potency sweeteners (HPSs) have been measured by a more precise sensory procedure. The data were analyzed by Black's pharmacological model that takes into account not only agonist binding affinity but transduction efficiency as well. HPSs are clearly segregated into 2 groups depending on whether they bind to T1R2 or T1R3 of the receptor heterodimer. Surprisingly, the more potent sweeteners have lower transduction efficiencies. The implications of these on consumer product development and HPS design are discussed. PMID:22417603

Farkas, Attila; Híd, János

2011-10-01

205

Corn Stover Potential: Recasting the Corn Sweetener Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corn sweetener industry is based on processing corn grain (maize), creating value-added products such as glucose, dextrose, and fructose. Conversion of corn stover to sugars has been stymied for years due to cost. Environmental benefits, wider adaptation of sustainable farming practices and the relentless improve- ments in biotechnology are expected to overcome the economic hurdle within the next five

David Glassner; James Hettenhaus; Tom Schechinger

1999-01-01

206

New gas-sweetening system is energy saver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amine Guard ST is a sulfur-tolerant corrosion inhibitor designed to protect mild steel components in alkanolamine-based, acid gas removal processes. Adding the inhibitor to the process stream allows the use of stronger amine solutions and lower solvent flow rates, thus cutting energy costs by 25%. Field tests at four sweetening plants demonstrated the effective corrosion control achieved by this inhibition

A. J. Kosseim; J. G. McCullough; C. L. Coarsey

1984-01-01

207

Sweeteners, Dyes, and Other Excipients in Vitamin and Mineral Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivitamins and mineral preparations are widely used for infants and children. All of these preparations contain a variety of excipients (“inert ingredients”). Excipients are generally safe; however, adverse effects have been attributed to them. Complete information about the excipients in various preparations is not readily available. The information about sweeteners, dyes, and other excipients (flavorings, preservatives, stabilizers, and fillers) for

Ashir Kumar; Anastassios T. Aitas; Anthony G. Hunter; Dana C. Beaman

1996-01-01

208

Price behaviour in the US sweetener market: a cointegration approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweetener market in the United States is complicated because of the substitution possibilities between high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and sugar. This study focuses on the relationship between raw sugar prices and the prices for high fructose corn syrup. Sugar and HFCS are imperfect substitutes for several industrial uses. Sugar can be used for all industrial uses, but HFCS

Charles B. Moss; Andrew Schmits

2002-01-01

209

A history of sweeteners--natural and synthetic.  

PubMed

Sweetness for the prehistoric man was the taste sensation obtained from sweet berries and honey. Man's quest for other sweet things led to sucose, starch-derived sugars, and synthetic sweeteners. An unusual source of sweet taste is a West African berry known as miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum). This fruit possesses a taste-modifying substance that causes sour foods--e.g., lemons, limes, or grapefruit--to taste sweet. The active principle was found to be a glycoprotein. Until this time, only small molecules were considered sweet-evoking substances, but now macromolecules are considered capable of participating in taste perception. The intense sweetener of the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called the serendipity berry, was revealed to be a protein. The intensely sweet principle of Thaumatococcus daniellii, called katemfe, was reported in 1972 to contain two proteins having intense sweetness. Since intensely sweet protein sweeteners act directly on taste buds as a probe, a peptide linkage analogous to the aspartic acid sweeteners may be partly responsible for their sweetness. PMID:792461

Inglett, G E

1976-09-01

210

Experimental apparatus for simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas  

E-print Network

Page Typical glycol dehydrator flow diagram. . 8 Typical amine-based gas treating process flow diagram. . . . Simplified schematic of packed column absorber. . . , . 19 Overall schematic of apparatus. 21 Schematic of absorption column... solvents. . 10 Characteristics of some popular gas sweetening processes. . Typical industrial gas analyzers . 37 Summary of pertinent design and operating data. . . . . . . . 40 Calibration gas calculation data. . . 44 Times of events for calibration...

Pace, Christopher Lee

2012-06-07

211

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2011-04-01

212

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2010-04-01

213

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2013-04-01

214

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2012-04-01

215

21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...  

...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL...over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. (a) Aspartame is the...

2014-04-01

216

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.  

PubMed

An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature. PMID:21802146

Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

2012-04-01

217

Behavioral effects of withdrawal from sweetened vegetable shortening in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that withdrawal from intermittent access to a sweet fat mixture would lead to an exaggerated motivation and craving for palatable food. Male Long–Evans rats were divided into three weight-matched groups based on access to sweetened vegetable shortening (SVS). Groups received 1-hour SVS access everyday (7D group), 1-hour SVS access intermittently, 3days\\/week (3D group), or no

Heidi M. McGee; Bekaluwa Amare; Amy L. Bennett; Elizabeth A. Duncan-Vaidya

2010-01-01

218

Remineralization of Artificial Caries-like Lesions in Human Enamel in situ by Chewing Sorbitol Gum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine quantitatively the effect on the potential for in situ remineralization of artificial caries-like lesions in human enamel when sugar-free gum containing mainly sorbitol as sweetener was chewed after meals and snacks. Artificial white-spot lesions were created in extracted human premolars and divided into three parts. One part was used as reference and

S. A. Leach; G. T. R. Lee; W. M. Edgar

1989-01-01

219

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

Waltz, David L.

1982-01-01

220

[Use of diet sweeteners by adults in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: a population-based study].  

PubMed

This population-based study evaluated the use of diet sweeteners by adults (> 20 years) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Data were collected from January to July 2010 (n = 2,732). Besides specific questions on diet sweeteners, demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics were recorded. Heterogeneity and linear trend chi-square tests were used for the statistical analysis. Prevalence of sweetener use was 19% (95%CI: 1.1-20.9), and was 3.7 times higher in elderly individuals as compared to 20-29-year-olds. Economic level and nutritional status were significantly associated with sweetener use. Nearly 98% of the sample used liquid sweeteners; the most frequently consumed (89.2%) were those containing saccharin or sodium cyclamate. Average intake was 10 drops of liquid sweetener or 1.5 sachets of powdered sweetener. Use of diet sweeteners was higher among women and the elderly. PMID:21655843

Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany

2011-05-01

221

Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

1985-01-01

222

Amiloride Reduces the Taste Intensity of Na+ and Li+ Salts and Sweeteners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diuretic amiloride, a potent inhibitor of sodium transport in a variety of epithelial systems, was applied to the human tongue. Application of amiloride reduced the taste intensity of sodium and lithium salts and of sweeteners ranging widely in chemical structure. The sweeteners included saccharides, glycosides, dipeptides, proteins, and amino acids. Amiloride did not affect perception of potassium or calcium

Susan S. Schiffman; Elaine Lockhead; Frans W. Maes

1983-01-01

223

Active conformations of neotame and other high-potency sweeteners.  

PubMed

We carried out extensive conformational analysis of three high-potency sweeteners: neotame, superaspartame, and SC-45647. We then identified six possible pharmacophore features (carboxylate, two hydrophobic groups, and three NH groups) and wrote a computer program to exhaustively compare intramolecular distances among all possible sets of five-point pharmacophores (carboxylate + two hydrophobic groups + two NH groups) for the three compounds. The best pharmacophore model superimposes low-energy conformers of the three compounds in such a way that the five pharmacophore points match well both sterically and with respect to orientation of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. PMID:10737757

Walters, D E; Prakash, I; Desai, N

2000-03-23

224

Sweeteners, dyes, and other excipients in vitamin and mineral preparations.  

PubMed

Multivitamins and mineral preparations are widely used for infants and children. All of these preparations contain a variety of excipients ("inert ingredients"). Excipients are generally safe; however, adverse effects have been attributed to them. Complete information about the excipients in various preparations is not readily available. The information about sweeteners, dyes, and other excipients (flavorings, preservatives, stabilizers, and fillers) for 41 chewable/liquid multivitamin and mineral preparations was obtained and tabulated. Sucrose was present in 63% (26/41) of preparations followed by lactose in 29% (12/41) of preparations. On average, a preparation contained two sweeteners. The FD&C yellow #6 (sunset yellow) was the most common dye, present in 46% (19/41) of the preparations followed by FD&C Red #40 in 29% (12/41). For 34% (14/41) of the preparations, no color or dye was identified by the manufacturers. The tables listing excipients and their adverse effects are presented and should be helpful to health care providers in selecting preparations containing individual excipients when an adverse reaction occurs or there exists a contraindication for using the excipient. The mandatory listing of all excipients is the only way to assure that physicians and consumers will be fully informed about the hidden ingredients. PMID:8877241

Kumar, A; Aitas, A T; Hunter, A G; Beaman, D C

1996-09-01

225

The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials. Methods We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to receive 250 mL per day of an artificially sweetened sugar-free beverage or a similarly looking and tasting sugar-sweetened beverage. We measured satiety on a 5-point scale by questionnaire at 0, 6, 12 and 18 months. We calculated the change in satiety from before intake to 1 minute after intake and 15 minutes after intake. We then calculated the odds ratio that satiety increased by 1 point in the sugar-group versus the sugar-free group. We also investigated how much the children liked and wanted the beverages. Results 146 children or 72% completed the study. We found no statistically significant difference in satiety between the sugar-free and sugar-sweetened group; the adjusted odds ratio for a 1 point increase in satiety in the sugar group versus the sugar-free group was 0.77 at 1 minute (95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.29), and 1.44 at 15 minutes after intake (95% CI, 0.86 to 2.40). The sugar-group liked and wanted their beverage slightly more than the sugar-free group, adjusted odds ratio 1.63 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.54) and 1.65 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.55), respectively. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened and sugar-free beverages produced similar satiety. Therefore when children are given sugar-free instead of sugar-containing drinks they might not make up the missing calories from other sources. This may explain our previous observation that children in the sugar-free group accumulated less body fat than those in the sugar group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00893529 PMID:24167595

de Ruyter, Janne C.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Liem, Djin G.; Olthof, Margreet R.

2013-01-01

226

Sweetener blend optimization by using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue.  

PubMed

Utilizing more than one sweetener has been shown to be an effective way to substitute sucrose in food products. The objective of this study was to apply the augmented simplex-centroid mixture design for the optimization of acceptable sweetener blends using coconut sugar, agave, and stevia. Sweetener blends were evaluated in aqueous solutions and gluten-free granola bars by a trained panel and consumers (n = 60). Significant differences were found between sweetener mixtures in solutions by both panelists and consumers (P < 0.05). Taste profiles for the sweetener solutions were also generated using the electronic tongue. Most consumer and trained intensity ratings were highly correlated (R(2) ? 0.79) with the electronic tongue taste profile analysis. Granola bars were also found to be significantly different (P < 0.05), with consumers preferring coconut sugar mixtures. Using contour plots and desirability function analysis, an optimal sweetener combination was found for a granola bar formulation of 89.9% coconut sugar, 6.1% agave, and 4% stevia. These results indicate that a mixture design can be a reliable way to develop new sweetener blends for product development. PMID:25155461

Waldrop, Megan E; Ross, Carolyn F

2014-09-01

227

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on expert systems and artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the symposium included knowledge representation, industrial expert systems, knowledge bases, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, mathematical logic, robots, flexible manufacturing systems, decision-making in computer-aided planning, computerized control systems, artificial intelligence applied systems, computerized simulation, and natural language.

Ponomaryov, V.M.

1983-01-01

228

Artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

Firschein, O.

1984-01-01

229

Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

This paper is a general overview of the field of artificial Intelligence and of some of the application issues within that field. Its first objective is to try and establish a viable definition for what artificial intelligence is, and to make a...

Appleton, D. S.

230

Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora  

PubMed Central

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

2009-01-01

231

Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora.  

PubMed

The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

2009-01-01

232

Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) and its metabolites, applicable on a routine quality assurance basis, is described. Liquid samples (diet Coke, 7-Up, Pepsi, etc.) were injected directly onto a mini-cartridge reversed-phase column on a high-performance liquid chromatographic system, whereas solid samples (Equal, hot chocolate powder, pudding, etc.) were extracted with water. Optimising chromatographic conditions resulted in resolved components of interest within 12 min. The by-products were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Although the method was developed on a two-pump HPLC system fitted with a diode-array detector, it is straightforward and can be transformed to the simplest HPLC configuration. Using a single-piston pump (with damper), a fixed-wavelength detector and a recorder/integrator, the degradation of products can be monitored as they decompose. The results obtained were in harmony with previously reported tedious methods. The method is simple, rapid, quantitative and does not involve complex, hazardous or toxic chemistry. PMID:8900578

Gibbs, B F; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

1996-02-23

233

Effect of dietary aspartame on plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in normal and homozygous phenylketonuric patients.  

PubMed

Six normal subjects each ingested a single 12-oz can of a diet cola (Diet Coke) providing 184 mg aspartame (APM), of which 104 mg is phenylalanine (Phe), and, on another occasion, a single 12-oz can of regular cola (Coke Classic). Neither cola significantly affected plasma concentrations of Phe or tyrosine over the three-hour postingestion study period. Each of five homozygous phenylketonuric (PKU) subjects (ages 11, 16, 17, 21, and 23 years) ingested a single 12-oz can of the same diet cola. In these five subjects (three with classic PKU and two with hyperphenylalinemia), the increase in plasma Phe concentrations varied from 0.26 mg/dL to 1.77 mg/dL two or three hours after ingestion (baseline levels, 5.04 to 17.2 mg/dL). Tyrosine concentrations did not differ significantly from baseline levels. The data indicate that ingestion of dietary Phe, as supplied in a single can of diet cola, is readily handled in both normal and PKU subjects. The small increases in plasma Phe concentrations in the homozygous PKU patients are not considered clinically significant. PMID:1617863

Mackey, S A; Berlin, C M

1992-07-01

234

Does the Sale of Sweetened Beverages at School Affect Children's Weight?  

PubMed Central

In response to the increase in children’s weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between children’s access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages. PMID:21907477

Cunningham, Solveig A.; Zavodny, Madeline

2011-01-01

235

Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors  

E-print Network

This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults...

Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

2013-01-01

236

Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and in- volvement) are associated with adolescents' con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n 5 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength,

Klazine van der Horst; Stef Kremers; Isabel Ferreira; Amika Singh; Anke Oenema; Johannes Brug

2006-01-01

237

Sweetened carbonated drinks do not alter upper digestive tract physiology in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Sweetened carbonated beverages are widely consumed, which has fuelled several conflicting opinions about their effects on upper digestive tract functions. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sweetened carbonated drinks, consumed with a standard meal, on gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying and gallbladder contraction and postmeal sensations in healthy subjects. Thirteen healthy volunteers (seven women, six males; median age 22 years) were tested following the intake of 300 mL sweetened water containing increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (seven subjects), and of 300 mL sweetened commercial flavoured drink with and without carbon dioxide (six subjects). Gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying and gallbladder contraction were studied by pH-impedance, octanoic acid breath test and ultrasound respectively. Gastro-oesophageal refluxes were significantly increased 1 h after meal with both water and commercial beverages; only sweetened water without carbon dioxide determined a persistently increasing number of refluxes 2 h postmeal. No differences were found for gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction or postmeal symptoms with any of the beverages tested. This study shows that 300 mL of sweetened carbonated beverage with different levels of carbonation or a commercial soft drink do not modify the physiology of the upper digestive tract. PMID:18373521

Cuomo, R; Savarese, M F; Sarnelli, G; Vollono, G; Rocco, A; Coccoli, P; Cirillo, C; Asciore, L; Nardone, G; Buyckx, M

2008-07-01

238

Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

Chris Langton

1987-01-01

239

Artificial Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A man-made object placed in orbit round the Earth or some other celestial body. The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the then Soviet Union, on 4 October 1957. Spherical in shape, and with a mass of 84 kg, it entered an orbit with a perigee altitude of 229 km, an apogee altitude of 947 km and a period of 96 min. Artificial satellites are used for a wide variety of roles,...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

240

New controls spark boiler efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new

Engels

1993-01-01

241

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)  

PubMed Central

Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ?2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04–2.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (Ptrend?=?0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR?=?2.22; 95% CI, 1.29–3.81, Ptrend?=?0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24937507

Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

242

Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have reported that, compared with glucose- sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the pre- dominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. Objective: We

Kimber L Stanhope; Steven C Griffen; Brandi R Bair; Michael M Swarbrick; Nancy L Keim; Peter J Havel

243

Soft drinks, sweetened beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Soft drinks usually contain sugar and caffeine that might influence pancreatic carcinogenesis. We considered the association between carbonated drink consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in an Italian case-control study conducted in 1991-2008 on 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 652 matched controls. We also combined the results from all the studies on soft drinks or sweetened beverages and pancreatic cancer published before June 2010, using a meta-analytic approach. In the case-control study, compared with non-drinkers, the multivariate odds ratio was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.72-1.44) for carbonated drink consumers and 0.89 (95% CI 0.53-1.50) for regular consumers (at least one drink/day). Besides our study, from the literature search, we identified 4 other case-control (1,919 cases) and 6 cohort studies (2,367 cases). The pooled relative risks (RR) for soft drink consumers vs. non-consumers were 0.97 (95% CI 0.81-1.16) for case-control, 1.05 (95% CI 0.94-1.17) for cohort, and 1.02 (95% CI 0.93-1.12) for all studies. The pooled RRs for heavy drinkers were 1.08 (95% CI 0.73-1.60) for case-control, 1.21 (95% CI 0.90-1.63) for cohort, and 1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45) for all studies. In conclusion, soft drink consumption is not materially related to pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:20981481

Gallus, Silvano; Turati, Federica; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Talamini, Renato; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

2011-01-01

244

Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

2013-01-01

245

40 CFR 60.5406 - What test methods and procedures must I use for my sweetening units affected facilities at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...methods and procedures must I use for my sweetening units...natural gas processing plants? 60.5406 Section...and procedures must I use for my sweetening units...natural gas processing plants? (a) In conducting...in § 60.8, you must use the test methods in...

2013-07-01

246

Amiloride reduces the taste intensity of Na+ and Li+ salts and sweeteners.  

PubMed Central

The diuretic amiloride, a potent inhibitor of sodium transport in a variety of epithelial systems, was applied to the human tongue. Application of amiloride reduced the taste intensity of sodium and lithium salts and of sweeteners ranging widely in chemical structure. The sweeteners included saccharides, glycosides, dipeptides, proteins, and amino acids. Amiloride did not affect perception of potassium or calcium salts, bitter and sour tastes, or amino acids without a sweet or salty component. These findings were supported by neurophysiological studies in rat, which showed that amiloride diminished the NaCl response relative to KCl. The results are consistent with the position that an amiloride-sensitive transport mechanism is involved in taste perception of sodium and lithium salts and of sweeteners. PMID:6577473

Schiffman, S S; Lockhead, E; Maes, F W

1983-01-01

247

Artificial Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-11

248

Bioconcentration of the intense sweetener sucralose in a multitrophic battery of aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Reports of the intense (artificial) sweetener sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-?-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-?-D-galactopyranoside) in various environmental compartments have led to speculations about biological effects in nontarget species living in areas receiving discharges from anthropogenic activities. We have, as the first step in the risk assessment of this compound, conducted bioaccumulation studies in the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the crustacean Daphnia magna, and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The freshwater algae and the daphnid tests were performed using a 48-h static exposure system, whereas the zebrafish test was performed using a 48-h semi static exposure system followed by 48 h flow-through of clean water for the depuration phase. All three studies were conducted with two exposure concentrations (10 and 100 mg/L), and the concentrations of sucralose in water and biota were verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The studies showed that uptake of sucralose was assumed to achieve a steady state within the first 48 h, and the bioconcentration factor at the assumed steady state (BCF(SS) ) was calculated to be less than 1 for algae and between 1.6 to 2.2 for the daphnids. The fish BCF(SS), assumed to occur between 24 to 48 hours, were calculated to be less than 1 for both concentrations tested. A first-order one-compartment (uptake phase) and a first-order two-compartment (elimination phase) model characterized the uptake and depuration kinetics in zebrafish (k(1)=0.027-0.038/h and k(2)=0.206-0.222/h, t(95)=13.5 to 14.6 h, t(50)=3.1 to 3.3 h, and BCF(kinetic)=0.4 to 0.9). The current study shows that sucralose does not bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms from different tiers of the food web, and that the BCF's obtained were considerably lower than the criteria set to identify persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances (i.e., BCF ? 2,000). PMID:21154846

Lillicrap, Adam; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

2011-03-01

249

[New facts about the molecular background of isovanilline-type sweeteners].  

PubMed

As a continuation of our studies on the relationship between structure and sweet taste of isovanilline-type sweeteners, (3-hydroxy-4-methoxy)benzyl-benzoate (17) and -salicylate (17c), analogues of dihydrochalcone-type sweetener analogues of (+)-phyllodulcin [(+)-5] and CH-401 (14c) have been synthesized. Surprisingly, 17c has been found to be tastless, while 17e was slightly sweet. These observations could be explained by the current hypothesis on the receptor model for isovanilline-type sweet derivatives. PMID:24809163

Kálmán, Noémi; Magyarné-Jeszenszki, Erzsébet; Kurtán, Tibor; Antus, Sándor

2014-01-01

250

Published on Scientific Blogging (http://www.scientificblogging.com) Home > Physical Sciences > Chemistry > News Articles > Printer-friendly  

E-print Network

of a business card, can also identify sweeteners used in solid foods such as cakes, cookies, and chewing gum sweeteners, including sucrose (table sugar), xylitol (used in sugarless chewing gum), sorbitol, aspartame

Suslick, Kenneth S.

251

Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some

Paolo Bagnaresi; Anna Moschella; Ottavio Beretta; Federico Vitulli; Paolo Ranalli; Pierdomenico Perata

2008-01-01

252

Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3-5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002-2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score was computed from recorded height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by national reference age-sex specific BMI: those with an age-sex specific BMI>or=85th, but <95th percentile as overweight and those with BMI>or=95th age-sex specific percentile as obese. The prevalence of overweight was 12.9% in baseline, and increased to 18.7% after 2 years. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3 to 20.4% during the same period. Baseline intake of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with baseline BMI z-scores. After adjusting for covariates, additional intake of fruit drinks and all sugar-sweetened beverages at baseline showed significantly higher odds of incidence of overweight over 2 years. Among a longitudinal cohort of African-American preschool children, high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was significantly associated with an increased risk for obesity. PMID:19197261

Lim, Sungwoo; Zoellner, Jamie M; Lee, Joyce M; Burt, Brian A; Sandretto, Anita M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Lepkowski, James M

2009-06-01

253

An Empirical Analysis of Socio-Demographic Stratification in Sweetened Carbonated Soft-Drink Purchasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric soft drinks are the number one source of added sugars in U.S. diets, and are associated with many health problems. Three recent years of household purchase, household demographic, and industry advertising data allow Heckit estimation to identify how specific demographic groups vary in their purchase response to marketing of sweetened carbonated soft drinks (sCSDs) at the product category level.

Charles Rhodes

2012-01-01

254

Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

2012-01-01

255

Perceived Parenting Style and Practices and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages by Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire…

van der Horst, Klazine; Kremers, Stef; Ferreira, Isabel; Singh, Amika; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

256

Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective was to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to certain conventional separation processes now in use in the corn-sweetener industry. Three applications of membranes were studied during the program: the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; the concentration of dilute wastes, called ''sweetwater,'' by a combination of reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis; and

1986-01-01

257

Stability of the intense sweetener neohesperidine DC during yogurt manufacture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the intense sweetener neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (DC) has been assessed during yogurt manufacture and storage. No significant decomposition was detected during and after milk pasteurization, the fermentation process and storage for 6 weeks at 3 °C. In addition, the maximum authorized concentration of neohesperidine DC did not affect the rate of acidification by lactic acid bacteria during the

Helena Montijano; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán; Francisco Borrego

1995-01-01

258

Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

2012-01-01

259

Sweeteners determination in table top formulations using FT-Raman spectrometry and chemometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial least squares (PLS) Fourier transform Raman spectrometry procedure based on the measurement of solid samples contained inside standard glass vials, has been developed for direct and reagent-free determination of sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate in table top sweeteners. A classical 22 design for standards was used for calibration, but this system provides accuracy errors higher than 13% w\\/w

Sergio Armenta; Salvador Garrigues; Miguel de la Guardia

2004-01-01

260

Multi-Targeted Mechanisms Underlying the Endothelial Protective Effects of the Diabetic-Safe Sweetener  

E-print Network

-Safe Sweetener Erythritol Danie¨lle M. P. H. J. Boesten1 *. , Alvin Berger2.¤ , Peter de Cock3 , Hua Dong4 by Cargill, the employer of Alvin Berger and Peter de Cock. Erythritol was provided by Cargill DMPHJ, Berger A, de Cock P, Dong H, Hammock BD, et al. (2013) Multi-Targeted Mechanisms Underlying

Hammock, Bruce D.

261

Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

2007-01-01

262

Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).  

PubMed

In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23341001

Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

2013-05-01

263

Phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of selected natural sweeteners available on the Polish market.  

PubMed

Seventeen natural sweeteners available on the Polish market were screened for total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS(·+)). In addition, we analyzed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus strains: both those susceptible and those resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity differ widely among different samples of sweeteners. Phenolic content, expressed as a gallic acid equivalent, ranged from 0 mg kg(-1) in white, refined sugar, xylitol and wheat malt syrup to 11.4 g kg(-1) in sugarcane molasses. Antioxidant activity was lowest in refined white sugar, xylitol, brown beet sugar, liquid fructose, and rape honey; it was average in spelt syrup and corn syrup, and highest in sugar cane, beet molasses, date and barley syrups. Despite the great variety of sweeteners, a strong correlation was noted between the concentration of phenolics and antioxidant properties, as determined by the ABTS(·+) method (r = 0.97) and the FRAP assay (r = 0.77). The strongest antibacterial activity was observed in sugarcane molasses, which was lethal to S. aureus strains at 2 and 4% concentrations in medium for susceptible and MRSA strains respectively. Other sweeteners kill bacteria in 6-15% solutions, whereas some did not show any antibacterial activities against S. aureus strains, even at 20% concentrations. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, some of the tested sweeteners have potential therapeutic value as supporting agents in antibiotic therapy. PMID:24007486

Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Tomczyk-Ulanowska, Kinga

2013-01-01

264

Total Artificial Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...

265

Artificial Skin in Robotics.  

E-print Network

??Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems.… (more)

Strohmayr, Michael

2012-01-01

266

Impact of School District Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Policies on Student Beverage Exposure and Consumption in Middle Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine the associations between 1) exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in middle schools and student consumption of SSB during the school day; and 2) school district policies about SSB and exposure to SSB in schools.

Donna B. Johnson; Barbara Bruemmer; Anne E. Lund; Carina C. Evens; Corinne M. Mar

2009-01-01

267

Artificial Intelligence Daniel Polani  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Daniel Polani Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/26 Is it AI? 1. text editor 2 12. Turing test contenders Artificial Intellige The Turing Test: is partner human or not? See: e.g. [Saygin et al., 2000] Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 The Turing Test II

Polani, Daniel

268

Sponsorship of physical activity programs by the sweetened beverages industry: public health or public relations?  

PubMed

The growing evidence on the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, obesity and other chronic diseases has highlighted the need to implement policy actions that go beyond programs exclusively focused on individual responsibility. In order to protect their commercial goals in Latin America, the sugar-sweetened beverage industry practices intense lobbying at high government levels in several countries across the region. This strategy is accompanied by corporate social responsibility programs that fund initiatives promoting physical activity. These efforts, although appearing altruistic, are intended to improve the industry's public image and increase political influence in order to block regulations counter to their interests. If this industry wants to contribute to human well being, as it has publicly stated, it should avoid blocking legislative actions intended to regulate the marketing, advertising and sale of their products. PMID:21225220

Gómez, Luis; Jacoby, Enrique; Ibarra, Lorena; Lucumí, Diego; Hernandez, Alexandra; Parra, Diana; Florindo, Alex; Hallal, Pedro

2011-04-01

269

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

270

Food labeling: health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the provisions of the interim final rule that amended the regulation authorizing a health claim on noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries, i.e., tooth decay, to include isomaltulose as a substance eligible for the health claim. FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule. PMID:18605406

2008-05-27

271

A simple turbidimetric flow injection system for saccharin determination in sweetener products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for saccharin determination in liquid sweetener products was developed. The method is based on the precipitation\\u000a reaction of Ag(I) ions with saccharin in aqueous medium (pH 3.0), using a flow injection analysis system with merging zones,\\u000a the suspension was stabilized with 5 g L?1 Triton X-100. All experimental parameters influencing the flow injection system were optimized by

Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Emiliane Pereira Laignier; Maisa Ribeiro Pereira Lima Brigagão; Pedro Orival Luccas; César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley

2010-01-01

272

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher with higher intake of both sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks. After adjustment for confound- ing variables including other dietary factors, the inci- dencerateratiofor2ormoresoftdrinksperdaywas1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). For fruit drinks, the comparable incidence rate ratio was 1.31 (95% con- fidence interval, 1.13-1.52). The association of diabetes with soft drink

Julie R. Palmer; Deborah A. Boggs; Supriya Krishnan; Frank B. Hu; Martha Singer; Lynn Rosenberg

2008-01-01

273

Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to certain conventional separation processes now in use in the corn-sweetener industry. Three applications of membranes were studied during the program: the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; the concentration of dilute wastes, called ''sweetwater,'' by a combination of reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis; and the enrichment of corn syrup in fructose by a process involving selective complexation of fructose by membrane filtration. Laboratory experiments were conducted for all three applications, and the results were used to conduct technical and economic analyses of the process. Calculations indicate that the use of reverse osmosis in combination with conventional mechanical-vapor-recompression evaporation to concentrate steep water, offers savings of a factor of 2.5 in capital costs and a factor of 4.5 in operating costs over currently used evaporation alone. In the concentration of sweetwater by reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis, capital costs would be about the same as those for evaporation, but operating costs would only be about one-half those of evaporation. For the fructose-enrichment scheme, preliminary results indicate that the savings in energy alone for the membrane process would be about $0.01/lb of sweetener produced by the process, or about $20 million annually, for the corn-sweetener industry.

Ray, R.J.

1986-02-14

274

Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms123  

PubMed Central

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) are ecologically novel chemosensory signaling compounds that influence ingestive processes and behavior. Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS, but the incidence is increasing. These sweeteners have the potential to moderate sugar and energy intakes while maintaining diet palatability, but their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population. This association may be coincidental or causal, and either mode of directionality is plausible. A critical review of the literature suggests that the addition of NNS to non-energy-yielding products may heighten appetite, but this is not observed under the more common condition in which NNS is ingested in conjunction with other energy sources. Substitution of NNS for a nutritive sweetener generally elicits incomplete energy compensation, but evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity. Most of the purported mechanisms by which this occurs are not supported by the available evidence, although some warrant further consideration. Resolution of this important issue will require long-term randomized controlled trials. PMID:19056571

Mattes, Richard D; Popkin, Barry M

2009-01-01

275

Effect of light and sweeteners on color in an amaretto-type liqueur.  

PubMed

Studies on the color loss in an amaretto-type liqueur under controlled light conditions showed a clear dependence of the decoloration rate on the light intensity, and complete color stability in the absence of light. The principal sweetener used in the preparation of the liqueur strongly affected the rate of color loss under irradiation, color stability being much greater for the formulations containing sucrose or no added sweetener instead of fructose 42. These differences were more pronounced in experiments conducted with chemically well-defined mixtures that contained either of the 2 azo dyes used in the coloration of the amaretto, tartrazine, and Allura Red, and various alternative sweeteners, in 28% (v/v) ethanol solution: D-fructose and, to a lesser extent, D-glucose, at concentrations of 14% (w/v), were effective in bringing about photodecoloration, while no color loss was detected in the presence of sucrose, or in the absence of any added sugar. The results are interpreted in terms of a redox reaction of reducing sugars with the diarylazo compounds, the function of the light being the conversion of the azo compound from the predominant trans configuration to the cis configuration, which on geometric grounds lends itself better to a concerted, cyclical redox reaction with the reducing sugar. PMID:21535589

Castañeda-Olivares, F; Pless, R C; González-Jasso, E

2010-01-01

276

Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats  

PubMed Central

The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared to diets high in energy, fat and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared to those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a “Westernized” diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively-bred Crl:OP[CD] rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (DIO rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a “Westernized” diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Davidson, T.L.

2014-01-01

277

Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios Predict Intake of Sweeteners in a Yup'ik Study Population12  

PubMed Central

The carbon isotope ratio (?13C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated ?13C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (?15N), can control for confounding dietary effects on ?13C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup’ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC ?13C and ?15N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both ?13C and ?15N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only ?13C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate “covariate” isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest. PMID:23256142

Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Boyer, Bert B.; O'Brien, Diane M.

2013-01-01

278

The Artificial Life Roots of Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavior-oriented Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific discipline that studies how behavior of agents emerges and becomes intelligent and adaptive. Success of the field is defined in terms of success in building physical agents that are capable of maximizing their own self-preservation in interaction with a dynamically changing environment. The paper addresses this Artificial Life route toward AI and reviews

Luc Steels; R. Brooks

1994-01-01

279

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics  

E-print Network

Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a central role in Robotics if the connection is to be intelligent. Artificial Intelligence addresses ...

Brady, Michael

1984-02-01

280

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: ENGINEERING, SCIENCE,  

E-print Network

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: ENGINEERING, SCIENCE, OR SLOGAN? Nils J. Nilsson Artificial Intelligence that artificial intelligence (AI) is primarily concerned with propositional languages for representing knowledge and motor activities (analogous to low-level animal or human vision and muscle control) seems to be quite

Pratt, Vaughan

281

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of artificial intelligence / Juan Ramon Rabunal Dopico, Julian Dorado de la Calle, and Alejandro Pazos Sierra) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

Liang, Faming

282

Artificial MusclesArtificial Muscles Douglas ThorDouglas Thor  

E-print Network

Artificial Muscles 3 primary types:3 primary types: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs)Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Nanotube Muscles (CNMsCNMs)) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_Muscle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumatic_artificial_muscles. AlievAliev,, et alet al. Science 323, 1575 (2009). Science 323, 1575 (2009) #12;Pneumatic Artificial

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

283

The Evolutionary Emergence Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

The Evolutionary Emergence route to Artificial Intelligence Alastair Channon Degree: MSc with a brief discussion. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Emergence, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Life: Inman Harvey Submitted: 2 September 1996 (Minor revisions October 1996) Abstract The artificial

Fernandez, Thomas

284

Intake of high-intensity sweeteners alters the ability of sweet taste to signal caloric consequences: Implications for the learned control of energy and body weight regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of noncaloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of noncaloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a

Terry L. Davidson; Ashley A. Martin; Kiely Clark; Susan E. Swithers

2011-01-01

285

The effect of feeding different sugar-sweetened beverages to growing female Sprague–Dawley rats on bone mass and strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of sugar beverages has increased among adolescents. Additionally, the replacement of sucrose with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as the predominant sweetener has resulted in higher fructose intake. Few studies have investigated the effect of drinking different sugar-sweetened beverages on bone, despite suggestions that sugar consumption negatively impacts mineral balance. The objective of this study was to determine the

Embedzayi Tsanzi; Heather R. Light; Janet C. Tou

2008-01-01

286

By Ounce or By Calorie: The Differential Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies  

PubMed Central

The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages have led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating in the United States. Targeted food and beverage taxes and subsidies are prominent examples of such potential intervention strategies. This paper examines the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounces on beverage demand. To properly measure the extent of substitution and complementarity between beverage products, we developed a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the cross-price effects. We illustrated the proposed methodology in a linear approximate almost ideal demand system, although other flexible demand systems can also be used. In the empirical application using supermarket scanner data, the product-level demand model consists of 178 beverage products with combined market share of over 90%. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in non-nested model comparison tests and in terms of the economic significance of model predictions. In the fully modified model, a calorie-based beverage tax was estimated to cost $1.40 less in compensating variation than an ounce-based tax per 3,500 beverage calories reduced. This difference in welfare cost estimates between two tax strategies is more than three times as much as the difference estimated by the conventional distance metric model. If applied to products purchased from all sources, a 0.04-cent per kcal tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is predicted to reduce annual per capita beverage intake by 5,800 kcal.

Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian F.; Ruff, Ryan R.

2014-01-01

287

Declines in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Children in Los Angeles County, 2007 and 2011  

PubMed Central

This study assessed changes in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) among children (aged ?17 years) in Los Angeles County. We analyzed children’s data from the 2007 (n = 5,595) and 2011 (n = 5,934) Los Angeles County Health Survey. The percentage of children who consumed 1 or more SSB per day decreased from 43.3% in 2007 to 38.3% in 2011 (P < .001); this decrease was seen across most sociodemographic subgroups. Despite measurable progress in reducing SSB consumption among children in Los Angeles County, consumption remains high, highlighting the need for additional policy and programmatic interventions. PMID:23928456

Lightstone, Amy S.; Baldwin, Steve; Kuo, Tony; Shih, Margaret; Fielding, Jonathan E.

2013-01-01

288

Modifying the temporal profile of the high-potency sweetener neotame.  

PubMed

It is possible, using hydrophobic organic acids (such as cinnamate) or hydroxyamino acids (such as serine and tyrosine), to modify the temporal profile of the high-potency sweetener neotame. On the basis of Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that it is unlikely that this effect is due to direct interaction between the neotame molecule and the taste modifier. It is shown, using conformational analysis and molecular modeling, that the taste modifiers can adopt low-energy conformers which mimic the proposed active conformation of neotame, which suggests that the modifiers may compete for binding at the receptor site. PMID:11262029

Prakash, I; Bishay, I E; Desai, N; Walters, D E

2001-02-01

289

Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract. PMID:24168664

Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

2013-01-01

290

Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice  

PubMed Central

Background The human diet has altered markedly during the past four decades, with the introduction of Trans hydrogenated fat, which extended the shelf-life of dietary oils and promoted a dramatic increase in elaidic acid (Trans-18.1) consumption. Food additives such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASP) were introduced to increase food palatability and reduce caloric intake. Nutrigenomics studies in small-animal models are an established platform for analyzing the interactions between various macro- and micronutrients. We therefore investigated the effects of changes in hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression induced by the food additives ASP, MSG or a combination of both additives in C57Bl/6 J mice fed a Trans fat-enriched diet. Methods Hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression profiles, together with body characteristics, glucose parameters, serum hormone and lipid profiles were examined in C57Bl/6 J mice consuming one of the following four dietary regimens, commencing in utero via the mother’s diet: [A] Trans fat (TFA) diet; [B] MSG?+?TFA diet; [C] ASP?+?TFA diet; [D] ASP?+?MSG?+?TFA diet. Results Whilst dietary MSG significantly increased hepatic triglyceride and serum leptin levels in TFA-fed mice, the combination of ASP?+?MSG promoted the highest increase in visceral adipose tissue deposition, serum free fatty acids, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and TNF? levels. Microarray analysis of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed a reduction in hepatic and adipose tissue PPARGC1a expression concomitant with changes in PPARGC1a-related functional networks including PPAR?, ? and ?. We identified 73 DEGs common to both adipose and liver which were upregulated by ASP?+?MSG in Trans fat-fed mice; and an additional 51 common DEGs which were downregulated. Conclusion The combination of ASP and MSG may significantly alter adiposity, glucose homeostasis, hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression in TFA-fed C57Bl/6 J mice. PMID:23783067

2013-01-01

291

Antidiabetes and antihypertension potential of commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners using in vitro models.  

PubMed

Commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners derived from sugar cane, palm, and corn (syrups) were investigated to determine their potential to inhibit key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension based on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using in vitro models. Among sugar cane derivatives, brown sugars showed higher antidiabetes potential than white sugars; nevertheless, no angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was detected in both sugar classes. Brown sugar from Peru and Mauritius (dark muscovado) had the highest total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, which correlated with a moderate inhibition of yeast alpha-glucosidase without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase activity. In addition, chlorogenic acid quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography was detected in these sugars (128 +/- 6 and 144 +/- 2 microg/g of sample weight, respectively). Date sugar exhibited high alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE inhibitory activities that correlated with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neither phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity was detected in corn syrups, indicating that nonphenolic factors may be involved in their significant ability to inhibit alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE. This study provides a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and useful information to make better dietary sweetener choices for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension management. PMID:18598178

Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Genovese, Maria Ines; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Shetty, Kalidas

2008-06-01

292

[Direct determination of heavy metal elements in sweeteners by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

An analysis method of microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with octopole reaction system (ORS) was established for the determination of 10 heavy metal elements including Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg and Pb in sweetener. Samples were decomposed by HNO3 and H2O2 followed by dilution with ultrapure water then the above 10 heavy metal elements in the solution were analyzed directly by ICP-MS. The use of ORS can eliminate the interference of polyatomic ions dramatically. 45Sc, 89Y, 115In and 209Bi as internal standard elements were used to compensate matrix effect and signal drift. The optimum conditions for the determination was tested and discussed. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of the 10 elements were in the range of 0.003-0.038 MICROg x L(-1), the recovery of the samples was in the range of 93.0%-106.6% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) < or = 3.4%, which showed that the method was very precise. The technique was applied for the quality control and safety evaluation of sweetener. PMID:23285899

Nie, Xi-Du; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Fu, Liang; Xie, Hua-Lin

2012-10-01

293

Relationship between Nutritional Knowledge and the Amount of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumed in Los Angeles County  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with many negative health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the relationship between consumer nutritional knowledge and the amount consumed is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge of…

Gase, Lauren N.; Robles, Brenda; Barragan, Noel C.; Kuo, Tony

2014-01-01

294

Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean

D. E. Smith; A. S. Bakshi; S. A. Gay

1985-01-01

295

Licorice ?-Amyrin 11Oxidase, a Cytochrome P450 with a Key Role in the Biosynthesis of the Triterpene Sweetener Glycyrrhizin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene ?-amyrin, an initial product of

Hikaru Seki; Kiyoshi Ohyama; Satoru Sawai; Masaharu Mizutani; Toshiyuki Ohnishi; Hiroshi Sudo; Tomoyoshi Akashi; Toshio Aoki; Kazuki Saito; Toshiya Muranaka

2008-01-01

296

Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice  

PubMed Central

Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2010-01-01

297

A review of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the field of artificial intelligence focusing on embodied artificial intelligence. It also considers models of artificial consciousness, agent-based artificial intelligence and the philosophical commentary on artificial intelligence. It concludes that there is almost no consensus nor formalism in the field and that the achievements of the field are meager.

E. S. Brunette; R. C. Flemmer; C. L. Flemmer

2009-01-01

298

Sweetened beverages  

MedlinePLUS

Coffee drinks you have on the way to work and during coffee breaks can add plenty of extra calories, especially ... Order regular coffee and add only nonfat or 2% milk. Use a sugar substitute if you like your coffee sweet. If ...

299

Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.  

PubMed

High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping <8 hours (OR=1.18), watching television >2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on <5 days during the 7 days before the survey (OR=1.19), and current cigarette use (OR=2.01). The significant associations with poor self-reported academic grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions. PMID:22709642

Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

2012-01-01

300

Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adults is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control studies, and nested case-control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used for determining the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009638 PMID:25248499

2014-01-01

301

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

PubMed Central

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings. PMID:21616200

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

302

Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in children? A systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose or glucose intolerance, high lipid levels, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, and overweight/obesity. The occurrence of intermediate outcomes during childhood increases the risk of disease in adulthood. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case–control studies, and nested case–control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to determine the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009641. PMID:25192945

2014-01-01

303

Artificial Vision Image Registration  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision Image Registration Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science Vision Compensation of the Induced Motion Klagenfurt 6-11 April Image Compensation I(x,t)xT Change Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision Image Registration · The image registration

304

Artificial Vision INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Artificial Vision INTRODUCTION Dr. Christian Micheloni Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;2011 Prof. Micheloni Christian Università Degli Studi di Udine Artificial Vision The origins of vision · People of the ancient world have tried to understand the nature of the light

305

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Juan Ramón Rabuñal Dopico University of A Coruña, Spain of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia) -- ISBN 978-1-59904-850-5 (ebook) 1. Artificial intelligence--Encyclopedias. I. Rabunal, Juan Ramon, 1973

306

Artificial intelligence: Recent developments  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

Not Available

1987-01-01

307

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Probability  

E-print Network

referenced. Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Probabilities Motivation History: theory of gamblingConstructive Artificial Intelligence Probability Daniel Polani School of Computer Science Intelligence #12;Scenario Dice Game Assume: A die is thrown. Possible outcomes are 1,2. . . 6. How much should

Polani, Daniel

308

Sugar-sweetened and diet beverages in relation to visceral adipose tissue.  

PubMed

Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake has been consistently associated with increased adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk, whereas the association with diet beverages is more mixed. We examined how these beverages associate with regional abdominal adiposity measures, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In a cross-sectional analysis of 791 non-Hispanic white men and women aged 18-70 we examined how beverage consumption habits obtained from a food frequency questionnaire associate with overall and abdominal adiposity measures from MRI. With increasing frequency of SSB intake, we observed increases in waist circumference (WC) and the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (VAT%), with no change in total body fat (TBF%) or BMI. Greater frequency of diet beverage intake was associated with greater WC, BMI, and TBF%, but was not associated with variation in visceral adiposity We conclude that increased frequency of SSB consumption is associated with a more adverse abdominal adipose tissue deposition pattern. PMID:21901024

Odegaard, Andrew O; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Towne, Bradford; Demerath, Ellen W

2012-03-01

309

Metabolic studies of the nonnutritive sweeteners cyclopentylmethylsulfamate and cyclopentylsulfamate: determination of metabolites in rat urine.  

PubMed

The nonnutritive sweetener sodium cyclopentylmethyl-sulfamate was fed to Wistar albino rats. The urine was collected for 3 days, combined, and examined (GLC) for the metabolites cyclopentyl-methylamine and cyclopentylmethanol. The percent conversion to these metabolites was 0.077 and 0.0102, respectively. The percent conversion to these to cyclopentylmethylamine was the lowest conversion to amine observed when compared to the metabolism of three other sweet sulfamates, cyclopentylsulfamate, cycloheptylsulfamate, and cyclooctylsulfamate, previously administered to rats. The average excretion of unmetabolized sulfamate was 15.4%. Sodium cyclopentylsulfamate was fed to rats over 9 days, and an analysis was carried out for the metabolites cyclopentylamine, cyclopentanone, and cyclopentanol. A decrease in the level of metabolites occurred after the first 3 days. PMID:621643

Spillane, W J; Benson, G A

1978-02-01

310

Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.  

PubMed

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability. PMID:21866177

Pomeranz, Jennifer L

2012-02-01

311

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 301 Mark S. Fox Intelligent Systems Laboratory and future applicationsof Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Knowledge-Based systems to manufactur- ing is taking a systemic view of manufacturing. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing, Knowl- edge

Fox, Mark S.

312

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Information Theory  

E-print Network

Constructive Artificial Intelligence Information Theory Daniel Polani School of Computer Science referenced. Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Coin Weighing Problem (after Denker 2004) Problem Given (minimax principle) Constructive Artificial Intelligence #12;Considerations Note in a measurement, left

Polani, Daniel

313

From Artificial Intelligence to Artificial Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, cognitive sciences in general and artificial intelligence in particular have had little to say about human culture. However, if the modest success of nascent field of cognitive science of culture in explaining aspects of culture is any indication, further contributions from cognitive scientists may be needed to develop a predictive computational science of culture. This paper outlines a number

M. Afzal Upal

314

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review123  

PubMed Central

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages’ high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy. Whether an association exists between SSB intake and weight gain is unclear. We searched English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through May 2005 for cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and experimental studies of the relation between SSBs and the risk of weight gain (ie, overweight, obesity, or both). Thirty publications (15 cross-sectional, 10 prospective, and 5 experimental) were selected on the basis of relevance and quality of design and methods. Findings from large cross-sectional studies, in conjunction with those from well-powered prospective cohort studies with long periods of follow-up, show a positive association between greater intakes of SSBs and weight gain and obesity in both children and adults. Findings from short-term feeding trials in adults also support an induction of positive energy balance and weight gain by intake of sugar-sweetened sodas, but these trials are few. A school-based intervention found significantly less soft-drink consumption and prevalence of obese and overweight children in the intervention group than in control subjects after 12 mo, and a recent 25-week randomized controlled trial in adolescents found further evidence linking SSB intake to body weight. The weight of epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates that a greater consumption of SSBs is associated with weight gain and obesity. Although more research is needed, sufficient evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:16895873

Malik, Vasanti S; Schulze, Matthias B; Hu, Frank B

2011-01-01

315

Differences in brain responses between lean and obese women to a sweetened drink  

PubMed Central

Background Ingestion of sweet food is driven by central reward circuits and restrained by endocrine and neurocrine satiety signals. The specific influence of sucrose intake on central affective and reward circuitry and alterations of these mechanisms in the obese are incompletely understood. For this, we hypothesized that (i) similar brain regions are engaged by the stimulation of sweet taste receptors by sucrose and by non-nutrient sweeteners and (ii) during visual food-related cues, obese subjects show greater brain responses to sucrose compared with lean controls. Methods In a double-blind, crossover design, 10 obese and 10 lean healthy females received a sucrose or a non-nutrient sweetened beverage prior to viewing food or neutral images. BOLD signal was measured using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Key Results Viewing food images after ingestion of either drink was associated with engagement of similar brain regions (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, anterior insula). Obese differed from lean subjects in behavioral and brain responses rating both beverages as less tasteful and satisfying, yet demonstrating greater brain responses. Obese subjects also showed engagement of an additional brain network (including anterior insula, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and amygdala) only after sucrose ingestion. Conclusions & Inferences Obese subjects had a reduced behavioral hedonic response, yet a greater engagement of affective brain networks, particularly after sucrose ingestion, suggesting that in obese subjects, lingual and gut-derived signaling generate less central hedonic effects than food-related memories in response to visual cues, analogous to response patterns implicated in food addiction. PMID:23566308

Connolly, L.; Coveleskie, K.; Kilpatrick, L. A.; Labus, J. S.; Ebrat, B.; Stains, J.; Jiang, Z.; Tillisch, K.; Raybould, H. E.; Mayer, E. A.

2014-01-01

316

Artificial intelligence in medicine.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

2004-01-01

317

Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

Sorensen, J.A.

1998-12-31

318

Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3-7 y. old children at multi-item laboratory lunches  

PubMed Central

Dietary survey data show that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is negatively associated with intake of milk, but these findings have yet to be confirmed by laboratory feeding studies. The objectives of the present study were to analyze children’s intake across 2 laboratory-based ad libitum lunches to 1) investigate the relationships between intake of sweetened beverages, milk, and calcium and 2) explore relationships between beverage consumption and child age and weight status. Data were extracted from a cohort of 126, 3–7 year (y.)-old twins from diverse ethnic backgrounds who participated in a cross-sectional study (conducted from November 1999 – September 2002) designed to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to eating and body weight. At 2 visits, children ate ad libitum from lunches that offered a variety of sugar-sweetened and calcium-rich beverages. Total beverage and nutrient intakes were computed from the test meals. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed on the final visit. Regression analyses tested the associations among intake of sweetened beverages, calcium, and milk (primary aim) and whether these variables were associated with child age and weight status (secondary aim). Sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with both milk (p < 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.01) intakes, and these relationships remained after controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity (p < 0.01). Child age was negatively associated with milk intake (r=?0.22, p < 0.01) but positively associated with intake of sweetened beverages (r=0.27, p < 0.01). Results support the notion that sugar-sweetened beverages displace milk in a single meal, and this phenomenon may vary with child age. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, future investigations are needed to determine the long-term implications of this consumption pattern. The possibility that limiting sweetened beverages may help optimize dietary calcium during childhood is a topic that merits further research. PMID:19248869

Keller, Kathleen L.; Kirzner, Jared; Pietrobelli, Angelo; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Faith, Myles S.

2009-01-01

319

Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3- to 7-year-old children at multi-item laboratory lunches.  

PubMed

Dietary survey data show that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is negatively associated with intake of milk, but these findings have yet to be confirmed by laboratory feeding studies. The objectives of the present study were to analyze children's intake across two laboratory-based ad libitum lunches to (a) investigate the relationships between intake of sweetened beverages, milk, and calcium, and (b) explore relationships between beverage consumption and child age and weight status. Data were extracted from a cohort of 126 3- to 7-year-old twins from diverse ethnic backgrounds who participated in a cross-sectional study (conducted from November 1999 to September 2002) designed to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to eating and body weight. At two visits, children ate ad libitum from lunches that offered a variety of sugar-sweetened and calcium-rich beverages. Total beverage and nutrient intakes were computed from the test meals. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed on the final visit. Regression analyses tested the associations among intake of sweetened beverages, calcium, and milk (primary aim), and whether these variables were associated with child age and weight status (secondary aim). Sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with both milk (P<0.01) and calcium (P<0.01) intakes, and these relationships remained after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity (P<0.01). Child age was negatively associated with milk intake (r=-0.22, P<0.01) but positively associated with intake of sweetened beverages (r=0.27, P<0.01). Results support the notion that sugar-sweetened beverages displace milk in a single meal, and this phenomenon may vary with child age. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, future investigations are needed to determine the long-term implications of this consumption pattern. The possibility that limiting sweetened beverages may help optimize dietary calcium during childhood is a topic that merits further research. PMID:19248869

Keller, Kathleen L; Kirzner, Jared; Pietrobelli, Angelo; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Faith, Myles S

2009-03-01

320

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

321

Exercise in artificial gravity  

E-print Network

Artificial gravity provided by short radius centrifugation is considered a promising countermeasure to the deleterious physiological effects of microgravity during long-duration space flight. We investigated the feasibility ...

Edmonds, Jessica Leigh

2005-01-01

322

Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, and  

E-print Network

Reasoning Positive and Negative Cases Evidence Critical Analysis and Critical Thinking Procedures Input fromIntelligence, Artificial Intelligence, and Cognitive Science Thinking About Thinking #12;Cognitive Computational Thinking #12;Question at Hand Worldview Procedural Beliefs Knowledge Judgments Truth Value

Hallstrom, Jason

323

Introduction to artificial intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

1985-01-01

324

Intelligence: Real or artificial?  

PubMed Central

Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

Schlinger, Henry D.

1992-01-01

325

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.  

PubMed

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. PMID:20236611

Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

2010-06-01

326

Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information Daniel Polani Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/26 Decisions: The Fundamental Task Motivation: everything in Artificial Intelligence is basical about taking Intellige Decision: What Door to Open? Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 Bottom Line Clear: decision about

Polani, Daniel

327

Association between Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Mass Index, Proportion of Body Fat and Body Fat Distribution in Mexican Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the relationships between sweetened beverage (SB) consumption and the following indicators of overweight\\/fatness among Mexican adolescents: body mass index, body composition and body fat distribution. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on sociodemographic conditions,

E. Denova-Gutiérrez; A. Jiménez-Aguilar; E. Halley-Castillo; G. Huitrón-Bravo; J. O. Talavera; D. Pineda-Pérez; J. C. Díaz-Montiel; J. Salmerón

2008-01-01

328

Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = ?0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = ?0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

Duchaine, Caroline S.; Diorio, Caroline

2014-01-01

329

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

330

Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental–observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18–29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip

Renske Koordeman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rick B. van Baaren; Rutger C. M. E. Engels

2010-01-01

331

Flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of cyclamate in sweetener products with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of cyclamate in sweetener tablets is proposed. The method is based on the conversion of cyclamate to cyclohexylamine and the subsequent reaction with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate, yielding a spectrophotometrically active derivative which is detected at 480nm. The hydrolysis step is performed batch wise by treatment of cyclamate with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid, while the cyclohexylamine derivatization

Carolina Cabero; Javier Saurina; Santiago Hernández-Cassou

1999-01-01

332

Effects of replacing the habitual consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages with milk in Chilean children1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the nutrition transition in Chile, dietary changes were marked by increased consumption of high-energy, nutrient-poor products, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Obesity is now the primary nutritional problem in posttran- sitional Chile. Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects on body composition of delivering milk beverages to the homes of overweight and obese children to

Cecilia Albala; Cara B Ebbeling; Mariana Cifuentes; Lydia Lera; Nelly Bustos; David S Ludwig

333

Association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among premenopausal women.  

PubMed

Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OH)D concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OH)D levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1-3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = -0.11 (p = 0.004)). A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OH)D concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = -0.06 (p = 0.10)). No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OH)D concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation. PMID:25072269

Duchaine, Caroline S; Diorio, Caroline

2014-08-01

334

Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence from observational studies and interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSD) are a special target of many obesity-prevention strategies, yet critical reviews tend to be more cautious regarding the aetiological role of SSD in promoting excess body weight. Since ongoing evaluation of this issue is important, the present systematic review re-examined the evidence from epidemiological studies and interventions, up to July 2008. Database searches of Medline, Cochrane

Sigrid Gibson

2008-01-01

335

Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.  

PubMed

Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups. PMID:25148997

Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

2015-01-15

336

Computer animation based on artificial life and artificial intelligence: the research of artificial fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, self-reproduction characteristic of artificial life is introduced to computer animation. A self-reproduction model of artificial fish based on gene control is put forward and built. Based on artificial fish's phenotype, the contents of its chromosome are given. Based on this model, heredity rules are given. Artificial fish could reproduce and grow in the virtual marine environment freely

Ban Xiaojuan; Ai Dongmei; Zeng Guangping; Tu Xuyan

2005-01-01

337

Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors  

PubMed Central

This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults. As guided by health literacy concepts and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this randomized controlled pilot trial applied the RE-AIM framework and a mixed methods approach to examine a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intervention (SipSmartER), as compared to a matched-contact control intervention targeting physical activity (MoveMore). Both 5-week interventions included two interactive group sessions and three support telephone calls. Executing a patient-centered developmental process, the primary aim of this paper was to evaluate patient feedback on intervention content and structure. The secondary aim was to understand the potential reach (i.e., proportion enrolled, representativeness) and effectiveness (i.e. health behaviors, theorized mediating variables, quality of life) of SipSmartER. Twenty-five participants were randomized to SipSmartER (n=14) or MoveMore (n=11). Participants’ intervention feedback was positive, ranging from 4.2–5.0 on a 5-point scale. Qualitative assessments reavealed several opportunties to improve clarity of learning materials, enhance instructions and communication, and refine research protocols. Although SSB consumption decreased more among the SipSmartER participants (?256.9 ± 622.6 kcals), there were no significant group differences when compared to control participants (?199.7 ± 404.6 kcals). Across both groups, there were significant improvements for SSB attitudes, SSB behavioral intentions, and two media literacy constructs. The value of using a patient-centered approach in the developmental phases of this intervention was apparent, and pilot findings suggest decreased SSB may be achieved through targeted health literacy and TPB strategies. Future efforts are needed to examine the potential public health impact of a large-scale trial to address health literacy and reduce SSB. PMID:23997992

Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

2013-01-01

338

Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,209 students (grades 9-12) were used. SSB intake was based on intake of 4 nondiet beverages [soda, other (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, or flavored milk), sports drinks, and energy drinks]. Nationwide, 64.9% of high school students drank SSB ?1 time/d, 35.6% drank SSB ?2 times/d, and 22.2% drank SSB ?3 times/d. The most commonly consumed SSB was regular soda. Factors associated with a greater odds for high SSB intake (?3 times/d) were male gender [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.41,1.95); P < 0.05], being non-Hispanic black [OR = 1.87 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.29); P < 0.05], eating at fast-food restaurants 1-2 d/wk or eating there ?3 d/wk [OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 1.05, 1.50); P < 0.05 and OR = 2.94 (95% CI = 2.31, 3.75); P < 0.05, respectively] and watching television >2 h/d [OR = 1.70 (95% CI = 1.44, 2.01); P < 0.05]. Non-Hispanic other/multiracial [OR = 0.67 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.95); P < 0.05] and being physically active ?60 min/d on <5 d/wk were associated with a lower odds for high SSB intake [OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.95); P < 0.05]. Weight status was not associated with SSB intake. Differences in predictors by type of SSB were small. Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations. PMID:22223568

Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

2012-02-01

339

Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ?355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ?28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. PMID:24766236

Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kearney, Monica L; Kanaley, Jill A

2014-05-01

340

Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

2013-01-01

341

Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report for Phase I  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program is to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to conventional separation processes in current use in the corn sweetener industry. Two applications of membranes were studied during the program: (1) the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; and (2) the concentration of dilute wastes called sweetwater with a combination of reverse osmosis and a process known as countercurrent reverse osmosis. Laboratory experiments were conducted for both applications, and the results were used to conduct technical and economic analyses of the process. It was determined that the concentration of steep water by reverse osmosis plus triple-effect evaporation offers savings of a factor of 2.5 in capital costs and a factor of 4.5 in operating costs over currently used triple-effect evaporation. In the concentration of sweetwater by reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis, capital costs would be about the same as those for triple-effect evaporation, but operating costs would be only about one-half those of triple-effect evaporation.

Babcock, W.C.

1984-02-14

342

Sweetened beverages intake, hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome: the Mexico City Diabetes Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To determine prevalence of hyperuricemia and its relation with intake of sweetened beverages (SB) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in low income urban Mexican population. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional analysis of The Mexico City Diabetes Study, a prospective population-based investigation (1 173 participants) was performed. We used logistic regression, adjusted by pertinent variables. We determined prevalence of hyperuricemia and explored associations of uric acid levels with MS and intake of SB. RESULTS. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 26.5 and 19.8% in males and females respectively. In an adjusted multivariate model, body mass index, waist circumference, and triglyceride were higher as uric acid quartiles increased (p<0.005-0.001). The odds ratio for MS was 1.48 for 3rd uric acid quartile and 2.03 for 4th quartile. Higher consumption of SB was associated with higher uric acid levels (p<0.001). CONCLUSION. Prevalence of hyperuricemia is high. Potential association with intake of SB, resulting in metabolic alterations should be considered. PMID:24715008

López-Molina, Rubén; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; López-Ridaura, Ruy; González-Villalpando, María E; Ferrannini, Ele; González-Villalpando, Clicerio

2013-12-01

343

Sample preparation bias in carbon stable isotope ratio analysis of fruit juices and sweeteners.  

PubMed

Two sample preparation methods are commonly used for carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA). One involves combustion of the sample with oxygen at 850 degrees C; the other involves combustion of the sample with CuO in an evacuated glass tube at 550 degrees C. I observed in our laboratory that these 2 methods yield different results for sugar-based products such as fruit juices, sweeteners, and vanillin. The CuO method yields results approximately 1%. more positive than the oxygen combustion method. This bias is also observed in other laboratories, as shown in an analysis of the results of the AOAC collaborative studies of carbon SIRA of maple syrup, orange juice, honey, and honey protein. The oxygen combustion method is the AOAC method for honey, apple juice, and orange juice; both methods are incorporated into the AOAC method for maple syrup. I recommend that data generated by the CuO combustion method be appropriately corrected to yield results concordant with the official oxygen combustion method. PMID:8471867

Krueger, D A

1993-01-01

344

The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: implications for weight management.  

PubMed

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents. PMID:22573780

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-06-01

345

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

2011-01-01

346

Sweetened drink and snacking cues in adolescents: a study using ecological momentary assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N; MacKinnon, David P; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L; Reynolds, Kim D

2013-08-01

347

Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.  

PubMed

Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7

Dias, Luís G; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Peres, António M

2014-10-27

348

The effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages across different income groups.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) taxes on consumption, bodyweight and tax burden for low-income, middle-income and high-income groups using an Almost Ideal Demand System and 2011 Household level scanner data. A significant contribution of our paper is that we compare two types of SSB taxes recently advocated by policy makers: A 20% flat rate sales (valoric) tax and a 20?cent/L volumetric tax. Censored demand is accounted for using a two-step procedure. We find that the volumetric tax would result in a greater per capita weight loss than the valoric tax (0.41?kg vs. 0.29?kg). The difference between the change in weight is substantial for the target group of heavy purchasers of SSBs in low-income households, with a weight reduction of up to 3.20?kg for the volumetric and 2.06?kg for the valoric tax. The average yearly per capita tax burden on low-income households is $17.87 (0.21% of income) compared with $15.17 for high-income households (0.07% of income) for the valoric tax, and $13.80 (0.15%) and $10.10 (0.04%) for the volumetric tax. Thus, the tax burden is lower, and weight reduction is higher under a volumetric tax. PMID:24895084

Sharma, Anurag; Hauck, Katharina; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Siciliani, Luigi

2014-09-01

349

The Use of Low-Calorie Sweeteners by Children: Implications for Weight Management123  

PubMed Central

The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss plans or prevention of excess weight gain. Observational studies tend to show positive correlations between LCS consumption and weight gain in children and adolescents. Although the data are intriguing, these epidemiologic studies do not establish that LCS cause weight gain, because there are likely many lifestyle and genetic differences between children and families who choose to consume LCS and those who do not. Short-term randomized controlled trials have shown LCS use to be BMI neutral or to have modest weight-reducing effects in overweight and obese adolescents. The long-term effects of LCS in children and adolescents are unknown. Some compelling research is currently underway and may provide needed insight into the potential role of LCS in weight management. The paucity of data regarding the effects of LCS use in children and adolescents creates challenges in decision-making for health care providers and parents. PMID:22573780

Foreyt, John; Kleinman, Ronald; Brown, Rebecca J.; Lindstrom, Rachel

2012-01-01

350

Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion. PMID:24423548

Komes, Draženka; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Ljubi?i?, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindri?, Iva Juranovi?; Buši?, Arijana; Vojvodi?, Aleksandra

2014-05-15

351

Artificial Heart Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

352

Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

2013-11-01

353

Artificial black holes  

E-print Network

We study black holes for the linear hyperbolic equations describing the wave propagation in the moving medium. Such black holes are called artificial since the Lorentz metric associated with the hyperbolic equation does not necessary satisfies the Einstein equations. Artificial black holes also arise when we consider perturbations of the Einstein equations. In this paper we review author's results of [E2] and [E3] on the existence and the stability of black holes for the stationary wave equations in two space dimensions, and in the axisymmetric case.

Gregory Eskin

2011-05-10

354

Artificial intelligence. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

Winston, P.H.

1984-01-01

355

Micromachined Artificial Haircell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

2010-01-01

356

Artificial intelligence and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this tutorial, the author presents some of the major concepts of artificial intelligence and illustrates their applicability to simulation using examples drawn from recent knowledge-based simulation research. He focuses on the present state-of-the-art, current problems and limitations, and future directions and possibilities

Jeff Rothenberg

1991-01-01

357

Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault toler- ance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second genera-

Uwe Aickelin; Dipankar Dasgupta

2009-01-01

358

Artificial limb connection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

Owens, L. J.

1974-01-01

359

Semantic Web 30Artificial  

E-print Network

312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

van Harmelen, Frank

360

Teaching Artificial Intelligence Playfully  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the efforts at the University of Southern California to teach computer science and artificial intelligence with games because games mo- tivate students, which we believe increases enrollment and retention and helps us to educate better computer scientists. The Department of Computer Science is now in its second year of operating its Bachelor's Program in

Mike Zyda; Sven Koenig

361

The Artificial Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interim milestone for interstellar space travel is proposed: the artificial planet. Interstellar travel will require breakthroughs in the areas of propulsion systems, energy systems, construction of large space structures, protection from space & radiation effects, space agriculture, closed environmental & life support systems, and many other areas. Many difficult problems can be attacked independently of the propulsion and energy challenges through a project to establish an artificial planet in our solar system. Goals of the project would include construction of a large space structure, development of space agriculture, demonstration of closed environmental & life support systems over long time periods, selection of gravity level for long-term spacecraft, demonstration of a self-sufficient colony, and optimization of space colony habitat. The artificial planet would use solar energy as a power source. The orbital location will be selected to minimize effects of the Earth, yet be close enough for construction, supply, and rescue operations. The artificial planet would start out as a construction station and evolve over time to address progressive goals culminating in a self-sufficient space colony.

Glover, D. R.

362

Artificial Intelligence } Course overview  

E-print Network

history } The state of the art Chapter 1 Course overview } intelligent agents } search and gameArtificial Intelligence Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Outline } Course overview } What is AI? } A brief: The Turing test Turing (1950) \\Computing machinery and intelligence": } \\Can machines think?" ! \\Can machines

Liu, Yanhong Annie

363

Artificial Dendritic Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue our exploration of the capabilities of artificial dendritic trees by using them to construct units that signal the speed and direction of visual targets in space. By applying three different types of synaptic behavior, we demonstrate that it is relatively easy to obtain dendritic tree responses that differentiate direction of movement and encode target speed.

John G. Elias

1993-01-01

364

Artificial Gravity Research Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

Gilbert, Charlene

2014-01-01

365

Artificial intelligence and symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of massive parallelism and the renewed interest in neural networks gives a new need to evaluate the relationship of symbolic processing and artificial intelligence. The physical symbol hypothesis has encountered many difficulties coping with human concepts and common sense. Expert systems are showing more promise for the early stages of learning than for real expertise. There is a

Chris Moss; Liu Feng

1989-01-01

366

The Artificial Bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial bladder should provide adequate urine storage, allow volitional complete evacuation of urine and preserve renal function. Moreover, its structure has to be biocompatible, resistant to urinary encrustation and tolerant to bacterial infection. Various solutions have been proposed over the years to achieve these multiple requirements. However, most of these solutions and their corresponding prototypes did not advance beyond

François Desgrandchamps; Donald P. Griffith

1999-01-01

367

Database in Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

Wilkinson, Julia

1986-01-01

368

Artificial Intelligence and CALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

Underwood, John H.

369

Artificial Left Ventricle  

E-print Network

This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami

2014-01-01

370

Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-print Network

Artificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction

Provancher, William

371

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig,  

E-print Network

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig, Paradigns of Artificial Intelligence Programming Daniel Juravsky and James Martin interface to a neural net simulator. artificial intelligence [artificial intelligence] (AI) is a field

Knill, Oliver

372

Universal Artificial Intelligence Marcus Hutter  

E-print Network

Universal Artificial Intelligence Marcus Hutter Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia http://www.hutter1.net/ #12;Marcus Hutter - 2 - Universal Artificial Intelligence Abstract The dream of creating artificial devices that reach or outperform human intelligence is many centuries old. In this talk I present

Hutter, Marcus

373

High-Rate Artificial Lift  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

Joe Clegg

1988-01-01

374

High-rate artificial lift  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

Clegg, J.D.

1988-03-01

375

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction to the Course Module G64FAI #12;General in Artificial Intelligence (AI) · Provide an understanding of the theory of a range of those techniques · Introduce the students to a number of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can

Qu, Rong

376

CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence An Introduction to Neural Networks and Machine Learning://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~king ©2009 Irwin King. All rights reserved #12;CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Irwin King, All and Claypool Publishers, 2009. #12;CSC7130 Advanced Artificial Intelligence, Irwin King, All rights reserved

King, Kuo Chin Irwin

377

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, has not been quantitatively reviewed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the MEDLINE database up to May 2010 for prospective cohort studies of SSB intake and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. We identified 11 studies (three for metabolic syndrome and eight for type 2 diabetes) for inclusion in a random-effects meta-analysis comparing SSB intake in the highest to lowest quantiles in relation to risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1–2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quantile (none or <1 serving/month) (relative risk [RR] 1.26 [95% CI 1.12–1.41]). Among studies evaluating metabolic syndrome, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 [1.02–1.42]. CONCLUSIONS In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of SSBs should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases. PMID:20693348

Malik, Vasanti S.; Popkin, Barry M.; Bray, George A.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

2010-01-01

378

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

2013-01-01

379

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with abdominal fat partitioning in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend < 0.001). We observed an inverse association between SSB consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend < 0.001). Higher SSB consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend < 0.001). No significant association was found between diet soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend < 0.001). Daily consumers of SSBs had a 10% higher absolute VAT volume and a 15% greater VAT-to-SAT ratio compared with nonconsumers, whereas consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT. PMID:24944282

Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

2014-08-01

380

The relationship between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among US adults.  

PubMed

Because there is limited information on associations between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, our cross-sectional study examined this question using the 2010 HealthStyles Survey data for 3,926 adults (aged ?18 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day. About 31% of adults consumed SSBs ?1 time per day, with 20% doing so ?2 times per day. About eight of 10 adults agreed that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain, yet, eight of 10 adults in this study did not know the actual kilocalorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, annual household income, and geographic region, the odds for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day were significantly higher among adults who neither agreed nor disagreed (ie, were neutral) that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.25 vs agree); however, knowledge about the energy content of regular soda was not associated with SSB intake. Our finding that knowledge about the adverse effects of SSB intake is significantly associated with SSB intake among adults suggests that health education regarding the potential contribution of excess energy intake from SSBs to weight gain could contribute to lowered consumption and lower rates of obesity. Although knowledge about the kilocalorie content of regular soda was unrelated to SSB intake, health education on the kilocalorie content of SSBs may still be beneficial because most adults did not know the actual kilocalorie content of SSBs. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore associations between knowledge about energy provided by SSBs and SSB intake. PMID:24360502

Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M

2014-07-01

381

Menu-Labeling Usage and Its Association with Diet and Exercise: 2011 BRFSS Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu Labeling Module  

PubMed Central

Introduction The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between menu-labeling usage and healthy behaviors pertaining to diet (consumption of fruits, vegetables, sodas, and sugar-sweetened beverages) and exercise. Methods Data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Sugar Sweetened Beverage and Menu-Labeling module, were used. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between menu-labeling usage and explanatory variables that included fruit, vegetable, soda, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption as well as exercise. Results Nearly half (52%) of the sample indicated that they used menu labeling. People who used menu labeling were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.58), overweight (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00–1.29) or obese (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12–1.50), obtain adequate weekly aerobic exercise (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06–1.32), eat fruits (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12–1.29) and vegetables (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05–1.20), and drink less soda (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69–0.83). Conclusion Although obese and overweight people were more likely to use menu labeling, they were also adequately exercising, eating more fruits and vegetables, and drinking less soda. Menu labeling is intended to combat the obesity epidemic; however the results indicate an association between menu-labeling usage and certain healthy behaviors. Thus, efforts may be necessary to increase menu-labeling usage among people who are not partaking in such behaviors. PMID:24384303

Bowers, Kelly M.

2014-01-01

382

Sweetened-Fat Intake Sensitizes Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid--Mediated Feeding Responses Elicited from the Nucleus Accumbens Shell  

PubMed Central

Background There is much interest in exploring whether reward-driven feeding can produce druglike plasticity in the brain. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell, which modulates hypothalamic feeding systems, is well placed to “usurp” homeostatic control of feeding. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether feeding-induced neuroadaptations occur in this system. Methods Separate groups of ad libitum–maintained rats were exposed to daily bouts of sweetened-fat intake, predator stress, or intra-Acb shell infusions of either d-amphetamine (2 or 10 ?g) or the ?-opioid agonist D-[Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO, 2.5 ?g), then challenged with intra-Acb shell infusion of the GABAA agonist, muscimol (10 ng). Results Exposure to sweetened fat robustly sensitized muscimol-induced feeding. Sensitization was present 1 week after cessation of the palatable feeding regimen but had abated by 2 weeks. Rats exposed to sweetened fat did not show an altered feeding response to food deprivation. Repeated intra-Acb shell infusions of DAMGO (2.5 ?g) also sensitized intra-Acb shell muscimol-driven feeding. However, neither repeated intra-Acb shell d-amphetamine infusions (2 or 10 ?g) nor intermittent exposure to an aversive stimulus (predator stress) altered sensitivity to muscimol. Conclusions Palatable feeding engenders hypersensitivity of Acb shell GABA responses; this effect may involve feeding-induced release of opioid peptides. Heightened arousal, aversive experiences, or increased catecholamine transmission alone are insufficient to produce the effect, and a hunger-induced feeding drive is insufficient to reveal the effect. These findings reveal a novel type of food-induced neuroadaptation within the Acb; possible implications for understanding crossover effects between food reward and drug reward are discussed. PMID:23312563

Newman, Sarah; Pascal, Lindsay; Sadeghian, Ken; Baldo, Brian A.

2013-01-01

383

Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System  

PubMed Central

A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

2013-01-01

384

Sweets, sweetened beverages, and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We examined the associations between sweets, sweetened and unsweetened beverages, and sugars and pancreatic cancer risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a population-based case–control study (532 cases, 1,701 controls) and used multivariate logistic regression models\\u000a to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Because associations were often different by sex, we present\\u000a results for men and women combined and separately.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Among

June M. Chan; Furong Wang; Elizabeth A. Holly

2009-01-01

385

Artificially structured magnetic materials  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the progress made during the first six months of the current three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Magnetic Materials.'' However, because some of the results of our previous three-year DOE grant on Artificially Structured Superconductors'' continue to emerge, both topics are addressed in this Progress Report. This report describes progress with DOE funding during the current calendar year; description of the research to be conducted during the remaining six months of the current grant year; a description of the status of the graduate students working on this research; lists of the invited talks, seminars and colloquia, of other recognition of our research, and of the publications crediting DOE sponsorship; and a summary of current and pending federal support. Since the research proposed to be conducted during the next 2 1/2 years is described in detail in our DOE proposal, it is only briefly reviewed here.

Falco, C.M.

1990-09-28

386

Impact of substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks by intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands: example of a benefit–risk approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks with intense sweeteners may have potential beneficial, but also adverse\\u000a health effects. This study assessed the benefits and risks associated with substituting added sugar in carbonated soft drinks\\u000a with intense sweeteners in young adults in the Netherlands.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A tiered approach was used analogous to the risk assessment paradigm, consisting of benefit and hazard

Marieke A. Hendriksen; Mariken J. Tijhuis; Heidi P. Fransen; Hans Verhagen; Jeljer Hoekstra

2011-01-01

387

Artificial intelligence: Human effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body''

M. Yazdani; A. Narayanan

1984-01-01

388

Yeast artificial chromosome cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) cloning systems enable the cloning of DNA stretches of 50 to well over 2000 kb. This makes\\u000a it possible to study large intact regions of DNA in detail, by restriction mapping the YAC to produce a physical map and by\\u000a examining the YAC for coding sequences or genes. YACs are important for their ability to clone

Michele Ramsay

1994-01-01

389

Artificial intelligence: Human effects  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

1984-01-01

390

[Calculi in artificial urethra].  

PubMed

The article presents a successful experience of the treatment of long-term complication of ure-throplasty performed by the modified Cecil-Culp procedure using flap of skin of the scrotum with preserved hair follicles. The removal of calculi in artificial urethra occurring decades after the surgery was required. The use of combined method oftreatment led to a good clinical outcome. PMID:25211934

Larionov, I N; Sapelko, V N; Belozerov, N Iu; Romanov, G V

2014-01-01

391

Artificial Life Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews CZAR (Czech Animal-Like Robot) architecture. This hybrid Autonomous Agent Architecture was designed for the usage mainly in the Artificial Life domain and combines knowledge-based and behavior-based approaches. Its structure, strengths as well as weaknesses, and roots in biology are presented. CZAR has arisen as a result of a number of applications, where real robots with variety of

P. Nahodil; K. Kohout; A. Svr?ek

392

Artificial neural networks  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides an introduction to the exciting field of artificial neural networks and their potential role in the emerging field of neurocomputing. Although the genesis of this subject can be traced back to the 1940s, the present interest is largely due to the recent developments in theoretical models, technologies, and algorithms. This volume is devoted to introductory and theoretical concepts, and the emphasis is on network architectures, learning, associative memories, with a glimpse of the application areas and implementation experiences.

Vemuri, V.

1988-01-01

393

[Determination of three sweeteners in vinegars by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of 3 sweeteners (acesulfame (AK), sodium saccharin (SA), sodium cyclamate (SC)) in vinegars has been developed. The sample was diluted with acidic water, then purified and enriched with a weak anion exchange SPE column. The HPLC separation was performed on a Pursuit C18 column (150 mm x 2.0 mm, 3 microm) by gradient elution with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate containing 0.1% (v/v) ammonia water and acetonitrile as the mobile phases. The analytes were detected by ESI--MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to satisfy qualitative and quantitative detections. Good linearities (r2 > 0.99) were obtained over the range of 0.01 - 0.50 mg/L. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for SA, AK and SC were 10, 5 and 5 microg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 72.1% to 96.8% at the spiked levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/L with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 15%. This method is accurate, highly sensitive for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 3 sweeteners in vinegars. PMID:22032168

Yin, Feng; Ding, Zhaowei; Cao, Xue; Gao, Jie; Jiang, Deming; Kuang, Denghui; Gu, Yanping; He, Guoliang

2011-06-01

394

Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Excess intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been shown to result in weight gain. To address the growing epidemic of obesity, one option is to combine programmes that target individual behaviour change with a fiscal policy such as excise tax on SSBs. This study evaluates the literature on SSB taxes or price increases, and their potential impact on consumption levels, obesity, overweight and body mass index (BMI). The possibility of switching to alternative drinks is also considered. Methods The following databases were used: Pubmed/Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, Econlit, National Bureau of Economics Research (NBER), Research Papers in Economics (RePEc). Articles published between January 2000 and January 2013, which reported changes in diet or BMI, overweight and/or obesity due to a tax on, or price change of, SSBs were included. Results Nine articles met the criteria for the meta-analysis. Six were from the USA and one each from Mexico, Brazil and France. All showed negative own-price elasticity, which means that higher prices are associated with a lower demand for SSBs. Pooled own price-elasticity was -1.299 (95% CI: -1.089 - -1.509). Four articles reported cross-price elasticities, three from the USA and one from Mexico; higher prices for SSBs were associated with an increased demand for alternative beverages such as fruit juice (0.388, 95% CI: 0.009 – 0.767) and milk (0.129, 95% CI: -0.085 – 0.342), and a reduced demand for diet drinks (-0.423, 95% CI: -0.628 - -1.219). Six articles from the USA showed that a higher price could also lead to a decrease in BMI, and decrease the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusions Taxing SSBs may reduce obesity. Future research should estimate price elasticities in low- and middle-income countries and identify potential health gains and the wider impact on jobs, monetary savings to the health sector, implementation costs and government revenue. Context-specific cost-effectiveness studies would allow policy makers to weigh these factors. PMID:24225016

2013-01-01

395

Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ?2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ?3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ?0.043). Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity) of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.2-90.2) and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5) risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-?) or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8) for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1) and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7) higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent MetS among boys but not girls in Taiwan. PMID:24858495

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Chun-Ying; Wu, Pei-Wen; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-01-01

396

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

397

Extracorporeal Artificial Liver Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most appealing therapeutic approaches for treating any organ failure is the possibility to provide a temporary\\u000a artificial support of its function. In some cases (for example kidney failure) dialysis procedures are widely accepted and\\u000a used, while in others (for example cardiac failure) artificial devices remain largely investigational. In this context, the\\u000a concept of artificial liver support (ALS)

Rafael Bañares; María-Vega Catalina

398

Applicability of nonresonant artificial diamagnetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial diamagnetics are prominent for achieving extraordinarily strong diamagnetism in a wide frequency range. However, as far as the magnetic fields outside the artificial medium are concerned, bulk conductors show a very similar pattern. The question arises whether the complicated internal structure of artificial diamagnetics can, to this end, be replaced by a simpler object. We show that for an electrically small body, internal structuring is likely to make the effective diamagnetic response weaker than that of a simple conducting object.

Jelinek, L.; Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.

2014-09-01

399

Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

2009-01-01

400

Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

2013-01-01

401

DAIRY FOODS TECHNICAL NOTES Changes in Electrical Energy Requirements to Operate an Ice Cream Freezer as a Function of Sweeteners and Gums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream for- mulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust

D. E. SMITH; A. S. BAKSHI; S. A. GAY

402

Food consumption and body weight changes with neotame, a new sweetener with intense taste: differentiating effects of palatability from toxicity in dietary safety studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety studies done with neotame, a sweetener with intense taste, demonstrate that changes in bodyweight (BW) and BW gain (BWG) are due to reduced food consumption (FC) rather than toxicity. When offered a choice, rats preferred basal diet to diet with relatively low concentrations of neotame. When no choice was available, rats ate less as concentrations increased, demonstrating reduced palatability.

Dale A. Mayhew; C. Phil Comer; W. Wayne Stargel

2003-01-01

403

Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.  

PubMed

Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500?L injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water. PMID:25085815

Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

2014-09-12

404

Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical InformaticsInformatics  

E-print Network

ICS 313 1 Artificial Intelligence in BiomedicalArtificial Intelligence in Biomedical Informatics Systems Outline and Objectives Describe basic concepts in artificial intelligence Understand is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? Goals of AI systems fall into four categories: Thinking humanly Thinking

Reed, Nancy E.

405

Artificial Selection Lab, Investigation #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the 2012 inquiry-based Advanced Placement Investigation into Artificial Selection (#1). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. This inquiry is guided by the question, Can extreme selection change expression of aquantitative trait in a population in one generation? Students study and carry out an artificial selection investigation using Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa).

Approach, Ap B.

406

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article aims to provide an overview of the ways in which techniques from artificial intelligence can be usefully employed in bioinformatics, both for modelling biological data and for making new discoveries. The paper covers three techniques: symbolic machine learning approaches (nearest-neighbour and identification tree techniques); artificial neural networks; and genetic algorithms. Each technique is introduced and then supported

A. Narayanan; E. C. Keedwell; B. Olsson

407

Computer defense using artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As library-based techniques of virus and intrusion detection prove insufficient to be means of protection for computer systems and networks, alternate methods must be incorporated into computer defense. This paper surveys a variety of Artificial Intelligence methods aimed at improving the effectiveness of modern computer security in the face of more prevalent, sophisticated, and ever-changing threats. Specifically, Artificial Immune Systems,

Winard Britt; Sundeep Gopalaswamy; John. A. Hamilton; Gerry V. Dozier; Kai H. Chang

2007-01-01

408

Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

Lubell, Adele

1987-01-01

409

A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

Leal, Ralph A.

410

Molecular artificial photosynthesis.  

PubMed

The replacement of fossil fuels by a clean and renewable energy source is one of the most urgent and challenging issues our society is facing today, which is why intense research has been devoted to this topic recently. Nature has been using sunlight as the primary energy input to oxidise water and generate carbohydrates (solar fuel) for over a billion years. Inspired, but not constrained, by nature, artificial systems can be designed to capture light and oxidise water and reduce protons or other organic compounds to generate useful chemical fuels. This tutorial review covers the primary topics that need to be understood and mastered in order to come up with practical solutions for the generation of solar fuels. These topics are: the fundamentals of light capturing and conversion, water oxidation catalysis, proton and CO2 reduction catalysis and the combination of all of these for the construction of complete cells for the generation of solar fuels. PMID:24473472

Berardi, Serena; Drouet, Samuel; Francàs, Laia; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Guttentag, Miguel; Richmond, Craig; Stoll, Thibaut; Llobet, Antoni

2014-10-20

411

Compact artificial hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple, compact artificial hand, is described which includes hooks pivotally mounted on first frame to move together and apart. The first frame is rotatably mounted on a second frame to enable "turning at the wrist" movement without limitation. The second frame is pivotally mounted on a third frame to permit 'flexing at the wrist' movement. A hook-driving motor is fixed to the second frame but has a shaft that drives a speed reducer on the first frame which, in turn, drives the hooks. A second motor mounted on the second frame, turns a gear on the first frame to rotate the first frame and the hooks thereon. A third motor mounted on the third frame, turns a gear on a second frame to pivot it.

Wiker, G. A.; Mann, W. A. (inventors)

1979-01-01

412

Artificial Tribotactic Microscopic Walkers  

E-print Network

Friction, the resistive force between two surfaces sliding past each other, is at the core of a wide diversity of locomotion schemes. While such schemes are somewhat understood for homogeneous environments, locomotion based on friction in inhomogeneous environments has not received much attention. Here, we introduce and demonstrate the concept of tribotaxis by utilizing microwalkers that detect gradients in the friction coefficient controlled by the density of biological receptors on the substrate. When actuated stochastically, these microwalkers migrate to regions of higher friction, effectively performing chemotaxis. Simulations and theory based on biased random walks are in excellent agreement with experiments. Our results may have important implications in artificial and natural locomotion in biological environments because interfaces are a prominent motif in nature.

Joshua P. Steimel; Juan L. Aragones; Alfredo Alexander-Katz

2014-03-10

413

Artificial Stem Cell Niches  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

2011-01-01

414

Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity  

SciTech Connect

This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Swegle, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.

1994-08-01

415

Aerobic biodegradability of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) used in natural gas sweetening plants in batch tests and continuous flow experiments.  

PubMed

Mixtures of different amines including tertiary amines (methyldiethanolamine, MDEA) are commonly used for the removal of CO2 from gas mixtures or in gas sweetening processes for the extraction of CO2 and H2S. The absorber solutions used can be released into the industrial waste water due to continuous substitution of degraded MDEA, periodically cleaning processes or an accidental spill. In this study, the aerobic biodegradability of MDEA was investigated in a standardised batch test and a continuous flow experiment (40 l/d). The results of the batch test indicated that the MDEA-solution was non-biodegradable during the test period of 28 days, whereas the continuous flow experiments showed biodegradation of more than 96% based on TOC-measurements. This was probably due to the adaptation of the microorganisms to this particular waste water contamination during continuous flow experiment. PMID:12871741

Fürhacker, M; Pressl, A; Allabashi, R

2003-09-01

416

Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.  

PubMed

In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. PMID:25148960

Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmovi?, Marko; Karlovi?, Sven; Biški?, Matija; Brn?i?, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

2015-01-15

417

Ethics and obesity prevention: ethical considerations in 3 approaches to reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

PubMed

Obesity and overweight prevalence soared to unprecedented levels in the United States, with 1 in 3 adults and 1 in 6 children currently categorized as obese. Although many approaches have been taken to encourage individual behavior change, policies increasingly attempt to modify environments to have a more positive influence on individuals' food and drink choices. Several policy proposals target sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), consumption of which has become the largest contributor to Americans' caloric intake. Yet proposals have been criticized for unduly inhibiting choice, being overly paternalistic, and stigmatizing low-income populations. We explored the ethical acceptability of 3 approaches to reduce SSB consumption: restricting sale of SSBs in public schools, levying significant taxes on SSBs, and prohibiting the use of Supplemental Nutrition and Assistance Program (formerly food stamps) benefits for SSB purchases. PMID:24625154

Kass, Nancy; Hecht, Kenneth; Paul, Amy; Birnbach, Kerry

2014-05-01

418

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2011-04-01

419

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2014-04-01

420

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2010-04-01

421

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2013-04-01

422

21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

2012-04-01

423

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

Popovic, Zoya

424

49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section...Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights...arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted when...

2013-10-01

425

49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section...Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights...arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted when...

2011-10-01

426

49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section...Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights...arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted when...

2012-10-01

427

49 CFR 176.148 - Artificial lighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Artificial lighting. 176.148 Section...Loading and Unloading § 176.148 Artificial lighting. Electric lights...arc lights, are the only form of artificial lighting permitted when...

2010-10-01

428

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 y Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Institute of Technology, 1995. This report describes research done partly at the Artificial Intelligence

Poggio, Tomaso

429

Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (?24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r?=?0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

2014-01-01

430

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and within the Center for Biological and Computational Learning

Poggio, Tomaso

431

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL and Computational Learning in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and at the Artificial Intelligence

Poggio, Tomaso

432

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY and CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL of Technology within the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the Center for Biological Information Processing

Koch, Christof

433

The artificial leaf.  

PubMed

To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer. The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world. PMID:22475039

Nocera, Daniel G

2012-05-15

434

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding.  

PubMed

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in patients with dementia and dysphagia. Given the lack of documented benefit of gastrointestinal feeding in these patients, the literature has focused on selection of appropriate patients for this medical intervention. Ethical care involves compassion, communication, consultation, and collaboration in dealing with emotionally difficult circumstances. PMID:15245701

Lipman, Timothy O

2004-08-01

435

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

436

Artificial dexterous hand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artificial dexterous hand is provided for conformally engaging and manipulating objects. The hand includes an articulated digit which is connected to an engagement sub-assembly and has a first shape adaption mechanism associated with it. The digit has a digit base and first and second phalanges. The digit base is operatively interconnected to the first phalange by a base joint having a base pulley. The phalanges are operatively interconnected by a separate first phalange joint having a first phalange pulley. The engagement sub-assembly includes a tendon, which is received by the base pulley and by the first phalange pulley, and an actuation device for selectively tensioning the tendon. The first shape adaption mechanism is responsive to and receives the tendon. It is also situated between the base joint and the first phalange joint and is connected to the first phalange. Upon actuation by the actuation device, the phalanges are caused to pivot relative to the base joint and the second phalange is caused to pivot relative to the first phalange. At the same time, the first shape adaption mechanism controls the sequence of the aforementioned pivoting of the phalanges through application of braking force to the tendon.

Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

1990-01-01

437

Artificial atoms on semiconductor surfaces  

PubMed Central

Semiconductor nanocrystals are called artificial atoms because of their atom-like discrete electronic structure resulting from quantum confinement. Artificial atoms can also be assembled into artificial molecules or solids, thus, extending the toolbox for material design. We address the interaction of artificial atoms with bulk semiconductor surfaces. These interfaces are model systems for understanding the coupling between localized and delocalized electronic structures. In many perceived applications, such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and solar energy conversion, interfacing semiconductor nanocrystals to bulk materials is a key ingredient. Here, we apply the well established theories of chemisorption and interfacial electron transfer as conceptual frameworks for understanding the adsorption of semiconductor nanocrystals on surfaces, paying particular attention to instances when the nonadiabatic Marcus picture breaks down. We illustrate these issues using recent examples from our laboratory. PMID:21097704

Tisdale, W. A.; Zhu, X.-Y.

2011-01-01

438

Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.  

PubMed

This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail. PMID:22470985

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

439

A functioning artificial secretory cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell model was equipped with an analog composed of complimentary DNA constructs. The DNA constructs hybridize in a zipper-like fashion to bring about docking of the artificial secretory vesicles and following the addition of Ca2+ artificial exocytosis was completed. Exocytotic events recorded from the artificial cell closely approximate exocytosis in live cells. The results together with simulations of vesicular release demonstrate that the molecular flux in this model is attenuated and we suggest that this is the result of restricted diffusion through a semi-stable fusion pore or a partitioning of the signalling molecule out of the fused vesicle membrane.

Simonsson, Lisa; Kurczy, Michael E.; Trouillon, Raphaël; Hook, Fredrik; Cans, Ann-Sofie

2012-11-01

440

Single artificial-atom lasing  

E-print Network

Solid-state superconducting circuits are versatile systems in which quantum states can be engineered and controlled. Recent progress in this area has opened up exciting possibilities for exploring fundamental physics as well as applications in quantum information technology; in a series of experiments it was shown that such circuits can be exploited to generate quantum optical phenomena, by designing superconducting elements as artificial atoms that are coupled coherently to the photon field of a resonator. Here we demonstrate a lasing effect with a single artificial atom - a Josephson-junction charge qubit - embedded in a superconducting resonator. We make use of one of the properties of solid-state artificial atoms, namely that they are strongly and controllably coupled to the resonator modes. The device is essentially different from existing lasers and masers; one and the same artificial atom excited by current injection produces many photons.

O. Astafiev; K. Inomata; A. O. Niskanen; T. Yamamoto; Yu. A. Pashkin; Y. Nakamura; J. S. Tsai

2007-10-04

441

A functioning artificial secretory cell  

PubMed Central

We present an amperometric study of content release from individual vesicles in an artificial secretory cell designed with the minimal components required to carry out exocytosis. Here, the membranes of the cell and vesicles are substituted for protein-free giant and large unilamellar vesicles respectively. In replacement of the SNARE-complex, the cell model was equipped with an analog composed of complimentary DNA constructs. The DNA constructs hybridize in a zipper-like fashion to bring about docking of the artificial secretory vesicles and following the addition of Ca2+ artificial exocytosis was completed. Exocytotic events recorded from the artificial cell closely approximate exocytosis in live cells. The results together with simulations of vesicular release demonstrate that the molecular flux in this model is attenuated and we suggest that this is the result of restricted diffusion through a semi-stable fusion pore or a partitioning of the signalling molecule out of the fused vesicle membrane. PMID:23139869

Simonsson, Lisa; Kurczy, Michael E.; Trouillon, Raphael; Hook, Fredrik; Cans, Ann-Sofie

2012-01-01

442

Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications  

SciTech Connect

The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

Yazdami, M.

1985-01-01

443

Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

2004-01-01

444

Ten Problems in Artificial Intelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers in Artificial Intelligence have had a difficult time defining the field's goals and assessing its progress. Some have focused on the task of modelling the human brain, others have focused on developing smart machines independent of the constra...

R. C. Schank, C. C. Owens

1987-01-01

445

New Progress in Artificial Intelligence  

E-print Network

This report concentrates on progress during the last two years at the M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Topics covered include the representation of knowledge, understanding English, learning and debugging, ...

Winston, Patrick H.

1974-09-01

446

59.302 Artificial Intelligence 1 Introduction  

E-print Network

linguistics History of AI #12;59.302 Artificial Intelligence 2 What is AI? · 1 Think like humans ­ "cognitive59.302 Artificial Intelligence 1 Introduction What is AI? Foundations of AI mathematics psychology;59.302 Artificial Intelligence 3 Acting humanly #12;59.302 Artificial Intelligence 4 Acting humanly To pass

Hawick, Ken

447

Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People12  

PubMed Central

Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are “add-on” calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people. PMID:23493538

Bray, George A.

2013-01-01

448

Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.  

PubMed

Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people. PMID:23493538

Bray, George A

2013-03-01

449

Effects of Chewing Gums Sweetened with Sorbitol or a Sorbitol\\/Xylitol Mixture on the Remineralisation of Human Enamel Lesions in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-oral remineralisation of experimental caries-like lesions in human enamel, as determined by polarised light microscopy and quantitative microradiography, was promoted to a similar extent (% fall in ?Z, 18.6 and 19.0) by chewing a sorbitol or sorbitol\\/xylitol (3:l)-sweetened gum for 20 min after each of three meals and two sugary snacks daily. The results suggest that reported differences in the

R. H. Manning; W. M. Edgar; E. A. Agalamanyi

1992-01-01

450

Long-term food consumption and body weight changes in neotame safety studies are consistent with the allometric relationship observed for other sweeteners and during dietary restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long-term safety studies with neotame, a new high-intensity sweetener 7000–13,000 times sweeter than sucrose, the percent changes (%?) in body weight gain (BWG) in Sprague–Dawley rats were several-fold greater than the %? in overall food consumption (FC). This study investigates the question of whether the changes in BWG were adverse or secondary to small, long-term decrements in FC. The

W. Gary Flamm; George L Blackburn; C. Phil Comer; Dale A Mayhew; W. Wayne Stargel

2003-01-01

451

Towards an artificial brain.  

PubMed

Three components of a brain model operating on neuromolecular computing principles are described. The first component comprises neurons whose input-output behavior is controlled by significant internal dynamics. Models of discrete enzymatic neurons, reaction-diffusion neurons operating on the basis of the cyclic nucleotide cascade, and neurons controlled by cytoskeletal dynamics are described. The second component of the model is an evolutionary learning algorithm which is used to mold the behavior of enzyme-driven neurons or small networks of these neurons for specific function, usually pattern recognition or target seeking tasks. The evolutionary learning algorithm may be interpreted either as representing the mechanism of variation and natural selection acting on a phylogenetic time scale, or as a conceivable ontogenetic adaptation mechanism. The third component of the model is a memory manipulation scheme, called the reference neuron scheme. In principle it is capable of orchestrating a repertoire of enzyme-driven neurons for coherent function. The existing implementations, however, utilize simple neurons without internal dynamics. Spatial navigation and simple game playing (using tic-tac-toe) provide the task environments that have been used to study the properties of the reference neuron model. A memory-based evolutionary learning algorithm has been developed that can assign credit to the individual neurons in a network. It has been run on standard benchmark tasks, and appears to be quite effective both for conventional neural nets and for networks of discrete enzymatic neurons. The models have the character of artificial worlds in that they map the hierarchy of processes in the brain (at the molecular, neuronal, and network levels), provide a task environment, and use this relatively self-contained setup to develop and evaluate learning and adaptation algorithms. PMID:2627565

Conrad, M; Kampfner, R R; Kirby, K G; Rizki, E N; Schleis, G; Smalz, R; Trenary, R

1989-01-01

452

Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the national health and nutrition examination surveys.  

PubMed

Objectives. We tested whether leukocyte telomere length maintenance, which underlies healthy cellular aging, provides a link between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Methods. We examined cross-sectional associations between the consumption of SSBs, diet soda, and fruit juice and telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults. The study population included 5309 US adults, aged 20 to 65 years, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, from the 1999 to 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from DNA specimens. Diet was assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls. Associations were examined using multivariate linear regression for the outcome of log-transformed telomere length. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, sugar-sweetened soda consumption was associated with shorter telomeres (b?=?-0.010; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?-0.020, -0.001; P?=?.04). Consumption of 100% fruit juice was marginally associated with longer telomeres (b?=?0.016; 95% CI?=?-0.000, 0.033; P?=?.05). No significant associations were observed between consumption of diet sodas or noncarbonated SSBs and telomere length. Conclusions. Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas might influence metabolic disease development through accelerated cell aging. PMID:25322305

Leung, Cindy W; Laraia, Barbara A; Needham, Belinda L; Rehkopf, David H; Adler, Nancy E; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S

2014-12-01

453

The fortification of tea with sweeteners and milk and its effect on in vitro antioxidant potential of tea product and glutathione levels in an animal model.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated that tea flavonoids protect cells and tissues against free radicals which have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress-related disease disorders. However, black tea is commonly consumed with additives that could otherwise affect the bioavailability of the active tea molecules. In this study, the biochemical parameters of Kenyan teas were determined and the effect of added milk and sweeteners on the antioxidant activity of Kenyan teas was investigated. The effect of tea antioxidants on glutathione (GSH) was also evaluated in vivo in a time series study using Swiss mice. Green teas had the highest levels of total polyphenols, total and individual catechins, while black teas had high levels of total thearubigins, total theaflavins and theaflavin fractions. The antioxidant activity was high in green teas though some of the black teas were as efficacious as the green teas. The addition of milk, sugar and honey significantly (p<0.05) decreased the antioxidant activity of tea in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the sweetener, stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), showed no significant (p>0.05) influence on the antioxidant activity of tea and therefore can be recommended as a preferred sweetener for tea. Significantly (p<0.001) higher levels of GSH were observed in plasma than in other tissues. GSH levels were generally highest 2h after tea consumption, which indicates the need to repeatedly take tea every 2h to maximise its potential health benefits. PMID:24128460

Korir, M W; Wachira, F N; Wanyoko, J K; Ngure, R M; Khalid, R

2014-02-15

454

Neotame: discovery, properties, utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neotame (NTM) is a new nonnutritive sweetener. NTM is a derivative of aspartame (APM). NTM has a clean sweet taste and a good flavour profile. It is a high-potency sweetener; it is 6000–10000 times sweeter than sucrose, and 30–60 times sweeter than APM. NTM is a noncaloric, noncariogenic sweetener. NTM has an extensive shelf life in dry conditions. In aqueous

Claude Nofre; Jean-Marie Tinti

2000-01-01

455

Artificial Intelligence 47 (1991) 31-56 31 Logic and artificial intelligence  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence 47 (1991) 31-56 31 Elsevier Logic and artificial intelligence Nils J Abstract Nilsson, N.J., Logic and artificial intelligence, Artificial Intelligence 47 (1990) 31-56. The theoretical foundations of the logical approach to artificial intelligence are presented. Logical languages

Pratt, Vaughan

456

The potato amylase inhibitor gene SbAI regulates cold-induced sweetening in potato tubers by modulating amylase activity.  

PubMed

Potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is critical for the postharvest quality of potato tubers. Starch degradation is considered to be one of the key pathways in the CIS process. However, the functions of the genes that encode enzymes related to starch degradation in CIS and the activity regulation of these enzymes have received less attention. A potato amylase inhibitor gene known as SbAI was cloned from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii. This genetic transformation confirmed that in contrast to the SbAI suppression in CIS-resistant potatoes, overexpressing SbAI in CIS-sensitive potatoes resulted in less amylase activity and a lower rate of starch degradation accompanied by a lower reducing sugar (RS) content in cold-stored tubers. This finding suggested that the SbAI gene may play crucial roles in potato CIS by modulating the amylase activity. Further investigations indicated that pairwise protein-protein interactions occurred between SbAI and ?-amylase StAmy23, ?-amylases StBAM1 and StBAM9. SbAI could inhibit the activities of both ?-amylase and ?-amylase in potato tubers primarily by repressing StAmy23 and StBAM1, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that SbAI is a key regulator of the amylases that confer starch degradation and RS accumulation in cold-stored potato tubers. PMID:24985879

Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Hou, Juan; Yao, Ying; Lin, Yuan; Ou, Yongbin; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

2014-09-01

457

The metabolic and endocrine response and health implications of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages: findings from recent randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars. PMID:24228199

Rippe, James M

2013-11-01

458

Coexpression of ?-D-galactosidase and L-arabinose isomerase in the production of D-tagatose: a functional sweetener.  

PubMed

The functional sweetener, d-tagatose, is commonly transformed from galactose by l-arabinose isomerase. To make use of a much cheaper starting material, lactose, hydrolization, and isomerization are required to take place collaboratively. Therefore, a single-step method involving ?-d-galactosidase was explored for d-tagatose production. The two vital genes, ?-d-galactosidase gene (lacZ) and l-arabinose isomerase mutant gene (araA') were extracted separately from Escherichia coli strains and incorporated into E. coli simultaneously. This gave us E. coli-ZY, a recombinant producing strain capable of coexpressing the two key enzymes. The resulted cells exhibited maximum d-tagatose producing activity at 34 °C and pH 6.5 and in the presence of borate, 10 mM Fe(2+), and 1 mM Mn(2+). Further monitoring showed that the recombinant cells could hydrolyze more than 95% lactose and convert 43% d-galactose into d-tagatose. This research has verified the feasibility of single-step d-tagatose fermentation, thereby laying down the foundation for industrial usage of lactose. PMID:24568679

Zhan, Yijing; Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Liu, Xiaoliu; Xu, Lu; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

2014-03-19

459

Nutritively Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments  

PubMed Central

Nutritively sweetened beverages (NSBs) may play a role in the obesity epidemic. We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and evidence-based reviews through January 2009 concerning effects of consumption of NSBs on changes in body weight and adiposity. Studies included were those 1) conducted in humans; 2) lasting at least 3 weeks; 3) incorporating random assignment of subjects to conditions that differed only in the consumption of NSBs; and 4) including an adiposity indicator as an outcome. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 6 studies that added NSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Contrarily, meta-analysis of studies that attempted to reduce NSB consumption consistently showed no effect on BMI when all subjects were considered. Meta-analysis of studies providing access to results separately for subjects overweight at baseline showed a significant effect of a roughly 0.35 standard deviations lesser BMI change (i.e., more weight loss or less weight gain) relative to controls. The current evidence does not demonstrate conclusively that NSB consumption has uniquely contributed to obesity or that reducing NSB consumption will reduce BMI levels in general. We recommend an adequately powered RCT among overweight persons, among whom there is suggestive evidence of an effect. PMID:20524996

Mattes, Richard D; Shikany, James M; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B

2010-01-01

460

Artificial Gravity Research Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused, investigator-initiated project to investigate system-specific adaptation to and from rotating environments. The AG Research Project also includes two major animal research subprojects: 1) a directed, managed ground-based subproject using rodents and, possibly, sub-human primates, to address mechanistic issues that cannot be studied in humans, to rapidly develop higher sample numbers than can be achieved in the human subprojects, and to establish feasible parameter operating bands to reduce the breadth of the human subprojects, and 2) a flight subproject using rodents to estimate the physiological effects of long term exposure to hypogravity and to investigate the effects of contamination by terrestrial gravity in estimating AG effectiveness. The animal flight subproject would be performed aboard ISS using the CAM module in approximately the 2008-201 1 timeframe. The paper will first present an overview of the key biomedical research questions to be answered. It will then describe the overall approaches to be utilized in developing and implementing the AG Research Project, including definition of the intended scientific research, management and development approaches, identification of roles and responsibilities, risk management, and definition of project deliverables. The primary focus of the paper will be on the first of the three ground-based human research subprojects, since it is the only one currently in development and is scheduled to start active subject investigations in April of 2005.

Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

2005-01-01

461

Focus on artificial frustrated systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frustration in physics is the inability of a system to simultaneously satisfy all the competing pairwise interactions within it. The past decade has seen an explosion of activity involving engineering frustration in artificial systems built using nanotechnology. The most common are the artificial spin ices that comprise arrays of nanomagnets with competing magnetostatic interactions. As well as being physical embodiments of idealized statistical mechanical models in which properties can be tuned by design, artificial spin ices can be studied using magnetic microscopy, allowing all the details of the microstates of these systems to be interrogated, both in equilibrium and when perturbed away from it. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together reports on the latest results from leading groups around the globe in this fascinating and fast-moving field.

Cumings, J.; Heyderman, L. J.; Marrows, C. H.; Stamps, R. L.

2014-07-01

462

Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

1984-01-01

463

Artificial and Bioartificial Liver Support  

PubMed Central

The fact that liver failure constitutes a life-threatening condition and can, in most cases, only be overcome by orthotopic liver transplantation, lead to the development of various artificial and bioartificial liver support devices. While artificial systems are based on the principles of adsorption and filtration, the more complex concept of bioartificial devices includes the provision of liver cells. Instead of solely focussing on detoxification, these concepts also support the failing organ concerning synthetic and regulative functions. The systems were evaluated in a variety of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and investigating the impact on the patient's clinical condition. This review gives an overview over the most common artificial and bioartificial liver support devices and summarizes the results of the clinical studies. PMID:19279696

2007-01-01

464

Nanobiocatalytic assemblies for artificial photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Natural photosynthesis, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion process, occurs through a series of photo-induced electron transfer reactions in nanoscale architectures that contain light-harvesting complexes, protein-metal clusters, and many redox biocatalysts. Artificial photosynthesis in nanobiocatalytic assemblies aims to reconstruct man-made photosensitizers, electron mediators, electron donors, and redox enzymes for solar synthesis of valuable chemicals through visible light-driven cofactor regeneration. The key requirement in the design of biocatalyzed artificial photosynthetic process is an efficient and forward electron transfer between each photosynthetic component. This review describes basic principles in combining redox biocatalysis with photocatalysis, and highlights recent research outcomes in the development of nanobiocatalytic assemblies that can mimic natural photosystems I and II, respectively. Current issues in biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis and future perspectives will be briefly discussed. PMID:24832068

Kim, Jae Hong; Nam, Dong Heon; Park, Chan Beum

2014-08-01

465

Artificial Viscosity and Galaxy Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of our understanding of the gas dynamics in interacting galaxies relies on simulations which use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). SPH simulations have been successful at reproducing many of the basic morphological and kinematic features seen in interacting systems. Artificial viscosity is used in SPH simulations to smooth the numerical ringing caused by shocks and to prevent interpenetration of streaming flows. Several forms of this general idea have evolved for simulations of interacting galaxies (Selhammer 1997; Hernquist & Katz 1989; Monaghan 1992), and a great deal of work has been done trying to create alternative forms of artificial viscosity for SPH (Watkins et.al. 1996; Balsara 1995; Morris & Monaghan 1997). Our studies of collisional ring show that the form and parameters used in artificial viscosity affect our conclusions about gas distribution and star formation resulting galaxy interactions. We will discuss these results, and address how these uncertainties might be removed from the next generation of numerical models.

Wallin, J. F.; Olson, K.; Haque, A.; Milder, S.; Brugioni, J.

1998-12-01

466

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

2013-12-10

467

Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis  

ScienceCinema

The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. Established in 2010 as a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, JCAP aims to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide as inputs. JCAP brings together more than 140 top scientists and researchers from the California Institute of Technology and its lead partner, Berkeley Lab, along with collaborators from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the University of California campuses at Irvine and San Diego.

Koval, Carl; Lee, Kenny; Houle, Frances; Lewis, Nate

2013-12-19

468

Private development of artificial reefs  

E-print Network

fisheries are held and con- sistent with state and federal law, and; (3) that the pri- vate development of artificial reefs in concert with a char- ter boat business is a financially feasible operation. For the purposes of this thesis the definition... fisheries are held and con- sistent with state and federal law, and; (3) that the pri- vate development of artificial reefs in concert with a char- ter boat business is a financially feasible operation. For the purposes of this thesis the definition...

Burns, Arthur Allen

2012-06-07

469

Artificial frozen orbits around Mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbits around Mercury are influenced by the strong elliptic third-body perturbation, especially for high eccentricity orbits, the periapsis altitude changes dramatically. Frozen orbits whose mean eccentricity and argument of perigee remain constants are obviously a good choice for space missions, but the forming conditions are too harsh to meet practical needs. To deal with this problem, a continuous control method that combines analytical theory and parameter optimization is proposed to build an artificial frozen orbit. The artificial frozen orbits are investigated on the basis of double averaged Hamiltonian, of which the second and third zonal harmonics and the perturbation of elliptic third-body gravity are considered. In this paper, coefficients of perturbations which satisfy the conditions of frozen orbits are involved as control parameters, and the relevant artificial perturbations are compensated by the control strategy. So probes around Mercury can be kept on frozen orbit under the influence of continuous control force. Then complex method of optimization is used to search for the energy optimized artificial frozen orbits. The choosing of optimal parameters, the objective function setting and other issues are also discussed in the study. Evolution of optimal control parameters are given in large ranges of semi-major axis and eccentricity, through the variation of these curves, the fuel efficiency is discussed. The result shows that the control method proposed in this paper can effectively maintain the eccentricity and argument of perigee frozen.

Ma, Xue; Li, Junfeng

2013-12-01

470

Artificial Materials for Terahertz Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. What? Artificial materials are three dimensional surfaces which can manipulate, focus and filter electro- magnetic radiation. These materials provide engineered properties which may be difficult to obtain or even unavailable in nature. At Durham University, we design, fabricate and test materials which can operate in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (typically 300 GHz to 10 THz). The

Andrew Gallant

2007-01-01

471

Artificial intelligence in Buddhist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility and desirability of artificial intelligence (AI) by considering western literature on AI and Buddhist doctrine. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper argues that these issues can best be considered examined from a variety of philosophical and religious viewpoints and that resolution of those issues depends on which point of view

Somparn Promta; Kenneth Einar Himma

2008-01-01

472

Tutorial: Artificial Intelligence And Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “simulation” is often interpreted quite narrowly: as al way of making predictions by running a behavioral model to answer questions of the form “What-if...?”. The major impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) research on simulation is to encourage the use of additional kinds of modeling based on inferencing, reasoning, search methods, and representations that have been developed in AI.

Jeff Rothenberg

1989-01-01

473

Artificial intelligence and software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software Engineering is a knowledge-intensive activity, requiring extensive knowledge of the application domain and of the target software itself. Many Software Engineering costs can be attributed to the ineffectiveness of current techniques for managing this knowledge, and Artificial Intelligence techniques can help alleviate this situation. More than two decades of research have led to many significant theoretical results, but few

David R. Barstow

1987-01-01

474

Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

Lawlor, Joseph

475

Artificial Intelligence: An Empirical Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

My initial tasks in this paper are, first, to delimit the boundaries of artificial intelligence, then, to justify calling it a science: is AI science, or is it engineering, or some combination of these? After arguing that it is (at least) a science, I will consider how it is best pursued: in particular, the respective roles for experiment and theory

Herbert A. Simon

1995-01-01

476

Artificial Life in Computer Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

2007-01-20

477

Hybrid Applications Of Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STAR, Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning, is interactive, interpreted programming language for development and operation of artificial-intelligence application systems. Couples symbolic processing with compiled-language functions and data structures. Written in C language and currently available in UNIX version (NPO-16832), and VMS version (NPO-16965).

Borchardt, Gary C.

1988-01-01