Sample records for artificial sweetener aspartame

  1. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

    2003-02-01

    Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate containing table sweeteners. PMID:12623659

  2. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Huvaere; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Moez Hasni; Christine Vinkx; Joris Van Loco

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was

  3. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Huvaere; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Moez Hasni; Christine Vinkx; Joris Van Loco

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was

  4. Aspartame : artifice and the science of sweet

    E-print Network

    MacLachlan, Allison (Allison Stollery)

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame has become an extremely popular artificial sweetener since its entry into the American market in 1981. Humans have an evolutionary preference for sweet tastes, and artificial sweeteners became a mainstream ...

  5. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (<1% of ADI) was negligible. A comparison of observed intake for the total population with intake for diabetics (acesulfame-K: 3.55 versus 3.75; aspartame: 6.77 versus 6.53; cyclamate: 1.97 versus 2.06; saccharine: 1.14 versus 0.97; sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  6. Development of a Sweetness Sensor for Aspartame, a Positively Charged High-Potency Sweetener

    PubMed Central

    Yasuura, Masato; Tahara, Yusuke; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Taste evaluation technology has been developed by several methods, such as sensory tests, electronic tongues and a taste sensor based on lipid/polymer membranes. In particular, the taste sensor can individually quantify five basic tastes without multivariate analysis. However, it has proven difficult to develop a sweetness sensor, because sweeteners are classified into three types according to the electric charges in an aqueous solution; that is, no charge, negative charge and positive charge. Using membrane potential measurements, the taste-sensing system needs three types of sensor membrane for each electric charge type of sweetener. Since the commercially available sweetness sensor was only intended for uncharged sweeteners, a sweetness sensor for positively charged high-potency sweeteners such as aspartame was developed in this study. Using a lipid and plasticizers, we fabricated various lipid/polymer membranes for the sweetness sensor to identify the suitable components of the sensor membranes. As a result, one of the developed sensors showed responses of more than 20 mV to 10 mM aspartame and less than 5 mV to any other taste. The responses of the sensor depended on the concentration of aspartame. These results suggested that the developed sweetness sensor had high sensitivity to and high selectivity for aspartame. PMID:24763213

  7. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    PubMed Central

    AlSuhaibani, Entissar S.

    2010-01-01

    Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester) is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol) was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350?mg/kg body weight). Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI). However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration. PMID:20689731

  8. Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    America’s obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed [1,2]. While people often choose “diet” or “light” products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale’s Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

  9. Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

    2012-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

  10. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E

    2013-09-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  11. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The negative impact of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages on weight and other health outcomes has been increasingly recognized; therefore, many people have turned to high-intensity sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin as a way to reduce the risk of these consequences. However, accumulating evidence suggests that frequent consumers of these sugar substitutes may also be at increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This paper discusses these findings and considers the hypothesis that consuming sweet-tasting but noncaloric or reduced-calorie food and beverages interferes with learned responses that normally contribute to glucose and energy homeostasis. Because of this interference, frequent consumption of high-intensity sweeteners may have the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. PMID:23850261

  12. Sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages in relation to obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this review was to critically evaluate the scientific evidence in humans on the potential effect of sweetened beverages on weight gain and risk of obesity in youth and adults. Two categories of these beverages were reviewed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) include soft drinks, colas, other sweetened carbonated beverages, and fruit drinks with added sugar. Artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), also referred to as non-nutritive sweetened beverages, are marketed and used as a replacement for SSBs for those who want to reduce sugar and caloric intake. The totality of evidence to date demonstrates a pattern across observational and experimental studies of an increased risk of weight gain and obesity with higher intake of SSBs. However, it remains difficult to establish the strength of the association and the independence from other potentially confounding factors. The primary reason for unclear conclusions regarding the robustness of any effect of SSBs is due to the heterogeneity and methodologic limitations of both observational and experimental studies on this topic. Although some observational studies have suggested that ASBs may cause increased risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, there is no clear mechanism for this pathway, and the epidemiologic studies are highly inconsistent. An important issue with the observational studies on ASBs and obesity or disease risk is reverse causality bias, with higher-quality studies demonstrating this possibility. The field needs higher-quality experimental studies in humans, with relevant direct comparisons between sweetened beverages and their sweetened solid-food alternatives. PMID:25398745

  13. Sweet proteins--potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  14. A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…

  15. Artificial sweeteners--a recently recognized class of emerging environmental contaminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Lange, Frank T; Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing trace analytical methods for the determination of seven popular artificial sweeteners [acesulfame (ACE), aspartame, cyclamate (CYC), neotame, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, saccharin (SAC), and sucralose (SUC)] from aqueous environmental samples. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry are the methods most widely applied, either directly or after solid-phase extraction. Limits of detection and limits of quantification down to the low nanogram per liter range can be achieved. ACE, CYC, SAC, and SUC were detected in wastewater treatment plants in high microgram per liter concentrations. Per capita loads of individual sweeteners can vary within a wide range depending on their use in different countries. Whereas CYC and SAC are usually degraded by more than 90% during wastewater treatment, ACE and SUC pass through wastewater treatment plants mainly unchanged. This suggests their use as virtually perfect markers for the study of the impact of wastewater on source waters and drinking waters. In finished water of drinking water treatment plants using surface-water-influenced source water, ACE and SUC were detected in concentrations up to 7 and 2.4 ?g/L, respectively. ACE was identified as a precursor of oxidation byproducts during ozonation, resulting in an aldehyde intermediate and acetic acid. Although the concentrations of ACE and SUC are among the highest measured for anthropogenic trace pollutants found in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water, the levels are at least three orders of magnitude lower than organoleptic threshold values. However, ecotoxicology studies are scarce and have focused on SUC. Thus, further research is needed both on identification of transformation products and on the ecotoxicological impact of artificial sweeteners and their transformation products. PMID:22543693

  16. Robust scientific evidence demonstrates benefits of artificial sweeteners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial sweeteners (AS) have not been found to have a negative impact on health in humans. They have been recommended as a safe alternative for individuals who are seeking to lose or maintain weight. However, unnecessary alarm has been raised regarding the potential health risks of AS. This is of...

  17. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Kant

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new

  18. Consumption of artificial sweetener– and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women1234

    PubMed Central

    Schernhammer, Eva S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Sampson, Laura; Willett, Walter C; Feskanich, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite safety reports of the artificial sweetener aspartame, health-related concerns remain. Objective: We prospectively evaluated whether the consumption of aspartame- and sugar-containing soda is associated with risk of hematopoetic cancers. Design: We repeatedly assessed diet in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Over 22 y, we identified 1324 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), 285 multiple myelomas, and 339 leukemias. We calculated incidence RRs and 95% CIs by using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: When the 2 cohorts were combined, there was no significant association between soda intake and risks of NHL and multiple myeloma. However, in men, ?1 daily serving of diet soda increased risks of NHL (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) and multiple myeloma (RR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.40) in comparison with men who did not consume diet soda. We observed no increased risks of NHL and multiple myeloma in women. We also observed an unexpected elevated risk of NHL (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.51) with a higher consumption of regular, sugar-sweetened soda in men but not in women. In contrast, when sexes were analyzed separately with limited power, neither regular nor diet soda increased risk of leukemia but were associated with increased leukemia risk when data for men and women were combined (RR for consumption of ?1 serving of diet soda/d when the 2 cohorts were pooled: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.02). Conclusion: Although our findings preserve the possibility of a detrimental effect of a constituent of diet soda, such as aspartame, on select cancers, the inconsistent sex effects and occurrence of an apparent cancer risk in individuals who consume regular soda do not permit the ruling out of chance as an explanation. PMID:23097267

  19. Colorimetric Detection and Identification of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Musto; Sung H. Lim; Kenneth S. Suslick

    2009-01-01

    A disposable, low-cost colorimetric sensor array has been created by\\u000a pin-printing onto a hydrophilic membrane 16 chemically responsive\\u000a nanoporous pigments that are comprised of indicators immobilized in an\\u000a organic-ally modified silane (ormosil). The array has been used to\\u000a detect and identify 14 different natural and artificial sweeteners at\\u000a millimolar concentrations, as well as commonly used individual-serving\\u000a sweetener packets. The array

  20. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men123

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Lawrence; Malik, Vasanti S; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for type 2 diabetes; however, the role of artificially sweetened beverages is unclear. Objective: The objective was to examine the associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened beverages with incident type 2 diabetes. Design: An analysis of healthy men (n = 40,389) from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study, was performed. Cumulatively averaged intakes of sugar-sweetened (sodas, fruit punches, lemonades, fruit drinks) and artificially sweetened (diet sodas, diet drinks) beverages from food-frequency questionnaires were tested for associations with type 2 diabetes by using Cox regression. Results: There were 2680 cases over 20 y of follow-up. After age adjustment, the hazard ratio (HR) for the comparison of the top with the bottom quartile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39; P for trend < 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, including multivitamins, family history, high triglycerides at baseline, high blood pressure, diuretics, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, total energy, and body mass index, the HR was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.40; P for trend < 0.01). Intake of artificially sweetened beverages was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.72, 2.11; P for trend < 0.01) but not in the multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.21; P for trend = 0.13). The replacement of one serving of sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup (?237 mL) of coffee was associated with a risk reduction of 17%. Conclusion: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with a significantly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between artificially sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes was largely explained by health status, pre-enrollment weight change, dieting, and body mass index. PMID:21430119

  1. A chemiluminescence sensor array for discriminating natural sugars and artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Niu, Weifen; Kong, Hao; Wang, He; Zhang, Yantu; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report a chemiluminescence (CL) sensor array based on catalytic nanomaterials for the discrimination of ten sweeteners, including five natural sugars and five artificial sweeteners. The CL response patterns ("fingerprints") can be obtained for a given compound on the nanomaterial array and then identified through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Moreover, each pure sweetener was quantified based on the emission intensities of selected sensor elements. The linear ranges for these sweeteners lie within 0.05-100 mM, but vary with the type of sweetener. The applicability of this array to real-life samples was demonstrated by applying it to various beverages, and the results showed that the sensor array possesses excellent discrimination power and reversibility. PMID:21850423

  2. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S. PMID:21879743

  3. A bitter aftertaste: unintended effects of artificial sweeteners on the gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal microbial communities regulate a range of host physiological functions, from energy harvest and glucose homeostasis to immune development and regulation. Suez and colleagues (2014) recently demonstrated that artificial sweeteners alter gut microbial communities, leading to glucose intolerance in both mice and humans. PMID:25440050

  4. Stevia, cyclamate and saccharin - natural and artificial sweeteners - exert no effect on sulfane levels in tissues.

    PubMed

    Wilinski, Bogdan; Opoka, Wlodzimierz; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Wilinski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The interactions among natural and artificial sweeteners and endogenous sulfur metabolism have never been investigated. CBA strain mice were administered orally stevia, cyclamate or saccharin in doses of 5 mg/kg of body weight in water solutions each. The measurements of the free and acid-labile sulfane (H2S) tissue concentrations in brain, heart, liver and kidney were performed with Siegel spectrophotometric modified method. No differences in comparisons between hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the control group and each sweetener group within every tissue type were noted. In conclusion, stevia, cyclamate and saccharine do not change the endogenous sulfur metabolism to the extent of causing sulfane tissue levels alterations. PMID:24858558

  5. Evaluating the environmental impact of artificial sweeteners: a study of their distributions, photodegradation and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Jiang, Yanan; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2014-04-01

    While having a long tradition as safe food additives, artificial sweeteners are a newly recognized class of environmental contaminants due to their extreme persistence and ubiquitous occurrence in various aquatic ecosystems. Resistant to wastewater treatment processes, they are continuously introduced into the water environments. To date however, their environmental behavior, fate as well as long term ecotoxicological contributions in our water resources still remain largely unknown. As a first step in the comprehensive study of artificial sweeteners, this work elucidates the geographical/seasonal/hydrological interactions of acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose in an open coast system at an estuarine/marine junction. Higher occurrence of acesulfame (seasonal average: 0.22 ?g L(-1)) and sucralose (0.05 ?g L(-1)) was found in summer while saccharin (0.11  ?g L(-1)) and cyclamate (0.10 ?g L(-1)) were predominantly detected in winter. Seasonal observations of the four sweeteners suggest strong connections with the variable chemical resistance among different sweeteners. Our photodegradation investigation further projected the potential impact of persistent acesulfame and sucralose compounds under prolonged exposure to intensive solar irradiation. Real-time observation by UPLC-ESI/MS of the degradation profile in both sweeteners illustrated that formation of new photo by-products under prolonged UV irradiation is highly viable. Interestingly, two groups of kinetically behaved photodegradates were identified for acesulfame, one of which was at least six times more persistent than the parent compound. For the first time, acute toxicity for the degradates of both sweeteners were arbitrarily measured, revealing photo-enhancement factors of 575 and 17.1 for acesulfame and sucralose, respectively. Direct comparison of photodegradation results suggests that the phototoxicity of acesulfame degradation products may impact aquatic ecosystems. In an attempt to neutralize this prolonged environmental threat, the feasibility of UV/TiO2 as an effective mineralization process in wastewater treatment was evaluated for both sweeteners. Under an environmental and technical relevant condition, a >84% removal rate recorded within 30 min and complete photomineralization was achieved within 2 h and delivering the best cost efficiency comparing to existing removal methods. A compilation of distribution, degradation, toxicity and attenuation results presented in this paper will go through critical discussions to explore some current issues and to pinpoint solutions for a better control in the emergent contamination of artificial sweeteners. PMID:24289948

  6. What every dentist should know about artificial sweeteners and their effects.

    PubMed

    Starr, Zachary Aaron; Porter, Judith A; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are a ubiquitous commodity on the market. The idea that people can consume a sweet food or beverage with "zero" calories seems too good to be true, and perhaps it is. The longevity and abundance of these products on the market necessitate the study of their mechanisms and their relationships to health and disease, including possible links to obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. PMID:25945759

  7. Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon P. Fowler; Ken Williams; Roy G. Resendez; Kelly J. Hunt; Helen P. Hazuda; Michael P. Stern

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the relationship between artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption and long-term weight gain in the San Antonio Heart Study. From 1979 to 1988, height, weight, and ASB consumption were measured among 5,158 adult residents of San Antonio, Texas. Seven to eight years later, 3,682 participants (74% of survivors) were re-examined. Outcome measures were incidence of overweight\\/obesity (OW\\/OBinc) and

  8. Artificial sweeteners versus regular mixers increase breath alcohol concentrations in male and female social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer (e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared to the same amount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially-sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer. Methods Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended three sessions where they received one of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as was self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. Results BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared with the alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was .091 g/210 L in the alcohol + diet condition compared to .077 g/210 L in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performance indicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the two alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the two alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, objective and subjective measures. Conclusions Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared to the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol. PMID:23216417

  9. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health. PMID:24382146

  10. Impact of aspartame and saccharin on the rat liver: Biochemical, molecular, and histological approach.

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The current work was undertaken to settle the debate about the toxicity of artificial sweeteners (AS), particularly aspartame and saccharin. Twenty-five, 7-week-old male Wistar albino rats with an average body weight of 101 ± 4.8 g were divided into a control group and four experimental groups (n = 5 rats). The first and second experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame (250 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of aspartame (1000 mg/Kg BW). The third and fourth experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to ADI of saccharin (25 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of saccharin (100 mg/Kg BW). The experimental groups received the corresponding sweetener dissolved in water by oral route for 8 weeks. The activities of enzymes relevant to liver functions and antioxidants were measured in the blood plasma. Histological studies were used for the evaluation of the changes in the hepatic tissues. The gene expression levels of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the tumor suppressor gene (P27) were also evaluated. In addition to a significant reduction in the body weight, the AS-treated groups displayed elevated enzymes activities, lowered antioxidants values, and histological changes reflecting the hepatotoxic effect of aspartame and saccharin. Moreover, the overexpression of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene (P27) in all treated rat groups may indicate a potential risk of liver carcinogenesis, particularly on long-term exposure. PMID:26015492

  11. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  12. Determination of artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge samples using pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2?g/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw. PMID:24210305

  13. Effect of Artificial Sweetners on the Quality of Mango Drink

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. BUTT; F. M. ANJUM; N. SHAHZADI; M. SAJJAD KHAN

    Mango drink was prepared by replacing sucrose with artificial sweeteners aspartame and cyclamate. The treatments were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory evaluation fortnightly for two months. Acidity and reducing sugar increased, while TSS, pH and ascorbic acid decreased with storage intervals. Maximum increase in acidity (0.25%) and reducing sugars (3.41%) was observed in samples with 100% sucrose, followed by samples

  14. Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption.

    PubMed

    Moran, A W; Al-Rammahi, M; Zhang, C; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P

    2014-08-01

    Absorption of glucose from the lumen of the intestine into enterocytes is accomplished by sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the majority of mammalian species, expression (this includes activity) of SGLT1 is upregulated in response to increased dietary monosaccharides. This regulatory pathway is initiated by sensing of luminal sugar by the gut-expressed sweet taste receptor. The objectives of our studies were to determine (1) if the ruminant intestine expresses the sweet taste receptor, which consists of two subunits [taste 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3)], and other key signaling molecules required for SGLT1 upregulation in nonruminant intestines, and (2) whether T1R2-T1R3 sensing of artificial sweeteners induces release of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and enhances SGLT1 expression. We found that the small intestine of sheep and cattle express T1R2, T1R3, G-protein gustducin, and GLP-2 in enteroendocrine L-cells. Maintaining 110-d-old ruminating calves for 60d on a diet containing a starter concentrate and the artificial sweetener Sucram (consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) enhances (1) Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake by over 3-fold, (2) villus height and crypt depth by 1.4- and 1.2-fold, and (3) maltase- and alkaline phosphatase-specific activity by 1.5-fold compared to calves maintained on the same diet without Sucram. No statistically significant differences were observed for rates of intestinal glucose uptake, villus height, crypt depth, or enzyme activities between 50-d-old milk-fed calves and calves maintained on the same diet containing Sucram. When adult cows were kept on a diet containing 80:20 ryegrass hay-to-concentrate supplemented with Sucram, more than a 7-fold increase in SGLT1 protein abundance was noted. Collectively, the data indicate that inclusion of this artificial sweetener enhances SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth in ruminant animals. Exposure of ruminant sheep intestinal segments to saccharin or neohesperidin dihydrochalcone evokes secretion of GLP-2, the gut hormone known to enhance intestinal glucose absorption and mucosal growth. Artificial sweeteners, such as Sucram, at small concentrations are potent activators of T1R2-T1R3 (600-fold>glucose). This, combined with oral bioavailability of T1R2-T1R3 and the understanding that artificial sweetener-induced receptor activation evokes GLP-2 release (thus leading to increased SGLT1 expression and mucosal growth), make this receptor a suitable target for dietary manipulation. PMID:24881785

  15. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

  16. Increased postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia after 10 weeks’ sucrose-rich diet compared to an artificially sweetened diet: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Raben, Anne; Møller, Bente K.; Flint, Anne; Vasilaras, Tatjana H.; Christina Møller, A.; Juul Holst, Jens; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of exchanging sucrose for artificial sweeteners on risk factors for developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is not yet clear. Objective To investigate the effects of a diet high in sucrose versus a diet high in artificial sweeteners on fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles after 10 weeks. Design Healthy overweight subjects were randomised to consume drinks and foods sweetened with either sucrose (?2 g/kg body weight) (n = 12) or artificial sweeteners (n = 11) as supplements to their usual diet. Supplements were similar on the two diets and consisted of beverages (?80 weight%) and solid foods (yoghurts, marmalade, ice cream, stewed fruits). The rest of the diet was free of choice and ad libitum. Before (week 0) and after the intervention (week 10) fasting blood samples were drawn and in week 10, postprandial blood was sampled during an 8-hour meal test (breakfast and lunch). Results After 10 weeks postprandial glucose, insulin, lactate, triglyceride, leptin, glucagon, and GLP-1 were all significantly higher in the sucrose compared with the sweetener group. After adjusting for differences in body weight changes and fasting values (week 10), postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 were significantly higher and after further adjusting for differences in energy and sucrose intake, postprandial lactate, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were still significantly higher on the sucrose-rich diet. Conclusion A sucrose-rich diet consumed for 10 weeks resulted in significant elevations of postprandial glycaemia, insulinemia, and lipidemia compared to a diet rich in artificial sweeteners in slightly overweight healthy subjects. PMID:21799667

  17. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine artificial sweeteners in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-06-01

    Artificial sweeteners are food additives employed as sugar substitutes which are now considered to be emerging organic contaminants. In the present study, a method is developed for the determination of a group of artificial sweeteners in environmental waters. Considering the polar and hydrophilic character of these compounds, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is proposed for their separation as an alternative to traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Two stationary phases with different chemistry were compared for this purpose. For the detection of the analytes, high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was employed to take advantage of its benefits in terms of reliable quantification and confirmation for the measurement of accurate masses. Solid-phase extraction was chosen as the sample treatment, in which the extract in a mixture of NH4OH:MeOH:ACN (1:4:15) was directly injected into the chromatographic system, simplifying the analytical procedure. The optimized method was validated on river and waste water samples. For example, in the case of effluent water samples, limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.7 ?g/L and limits of quantification ranged from 0.004 to 1.5 ?g/L. Apparent (whole method) recoveries ranged from 57 to 74 % with intra-day precision (%RSD, n?=?5) ranging from 6 to 25 %. The method was successfully applied to water samples from different rivers in Catalonia and different waste water treatment plants in Tarragona. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine and sucralose were found in several samples. Graphical Abstract Illustrative figure of the SPE/HILIC-HRMS method proposed. PMID:25428455

  18. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Anton; Corby K. Martin; Hongmei Han; Sandra Coulon; William T. Cefalu; Paula Geiselman; Donald A. Williamson

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0–24.9) and 12 obese

  19. The lipophilicity of artificial and natural sweeteners estimated by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography and computed by various methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodica Domnica Briciu; Agata Kot-Wasik; Andrzej Wasik; Jacek Namie?nik; Costel Sârbu

    2010-01-01

    The chromatographic behavior of some artificial and natural sweeteners was established by reverse phase high performance thin-layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC) on RP-18, RP-18W, RP-8, CN and NH2 stationary phases. The mobile phases were mixtures of acetonitrile–water in different proportions of volume, chosen to create a suitable migration during the chromatographic process. The lipophilicity was described through different chromatographic descriptors such as

  20. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame), and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45?min rest?+?60?min self-paced intense exercise) differing only in their fluid intake: 1) carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C)); 2) 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA)); 3) water (W); and 4) aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A)). Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43%) between pre-exercise and 30?min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone. PMID:22853297

  1. Artificial Sweeteners and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the U.S. National Toxicology Program’s Report on Carcinogens , where it had been listed since 1981 as a substance reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (a substance known to cause cancer). More information ...

  2. Overview of Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Jerry W.

    1995-08-01

    The techniques for assessing the relative sweetness of different compounds are discussed. The search for new, sweet compounds continues to be of interest to the food industry. In addition to sugars, sweet compounds with a variety of structures are surveyed and range from small inorganic molecules to large proteins. Emphasis is placed on artificial sweeteners and their current status in the marketplace. The recent theories of sweetness are briefly covered.

  3. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  4. Efficacy of sweeteners and sugar substitutes in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Imfeld, T

    1993-01-01

    The caries-preventive efficacy of sweeteners and sugar substitutes is not clearly established on an epidemiological scale. A review of cariogenicity assessments in vitro and in vivo as well as of human clinical caries trials, however, clearly demonstrates that the replacement of sugar by such products has a caries-preventive effect. The clinical relevance of some bacteriostatic and/or cariostatic properties ascribed to saccharin, aspartame, and xylitol remains to be corroborated. PMID:8500126

  5. The effect of sweeteners on bitter taste in young and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Gatlin, L A; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Heiman, S A; Stagner, W C; Erickson, R P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of reduction in perceived bitterness by sweeteners at both threshold and suprathreshold concentrations of bitter compounds. Detection and recognition thresholds were determined for six bitter compounds (caffeine, denatonium benzoate, magnesium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, sucrose octaacetate, and urea) in the absence and presence of several suprathreshold concentrations of five sweeteners. The sweeteners were: sucrose, aspartame, sodium saccharin, mannitol, and sorbitol. Polycose was also tested along with the sweeteners. The degree to which bitter thresholds were affected by the addition of sweeteners was dependent on the chemical classification of the sweeteners and their concentrations. In general, the natural sweeteners, sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol, were more effective than the noncaloric sweeteners, aspartame and sodium saccharin, in elevating the detection and recognition thresholds of the bitter compounds. A sweetness intensity approximating that of 6% sucrose (0.175 M sucrose) or greater was required to elevate thresholds. For elderly subjects, sweeteners did not significantly elevate thresholds for denatonium benzoate and sucrose octaacetate. The degree to which sorbitol and sucrose can decrease the perceived bitterness intensity of suprathreshold concentrations of the six bitter compounds was also determined. The concentrations of sweeteners and bitter compounds were selected to be of moderate to high subjective intensity. The levels of sweeteners used in the mixtures were: sucrose (none, 0.946 M, and 2.13 M) and sorbitol (none, 2.1 M, and 3.68 M). Both sweeteners significantly reduced the bitterness ratings of almost every concentration of the six bitter compounds. The greatest reductions in bitterness were 87.0% for 0.192 microM denatonium benzoate mixed with 2.13 M sucrose and 84.7% for 1.8 M urea mixed with 3.68 M sorbitol. PMID:7812797

  6. Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Hall; D. J. Millward; P. J. Rogers; L. M. Morgan

    2003-01-01

    Aspartame has been previously shown to increase satiety. This study aimed to investigate a possible role for the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in this effect. The effects of the constituents of aspartame, phenylalanine and aspartic acid, were also examined. Six subjects consumed an encapsulated preload consisting of either 400 mg aspartame, 176 mg aspartic acid+224 mg

  7. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  8. Simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs, and artificial sweeteners in environmental water samples using a single-step SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2013-09-15

    A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 24 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) was developed. The method was based on a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution. In this study, a single-step SPE procedure was optimized for simultaneous extraction of all target analytes. Good recoveries (? 70%) were observed for all target analytes when extraction was performed using Chromabond(®) HR-X (500 mg, 6 mL) cartridges under acidic condition (pH 2). HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for the simultaneous analysis of 24 PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in a single injection. Quantification was performed by using 13 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS), which allows correcting efficiently the loss of the analytes during SPE procedure, matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most of the target analytes was below 10 ng/L in all water samples. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples collected in a local catchment area in Singapore. In conclusion, the developed method provided a valuable tool for investigating the occurrence, behavior, transport, and the fate of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in the aquatic environment. PMID:23708627

  9. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

    1989-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively. PMID:2802596

  10. Effect of sucrose on the metabolic disposition of aspartame13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis D Stegink; Marvin C Brummel; Thomas J Persoon; Lloyd J Filer; Edward F Bell Jr; Ekhard E Ziegler

    Twelve normal adult subjects ingested a bev- erage providing 0. 136 mmol aspartame\\/kg body wt on 2 different days. On 1 study day the beverage provided only aspartame, on the other the beverage provided both aspartame and 3.5 1 mmol sucrose\\/kg body wt. The high mean plasma phenylabanine concentrations were similar after administra- tion of aspartame alone (158 ± 28.9

  11. Aspartame: effects on learning, behavior, and mood.

    PubMed

    Saravis, S; Schachar, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1990-07-01

    The effect of aspartame on the learning, behavior, and mood of children was evaluated in two experiments. After an overnight fast and a standard breakfast, 20 healthy 9- to 10-year-old children were given the treatments in a double-blind crossover design at 10:30 AM. Lunch was served at 12:00 noon. In experiment 1, the treatment consisted of an ice slurry of strawberry Kool-Aid containing 1.75 g/kg of carbohydrate (polycose) plus either aspartame (34 mg/kg) or the equivalent sweetness as sodium cyclamate and amino acids as alanine. In experiment 2, the treatment consisted of a drink of cold unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid, containing either 1.75 g/kg of sucrose or 9.7 mg/kg of aspartame. Measures of associative learning, arithmetic calculation, activity level, social interaction, and mood were unaffected by treatment in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the only significant treatment effect was that on the frequency of minor and gross motor behaviors, which were less frequent after the consumption of sucrose than after aspartame. Thus, the effect of aspartame on the short-term behavior of healthy 9- to 10-year-old children appears to be related to its absence of metabolic consequences rather than to its amino acid composition and putative neurochemical impact. PMID:1694294

  12. Effect of sucrose on the metabolic disposition of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; Persoon, T J; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E

    1990-08-01

    Twelve normal adult subjects ingested a beverage providing 0.136 mmol aspartame/kg body wt on 2 different days. On 1 study day the beverage provided only aspartame, on the other the beverage provided both aspartame and 3.51 mmol sucrose/kg body wt. The high mean plasma phenylalanine concentrations were similar after administration of aspartame alone (158 +/- 28.9 mumol/L, mean +/- SD) and administration of aspartame plus sucrose (134 +/- 44.1 mumol/L). Evaluation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for phenylalanine also showed no significant difference between groups (197 +/- 49.1 vs 182 +/- 28.3 mumol.L-1.h for aspartame alone and aspartame plus sucrose, respectively). Similarly, the high mean ratio of phenylalanine to large neutral amino acids (Phe:LNAA) in plasma did not differ significantly (0.265 +/- 0.046 for aspartame alone, 0.275 +/- 0.107 for aspartame plus sucrose). However, there was a small but significant difference between groups for the 4-h AUC values for plasma Phe:LNAA. The simultaneous ingestion of sucrose with aspartame had only minor effects on aspartame's metabolic disposition. PMID:2197852

  13. The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in obese and lean women.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Massien, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J; Fricker, J; Chapelot, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the effects of four breakfast preloads of different sweetness and energy content on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes of 12 obese and 12 lean women. The preloads consisted of creamy white cheese (fromage blanc) and were either plain, sweetened with sucrose or aspartame, or sweetened with aspartame and supplemented with maltodextrin. Their energy content was either 300 kcal (1,255 kJ) or 700 kcal (2,929 kJ). Motivational ratings of hunger and the desire to eat were obtained prior to and at 30 min intervals after breakfast. Taste preferences were measured prior to and 150 min after breakfast. The subjects ate buffet-style lunch, snack, and dinner meals in the laboratory. Obese women consumed significantly more energy at meals (2,596 kcal or 10,862 kJ) than did lean women (1,484 kcal or 6,209 kJ); derived a greater proportion of energy from fat (39.9% vs. 35.5%), and had lower dietary carbohydrate-to-fat ratios. Consumption of low-energy as opposed to high-energy breakfast preloads was associated with elevated motivational ratings by noon. However, energy intakes at lunch, snack, or dinner did not vary as a function of preload type, and no compensation was observed for the energy consumed at breakfast. Taste preferences were not affected by preload ingestion or by preload type. The study provided no evidence that aspartame promotes hunger or results in increased energy intakes in obese or in lean women. PMID:7951479

  14. Experimental design-based development and single laboratory validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of the artificial sweetener sucralose in food matrices.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Josephine; Stroka, Joerg; Anklam, Elke

    2005-07-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, optimised chemometrically, underwent a complete in-house validation protocol for the qualification and quantification of sucralose in various foodstuffs. Separation from matrix components was obtained in a dinitrobenzoic acid (3 mM)/sodium hydroxide (20 mM) background electrolyte with a pH of 12.1, a potential of 0.11 kV cm(-1) and a temperature of 22 degrees C. Detection was achieved at 238 nm by indirect UV. Screening, optimisation and robustness testing were all carried out with the aid of experimental design. Using standard addition calibration, the CZE method has been applied to still, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, yoghurts and hard-boiled candy. The method allows the detection of sucralose at >30 mg kg(-1), with a linearity range of 50-500 mg kg(-1), making it suitable for implementation of the recently amended "Sweeteners for use in foodstuffs" Directive (European Parliament and Council (2003) Off J L237:3-12), which set maximum usable doses of sucralose for many foodstuffs, most ranging from 200 mg kg(-1) to 450 mg kg(-1). PMID:15906005

  15. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown large differences in taste responses to several sweeteners between mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred strains. The goal of this study was to compare behavioral responses of the B6 and 129 mice to a wider variety of sweeteners. Seventeen sweeteners were tested using two-bottle preference tests with water. Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference thresholds and higher solution intakes. Second, the amino acids D-phenylalanine, D-tryptophan, L-proline and glycine were highly preferred by the B6 mice, but not by the 129 mice. Third, glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, thaumatin and cyclamate did not evoke strong preferences in either strain. Aspartame was neutral to all 129 mice and some B6 mice, but other B6 mice strongly preferred it. Thus, compared with the 129 mice, the B6 mice had higher preferences for sugars, sweet-tasting amino acids and several but not all non-caloric sweeteners. Glycyrrhizic acid, neohesperidin, thaumatin and cyclamate are not palatable to B6 or 129 mice. PMID:11555485

  16. Non-nutritive sweeteners: review and update.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Padmini; Ahuja, Suman; Sriram, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic, not just in the United States, but also across the globe. Obesity is a result of many factors including poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity, hormonal issues, and sedentary lifestyle, as well as many psychological issues. Direct and indirect costs associated with obesity-related morbidity and mortality have been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. Of the many avenues for treatment, dietary interventions are the most common. Numerous diets have been popularized in the media, with most being fads having little to no scientific evidence to validate their effectiveness. Amidst this rise of weight loss diets, there has been a surge of individual products advertised as assuring quick weight loss; one such product group is non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Sugar, a common component of our diet, is also a major contributing factor to a number of health problems, including obesity and increased dental diseases both in adults and children. Most foods marketed towards children are sugar-laden. Obesity-related health issues, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension, once only commonly seen in older adults, are increasing in youth. Manufacturers of NNS are using this as an opportunity to promote their products, and are marketing them as safe for all ages. A systematic review of several databases and reliable websites on the internet was conducted to identify literature related to NNS. Keywords that were used individually or in combination included, but were not limited to, artificial sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners, non-caloric sweeteners, obesity, sugar substitutes, diabetes, and cardiometabolic indicators. The clinical and epidemiologic data available at present are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the benefits of NNS in displacing caloric sweeteners as related to energy balance, maintenance or decrease in body weight, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Although the FDA and most published (especially industry-funded) studies endorse the safety of these additives, there is a lack of conclusive evidence-based research to discourage or to encourage their use on a regular basis. While moderate use of NNS may be useful as a dietary aid for someone with diabetes or on a weight loss regimen, for optimal health it is recommended that only minimal amounts of both sugar and NNS be consumed. PMID:23845273

  17. Taste in chimpanzee: I. The summated response to sweeteners and the effect of gymnemic acid.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; DuBois, G E; Danilova, V; Roberts, T W

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further with electrophysiological and behavioral techniques the similarity between the sense of taste of humans and chimpanzees, especially with regard to the effects of gymnemic acid. Gymnemic acid (GA) is a powerful suppressor of sweet taste in humans but lacks this ability in nonprimates and lower primates. The summated taste responses from the chorda tympani nerve were recorded in nine adult chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. The results show that all tested compounds that taste to humans elicited nerve responses in chimpanzees. GA suppressed or abolished the response to all sweeteners, but had no effects on the responses to the nonsweet compounds. The suppression varied from complete abolishment (aspartame, saccharin), to about 50% reduction (xylitol). When the effect of GA was tested on concentration series, 20% remained of the response to sucrose, whereas the responses to aspartame and saccharin were basically abolished. Higher concentrations of GA suppressed more. The effects of GA developed also in the presence of saccharin, but seemed less pronounced. The behavioral results were obtained with a one-bottle preference technique before and after GA. The results demonstrated that after exposure of the tongue to GA, the animals' liking for sweet diminished. These results parallel psychophysical and electrophysiological findings in humans. The way GA suppressed sweet taste in chimpanzees added one more characteristic to those that set chimpanzees apart from monkeys and close to humans. PMID:8840908

  18. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szöll?si, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  19. Sweetening agents from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A

    1976-01-01

    Sweetness is an important taste sensation to humans. The absence of suitable sweeteners as alternatives to cyclamates and saccharin has led to a renewed interest in sweeteners form natural sources. A brief review of the history of sweetener usage provides a basis for understanding our present heavy consumption of sweet substances. The structure of naturally-occurring compounds possessing a sweet taste range from simple sugars to complex, intensely sweet proteins. The structural types include monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroid saponins, dipeptides, and proteins. Some of these substances are not, strictly-speaking, natural but are derived from natural sources by relatively minor chemical modification. The properties of two non-sweet substances, miraculin and gymnemic acid, are included because of their close relationship to the subject of sweeteners. Miraculin causes sour substances to taste sweet and gymnemic acid selectively blocks sweet taste perception. The second part of the paper presents some of the work on monellin, the intensely sweet protein from "serendipity berries" (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii). The physico-chemical studies of monellin provide convincing evidence that it is, indeed, a protein. Structural studies using denaturants and specific chemical modifications have provided a beginning of our understanding of the molecular basis of the sweet taste of monellin. PMID:5643

  20. An EPR study on tea: identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Biyik, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-15

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn(2+) and Fe(3+) centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 degrees C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 degrees C while Mn(2+) sextet disappears just above 100 degrees C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn(2+) and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe(3+) line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea. PMID:19733505

  1. Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. M. Smeets

    2010-01-01

    Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake behavior is not so simple and still many people tend to consume more calories than they burn and

  2. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zolta´n Kova´cs; Attila Gere; La´szlo´ Si´pos; Zolta´n Ko´kai; Andra´s Fekete

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic

  3. Cancer Fact or Fiction: Separating Myths from Good Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are continuously doing research to determine whether particular natural or manmade substances cause cancer. Research shows that the following are not likely to cause cancer: cell phones, microwaves, fluoridated water, hair dyes, deodorants, sugar, artificial sweeteners like saccharin and aspartame, ...

  4. Effects of hunger state on flavour pleasantness conditioning at home: Flavour–nutrient learning vs. flavour–flavour learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirous Mobini; Lucy C. Chambers; Martin R. Yeomans

    2007-01-01

    This study examined acquired liking of flavour preferences through flavour–flavour and flavour–nutrient learning under hungry or sated conditions in a naturalistic setting. Each participant consumed one of three versions of a test drink at home either before lunch or after lunch: minimally sweetened (CONTROL: 3% sucrose, 40kcal), artificially sweetened (3% sucrose 40kcal plus artificial sweeteners ASPARTAME) and sucrose-sweetened (SUCROSE: 9.9%

  5. YOUNG CONSUMERS’ DEMAND FOR NATURAL SWEETENERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina Krutkramele; Mariah D. Ehmke

    2010-01-01

    Health conscious consumers are increasingly concerned about the caloric content and glycemic index of sweeteners added to food. Currently, the average American consumes 22 teaspoons of added sugar in processed foods per day. Young people typically consume higher amounts of sweeteners via candy, sports drinks, and soda (Smed, Jensen et al. 2007). Recently, the American Heart Association issued a statement

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4.

  7. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aspartame and their catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shufen; Yan, Songjing; Qi, Wei; Huang, Renliang; Cui, Jing; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a facile and environmental-friendly approach to form gold nanoparticles through the reduction of HAuCl4 by aspartame. The single-crystalline structure was illustrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results indicated that aspartame played a pivotal role in the reduction and stabilization of the gold crystals. The crystals were stabilized through the successive hydrogen-bonding network constructed between the water and aspartame molecules. Additionally, gold nanoparticles synthesized through aspartame were shown to have good catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4. PMID:25991916

  8. 27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

  9. 27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

  10. 27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

  11. 27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

  12. 27 CFR 24.179 - Sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...same kind of fruit may be added after fermentation to sweeten wine. When juice...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...sugar added after amelioration and fermentation provided the finished wine does...

  13. Formaldehyde adduct to human serum albumin with reference to aspartame intake.

    PubMed

    Gilli, Giorgio; Schilirò, Tiziana; Traversi, Deborah; Pignata, Cristina; Cordara, Sara; Carraro, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study was performed to evaluate the role of formaldehyde (F) deriving from aspartame intake in the production of the adduct F-human serum albumin (F-HSA) by mean of a sera-epidemiological investigation. A blood-donors population (68 subjects) was analysed for the presence of anti-F-HSA IgG by an indirect competitive immunoenzymatic assay (displacement assay). Only the 41% of the subjects were aspartame consumer and with a low daily intake (0.96mg/(kgday)). A 50% sera-prevalence of IgG anti-F-HSA was observed in the population, but no association between this biomarker and aspartame intake was pointed out. A significant association was found between the IgG anti-F-HSA presence and exogenous F exposure sources (cigarette active smoke and occupational exposure). Considering the low number of the investigated subjects and the low doses of aspartame consumption, the results of this preliminary study seems to suggest that aspartame low intake does not influence the formation of F adducts. PMID:21783841

  14. Choline as a fuel sweetener and sulfur antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, G.L.; Porlier, B.W.; Cravey, W.E.

    1986-06-10

    A method is described of sweetening petroleum hydrocarbon fuels and, at the same time, reducing the sulfur content thereof which comprises treating such fuels with a sweetening and sulfur-removing amount of choline.

  15. Sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in antibiotic preparations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Weatherly, M R; Beaman, D C

    1991-03-01

    Even though a variety of adverse effects caused by sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in susceptible individuals have been reported, there is no good single reference with information about these substances in pediatric antimicrobials. Data on sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in 91 antimicrobial preparations were collected. Sucrose was present in 74 (85%) of 87 preparations, followed by saccharin in 30 (34%) preparations. Mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol were each present in 7 preparations. None of the preparations were free of sweeteners. Thirty-four (37%) of 91 preparations did not specify the flavoring content. While cherry was the most common flavoring used, there were 25 other flavorings. Thirteen different dyes and coloring agents were used in these antimicrobials. Red dye no. 40 was present in 45% of preparations. Tables detailing sweeteners, flavorings, and dyes in different groups of antimicrobials (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, penicillins, sulfonamides, and others) and adverse effects reported with these inert ingredients are presented. These tables should be helpful to physicians in selecting an antimicrobial containing a different sweetener and/or dye when an adverse reaction occurs. PMID:2000275

  16. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ?4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  17. SWEET SORGHUM - NATURAL SWEETENER FOR FOODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena PÎRGARI

    2007-01-01

    The paper pointed out the advantages of using natural sweeteners, as well as their utilization mode and conditions. The technological conditions of juice production and the existing possibilities for processing sweet sorghum by food industry were described. In the paper, they presented the results of research on developing the technology of sweet sorghum production and of food products, based on

  18. [Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Tomonori; Akaki, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in various foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sweeteners and preservatives were extracted from solid samples with 80% and 50% methanol and from liquid samples with 80% methanol, followed by Oasis WAX cartridge cleanup. The LC separation was performed on a XSelect CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column (5 ?m, 2.1 mm ×150 mm) with a mobile phase of 10 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and MS detection with negative ion electrospray ionization. The quantification limits of acesulfame K (AK), alitame (AL), aspartame (ASP), cyclamic acid (CYC), neotame (NEO), saccharin Na (SAC), p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl (PHBA-Me), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl (PHBA-Et), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isopropyl (PHBA-iPr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl (PHBA-Pr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl (PHBA-iBu) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl (PHBA-Bu) were 0.001 g/kg, those of dulcin (DU), glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), rebaudioside A (REB), stevioside (STV), sucralose (SUC) and benzoic acid (BA) were 0.005 g/kg, and those of sorbic acid (SOA) and dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were 0.02 g/kg. The mean recoveries from ten kinds of foods fortified at the levels of 0.02 and 0.2 g/kg were 70.9-119.0%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.1-11.7%. PMID:23863365

  19. New trends on sweeteners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takazoe, I

    1985-03-01

    Among the sweeteners available, the significance of disaccharides, especially, palatinose is emphasized from the point of view of the essential requirements sugar substitutes have to meet. Palatinose, an enzymatic derivative of sucrose, does not support the growth of cariogenic streptococci. Acid production by oral micro-organisms is quite weak, if at all. Polyglucan is not synthetized by S. mutans from palatinose. Furthermore, palatinose inhibits polyglucan synthesis from sucrose when added to it. Experiments in animals and man also indicate that palatinose is of low or no cariogenicity. Side effects of palatinose have not been recognized. In conclusion, palatinose is currently considered to be a promising sugar substitute. PMID:3158612

  20. Non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2015-01-01

    Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) provide sweetness to foods and beverages without adding calories. They have thus been found useful in minimizing the dietary sugar content of diabetics and the dietary energy content of individuals attempting to lose or maintain body weight. Their usefulness in weight reduction has recently been questioned, however, based on the notion that they can actually increase hunger and food intake and thereby promote weight gain. The evidence offered in support of this idea comes principally from the fields of taste physiology, metabolic endocrinology, human behavior, and epidemiology. This review evaluates this evidence and does not find it compelling. Indeed, the most straightforward findings to the contrary derive from several intervention studies in both children and adults showing that the chronic, covert replacement of dietary sugar with NNSs does not increase, and can in fact reduce, energy intake and body weight. PMID:25532596

  1. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sweet Stuff How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health Most ... http://win.niddk.nih.gov . search Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Wise Choices Links Cut ...

  2. Experimental apparatus for simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas 

    E-print Network

    Pace, Christopher Lee

    1997-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and built for the purpose of studying the feasibility of solvent mixtures for the simultaneous dehydration and sweetening of natural gas. The apparatus is versatile and can be used to study gas-solvent systems...

  3. Food Sources of Added Sweeteners in the Diets of Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOANNE F GUTHRIE; JOAN F MORTON

    2000-01-01

    Objective To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet.Design A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database.Subjects\\/setting A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged

  4. Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Prakash; G. E. DuBois; J. F. Clos; K. L. Wilkens; L. E. Fosdick

    2008-01-01

    Rebiana is the common name for high-purity rebaudioside A, a natural non-calorie sweetener 200–300 times more potent than sucrose. It provides zero calories and has a clean, sweet taste with no significant undesirable taste characteristics. It is functional in a wide array of beverages and foods and can be blended with other non-calorie or carbohydrate sweeteners. It is stable under

  5. An electronic tongue: evaluation of the masking efficacy of sweetening and/or flavoring agents on the bitter taste of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Ousama; Simons, F Estelle R; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Simons, Keith J

    2010-06-01

    An epinephrine (E) tablet is under development for sublingual (SL) administration for the first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis; however, the inherent bitterness of E may hinder acceptability by patients, especially children. To assess the degree of E bitterness and to predict the masking effects of sweetening and/or flavoring non-medicinal ingredients (NMIs), the potential usefulness of an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) was evaluated. The e-Tongue sensors were conditioned, calibrated, and tested for taste discrimination. Six standard active pharmaceutical ingredients were used to build and validate a bitterness model which was then used to assess E bitartrate (EB) solutions from 0.3-9 mM. Taste-masking efficiency of aspartame (ASP), acesulfame potassium (ASK), and citric acid (CA) each at 0.5 mM was evaluated. Using EB 9 mM, the bitterness score was 20 on a scale of 20 (unacceptable) down to 1 (not detected). When NMIs 0.5 mM were added, neither ASK (17.2, unacceptable) nor was ASP (14.0, limit acceptable) effective in masking the bitter taste. When the combination of ASK and ASP was used, the bitterness score was reduced to 9.2 (acceptable). However, the addition of CA alone resulted in the best reduction of the bitterness score to 3.3 (not detected). Using the e-Tongue, the incorporation of a variety of sweetening and/or flavoring NMIs into a SL tablet of E could be shown to mask its bitter taste by up to 80%. These results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:20352537

  6. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. PMID:25713277

  7. Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Drewnowski, A

    2007-06-01

    Replacing sugar with low-calorie sweeteners is a common strategy for facilitating weight control. By providing sweet taste without calories, intense sweeteners help lower energy density of beverages and some foods. Reduced dietary energy density should result in lower energy intakes--but are the energy reduction goals, in fact, achieved? The uncoupling of sweetness and energy, afforded by intense sweeteners, has been the focus of numerous studies over the past two decades. There are recurring arguments that intense sweeteners increase appetite for sweet foods, promote overeating, and may even lead to weight gain. Does reducing energy density of sweet beverages and foods have a measurable impact on appetite and energy intakes, as examined both in short-term studies and over a longer period? Can reductions in dietary energy density achieved with intense sweeteners really affect body weight control? This paper reviews evidence from laboratory, clinical and epidemiological studies in the context of current research on energy density, satiety and the control of food intake. PMID:17299484

  8. Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings12

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M.; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the “Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings” symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially “addictive.” Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

  9. Square?Wave Voltammetry Determination of Aspartame in Dietary Products Using a Boron?Doped Diamond Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Antigo Medeiros; Adriana Evaristo de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The use of square?wave voltammetry in conjunction with a cathodically pretreated boron?doped diamond electrode for the analytical determination of aspartame in dietary products is described. In this determination, the samples were analyzed without previous treatment in a 0.5 mol l H2SO4 solution. A single oxidation peak at a potential of 1.6 V vs. Ag\\/AgCl (3.0 mol l KCl) with the characteristics of an irreversible reaction

  10. A history of sweeteners--natural and synthetic.

    PubMed

    Inglett, G E

    1976-09-01

    Sweetness for the prehistoric man was the taste sensation obtained from sweet berries and honey. Man's quest for other sweet things led to sucose, starch-derived sugars, and synthetic sweeteners. An unusual source of sweet taste is a West African berry known as miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum). This fruit possesses a taste-modifying substance that causes sour foods--e.g., lemons, limes, or grapefruit--to taste sweet. The active principle was found to be a glycoprotein. Until this time, only small molecules were considered sweet-evoking substances, but now macromolecules are considered capable of participating in taste perception. The intense sweetener of the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called the serendipity berry, was revealed to be a protein. The intensely sweet principle of Thaumatococcus daniellii, called katemfe, was reported in 1972 to contain two proteins having intense sweetness. Since intensely sweet protein sweeteners act directly on taste buds as a probe, a peptide linkage analogous to the aspartic acid sweeteners may be partly responsible for their sweetness. PMID:792461

  11. Stability of the intense sweetener neohesperidine dihydrochalcone in blackcurrant jams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Tomás-Barberán; F. Borrego; F. Ferreres; M. G. Lindley

    1995-01-01

    An HPLC technique has been used to quantitate neohesperidine DC in blackcurrant jams and evaluate stability of this sweetener over manufacture and storage of jams. Results showed non-significant degradation (a) under the temperature conditions prevailing during the manufacturing process and (b) after 18 months storage at room temperature. Sensory data and model system extrapolations confirmed HPLC results.

  12. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: the fight against obesity.

    PubMed

    Conkle, James; Carter, Melondie

    2013-05-10

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been identified as a key contributor in the obesity epidemic. Taxing these beverages is currently a hot topic for healthcare providers, manufacturers, and legislators. Whether a tax will help trim American waist lines remains questionable. PMID:23598553

  13. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  14. Membranes for natural gas sweetening and COâ enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Mazur; M. C. Chan

    1982-01-01

    Describes how the Gasep membrane, which has been field tested for sweetening natural gas, can also be used for enhanced oil recovery and oxygen enrichment. The cellulose acetate membrane is produced in flat sheet form and to retain its asymmetric character the membrane is heat-treated and dried by proprietary techniques. This produces a highly selective, dense, active layer with a

  15. Production and physicochemical assessment of new stevia amino acid sweeteners from the natural stevioside.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sherine N; Massoud, Mona I; Jad, Yahya El-Sayed; Bekhit, Adnan A; El-Faham, Ayman

    2015-04-15

    New stevia amino acid sweeteners, stevia glycine ethyl ester (ST-GL) and stevia l-alanine methyl ester (ST-GL), were synthesised and characterised by IR, NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and elemental analysis. The purity of the new sweeteners was determined by HPLC and their sensory properties were evaluated relative to sucrose in an aqueous system. Furthermore, the stevia derivatives (ST-GL and ST-AL) were evaluated for their acute toxicity, melting point, solubility and heat stability. The novel sweeteners were stable in acidic, neutral or basic aqueous solutions maintained at 100 °C for 2 h. The sweetness intensity rate of the novel sweeteners was higher than sucrose. Stevia amino acid (ST-GL and ST-AL) solutions had a clean sweetness taste without bitterness when compared to stevioside. The novel sweeteners can be utilised as non-caloric sweeteners in the production of low-calorie food. PMID:25466115

  16. Reuse of spent natural gas liquid sweetening solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, W.J.; McKim, M.N.; Smith, L.S.

    1995-12-01

    Partially spent caustic solutions from natural gas liquids (NGL) sweetening processes can be used as reagent for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) scrubbing facilities, reducing the costs for purchasing scrubber reagent and eliminating the costs and liabilities associated with waste disposal. This paper discusses: (1) the characteristics of typical spent NGL sweetening solutions, (2) State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of these solutions as wastes, (3) the operational variables affecting reuse of these solutions in SO{sub 2} scrubbers, (4) field and laboratory analytical data from a pilot project conducted to evaluate the reuse of a partially spent NGL sweetening solution as SO{sub 2} scrubber reagent, and (5) economic data from the pilot project. For the pilot project, a partially spent caustic NGL sweetening solution was used in place of soda ash solution as reagent in a SO{sub 2} scrubber serving two steam generators burning sour gas. Emissions testing of the scrubber demonstrated that the solution provided effective removal of oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) in both gaseous and particulate phases to meet permitted limits. Data from the pilot project is used in the paper to: (1) quantify SO{sub 2} scrubber performance with partially spent caustic solutions in terms of SO{sub x} removal efficiency, (2) identify the necessary modifications in scrubber operation (reagent feed rate, scrubber liquor pH and specific gravity, blowdown rate) to achieve acceptable performance using partially spent caustic solutions, and (3) describe the effect that the use of partially spent caustic solutions has on physical and chemical properties of scrubber liquor.

  17. Anticarcinogenic activity of natural sweeteners, cucurbitane glycosides, from Momordica grosvenori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Midori Takasaki; Takao Konoshima; Yuji Murata; Masaki Sugiura; Hoyoku Nishino; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuhiro Matsumoto; Ryoji Kasai; Kazuo Yamasaki

    2003-01-01

    To search for cancer chemopreventive agents from natural resources, many phytochemicals and food additives have been screened. Consequently, two natural sweeteners, mogroside V and 11-oxo-mogroside V isolated from the fruits of Momordica grosvenori, exhibited strong inhibitory effect on the primary screening test indicated by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by a tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). These sweet

  18. Cancer-chemopreventive effects of natural sweeteners and related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Konoshima; Midori Takasaki

    2002-01-01

    To search for possible cancer-chemopreventive agents from natural resources, sev- eral natural sweeteners were screened by the in vitro assay indicated by the inhibitory effects of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induction. Of active compounds that showed the remarkable inhibitory effects on the EBV-EA induction, stevioside, from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, and mogroside V, from the fruits of Momordica

  19. An updated examination of gas sweetening by the iron sponge process

    SciTech Connect

    Anerousis, J.P.; Whitman, S.K.

    1984-09-01

    A detailed evaluation of gas sweetening via iron sponge (hydrated iron oxide) has been undertaken due to the apparent lack of comprehensive engineering, research, and field data related to this process. Key areas reviewed include composition of the sweetening media, unit design considerations, and operational parameters. The investigations discussed in this paper provide quantifiable proof that the iron sponge process continues to be a viable alternative for hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan removal, provided the sweetening equipment is properly designed and operated.

  20. Stevioside and Stevia sweetener in food: application, stability and interaction with food ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Kroyer

    2010-01-01

    The stability of the natural sweetener stevioside during different processing and storage conditions as well as the effects\\u000a of its interaction with water-soluble vitamins, food relevant organic acids and other common low calorie sweeteners and its\\u000a application in coffee and tea beverages were evaluated. Incubation of the solid sweetener stevioside at elevated temperatures\\u000a for 1 h showed good stability up to

  1. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405...of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution...to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  3. -News Home Help EU offers 'sweetener' to Japan to let France host nuclear project

    E-print Network

    -News Home Help EU offers 'sweetener' to Japan to let France host nuclear project Wed Nov 10, 9 to host a revolutionary nuclear fusion project. news web sites "I cannot elaborate on the sweetener, but I Wednesday after talks in Vienna on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). news web

  4. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false...aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults -- 18 states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri S; Pan, Liping; Park, Sohyun; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-08-15

    Reducing consumption of calories from added sugars is a recommendation of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and an objective of Healthy People 2020. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are major sources of added sugars in the diets of U.S. residents. Daily SSB consumption is associated with obesity and other chronic health conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. U.S. adults consumed an estimated average of 151 kcal/day of SSB during 2009-2010, with regular (i.e., nondiet) soda and fruit drinks representing the leading sources of SSB energy intake. However, there is limited information on state-specific prevalence of SSB consumption. To assess regular soda and fruit drink consumption among adults in 18 states, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among the 18 states surveyed, 26.3% of adults consumed regular soda or fruit drinks or both ?1 times daily. By state, the prevalence ranged from 20.4% to 41.4%. Overall, consumption of regular soda or fruit drinks was most common among persons aged 18?34 years (24.5% for regular soda and 16.6% for fruit drinks), men (21.0% and 12.3%), non-Hispanic blacks (20.9% and 21.9%), and Hispanics (22.6% and 18.5%). Persons who want to reduce added sugars in their diets can decrease their consumption of foods high in added sugars such as candy, certain dairy and grain desserts, sweetened cereals, regular soda, fruit drinks, sweetened tea and coffee drinks, and other SSBs. States and health departments can collaborate with worksites and other community venues to increase access to water and other healthful beverages. PMID:25121711

  6. Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract, aspartame and cyclamate\\/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. A. B. Cardello; M. A. P. A. Da Silva; M. H. Damasio

    1999-01-01

    Special diets are used to mitigate many human diseases. When these diets require changes in carbohydrate content, then sweetness becomes an important characteristic. The range of low-calorie sweeteners available to the food industry is expanding. It is essential to have an exact knowledge of the relative sweetness of various sweeteners in relation to different sucrose concentrations. The objective of this

  7. Sweetener blend optimization by using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Megan E; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing more than one sweetener has been shown to be an effective way to substitute sucrose in food products. The objective of this study was to apply the augmented simplex-centroid mixture design for the optimization of acceptable sweetener blends using coconut sugar, agave, and stevia. Sweetener blends were evaluated in aqueous solutions and gluten-free granola bars by a trained panel and consumers (n = 60). Significant differences were found between sweetener mixtures in solutions by both panelists and consumers (P < 0.05). Taste profiles for the sweetener solutions were also generated using the electronic tongue. Most consumer and trained intensity ratings were highly correlated (R(2) ? 0.79) with the electronic tongue taste profile analysis. Granola bars were also found to be significantly different (P < 0.05), with consumers preferring coconut sugar mixtures. Using contour plots and desirability function analysis, an optimal sweetener combination was found for a granola bar formulation of 89.9% coconut sugar, 6.1% agave, and 4% stevia. These results indicate that a mixture design can be a reliable way to develop new sweetener blends for product development. PMID:25155461

  8. Parents' and Children's Acceptance of Skim Chocolate Milks Sweetened by Monk Fruit and Stevia Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. PMID:25847181

  9. Converting to DEA/MDEA mix ups sweetening capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, M.L. [Union Pacific Resources, Bryan, TX (United States); Hagan, K.M. [Union Pacific Resources, Ft. Worth, TX (United States); Bullin, J.A.; Michalik, C.J. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Bryan, TX (United States)

    1996-08-12

    Mixing amines can be the best method for increasing capacity or improving efficiency in an amine sweetening unit. In many cases, it may be possible simply to add a second amine to the existing solution on the fly, or as the unit is running. Union Pacific Resources` Bryan, Tex., gas plant provides one example. The plant was converted from diethanolamine (DEA) to a DEA/MDEA (methyl DEA) mixture after analysis by TSWEET, a process-simulation program. After conversion, CO{sub 2} levels in the sales gas fell to less than pipeline specifications. Data were taken for the absorber at a constant amine circulation of 120 gpm. A comparison of the performance data to the values calculated by the program proved the accuracy of TSWEET. The conversion and performance of the plant are described.

  10. Does the Sale of Sweetened Beverages at School Affect Children’s Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Solveig A.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2011-01-01

    In response to the increase in children’s weight in recent decades, many states, school districts, and schools in the United States have limited or eliminated the sale of sweetened beverages at school. These policies are promoted for their potential to reduce childhood overweight and obesity, but their effectiveness has not been evaluated. Using a large nationally representative longitudinal dataset, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K), this study explores the relationship between children’s access to sweetened beverages at school in 5th and 8th grade, their purchases and total consumption of these beverages, and their weight. We find almost no evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to heavier weight or greater risk of overweight or obesity among children. We also find limited evidence that availability of sweetened beverages for sale at school leads to higher total consumption of these beverages. PMID:21907477

  11. Analyses of Sweet Receptor Gene (Tas1r2) and Preference for Sweet Stimuli in Species of Carnivora

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Johnson, Warren E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which taste receptor specificity correlates with, or even predicts, diet choice is not known. We recently reported that the insensitivity to sweeteners shown by species of Felidae can be explained by their lacking of a functional Tas1r2 gene. To broaden our understanding of the relationship between the structure of the sweet receptors and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species. The lion showed no preference for any of the 12 sweet compounds tested, and it possesses the pseudogenized Tas1r2. All other species preferred some of the natural sugars, and their Tas1r2 sequences, having complete open reading frames, predict functional sweet receptors. In addition to preferring natural sugars, the lesser panda also preferred 3 (neotame, sucralose, and aspartame) of the 6 artificial sweeteners. Heretofore, it had been reported that among vertebrates, only Old World simians could taste aspartame. The observation that the lesser panda highly preferred aspartame could be an example of evolutionary convergence in the identification of sweet stimuli. PMID:19366814

  12. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

  13. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...100 milliliters. It may contain one or more safe and suitable dispersing ingredients serving the function of distributing the lemon oil throughout the food. It may also contain one or more safe and suitable thickening ingredients. Such dispersing...

  14. 21 CFR 146.121 - Frozen concentrate for artificially sweetened lemonade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...146.121 Section 146.121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED...Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.121 Frozen...

  15. Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klazine van der Horst; Stef Kremers; Isabel Ferreira; Amika Singh; Anke Oenema; Johannes Brug

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and in- volvement) are associated with adolescents' con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n 5 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their con- sumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength,

  16. Perceived parenting style and practices and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst van der K; S. Kremers; A. Ferreira; A. Singh; A. Oenema; J. Brug

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived parenting practices and parenting style dimensions (strictness and involvement) are associated with adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In this cross-sectional study, secondary school students (n = 383, mean age 13.5 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, attitude, social influences, self-efficacy, habit strength, food-related parenting practices

  17. Effect of aspartame plus monosodium L-glutamate ingestion on plasma and erythrocyte amino acid levels in normal adult subjects fed a high protein meal?4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis D Stegink; U Filer; George L Baker

    It has been suggested that aspartame addition to meals already containing large amounts of monosodium L-glutamate would result in an early rapid rise in plasma glutamate and! or aspartate concentrations and increase the potential for dicarboxylic amino acid-induced toxicity. Six normal adult subjects were fed hamburger and milk shake meals providing protein at 1 g\\/kg body weight in a randomized

  18. Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

  19. Artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Firschein, O.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on artificial intelligence. Topics considered include knowledge engineering, expert systems, applications of artificial intelligence to scientific reasoning, planning and problem solving, error recovery in robots through failure reason analysis, programming languages, natural language, speech recognition, map-guided interpretation of remotely-sensed imagery, and image understanding architectures.

  20. Artificial Intelligence 

    E-print Network

    Appleton, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a general overview of the field of artificial Intelligence and of some of the application issues within that field. Its first objective is to try and establish a viable definition for what artificial intelligence is, and to make a...

  1. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are also briefly…

  2. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34) compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ?10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806). One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively). No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are needed to determine the role of hypocaloric sweeteners in a wider population health strategy to prevent, reduce and manage obesity and its consequences. PMID:22093544

  3. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who completed food frequency questionnaires as part of a U.S. National Cancer Institute-sponsored adjuvant chemotherapy trial. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with Cox proportional hazard models. Results Patients consuming ?2 servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day experienced an adjusted HR for disease recurrence or mortality of 1.67 (95% CI, 1.04–2.68), compared with those consuming <2 servings per month (Ptrend?=?0.02). The association of sugar-sweetened beverages on cancer recurrence or mortality appeared greater among patients who were both overweight (body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and less physically active (metabolic equivalent task-hours per week <18) (HR?=?2.22; 95% CI, 1.29–3.81, Ptrend?=?0.0025). Conclusion Higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:24937507

  4. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  5. Application of tailor-made membranes in a multi-stage process for the purification of sweeteners from Stevia rebaudiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vanneste; A. Sotto; C. M. Courtin; V. Van Craeyveld; K. Bernaerts; J. Van Impe; J. Vandeur; S. Taes; B. Van der Bruggen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a three stage process with commercial as well as tailor-made polyethersulphone (PES) membranes for the purification of sweeteners from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni was evaluated. Retentions of the sweeteners for a synthetic mixture and plant extract in combination with flux decline measurements indicated that, in contrast with the laboratory-made membranes, on most commercial membranes a

  6. [The evaluation of "natural" sweeteners, especially concentrated fruit juices, syrups and honey].

    PubMed

    Hötzel, D

    1990-01-01

    The present paper deals with the nutritional value of some natural sweeteners, like concentrated fruit juices, special syrups and honey. The following aspects are discussed: concentration of sweet-tasting carbohydrates, average composition of essential nutrients like minerals and vitamins, and occurrence of other substances like organic acids etc. The nutritional value of natural sweeteners is not significantly different from "sugar" (saccharose): Natural sweeteners do not contribute to fulfill the need for minerals, trace elements or vitamins in an important manner. The sensoric properties are different and the intensity of sweet-taste is usually higher in sucrose than in syrups. Descriptions of such products as "naturally", "healthy", "without sugar" are not justified. PMID:2085032

  7. Simultaneous determination of sweeteners in beverages by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Azusa; Tamura, Masayoshi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2015-06-01

    A new method was established for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners and a degradation product in beverages by using LC-MS/MS. An ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 ?m) was used as the LC column and 0.1% each of aqueous formic acid and formic acid in acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase. A simple and rapid determination of sweeteners was possible by diluting with a solvent, and in the case of some samples containing a large amount of foreign matter, after pre-treatment by diluting with solvent and clean-up of the sample using an Oasis HLB cartridge. All the validation results were satisfactory. As the regulations and standards for sweeteners vary from country to country, a field survey of 58 beverages marketed in Japan was performed using the present method. No issues concerning the labelling or food sanitation law were found in the tested samples. PMID:25794347

  8. Banning All Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Middle Schools

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether state policies that regulate beverages in schools are associated with reduced in-school access and purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and reduced consumption of SSBs (in and out of school) among adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Public schools in 40 states. Participants Students sampled in fifth and eighth grades (spring 2004 and 2007, respectively). Main Exposures State policies that ban all SSBs and state policies that ban only soda for 2006-2007. Main Outcome Measures In-school SSB access, in-school SSB purchasing behavior, and overall SSB consumption (in and out of school) in eighth grade. Results The proportions of eighth-grade students who reported in-school SSB access and purchasing were similar in states that banned only soda (66.6% and 28.9%, respectively) compared with states with no beverage policy (66.6% and 26.0%, respectively). In states that banned all SSBs, fewer students reported in-school SSB access (prevalence difference, ?14.9; 95% CI, ?23.6 to ?6.1) or purchasing (?7.3; ?11.0 to ?3.5), adjusted for race/ethnicity, poverty status, locale, state obesity prevalence, and state clustering. Results were similar among students who reported access or purchasing SSBs in fifth grade compared with those who did not. Overall SSB consumption was not associated with state policy; in each policy category, approximately 85% of students reported consuming SSBs at least once in the past 7 days. Supplementary analyses indicated that overall consumption had only a modest association with in-school SSB access. Conclusion State policies that ban all SSBs in middle schools appear to reduce in-school access and purchasing of SSBs but do not reduce overall consumption. PMID:22064875

  9. Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Langton

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. It complements the traditional biological sciences concerned with the analysis of living organisms by attempting to synthesize life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. By extending the empirical foundation upon which biology is based beyond the carbon-chain life that has evolved on earth,

  10. [New facts about the molecular background of isovanilline-type sweeteners].

    PubMed

    Kálmán, Noémi; Magyarné-Jeszenszki, Erzsébet; Kurtán, Tibor; Antus, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    As a continuation of our studies on the relationship between structure and sweet taste of isovanilline-type sweeteners, (3-hydroxy-4-methoxy)benzyl-benzoate (17) and -salicylate (17c), analogues of dihydrochalcone-type sweetener analogues of (+)-phyllodulcin [(+)-5] and CH-401 (14c) have been synthesized. Surprisingly, 17c has been found to be tastless, while 17e was slightly sweet. These observations could be explained by the current hypothesis on the receptor model for isovanilline-type sweet derivatives. PMID:24809163

  11. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers at cold temperatures prevents sprouting and minimizes losses due to disease. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening (CIS). High-temperature processing of potato tubers wit...

  12. Simultaneous sweetening and dehydration of natural gas using a mixed solvent solution 

    E-print Network

    Garza, Jaime Javier

    1997-01-01

    pressure solvent recovery loop was used to test the sweetening capabilities of the solvent mixture. The solution was gravity fed through a packed contactor, counter-current to the wet, sour gas stream in order to remove a portion of the H2S- Gas samples...

  13. Germplasm release: Tetraploid clones with resistance to cold-induced sweetening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cold storage is necessary to supply potatoes to the processing industry and potato products to consumers throughout the year. Cold-induced sweetening limits the potential for existing potato cultivars to produce acceptable chips after cold storage. Genes for resistance to cold-induced swee...

  14. A BITTERSWEET RECIPE: CANDY, SUGAR, NAFTA, AND THE STRUGGLE FOR A NORTH AMERICAN SWEETENER STORE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Ma

    NAFTA was promoted as the sweet solution to North America's economic woes; it is ironic, therefore, that almost no one has looked at how NAFTA has affected North America's two sweetest industries sugar and candy. NAFTA set out to create a unified North American sweetener market. Ten years after its passage, it has yet to succeed. What, then, has it

  15. Sugar-sweetened beverages and prevalence of the metabolically abnormal phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories. The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the...

  16. SECULAR TRENDS IN CHILDREN’S SWEETENED BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION: THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from a single 24-hour dietary recall collected on 1548 10-year-old children who participated in one of seven cross-sectional surveys. Cochran-Armitage Trend Test was applied to examine the trends in sweetened beverage consumption by 10-year-olds ov...

  17. The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has increased by 300% in the past 20 years, and 56-85% of children in school consume at least one soft drink daily. The odds ratio of becoming obese among children increases 1.6 times for each additional can or glass of sugar-sweetened drink consumed beyond their usual daily intake of the beverage. Soft drinks currently…

  18. Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: The case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biing-Hwan Lin; Travis A. Smith; Jonq-Ying Lee; Kevin D. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of the chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova, T. E.; Prokhodchenko, L. K.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Suboch, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The chemical composition of the potent sweetener Vartamil was characterized using spectral methods. It was demonstrated that Vartamil is a mixture of saccharose chloro derivatives, the main one of which is 4,1',6'-trichloro-4,1',6'-trideoxygalactosaccharose (Sucralose).

  20. Formulation of health drinks using natural sweetener, its HPTLC method development and validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Bhise; V. R. Salunkhe

    Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Mulethi, Awala, Shatavari, Gokharu, Arjun, Giloy, Safed musli, Kalimirchi, Haldi, Jaiphal was used as an active ingredients and aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceutical in health dinks. The product was developed by treating concentrates of each crude drug with purified water. TLC profile, HPTLC method development and validation were carried out using Gallic acid

  1. HâS, SOâ pollution problems abated through chelated catalyst usage during natural gas sweetening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tannehill; L. Embry; M. Isaacs

    1985-01-01

    The Indian Rock Gas Plant of Tejas Gas Corp., at Gilmer, TX began operating in May 1984. It was faced with the problem of meeting Texas Air Pollution Control regulations within four months of startup. The Indian Rock facility is a complete 50 million scfd capacity gas sweetening installation that has been processing up to 32 million scfd of natural

  2. LIPOPHILICITY OF NATURAL SWEETENERS ESTIMATED ON VARIOUS OILS AND FATS IMPREGNATED THIN-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY PLATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costel Sârbu; Rodica Domnica Briciu

    2010-01-01

    A variety of oils (paraffin, olive, sunflower, corn, castor, cod liver) and fats (margarine, butter, pig, sheep, pullet, human) impregnated TLC-plates were indirectly evaluated and characterized from the lipophilicity point of view by employing a series of experimental lipophilicity parameters estimated for a representative group of natural sweeteners from retention data. The relevance of the results was evaluated by a

  3. Sweeteners from plants--with emphasis on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23341001

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  5. Artificial Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Shirai; Jun-ichi Tsujii

    1985-01-01

    Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching

  6. Artificial Wetlands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-04-11

    Golf courses are known as places of recreation. But some of them could someday double as water treatment facilities. Water hazards on golf courses can be used to control environmental hazards. That's according to Purdue University soil microbiologist Ron Turco. He says the artificial wetlands can also control flooding in surrounding communities, by collecting excess water. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry.

  7. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    PubMed

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not receiving treatment for eating disorders. PMID:24949566

  8. Chinchón declaration; decalogue on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS).

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Lluís; Riobó Serván, Pilar; Belmonte Cortés, Susana; Anadón Navarro, Arturo; Aranceta Bartrina, Javier; Franco Vargas, Eladia; García-Closas, Reina; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Herrero Sancho, Elvira; La Vecchia, Carlo; López Díaz-Ufano, M Luisa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Vázquez Castro, Jesús; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Alcaraz-Cebrián, Francisca; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; González-Gomis, Mercedes; González-Gross, Marcela; Granado de la Orden, Susana; López-Sobaler, Ana María; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Ortega Anta, Rosa María; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Polanco Allué, Isabel; Urrialde de Andrés, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary experts in the areas of nutrition and health met in Chinchón, Madrid, on November 25-26, 2013 under the auspices of the Fundación para la Investigación Nutricional (Nutrition Research Foundation) and with the collaboration of the Madrid Regional Government's Health Ministry, the International Sweeteners Association and the Carlos III Health Institute CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition. They analyzed the current status of scientific knowledge on low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) and developed a consensus Decalogue on their use; this constitutes the Chinchón Declaration. Sweeteners, including sugar, represent a subject of undeniable interest and are currently a popular topic, although areas relating to their safety and benefits remain unknown to segments of academia and the general public. The nature of LNCS makes them vulnerable to biased and even contradictory information. They are food additives that are broadly used as sugar substitutes to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements when non-nutritional or non-caloric alternatives are needed. The Chinchón Decalogue is the outcome of a meeting for reflection and consensus by a group of experts with backgrounds in different scientific disciplines (toxicology, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, physiology, food science, public health, pediatrics, endocrinology and nutrition, nursing, pharmaceutical care and food legislation). The Decalogue includes different aspects of LNCS related to regulation, use, benefits and safety. In general, benefits of LNCS have been traditionally neglected in comparison with the tendency for emphasising unexisting or unproven possible risks. The need to strengthen research on LNCS in Spain was emphasized, as well as the need to educate both professionals and the public. PMID:24679013

  9. Evaluation of the Cariogenic Potential of the Intense Natural Sweeteners Stevioside and Rebaudioside A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Das; A. K. Das; R. A. Murphy; I. C. Punwani; M. P. Nasution; A. D. Kinghorn

    1992-01-01

    Stevioside and rebaudioside A, two intense natural sweeteners, that are constituents of the South American plant Stevia rebaudiana, were tested for cariogenicity in albino Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rat pups colonized with Streptococcus sobrinus were divided into four groups and fed stevioside, rebaudioside A or sucrose added to basal diet 2000 as follows: group 1,30% sucrose; group 2, 0.5% stevioside; group

  10. Sour-gas sweetening during offshore drillsteam tests; A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, R.L. (Columbia Gas Development Corp., Houston, TX (US))

    1990-03-01

    This case history details the use of a sour-gas sweetener on two exploratory well drillstem tests (DST's) offshore California. Also included is a brief description of the process and comments on future plans. This case history is intended to show that the process can be applied effectively in a sour-gas offshore DST. It shows performance on each of the exploratory wells and explains the solutions initiated to mitigate problems incurred in subsequent DST's.

  11. A novel process for extraction of natural sweetener from licorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamata Mukhopadhyay; Palash Panja

    2008-01-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) is a very useful technique for recovering bioactive molecules from natural materials using subcritical compressed liquid water in the temperature range of 50–150°C. A novel process has been developed for making a natural sweetener from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) roots involving selective chemical reaction and easy separation, for recovering mono-ammonium glycyrrhizate (MAG) using hot water with

  12. Natural sweetening of food products by engineering Lactococcus lactis for glucose production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wietske A. Pool; Ana Rute Neves; Jan Kok; Helena Santos; Oscar P. Kuipers

    2006-01-01

    We show that sweetening of food products by natural fermentation can be achieved by a combined metabolic engineering and transcriptome analysis approach. A Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris strain was constructed in which glucose metabolism was completely disrupted by deletion of the genes coding for glucokinase (glk), EIIman\\/glc (ptnABCD), and the newly discovered glucose-PTS EIIcel (ptcBAC). After introducing the lactose metabolic

  13. NMR studies of the conformation of the natural sweetener rebaudioside A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne E. Steinmetz; Alvin Lin

    2009-01-01

    Rebaudioside A is a natural sweetener from Stevia rebaudiana in which four ?-d-glucopyranose units are attached to the aglycone steviol. Its 1H and 13C NMR spectra in pyridine-d5 were assigned using 1D and 2D methods. Constrained molecular dynamics of solvated rebaudioside using NMR constraints derived from ROESY cross peaks yielded the orientation of the ?-d-glucopyranose units. Hydrogen bonding was examined

  14. Specially designed sweeteners and food for diabetics--a real need?

    PubMed

    Lenner, R A

    1976-07-01

    In the first part of this study, the effect of four isocaloric mixed breakfast meals on the blood glucose and urinary glucose losses was tested in nine adult diabetics and in three healthy subjects, ages 60 to 75. Three of the test meals consisted of a base diet supplemented with applesauce sweetened with sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol. In the fourth test meal, the starch was increased together with saccharine. In the second part of the study, analyses for free glucose and sucrose in several timed food preparations, ordinary as well as food preparations specially designed for diabetics, were performed. The amount of sucrose equivalents (S(eg)) in one ordinary serving of the various products was estimated. No significant differences among sucrose, fructose, and sorbitol-containing meals with respect to the effect on the blood glucose level or on glucosuria were found. The saccharine-containing meal gave a significantly greater blood glucose increase at 60 min only. The amount of sucrose in ordinary marinated foods, such as herring, cucumber, and common beet was negligible. Water-packed fruits supplied one half of the amount of S(eq) or less, compared with fruits packed in sorbitol-sweetened syrup. The amount of S(eq) in the latter products as well as in fruits packed in unsweetened juice equalled that of the fleshy substance of ordinary sucrose-sweetened products. It was concluded that fructose or sorbitol has no advantages over sucrose, as regards the effect on blood glucose in well-regulated adult diabetics, and that it seems unnecessary to have specially sweetened foods designed for diabetics. PMID:937227

  15. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

  16. Artificial Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Y.; Tsujii, Jun-ichi

    1985-01-01

    Based on the Japanese 5th Generation Computer Program, this volume provides coverage of the fundamental concepts and various techniques in the different applications of Artificial Intelligence. Also presented are the methods which can be used to put these concepts and techniques into practice. Explanations are presented of all the basic topics in the field, including the representation of problems; searching techniques; the control of problem solving; programming languages for Al, such as LISP, PLANNER, CONNIVER, and PROLOG; the representation and utilization of knowledge; and the approach to human intelligence.

  17. Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.J.

    1986-02-14

    Objective was to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to certain conventional separation processes now in use in the corn-sweetener industry. Three applications of membranes were studied during the program: the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; the concentration of dilute wastes, called ''sweetwater,'' by a combination of reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis; and the enrichment of corn syrup in fructose by a process involving selective complexation of fructose by membrane filtration. Laboratory experiments were conducted for all three applications, and the results were used to conduct technical and economic analyses of the process. Calculations indicate that the use of reverse osmosis in combination with conventional mechanical-vapor-recompression evaporation to concentrate steep water, offers savings of a factor of 2.5 in capital costs and a factor of 4.5 in operating costs over currently used evaporation alone. In the concentration of sweetwater by reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis, capital costs would be about the same as those for evaporation, but operating costs would only be about one-half those of evaporation. For the fructose-enrichment scheme, preliminary results indicate that the savings in energy alone for the membrane process would be about $0.01/lb of sweetener produced by the process, or about $20 million annually, for the corn-sweetener industry.

  18. Technological and functional applications of low-calorie sweeteners from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Patra, F; Tomar, S K; Arora, S

    2009-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been extensively used for centuries as starter cultures to carry out food fermentations and are looked upon as burgeoning "cell factories" for production of host of functional biomolecules and food ingredients. Low-calorie sugars have been a recent addition and have attracted a great deal of interest of researchers, manufacturers, and consumers for varied reasons. These sweeteners also getting popularized as low-carb sugars have been granted generally recommended as safe (GRAS) status by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (USFDA) and include both sugars and sugar alcohols (polyols) which in addition to their technological attributes (sugar replacer, bulking agent, texturiser, humectant, cryoprotectant) have been observed to exert a number of health benefits (low calories, low glycemic index, anticariogenic, osmotic diuretics, obesity control, prebiotic). Some of these sweeteners successfully produced by lactic acid bacteria include mannitol, sorbitol, tagatose, and trehalose and there is a potential to further enhance their production with the help of metabolic engineering. These safe sweeteners can be exploited as vital food ingredients for development of low-calorie foods with added functional values especially for children, diabetic patients, and weight watchers. PMID:19200114

  19. A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebbeling, Cara B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Antonelli, Tracy A.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Ludwig, David S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may cause excessive weight gain. We aimed to assess the effect on weight gain of an intervention that included the provision of noncaloric beverages at home for overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS We randomly assigned 224 overweight and obese adolescents who regularly consumed sugar-sweetened beverages to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 1-year intervention designed to decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, with follow-up for an additional year without intervention. We hypothesized that the experimental group would gain weight at a slower rate than the control group. RESULTS Retention rates were 97% at 1 year and 93% at 2 years. Reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was similar at baseline in the experimental and control groups (1.7 servings per day), declined to nearly 0 in the experimental group at 1 year, and remained lower in the experimental group than in the control group at 2 years. The primary outcome, the change in mean body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) at 2 years, did not differ significantly between the two groups (change in experimental group minus change in control group, ?0.3; P = 0.46). At 1 year, however, there were significant between-group differences for changes in BMI (?0.57, P = 0.045) and weight (?1.9 kg, P = 0.04). We found evidence of effect modification according to ethnic group at 1 year (P = 0.04) and 2 years (P = 0.01). In a prespecified analysis according to ethnic group, among Hispanic participants (27 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group), there was a significant between-group difference in the change in BMI at 1 year (?1.79, P = 0.007) and 2 years (?2.35, P = 0.01), but not among non-Hispanic participants (P>0.35 at years 1 and 2). The change in body fat as a percentage of total weight did not differ significantly between groups at 2 years (?0.5%, P = 0.40). There were no adverse events related to study participation. CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adolescents, the increase in BMI was smaller in the experimental group than in the control group after a 1-year intervention designed to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not at the 2-year follow-up (the prespecified primary outcome). (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00381160.) PMID:22998339

  20. Total Artificial Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...

  1. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios Predict Intake of Sweeteners in a Yup’ik Study Population12

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Boyer, Bert B.; O’Brien, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (?13C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated ?13C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (?15N), can control for confounding dietary effects on ?13C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup’ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC ?13C and ?15N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both ?13C and ?15N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only ?13C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate “covariate” isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest. PMID:23256142

  2. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  3. Low dose of morphine and the consumption of a sweetened ethanol solution: differential effects on acquisition and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, M F; Meister, S C; Volpicelli, J R; Ulm, R R

    1997-01-01

    The influence of a low dose of morphine was investigated on the acquisition and maintenance of consumption of a sweetened ethanol solution with water as the alternative in a two-bottle choice procedure. During acquisition in Experiment 1, morphine failed to significantly increase the consumption of a sweetened ethanol solution compared to either a postinjection period in the same animals or a no-treatment control group. Although morphine significantly increased sweetened ethanol consumption when compared to a saline control group, this appears to be due to a stress response to the injections, which suppressed ethanol consumption in the saline animals. During maintenance in Experiment 2, morphine significantly increased consumption of sweetened ethanol in all groups compared to consumption following saline control injections. There was no difference in this effect among the three groups, suggesting that prior history with morphine was not a factor. In addition, rats that were exposed to morphine during both experiments drank significantly more sweetened ethanol following injections in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. This suggests that morphine's potentiation of ethanol consumption is due to its interaction with endogenous opioid receptors that modulate the reward value of ethanol rather than more general mechanisms affecting satiety or taste. The results of these experiments provide support for both the Deficit and Surfeit Hypotheses of ethanol consumption, both of which suggest that endogenous opioid receptors are responsible, in part, for ethanol's reinforcing properties. PMID:9305461

  4. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance associated with consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fruit juice in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observational studies have linked sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption to weight gain, metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM. Insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinemia are key metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. High-fructose corn syrup, the main caloric sweetener in so...

  5. Artificial Life and Piaget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domenico Parisi; Matthew Schlesinger

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Life is the study of all phenomena of the living world through their reproduction in artificial systems. We argue that Artificial Life models of evolution and development offer a new set of theoretical and methodological tools for investigating Piaget’s ideas. The concept of an Artificial Life Neural Network (ALNN) is first introduced, and contrasted with the study of other

  6. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Julie R.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Krishnan, Supriya; Hu, Frank B.; Singer, Martha; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an increasingly serious health problem among African American women. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in 2 studies but not in a third; however, to our knowledge, no data are available on African Americans regarding this issue. Our objective was to examine the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Methods A prospective follow-up study of 59 000 African American women has been in progress since 1995. Participants reported on food and beverage consumption in 1995 and 2001. Biennial follow-up questionnaires ascertained new diagnoses of type 2 diabetes. The present analyses included 43 960 women who gave complete dietary and weight information and were free from diabetes at baseline. We identified 2713 incident cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus during 338 884 person-years of follow-up. The main outcome measure was the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher with higher intake of both sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks. After adjustment for confounding variables including other dietary factors, the incidence rate ratio for 2 or more soft drinks per day was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.45). For fruit drinks, the comparable incidence rate ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.52). The association of diabetes with soft drink consumption was almost entirely mediated by body mass index, whereas the association with fruit drink consumption was independent of body mass index. Conclusions Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. While there has been increasing public awareness of the adverse health effects of soft drinks, little attention has been given to fruit drinks, which are often marketed as a healthier alternative to soft drinks. PMID:18663160

  7. Amine-degradation products play no part in corrosion at gas-sweetening plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, C.; Grall, M.; Demarais, G.

    1982-11-15

    Gas-sweetening units using diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) are occasionally subject to corrosion. Discounting the basic degradation products of DEA as the cause, researchers (1) confirmed the presence of formic, oxalic, and acetic acids in used amine solutions, (2) defined oxygen's role in forming these carboxylic acids, and (3) demonstrated that the acid contents of different units are about the same order of magnitude for both DEA and MDEA. In most cases, oxygen can be easily excluded from gas-treating units, especially in storage tanks, thereby limiting the formation of acid products.

  8. DGA proves out as a low pressure gas sweetener in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Huval, M.; van de Venne, H.

    1981-08-17

    Aramco is successfully using diglycolamine (DGA) to treat low-pressure associated sour gases to 1/4 gr H/sub 2/S/100 SCF specifications. The DGA process meets the design criteria of (1) handling high acid-gas-content (up to 15%) feed gases, (2) sweetening at high temperatures (120/sup 0/-140/sup 0/F) and low pressures (120-180 psig), (3) removing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ in a single step and (4) providing a Claus-plant feed suitable for the production of bright-yellow (rather than black) sulfur.

  9. Classification of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks using liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kakigi, Y; Suzuki, T; Icho, T; Uyama, A; Mochizuki, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive analytical method for the characterisation of stevia sweeteners in soft drinks. By using LC and time-of-flight MS, we detected 30 steviol glycosides from nine stevia sweeteners. The mass spectral data of these compounds were applied to the analysis to determine steviol glycosides in nine soft drinks. On the basis of chromatographic data and principal-component analysis, these soft drinks were classified into three groups, and the soft drinks of each group, respectively, contained high-rebaudioside A extract, normal stevia extract or alfa-glucosyltransferase-treated stevia extract. PMID:24168664

  10. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Estabrooks, Paul; Davy, Brenda; Chen, Yvonnes; You, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Respondents were majority female (66%), white (89%), ? high school education (79%), and averaged 41.4 (±13.5) years. A validated beverage questionnaire was used to measure SSB. Eleven TPB constructs were assessed with a 56-item instrument. Analyses included descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVAs, Cronbach alphas, and multiple regressions. Results Sugar-sweetened beverage intake averaged 457 (±430) kilocalories/day. The TPB model provided a moderate explanation of SSB intake (R2=0.38; F=13.10, P<0.01). Behavioral intentions had the strongest relationships with SSB consumption, followed by attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. The six belief constructs did not predict significant variance in the models. Conclusions and Implications Future efforts to comprehensively develop and implement interventions guided by the TPB hold promise for reducing SSB intake. PMID:22154130

  11. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  12. Licorice ?-Amyrin 11Oxidase, a Cytochrome P450 with a Key Role in the Biosynthesis of the Triterpene Sweetener Glycyrrhizin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hikaru Seki; Kiyoshi Ohyama; Satoru Sawai; Masaharu Mizutani; Toshiyuki Ohnishi; Hiroshi Sudo; Tomoyoshi Akashi; Toshio Aoki; Kazuki Saito; Toshiya Muranaka

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene ?-amyrin, an initial product of

  13. Aerobic biodegradability of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) used in natural gas sweetening plants in batch tests and continuous flow experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fürhacker; A. Pressl; R. Allabashi

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of different amines including tertiary amines (methyldiethanolamine, MDEA) are commonly used for the removal of CO2 from gas mixtures or in gas sweetening processes for the extraction of CO2 and H2S. The absorber solutions used can be released into the industrial waste water due to continuous substitution of degraded MDEA, periodically cleaning processes or an accidental spill. In this

  14. Artificial Immune Systems 209 Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    Artificial Immune Systems 209 Chapter XI Artificial Immune Systems: Using the Immune System, Idea Group Publishing. The immune system is highly distributed, highly adaptive, self encounters. From a computational view- point, the immune system has much to offer by way of inspiration

  15. Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-06-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  16. Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Forrest, Stephanie

    Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life Melanie Mitchell Santa Fe Institute 1660 Old Pecos Tr­11­072 Revised December 15, 1993 To appear in Artificial Life Abstract Genetic algorithms are computational and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, using illustrative examples in which

  17. Artificial Behavior: An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Gene D.; Peden, Blaine F.

    1985-01-01

    Contrasts artificial behavior with artificial intelligence, traces Law of Effect's development from a verbal statement into a mathematical model providing algorithms for artificial behavior programs, and describes an attempt to use computer graphics and animation to simulate behavior and teach abstract concepts. (MBR)

  18. Genetic Algorithms Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Melanie

    Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Life Melanie Mitchell Santa Fe Institute 1660 Old Pecos Tr artificial-life models. We review the history and current scope of research on genetic algorithms in artificial life, using illustrative examples in which the genetic algorithm is used to study how learning

  19. Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    PubMed Central

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings. PMID:21616200

  20. Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in children? A systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose or glucose intolerance, high lipid levels, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, and overweight/obesity. The occurrence of intermediate outcomes during childhood increases the risk of disease in adulthood. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case–control studies, and nested case–control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to determine the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009641. PMID:25192945

  1. Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adults is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are. Methods/Design Of interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control studies, and nested case-control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used for determining the quality of evidence for outcomes. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014009638 PMID:25248499

  2. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple ...

  3. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

    2009-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500?g/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

  4. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required. PMID:22192774

  5. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994February 28, 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  6. Highly Diastereoselective Alkylation of a Pyroglutamate Derivative with an Electrophile Obtained from Indole. Synthesis of a Potential Intermediate for the Preparation of the Natural Sweetener (-)-Monatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davi de Jesus Oliveira; Femando Coelho

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of a potential intermediate for the preparation of the very intensive sweetening agent (-)-Monatin is described. The synthesis is based on a highly diastereoselective alkylation reaction of a pyroglutamate derivative with an electrophile obtained from indole.

  7. An artificial muscle computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  8. Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2015-01-15

    Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups. PMID:25148997

  9. Sensitive simultaneous determination of three sulfanilamide artificial sweeters by capillary electrophoresis with on-line preconcentration and contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lirong; Zhou, ShengJi; Xiao, Yuezhou; Tang, Yufeng; Xie, Tianyao

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive method followed by capillary electrophoresis with on-line perconcentration and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) was evaluated as a novel approach for the determination of three sulfanilamide artificial sweeteners (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate) in beverages. The on-line preconcentration technique, namely field-amplified sample injection, coupled with CE-C(4)D were successfully developed and optimized. The separation was achieved within 10min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary (45cm×50?m i.d., Leff=40cm), 20mmolL(-1) HAc as running buffer, separation voltage of -12kV, electrokinetic injection of -11kV×8s. The detection limits of acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate were 4.4, 6.7 and 8.8?gL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation varied in the range of 3.0-5.0%. Results of this study show a great potential method for the fast screening of these artificial sweeteners contents in commercial beverages. PMID:26041216

  10. Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Adults with Gout or Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Rinki; Thornley, Simon; de Zoysa, Janak; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes and gout recommend that people with these conditions limit their sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. We examined self-reported SSB intake among New Zealand adults with gout or type 2 diabetes, including those on hemodialysis. Method 1023 adults with gout and 580 adults (including 206 receiving hemodialysis) with type 2 diabetes, participated in this study of between 2009 and 2012. Participants completed an interviewer-administered SSB intake question “how many sugar sweetened drinks (including fruit juice), but not including diet drinks, do you normally drink per day?” SSB consumption was recorded as a circled number 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or >5, cans or large glasses (300mL) per day. Results Consuming one or more SSB per day was reported by 64% (622/1023) of subjects with gout, 49% (176/374) with type 2 diabetes without dialysis, and 47% (96/206) with diabetes on dialysis. Consuming four or more SSBs per day was reported by 18% (179/1023), 9% (31/374) and 9% (18/206), respectively. Such high consumers of SSB were characterized after multivariable analysis to be more likely to be male (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.9), younger in age (40 vs 65 years: 1.6; 1.1–2.3), current smoker (5.2; 2.7–10.1), obese (BMI 41 vs 26kg/m2: 1.4; 1–1.9), and report M?ori (1.8; 1.2–2.8) or Pacific (1.6; 1.1–2.5) ancestry, compared to Caucasian. People with gout were more likely to report heavy SSB intake compared to people with diabetes (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5–3.9). Heavy SSB consumption reported by people with diabetes was similar if they did or did not require dialysis. Conclusion A high proportion of patients with gout and type 2 diabetes, including those on haemodialysis, are not responding to health messages to abstain from SSB consumption. PMID:25978428

  11. Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yao

    1993-01-01

    Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks (EANNs) can be considered as a combination of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and evolutionary search procedures, such as genetic algorithms (GAs). This paper distinguishes among three levels of evolution in EANNs, i.e., the evolution of connection weights, architectures, and learning rules. It first reviews each kind of evolution in detail and then analyses major issues related

  12. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  13. Artificial black holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Eskin

    2011-01-01

    We study black holes for the linear hyperbolic equations describing the wave propagation in the moving medium. Such black holes are called artificial since the Lorentz metric associated with the hyperbolic equation does not necessary satisfies the Einstein equations. Artificial black holes also arise when we consider perturbations of the Einstein equations. In this paper we review author's results of

  14. Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kearney, Monica L; Kanaley, Jill A

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ?355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ?28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. PMID:24766236

  15. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 ?m; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 ?N at 1000 V.

  16. Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

  17. News Coverage of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes: Pro- and Antitax Arguments in Public Discourse

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jarlenski, Marian P.; Nathanson, Ashley M.; Barry, Colleen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined news coverage of public debates about large taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to illuminate how the news media frames the debate and to inform future efforts to promote obesity-related public policy. Methods. We conducted a quantitative content analysis in which we assessed how frequently 30 arguments supporting or opposing SSB taxes appeared in national news media and in news outlets serving jurisdictions where SSB taxes were proposed between January 2009 and June 2011. Results. News coverage included more discrete protax than antitax arguments on average. Supportive arguments about the health consequences and financial benefits of SSB taxes appeared most often. The most frequent opposing arguments focused on how SSB taxes would hurt the economy and how they constituted inappropriate governmental intrusion. Conclusions. News outlets that covered the debate on SSB taxes in their jurisdictions framed the issue in largely favorable ways. However, because these proposals have not gained passage, it is critical for SSB tax advocates to reach audiences not yet persuaded about the merits of this obesity prevention policy. PMID:23597354

  18. Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    PubMed

    Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

  19. Measuring weight outcomes for obesity intervention strategies: the case of a sugar-sweetened beverage tax.

    PubMed

    Lin, Biing-Hwan; Smith, Travis A; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Hall, Kevin D

    2011-12-01

    Taxing unhealthy foods has been proposed as a means to improve diet and health by reducing calorie intake and raising funds to combat obesity, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). A growing number of studies have examined the effects of such food taxes, but few have estimated the weight-loss effects. Typically, a static model of 3500 calories for one pound of body weight is used, and the main objective of the study is to demonstrate its bias. To accomplish the objective, we estimate income-segmented beverage demand systems to examine the potential effects of a SSB tax. Elasticity estimates and a hypothetical 20 percent effective tax rate (or about 0.5 cent per ounce) are applied to beverage intake data from a nationally representative survey, and we find an average daily reduction of 34-47 calories among adults and 40-51 calories among children. The tax-induced energy reductions are translated into weight loss using both static and dynamic calorie-to-weight models. Results demonstrate that the static model significantly overestimates the weight loss from reduced energy intake by 63 percent in year one, 346 percent in year five, and 764 percent in year 10, which leads to unrealistic expectations for obesity intervention strategies. The tax is estimated to generate $5.8 billion a year in revenue and is found to be regressive, although it represents about 1 percent of household food and beverage spending. PMID:21940223

  20. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Peres, António M

    2014-10-27

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7

  1. Energy-efficient membrane separations in the sweetener industry. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, W.C.

    1984-02-14

    The objective of the program is to investigate the use of membrane processes as energy-efficient alternatives to conventional separation processes in current use in the corn sweetener industry. Two applications of membranes were studied during the program: (1) the concentration of corn steep water by reverse osmosis; and (2) the concentration of dilute wastes called sweetwater with a combination of reverse osmosis and a process known as countercurrent reverse osmosis. Laboratory experiments were conducted for both applications, and the results were used to conduct technical and economic analyses of the process. It was determined that the concentration of steep water by reverse osmosis plus triple-effect evaporation offers savings of a factor of 2.5 in capital costs and a factor of 4.5 in operating costs over currently used triple-effect evaporation. In the concentration of sweetwater by reverse osmosis and countercurrent reverse osmosis, capital costs would be about the same as those for triple-effect evaporation, but operating costs would be only about one-half those of triple-effect evaporation.

  2. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories. PMID:26005761

  3. The sugar-sweetened beverage wars: public health and the role of the beverage industry

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Jean A.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the current data on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption trends, evidence of the health impact, and the role of industry in efforts to reduce the consumption. Recent findings Previously rising SSB consumption rates have declined recently, but continue to contribute added sugars beyond the limit advised by the American Heart Association. A recent meta-analysis concluded that SSBs likely increase body weight and recent long-term studies support the previous findings of increased risk of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beverage companies have played an active role in some SSB reduction efforts by reducing the sale of SSBs in schools, limiting television advertising to children, and increasing the availability of smaller portion-size options. Industry has opposed efforts to restrict the availability of large portion sizes and implement an excise tax. Current industry efforts include the promotion of alternative beverages perceived to be healthier as well as SSBs through Internet and social media. Summary Continuing high SSB consumption and associated health risks highlight the need for further public health action. The beverage industry has supported some efforts to reduce the consumption of full sugar beverages, but has actively opposed others. The impact of industry efforts to promote beverage alternatives perceived as healthier is unknown. PMID:23974767

  4. Simulation modeling of policies directed at youth sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Friend, Karen B

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem requiring innovative solutions. While recent reviews indicate that some policies show promise, there is a lack of information regarding which policies, and policy combinations, work best. Low-nutrition, energy-dense foods and beverages such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been identified as a major contributor to the problem. The purpose of this paper is to use simulation modeling to show how changes in three categories of SSB policies-school nutrition, school-based education, and taxes-impact SSB and other food consumption. The model shows that policies directed at SSBs, particularly tax hikes, could lead to substantial reductions in the number of calories consumed by youth. The estimates, however, are subject to a high degree of uncertainty. Estimates from school-based nutrition and school-based education policies, while also helping to reduce caloric intake, generally show smaller effects than tax policies and considerable variation around parameter estimates for individual and combined policies. We conclude with a discussion of the limits of the model, and suggest where additional information is needed. Limitations notwithstanding, simulation modeling is a promising methodology that can help advance our understanding of policy effects, thereby helping policymakers to better formulate effective policies to reduce obesity prevalence and the associated social harms. PMID:22810953

  5. Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Komes, Draženka; Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Ljubi?i?, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindri?, Iva Juranovi?; Buši?, Arijana; Vojvodi?, Aleksandra

    2014-05-15

    Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion. PMID:24423548

  6. Evaluating Artificial Life and Artificial Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Keeley

    It is often heard in Artificial Life (A-Life) circles that contemporary biology studies life-as-we-know-it (an Earth based, carbon chain phenomenon), whereas A-Life takes as its domain of study life-as-it-could-be. But lacking a clear definition of \\

  7. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    E-print Network

    Imamura, Fumiaki; O’Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N.; Forouhi, Nita G.

    2015-06-26

    - combined-of-the-rolling-programme-for-2008-and-2009-to-2011-and-2012. Accessed August 13, 2014. 47. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Robson J, Sheikh A, Brindle P. Predicting risk of type 2 diabetes in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation...

  8. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

  9. 30526 artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the four major methods of artificial lift: sucker-rod pumping, gas lift, electrical submersible pumping (ESP) and hydraulic pumping. Though more than 80% of artificially lifted wells worldwide are rod-pumped, the large majority of these wells are low-volume, stripper-type producers. For this reason, sucker-rod pumping papers comprise less than 40% of the 26 SPE papers selected.

  10. Association between commercial and traditional sugar-sweetened beverages and measures of adiposity in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jinnie J.; Mattei, Josiemer; Campos, Hannia

    2013-01-01

    Objective Increasing trends in commercial sugar-sweetened beverages(SSB s) consumption have occurred in parallel with rising levels of obesity in Latin America, but data showing the relationship between these SSBs and obesity are limited. The current study examined the association between commercial and traditional SSBs and measures of adiposity in Costa Rica. Design A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in which the exposure, SSB intake, was defined as frequency of daily servings of fresco (a traditional homemade beverage), fruit drink (a commercially available SSB), soda, and fruit juice (made from fruits at home). Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between SSB intake and BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and skinfold thickness. Setting Central Valley, Costa Rica. Subjects Controls (N=2045) of a case-control study on diet and heart disease in Costa Rica. Results Fresco, fruit drink, soda, and fruit juice were consumed at least 1/d by 47%, 14%, 4%, and 14% of the population respectively. One serving/d of soda, fruit drink, and fresco was associated with 0.89, 0.49, and 0.21 kg/m2 higher BMI respectively (all P<0.05). Fruit drink (?1 s/d) was associated with higher waist to hip ratio (P=0.004), while soda and fresco were associated with higher skinfold thickness (P=0.02 and 0.01 respectively). Associations with fruit juice intake were modest and not statistically significant. Other factors associated with higher BMI were higher income and less education, smoking, and physical inactivity (all P<0.05). Conclusion Increasing intake of commercially available SSBs could be in part responsible for the high prevalence of obesity among Hispanic adults. PMID:22494394

  11. The relationship between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among US adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-07-01

    Because there is limited information on associations between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, our cross-sectional study examined this question using the 2010 HealthStyles Survey data for 3,926 adults (aged ?18 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day. About 31% of adults consumed SSBs ?1 time per day, with 20% doing so ?2 times per day. About eight of 10 adults agreed that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain, yet, eight of 10 adults in this study did not know the actual kilocalorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, annual household income, and geographic region, the odds for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day were significantly higher among adults who neither agreed nor disagreed (ie, were neutral) that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.25 vs agree); however, knowledge about the energy content of regular soda was not associated with SSB intake. Our finding that knowledge about the adverse effects of SSB intake is significantly associated with SSB intake among adults suggests that health education regarding the potential contribution of excess energy intake from SSBs to weight gain could contribute to lowered consumption and lower rates of obesity. Although knowledge about the kilocalorie content of regular soda was unrelated to SSB intake, health education on the kilocalorie content of SSBs may still be beneficial because most adults did not know the actual kilocalorie content of SSBs. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore associations between knowledge about energy provided by SSBs and SSB intake. PMID:24360502

  12. Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage and 100% Fruit Juice Consumption Among California Children

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Amy L.; Patel, Anisha; Madsen, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juice by California children ages 2–11 years from 2003 to 2009 Methods This analysis used serial cross-sectional data from the California Health Interview Survey, a telephone survey of households in California. Parents were asked how many servings of SSBs and 100% fruit juice the child consumed the day before. A test of trend was used to evaluate changes in consumption over time. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent effects of race/ethnicity, parental education and household income on beverage consumption. Results The percent of children consuming an SSB on the prior day declined from 41% in 2003 to 16% in 2009 (p<0.001) among children ages 2–5 and from 56% in 2003 to 33% in 2009 (p<0.001) among children ages 6–11. The percent of children consuming any SSB decreased for all racial/ethnic groups, although there were disparities with higher consumption among Latinos. Among children ages 2–5, consumption of 2 or more servings of 100% fruit juice per day decreased among white children and increased among Latinos. For children ages 6–11, consumption of 2 or more servings of 100% fruit juice per day remained stable for white children and increased among Latinos and African-Americans. Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption by California children from 2003 to 2009 is a promising trend. The increase in 100% fruit juice consumption among minority children during this period may be an unintended consequence of efforts to reduce SSB consumption. PMID:23688439

  13. The Relationship between Health-Related Knowledge and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Because there is limited information on associations between health-related knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, our cross-sectional study examined this question using the 2010 HealthStyles Survey data for 3,926 adults (aged ?18 years). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day. About 31% of adults consumed SSBs ?1 time per day, with 20% doing so ?2 times per day. About eight of 10 adults agreed that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain, yet, eight of 10 adults in this study did not know the actual kilocalorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, annual household income, and geographic region, the odds for drinking SSBs ?2 times per day were significantly higher among adults who neither agreed nor disagreed (ie, were neutral) that drinking SSBs can contribute to weight gain (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.25 vs agree); however, knowledge about the energy content of regular soda was not associated with SSB intake. Our finding that knowledge about the adverse effects of SSB intake is significantly associated with SSB intake among adults suggests that health education regarding the potential contribution of excess energy intake from SSBs to weight gain could contribute to lowered consumption and lower rates of obesity. Although knowledge about the kilocalorie content of regular soda was unrelated to SSB intake, health education on the kilocalorie content of SSBs may still be beneficial because most adults did not know the actual kilocalorie content of SSBs. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore associations between knowledge about energy provided by SSBs and SSB intake. PMID:24360502

  14. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

  15. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction. PMID:24839299

  16. Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.

    PubMed

    Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. PMID:24070799

  17. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  18. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  19. An artificial molecular pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. PMID:24121558

  1. Artificial Heart Design Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

  2. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    E-print Network

    A. Libal; C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2015-07-02

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is raised. In contrast, the kagome ice ground state can absorb the doping charge without generating non-ground-state excitations, while at elevated temperatures the hopping of individual colloids is suppressed near the doping sites. These results indicate that in the square ice, doping adds degeneracy to the ordered ground state and creates local weak spots, while in the kagome ice, which has a highly degenerate ground state, doping locally decreases the degeneracy and creates local hard regions.

  3. An artificial molecular pump.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Schneebeli, Severin T; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration. PMID:25984834

  4. Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels???7.0 mg/dL in men and???5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ?3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0-?

  5. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    PubMed Central

    Bagnaresi, Paolo; Moschella, Anna; Beretta, Ottavio; Vitulli, Federico; Ranalli, Paolo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2008-01-01

    Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS) has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as ?-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR) has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT)-PCR (qPCR). Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as ?-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox- and ethylene-associated genes. Conclusion Our Global Match File strategy proved critical for accurately interpretating heterologous datasets, and suggests that similar approaches may be fruitful for other species. Transcript profiling of early events associated with CIS revealed a complex network of events involving sugars, redox and hormone signalling which may be either linked serially or act in parallel. The identification, at a sequence level, of various enzymes long known as having a role in CIS provides molecular tools for further understanding the phenomenon. PMID:18416834

  6. Substantial decline in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among California’s children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lu; van Meijgaard, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have looked at changes among risk factors that might help explain why childhood obesity prevalence in the US has leveled off in recent years. We present an analysis of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) that examines trends in childhood and adolescent obesity as well as trends in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Method: We compared 3 separate cross-sectional samples (2003, 2005, and 2007) from biennial CHIS for 3 age groups, age 2–5, age 6–11 and age 12–17. We calculated the prevalence of high SSB consumption (defined as having more than one SSB during the previous day). 2 measures of obesity were used – weight-for-age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for children aged 2–11, and body mass index for age at or above the 95th percentile on national growth charts for adolescents aged 12–17. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate adjusted odds ratios of high SSB consumption in 2005 and 2007 compared with the baseline year of 2003. Results: From 2003 to 2007, each age group experienced a substantial decline in high SSB consumption (16.4%–5.0% for age 2–5, P < 0.001; 22.5%–9.9% for age 6–11, P < 0.001; 35.7%–25.7% for age 12–17, P < 0.001). Declines in the prevalence of children’s obesity were significant among children age 2–5 (P < 0.001) and age 6–11 (P < 0.05) but not among adolescents (P = 0.42). Children and teenagers in 2005 and 2007 were significantly less likely than those surveyed in 2003 to have high SSB consumption after adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty level, and parental education (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Policy actions may have impacted the prevalence of SSB consumption in the population. Further research is needed to examine the contribution of declining SSB consumption on the leveling off of obesity trends and the extent to which these declines are attributable to new policies and programs. PMID:20830197

  7. Artificial black holes

    E-print Network

    Gregory Eskin

    2011-05-10

    We study black holes for the linear hyperbolic equations describing the wave propagation in the moving medium. Such black holes are called artificial since the Lorentz metric associated with the hyperbolic equation does not necessary satisfies the Einstein equations. Artificial black holes also arise when we consider perturbations of the Einstein equations. In this paper we review author's results of [E2] and [E3] on the existence and the stability of black holes for the stationary wave equations in two space dimensions, and in the axisymmetric case.

  8. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    animals. We create self-animating, autonomous agents which emulate the realistic appearance, movementArtificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior ¡ Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics

  9. Integrated automation for continuous high-throughput synthetic chromosome assembly and transformation to identify improved yeast strains for industrial production of peptide sweetener brazzein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and recycling of recombinant sweetener peptides in industrial biorefineries involves the evaluation of large numbers of genes and proteins. High-throughput integrated robotic molecular biology platforms that have the capacity to rapidly synthesize, clone, and express heterologous gene ope...

  10. Cold-induced sweetening, sugar ends, stem-end chip defect and acrylamide can be controlled effectively by silencing of the potato vacuolar invertase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the third most important food crop in the world. Processing quality is one of the most important traits for many potato cultivars. Accumulations of reducing sugars in whole tubers as a result of cold-induced sweetening during low temperature storage, or at the tuber ste...

  11. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  12. Improving the french fry quality of russeted potatoes through transformation with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the Chipping cv. Snowden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microtubers of two dual-purpose russeted potatoes were transformed with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the cv. Snowden using well know Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation system. Seventy-two and twenty-four distinct transformants of AOND95292-3Russ and ND7882b-7Russ, respectivel...

  13. Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benn.) Benth. - a Natural Sweetener from the Rain Forest Zone in West Africa with Potential for Income Generation in Small Scale Farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Yeboah; T. H. Hilger; J. Kroschel

    The sweet prayers plant (Thaumatococcus daniellii) is widely found in tropical rain forests of West Africa. Local uses are versatile, ranging from cultivation as fetish plant in Gabon to collecting leaves from its natural habitat for wrapping and boiling food in Ghana and Nigeria. The most exiting use of T. daniellii, however, is its use as sweetener or taste modifier.

  14. Licorice beta-amyrin 11-oxidase, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the triterpene sweetener glycyrrhizin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hikaru Seki; Kiyoshi Ohyama; Satoru Sawai; Masaharu Mizutani; Toshiyuki Ohnishi; Hiroshi Sudo; Tomoyoshi Akashi; Toshio Aoki; Kazuki Saito; Toshiya Muranaka

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene beta-amyrin, an initial product of

  15. Disparities in Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened and Other Beverages by Race/Ethnicity and Obesity Status among United States Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Allison Hedley; Briefel, Ronette; Cabili, Charlotte; Wilson, Ander; Crepinsek, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify disparities by race/ethnicity and obesity status in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other beverages among United States schoolchildren to help tailor interventions to reduce childhood obesity. Design: Secondary data analysis using beverage intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls and measured height and…

  16. Artificial Intelligence Production Systems

    E-print Network

    Reed, Nancy E.

    Artificial Intelligence 1 Production Systems Nancy E. Reed nreed@hawaii.edu Production Systems mammal)) 2. (IF (milk t) THEN (subclass mammal)) 3. (IF (covering feathers) THEN (subclass bird)) 4. (IF (flies t) (eggs t) THEN (subclass bird)) 5. (IF (eats meat) THEN (order carnivore)) 6. (IF (teeth pointed

  17. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  18. Semantic Web 30Artificial

    E-print Network

    van Harmelen, Frank

    312007.11 "" Semantic Web 30Artificial IntelligenceKnowledge Representation Inductive Web datasets ---- Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee " "" " Web 2.0---- Web Web 2.0 Frank van Harmelen W3C OWL Web Sesame RDF Aduna 100 Hirsch 35 5 15 ECAI2002 3 ISWC

  19. Artificial magnetic superlattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. McMorrow

    1996-01-01

    One of the predominant trends in solid state physics over the last decade has been the study of artificial materials which have been designed at the atomic level. These materials are produced using a variety of advanced deposition techniques, and range in scale from the sub-mono-layer, through thin films and up to superlattices. In the field of magnetism it is

  20. INSEMINACION ARTIFICIAL EN EQUINOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor F. Canisso; Fernando A. Souza; Erotides C. Silva; Mastoby Martinez M; Anali L. Lima; Gerais Brasil

    2008-01-01

    The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some

  1. Artificial intelligence. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of the field of artificial intelligence. It contains material covering the latest advances in control, representation, language, vision, and problem solving. Problem solving in design and analysis systems is addressed. Mitcell's version-space learning procedure, Morevec's reduced-images stereo procedure, and the Strips problem solver are covered.

  2. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  3. Implantable biohybrid artificial organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clark K. Colton

    1995-01-01

    Biohybrid artificial organs encompass all devices which substitute for an organ or tissue function and incorporate both synthetic materials and living cells. This review concerns implantable immunoisolation devices in which the tissue is protected from immune rejection by enclosure within a semipermeable membrane. Two critical areas are discussed in detail: (i) Device design and performance as it relates to maintenance

  4. Teaching Artificial Intelligence Playfully

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Zyda; Sven Koenig

    In this paper, we report on the efforts at the University of Southern California to teach computer science and artificial intelligence with games because games mo- tivate students, which we believe increases enrollment and retention and helps us to educate better computer scientists. The Department of Computer Science is now in its second year of operating its Bachelor's Program in

  5. Artificial limb connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Connection simplifies and eases donning and removing artificial limb; eliminates harnesses and clamps; and reduces skin pressures by allowing bone to carry all tensile and part of compressive loads between prosthesis and stump. Because connection is modular, it is easily modified to suit individual needs.

  6. Evolving artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yao

    1999-01-01

    Learning and evolution are two fundamental forms of adaptation. There has been a great interest in combining learning and evolution with artificial neural networks (ANNs) in recent years. This paper: 1) reviews different combinations between ANNs and evolutionary algorithms (EAs), including using EAs to evolve ANN connection weights, architectures, learning rules, and input features; 2) discusses different search operators which

  7. Developing an artificial intelligence engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Van Lent; J. Laird

    1999-01-01

    As computer games become more complex and consumers demand more sophisticated computer controlled agents, developers are required to place a greater emphasis on the artificial intelligence aspects of their games. One source of sophisticated AI techniques is the artificial intelligence research community. This paper discusses recent efforts by our group at the University of Michigan Artificial Intelligence Lab to apply

  8. Quantum Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kongcun Zhu; Mingyan Jiang

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the global search ability and the convergence speed of the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA), a novel Quantum Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (QAFSA) which is based on the concepts and principles of quantum computing, such as the quantum bit and quantum gate is proposed in this paper. The position of the Artificial Fish (AF) is encoded

  9. High-rate artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper summarizes the major considerations in the selection, design, installation, operation, or repair of high-rate artificial-lift systems. The major types of artificial lift - sucker-rod pumps, gas-lift systems, electrical submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps and jets, and hydraulic turbine-driven pumps - will be discussed. An extensive bibliography of artificial-lift papers is included.

  10. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I.; Theodorides, Maria L.; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (d-tryptophan, d-phenylalanine, l-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (l-glutamine, l-threonine, l-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5?-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system. PMID:17911381

  11. Establishment of a New Cell-Based Assay To Measure the Activity of Sweeteners in Fluorescent Food Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca2+-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca2+ indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level. PMID:21981007

  12. A Review of the Literature on Policies Directed at the Youth Consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverages123

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Friend, Karen B.; Wang, Y. Claire

    2011-01-01

    Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) constitute a large percentage of energy consumed by youth. This paper reviews the literature on school nutrition policies and price interventions directed at youth SSB consumption. In addition to considering the direct effect of policies on SSB consumption, we provide an overview of the literature on how SSB consumption affects total energy intake (TEI) and BMI, as well as on how TEI affects BMI. By considering each of these links, we attempted to gauge the effect of policies directed at SSB consumption, as well as highlight areas that merit future research. We found that school nutrition and price policies reduce SSB consumption and that reduced SSB consumption is associated with a reduction in energy intake that can influence BMI. Policies directed at SSB consumption can play an important role in reducing youth overweight and obesity. PMID:22332051

  13. Elevated Serum Triglyceride and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels Associated with Fructose-Sweetened Beverages in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Wei-Zeng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Chen, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA) production. Objectives This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls) who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI) values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG) and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl). The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (?24) interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r?=?0.253 to 0.404), but not among non-drinkers. Conclusions High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4. PMID:24475021

  14. Introducing artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the field of artificial intelligence. The volume sets Al in a broad context of historical attitudes, imaginative insights, and ideas about intelligence in general. The author offers a wide-ranging survey of Al concerns, including cognition, knowledge engineering, problem inference, speech understanding, and perception. He also discusses expert systems, LISP, smart robots, and other Al products, and provides a listing of all major Al systems.

  15. Artificial Organisms That Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Mirolli; Domenico Parisi

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since\\u000a being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the\\u000a organisms evolve a sleep\\/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population\\u000a moves to a

  16. Artificial Immune Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wesam Barbakh; Ying Wu; Colin Fyfe

    The Artificial Immune System paradigm (AIS) is inspired by the biological immune system whose main goal is to protect the\\u000a human body from the attack of foreign pathogens such as virus, fungus or other parasites. The biological immune system is\\u000a capable of distinguishing between the normal components of our organism and the foreign materials that can cause us harm that

  17. Artificial Intelligence Search Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Korf

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionSearch is a universal problem-solving mechanism in artificial intelligence (AI). In AI problems,the sequence of steps required for solution of a problem are not known a priori, but often mustbe determined by a systematic trial-and-error exploration of alternatives. The problems that havebeen addressed by AI search algorithms fall into three general classes: single-agent pathfindingproblems, two-player games, and constraint-satisfaction problems.Classic examples

  18. Experimental design-based development and single laboratory validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of the artificial sweetener sucralose in food matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine McCourt; Joerg Stroka; Elke Anklam

    2005-01-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, optimised chemometrically, underwent a complete in-house validation protocol for the qualification and quantification of sucralose in various foodstuffs. Separation from matrix components was obtained in a dinitrobenzoic acid (3 mM)\\/sodium hydroxide (20 mM) background electrolyte with a pH of 12.1, a potential of 0.11 kV cm-1 and a temperature of 22 °C. Detection was achieved at 238 nm by indirect

  19. Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks #12;Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2

  20. Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2 Single Layer

  1. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints 

    E-print Network

    Pendelton, Alice Mae

    2009-05-15

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. ...

  2. The Effect of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake on Energy Intake in an ad libitum 6Month Low-Fat High-Carbohydrate Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjet J. M. Munsters; Wim H. M. Saris

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The increased incidence of obesity coincides with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study investigated the effect of SSB intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in a reanalysis of the CARMEN data. Methods: Forty-seven overweight-to-obese men and women participated in the Maastricht centre of the randomized controlled CARMEN study. They were

  3. Microscopic artificial swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L.; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A.; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion.

  4. Microscopic artificial swimmers.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, Rémi; Baudry, Jean; Roper, Marcus L; Fermigier, Marc; Stone, Howard A; Bibette, Jérôme

    2005-10-01

    Microorganisms such as bacteria and many eukaryotic cells propel themselves with hair-like structures known as flagella, which can exhibit a variety of structures and movement patterns. For example, bacterial flagella are helically shaped and driven at their bases by a reversible rotary engine, which rotates the attached flagellum to give a motion similar to that of a corkscrew. In contrast, eukaryotic cells use flagella that resemble elastic rods and exhibit a beating motion: internally generated stresses give rise to a series of bends that propagate towards the tip. In contrast to this variety of swimming strategies encountered in nature, a controlled swimming motion of artificial micrometre-sized structures has not yet been realized. Here we show that a linear chain of colloidal magnetic particles linked by DNA and attached to a red blood cell can act as a flexible artificial flagellum. The filament aligns with an external uniform magnetic field and is readily actuated by oscillating a transverse field. We find that the actuation induces a beating pattern that propels the structure, and that the external fields can be adjusted to control the velocity and the direction of motion. PMID:16208366

  5. Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Zoya

    Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

  6. Artificial Selection Lab, Investigation #1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AP Biology Investigative Labs: An Inquiry-Based Approach

    This is the 2012 inquiry-based Advanced Placement Investigation into Artificial Selection (#1). The investigation was developed by the College Board for use in AP Biology classes. This inquiry is guided by the question, Can extreme selection change expression of aquantitative trait in a population in one generation? Students study and carry out an artificial selection investigation using Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa).

  7. The language of artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This is a guide to LISP. It clarifies data structures and recursion via examples and practical explanations, uses BASIC as a reference point throughout (enabling comparisons with LISP), and stresses artificial intelligence applications. Contents: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. The Fundamentals of LISP. Functions. Conditionals and Loops. Further LISP Processing. Recursion. More Advanced Uses of Functions. LISP Programming and AI. Standard LISP Functions.

  8. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  9. Artificial Vision OBJECT RECOGNITIONOBJECT RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Artificial Vision OBJECT RECOGNITIONOBJECT RECOGNITION Dr. Claudio Piciarelli Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;Artificial Vision IntroductionIntroduction · The general pattern Video Flow Class N . . classification Pattern classification Klagenfurt, April 6-11 PAGE 2 #12

  10. Artificial emotions as emergent phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Gomi; Joseph Ulvr

    1993-01-01

    Although some researchers claim that emotion is unique to mammals, this paper describes a notion of artificial emotion as a phenomenon resulting from a series of modifications to emergent behaviors generated by a behavior-based artificial intelligence (AI) approach. Such modifications to behaviors are caused by stimuli (including those from humans) which a robot receives from its environment. The paper describes

  11. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  12. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.

    1986-01-01

    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  13. Molecular artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Serena; Drouet, Samuel; Francàs, Laia; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Guttentag, Miguel; Richmond, Craig; Stoll, Thibaut; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-11-21

    The replacement of fossil fuels by a clean and renewable energy source is one of the most urgent and challenging issues our society is facing today, which is why intense research has been devoted to this topic recently. Nature has been using sunlight as the primary energy input to oxidise water and generate carbohydrates (solar fuel) for over a billion years. Inspired, but not constrained, by nature, artificial systems can be designed to capture light and oxidise water and reduce protons or other organic compounds to generate useful chemical fuels. This tutorial review covers the primary topics that need to be understood and mastered in order to come up with practical solutions for the generation of solar fuels. These topics are: the fundamentals of light capturing and conversion, water oxidation catalysis, proton and CO2 reduction catalysis and the combination of all of these for the construction of complete cells for the generation of solar fuels. PMID:24473472

  14. Coexpression of ?-D-galactosidase and L-arabinose isomerase in the production of D-tagatose: a functional sweetener.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yijing; Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Liu, Xiaoliu; Xu, Lu; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2014-03-19

    The functional sweetener, d-tagatose, is commonly transformed from galactose by l-arabinose isomerase. To make use of a much cheaper starting material, lactose, hydrolization, and isomerization are required to take place collaboratively. Therefore, a single-step method involving ?-d-galactosidase was explored for d-tagatose production. The two vital genes, ?-d-galactosidase gene (lacZ) and l-arabinose isomerase mutant gene (araA') were extracted separately from Escherichia coli strains and incorporated into E. coli simultaneously. This gave us E. coli-ZY, a recombinant producing strain capable of coexpressing the two key enzymes. The resulted cells exhibited maximum d-tagatose producing activity at 34 °C and pH 6.5 and in the presence of borate, 10 mM Fe(2+), and 1 mM Mn(2+). Further monitoring showed that the recombinant cells could hydrolyze more than 95% lactose and convert 43% d-galactose into d-tagatose. This research has verified the feasibility of single-step d-tagatose fermentation, thereby laying down the foundation for industrial usage of lactose. PMID:24568679

  15. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N?=?102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10?L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects. PMID:24667153

  16. The metabolic and endocrine response and health implications of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages: findings from recent randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M

    2013-11-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars. PMID:24228199

  17. Decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improved selected biomarkers of chronic disease risk among US adults: 1999 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Hert, Kerrie A; Fisk, Paul S; Rhee, Yeong S; Brunt, Ardith R

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) increased greatly from the late 1970s to the early part of this decade. Although recent data show that consumption of SSB may now be declining, consumption levels still remain much higher than recommended. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we assessed trends in intakes of SSB and levels of chronic disease biomarkers from 1999 to 2010 and examined the associations of SSB intake and biomarkers of chronic disease risk. We hypothesized that SSB intake will decrease and biomarkers of chronic disease risk will improve, therefore indicating that high intake of SSB is associated with greater chronic disease risk. Univariate analysis showed that from 1999 to 2010, SSB consumption decreased (P for trend = .0026), high-density lipoprotein increased (P for trend < .0001), low-density lipoprotein decreased (P for trend = .0007), and C-reactive protein decreased (P for trend = .0096). Using multivariate analysis, we showed that higher intakes of SSB were associated with lower high-density lipoprotein (P for trend < .0001), in an unadjusted model and all models with increasing numbers of covariates, and higher C-reactive protein (P for trend < .05), in an unadjusted model and in models with age, race/ethnicity, sex, education level, and poverty income ratio adjustments. We conclude that SSB consumption is associated with biomarkers of chronic disease risk, independent of demographic and lifestyle factors. PMID:24418247

  18. Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.

    PubMed

    Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

  19. Relationship Between Nutritional Knowledge and the Amount of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumed in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Gase, Lauren N; Robles, Brenda; Barragan, Noel C; Kuo, Tony

    2014-04-01

    Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with many negative health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, the relationship between consumer nutritional knowledge and the amount consumed is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge of daily calorie recommendations and the amount of SSBs consumed in a large, economically and racially diverse sample of adults recruited at selected Metro subway and bus shelters in Los Angeles County. In June 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted street intercept surveys to assess food attitudes and consumption behaviors and public opinions related to a recent 8-week health marketing campaign targeting SSB consumption. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted, including a negative binomial regression model, to examine the relationship between knowledge of the daily calorie recommendations and the amount of SSBs consumed. Among survey respondents (n = 1,041), less than one third correctly identified the daily calorie recommendations for a typical adult. After controlling for sociodemographics and weight status, respondents who correctly identified recommended calorie needs reported, on average, drinking nine fewer SSBs per month than respondents who did not. Results suggest that efforts to reduce SSB consumption might benefit from the inclusion of educational interventions that empower consumers to make healthy choices. PMID:24717193

  20. [Biomechanical criteria of artificial gravitation].

    PubMed

    Sarkisov, I Iu; Shipov, A A

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of the pertinent literature data and their own findings the authors formulate the basic biophysical criteria that should be taken into consideration while developing an artificial gravity system. These criteria can be used to define the range of variations of the main parameters of artificial gravity systems that should be permissible in terms of normal life activity and performance of consmonauts. The numerical values of the parameters should be considered as theoretical guiding lines for the advanced development of artificial gravity systems. PMID:909269

  1. An Artificial Neural Network Representation for Artificial Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Collins; David R. Jefferson

    1990-01-01

    We introduce an artificial neural network (ANN) representation that supportsthe evolution of complex behaviors in artificial organisms. The strengthand location of each connection in the network is specified by a connection descriptor.The connection descriptors are mapped directly into a bit--string towhich a genetic algorithm is applied. We empirically compare this representationto other ANN--based representations in the complex AntFarm task.1 IntroductionThe

  2. The artificial leaf.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer. The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world. PMID:22475039

  3. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  4. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail. PMID:22470985

  5. Improved Artificial Heart Valve Approved

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_153138.html Improved Artificial Heart Valve Approved Changes designed to minimize leaks To use ... newest version of the Sapien 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve has been approved by the U.S. Food and ...

  6. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The book covers the principles of AI, the main areas of application, as well as considering some of the social implications. The applications chapters have a common format structured as follows: definition of the topic; approach with conventional computing techniques; why 'intelligence' would provide a better approach; and how AI techniques would be used and the limitations. The contents discussed are: Principles of artificial intelligence; AI programming environments; LISP, list processing and pattern-making; AI programming with POP-11; Computer processing of natural language; Speech synthesis and recognition; Computer vision; Artificial intelligence and robotics; The anatomy of expert systems - Forsyth; Machine learning; Memory models of man and machine; Artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; Breaking out of the chinese room; Social implications of artificial intelligence; and Index.

  7. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    PubMed

    ?liwi?ska, Magdalena; Wi?niewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namie?nik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes. PMID:24506450

  8. Single artificial-atom lasing

    E-print Network

    O. Astafiev; K. Inomata; A. O. Niskanen; T. Yamamoto; Yu. A. Pashkin; Y. Nakamura; J. S. Tsai

    2007-10-04

    Solid-state superconducting circuits are versatile systems in which quantum states can be engineered and controlled. Recent progress in this area has opened up exciting possibilities for exploring fundamental physics as well as applications in quantum information technology; in a series of experiments it was shown that such circuits can be exploited to generate quantum optical phenomena, by designing superconducting elements as artificial atoms that are coupled coherently to the photon field of a resonator. Here we demonstrate a lasing effect with a single artificial atom - a Josephson-junction charge qubit - embedded in a superconducting resonator. We make use of one of the properties of solid-state artificial atoms, namely that they are strongly and controllably coupled to the resonator modes. The device is essentially different from existing lasers and masers; one and the same artificial atom excited by current injection produces many photons.

  9. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  10. Artificial dexterous hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial dexterous hand is provided for grasping and manipulating objects. The hand includes left and right thumbs that are operatively connected to an engagement assembly which causes movement of the left and right thumbs. The left thumb has a left thumb base and is movable about three separate first left thumb axes which run through the left thumb base. Correspondingly, the right thumb has a right thumb base and is movable about three separate first right thumb axes which run through the right thumb base. The engagement assembly has a gear assembly which is operatively connected to a motor assembly. Upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly causes movement of the left and right thumbs about the first left thumb axes and first right thumb axes respectively. The hand can also have a center finger which is operatively connected to the engagement assembly and which is interposed between the left and right thumbs. The finger has a finger base and is movable about two separate first finger axes running through the finger base. Therefore, upon actuation by the motor assembly, the gear assembly will also cause movement of the finger about the first finger axes.

  11. Creating functional artificial proteins.

    PubMed

    Razeghifard, Reza; Wallace, Brett B; Pace, Ron J; Wydrzynski, Tom

    2007-02-01

    Much is now known about how protein folding occurs, through the sequence analysis of proteins of known folding geometry and the sequence/structural analysis of proteins and their mutants. This has allowed not only the modification of natural proteins but also the construction of de novo polypeptides with predictable folding patterns. Structure/function analysis of natural proteins is used to construct derived versions that retain a degree of biological activity. The constructed versions made of either natural or artificial sequences contain critical residues for activity such as receptor binding. In some cases, the functionality is introduced by incorporating binding sites for other elements, such as organic cofactors or transition metals, into the protein scaffold. While these modified proteins can mimic the function of natural proteins, they can also be constructed to have novel activities. Recently engineered photoactive proteins are good examples of such systems in which a light-induced electron transfer can be established in normally light-insensitive proteins. The present review covers some aspects of protein design that have been used to investigate protein receptor binding, cofactor binding and biological electron transfer. PMID:17305556

  12. Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  13. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  14. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal. PMID:20018804

  15. Impact of Individual and Worksite Environmental Factors on Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Overweight Employees

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Wall, Sarah; Harden, Samantha; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The worksite environment may influence employees’ dietary behaviors. Consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) affect weight management; however, little research has evaluated the influence of worksite factors on beverage consumption. Our purpose was to determine whether individual and worksite factors are associated with water and SSB intake among overweight and obese employees. Methods Data were collected as part of baseline assessments for a worksite-based, weight-management intervention trial. Height and weight of participants (N = 1,482; 74% female; mean age = 47 y [standard deviation (SD) = 11y]; mean weight = 208 lbs [SD = 46 lbs]) were assessed, and participants completed a validated beverage intake questionnaire. Environmental characteristics of worksites (N = 28) were audited. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was used to identify worksite conditions that may support healthier beverage intake patterns. Results Most participants were white (75% of sample) with at least some college education or a college degree (approximately 82% of sample). Mean water and SSB intake were 27 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz) and 17 fl oz (SD = 18 fl oz), respectively; SSB intake (191 kcal [SD = 218 kcal]) exceeded the recommended discretionary energy intake. Statistical models did not identify any significant predictors of water intake. Female sex and increasing level of education and household income were associated with lower SSB intake; baseline body weight and greater number of worksite water coolers and vending machines were associated with higher SSB intake. The QCA identified worksite type (ie, not manual labor) as a condition necessary for healthier beverage consumption; a worksite break policy of 2 or more per day may lead to unhealthy beverage consumption. Lower SSB consumption was noted among older participants, female participants, and among participants with higher education and income levels. Conclusion Workplace factors influence beverage consumption among overweight employees. Limiting vending machine availability and implementing policies that promote weight management may improve employee health. PMID:24784907

  16. Serum Carbon Isotope Values Change in Adults in Response to Changes in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake12

    PubMed Central

    Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Jahren, A. Hope; Appel, Lawrence J.; Chen, Liwei; Alavi, Reza; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Serum carbon isotope values [13C-to-12C serum carbon isotope ratio (?13C)], which reflect consumption of corn- and cane-based foods, differ between persons consuming high and low amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). In this study, we determined whether serum ?13C changes in response to change in SSB intake during an 18-mo behavioral intervention trial. Data were from a subset of 144 participants from the PREMIER trial, a completed behavioral intervention (Maryland, 1998–2004). SSB intake was assessed using 2 24-h dietary recall interviews. Blinded serum samples were assayed for ?13C by natural abundance stable isotope mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation were used. At baseline, mean SSB intake was 13.8 ± 14.2 fl oz/d, and mean ?13C serum value was ?19.3 ± 0.6 units per mil (designated ‰). A reduction of 12 oz (355 mL)/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day) was associated with 0.17‰ (95% CI: 0.08‰, 0.25‰ P < 0.0001) reduction in serum ?13C values over 18 mo (equivalent to a 1% reduction in ?13C from baseline). After adjusting for potential confounders, a reduction of 12 oz/d SSB (equivalent to 1 can of soda per day), over an 18-mo period, was associated with 0.12‰ (95% CI: 0.01‰, 0.22‰ P = 0.025) reduction in serum ?13C. These findings suggest that serum ?13C can be used as a measure of dietary changes in SSB intake. PMID:24717368

  17. Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei; Onufrak, Stephen; Li, Ruowei

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake during infancy is associated with dental caries by age 6, a longitudinal analysis of 1,274 U.S. children was conducted using data from the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the 2012 Follow-up Study at 6 years of age. The exposure variables were maternal-reported SSB intakes during infancy (i.e., any SSB intake during infancy, age at SSB introduction during infancy, and average frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months of age). The outcome variable was maternal-reported dental caries of their 6-year-old in his/her lifetime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associations of SSB intake during infancy with having dental caries among 6-year-olds after controlling for baseline characteristics of children and mothers and child's tooth brushing habits and sweet food intake at follow-up. Based on maternal recall, almost 40% of 6-year-olds had dental caries in their lifetime. Adjusted odds of having dental caries was significantly associated with higher frequency of SSB intake during 10-12 months (aOR=1.83 for ?3 times/week, vs. none). Any SSB intake during infancy and age at SSB introduction during infancy were not associated with dental caries. In conclusion, frequent SSB intake during 10-12 months of age significantly increased the likelihood of having dental caries among 6-year-olds. Late infancy may be an important time for mothers to establish healthy beverage practices for their children. These findings can be used to inform efforts to reduce dental caries among children. PMID:25713788

  18. Licorice ?-amyrin 11-oxidase, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the triterpene sweetener glycyrrhizin

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Hikaru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Sawai, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Sudo, Hiroshi; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Saito, Kazuki; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major bioactive compound derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza (licorice) plants, is a triterpene saponin that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties and is used worldwide as a natural sweetener. Because of its economic value, the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin has received considerable attention. Glycyrrhizin is most likely derived from the triterpene ?-amyrin, an initial product of the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene. The subsequent steps in glycyrrhizin biosynthesis are believed to involve a series of oxidative reactions at the C-11 and C-30 positions, followed by glycosyl transfers to the C-3 hydroxyl group; however, no genes encoding relevant oxidases or glycosyltransferases have been identified. Here we report the successful identification of CYP88D6, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene, as a glycyrrhizin-biosynthetic gene, by transcript profiling-based selection from a collection of licorice expressed sequence tags (ESTs). CYP88D6 was characterized by in vitro enzymatic activity assays and shown to catalyze the sequential two-step oxidation of ?-amyrin at C-11 to produce 11-oxo-?-amyrin, a possible biosynthetic intermediate between ?-amyrin and glycyrrhizin. CYP88D6 coexpressed with ?-amyrin synthase in yeast also catalyzed in vivo oxidation of ?-amyrin to 11-oxo-?-amyrin. CYP88D6 expression was detected in the roots and stolons by RT-PCR; however, no amplification was observed in the leaves or stems, which is consistent with the accumulation pattern of glycyrrhizin in planta. These results suggest a role for CYP88D6 as a ?-amyrin 11-oxidase in the glycyrrhizin pathway. PMID:18779566

  19. Consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases postprandial triacylglycerol and apolipoprotein-B concentrations in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, Michael M.; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Elliott, Sharon S.; Graham, James L.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Christiansen, Mark P.; Griffen, Steven C.; Keim, Nancy L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Fructose consumption in the USA has increased over the past three decades. During this time, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome have also increased in prevalence. While diets high in fructose have been shown to promote insulin resistance and increase TAG concentrations in animals, there are insufficient data available regarding the long-term metabolic effects of fructose consumption in humans. The objective of the present study was to investigate the metabolic effects of 10-week consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages in human subjects under energy-balanced conditions in a controlled research setting. Following a 4-week weight-maintaining complex carbohydrate diet, seven overweight or obese (BMI 26.8–33.3 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were fed an isoenergetic intervention diet, which included a fructose-sweetened beverage with each meal, for 10 weeks. The intervention diet provided 15% of energy from protein, 30% from fat and 55% from carbohydrate (30% complex carbohydrate, 25% fructose). Fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, TAG and apoB concentrations were measured. Fructose consumption increased fasting glucose concentrations and decreased meal-associated glucose and insulin responses (P=0.0002, P=0.007 and P=0.013, respectively). Moreover, after 10 weeks of fructose consumption, 14 h postprandial TAG profiles were significantly increased, with the area under the curve at 10 weeks being 141% higher than at baseline (P=0.04). Fructose also increased fasting apoB concentrations by 19% (P=0.043 v. baseline). In summary, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages increased postprandial TAG and fasting apoB concentrations, and the present results suggest that long-term consumption of diets high in fructose could lead to an increased risk of CVD. PMID:18384705

  20. Artificial gametes from stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn.

  1. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  2. Artificial and Bioartificial Liver Support

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The fact that liver failure constitutes a life-threatening condition and can, in most cases, only be overcome by orthotopic liver transplantation, lead to the development of various artificial and bioartificial liver support devices. While artificial systems are based on the principles of adsorption and filtration, the more complex concept of bioartificial devices includes the provision of liver cells. Instead of solely focussing on detoxification, these concepts also support the failing organ concerning synthetic and regulative functions. The systems were evaluated in a variety of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and investigating the impact on the patient's clinical condition. This review gives an overview over the most common artificial and bioartificial liver support devices and summarizes the results of the clinical studies. PMID:19279696

  3. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, P.; Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of artificial intelligence are considered and questions are speculated on, including how knowledge-based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use 'expert' systems and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. The anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements are examined for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics. Considering two of the essentials of computational aerodynamics - reasoniing and calculating - it is believed that a substantial part of the reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence, with computers being used as reasoning machines to set the stage for calculating. Expert systems will probably be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  4. Artificial heart for humanoid robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  5. Consumption of low-calorie sweeteners among U.S. adults is associated with higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) scores and more physical activity.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  6. Health Effects of Fructose and Fructose-Containing Caloric Sweeteners: Where Do We Stand 10 Years After the Initial Whistle Blowings?

    PubMed

    Tappy, Luc; Lê, Kim-Anne

    2015-08-01

    Suspicion that fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS) may play a causal role in the development of metabolic diseases has elicited intense basic and clinical research over the past 10 years. Prospective cohort studies converge to indicate that FCCS, and more specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), consumption is associated with weight gain over time. Intervention studies in which FCCS or SSB consumption is altered while food intake is otherwise left ad libitum indicate that increased FCCS generally increases total energy intake and body weight, while FCCS reduction decreases body weight gain. Clinical trials assessing the effects of SSB reduction as a sole intervention however fail to observe clinically significant weight loss. Many mechanistic studies indicate that excess FCCS can cause potential adverse metabolic effects. Whether this is associated with a long-term risk remains unknown. Scientific evidence that excess FCCS intake causes more deleterious effects to health than excess of other macronutrients is presently lacking. However, the large consumption of FCCS in the population makes it one out of several targets for the treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases. PMID:26104800

  7. Artificial cells: prospects for biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2002-01-01

    A variety of techniques can now be used to alter the genome of a cell. Although these techniques are very powerful, they have limitations related to cost and efficiency of scale. Artificial cells designed for specific applications combine properties of biological systems such as nanoscale efficiency, self-organization and adaptability at relatively low cost. Individual components needed for such structures have already been developed, and now the main challenge is to integrate them in functional microscopic compartments. It will then become possible to design and construct communities of artificial cells that can perform different tasks related to therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  8. Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Abe, Ken-ichi; Sato, Fumihiro; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi; Maruyama, Shigenao; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Luo, Yun; Okamoto, Eiji; Kubo, Yutaka; Osaka, Motohisa; Nanka, Shunsuke; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Mibiki, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Tasuku; Shibata, Mune-ichi; Nitta, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of "the artificial myocardium" has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The cooling speed problem was solved by the application of the Peltier element. A drive at a speed equal to that of a heartbeat was realized by the application of this system. At present, a ventricular assist device is used for patients waiting for a heart transplant in Japan. An air driven type system disturbs a patient's QOL remarkably because it is connected to the drive device. With our concept, energy is provided by using the electromagnetic force from outside of the body by the use of transcutaneous energy transmission system. Magnetic shielding by amorphous fibers was used at Tohoku University to improve the total efficiency. A natural heart can alter the cardiac output corresponding to the demand. Artificial internal organs must participate in the system of the living body, too. Tohoku University has developed a resistance based artificial heart control algorithm, which simulated a baroreflex system to cope with every demand. Nano level sensing equipment is now under development at Tohoku University. At present, development is being conducted aiming at an "intelligent artificial myocardium". PMID:14572688

  9. Artificial myocardium with an artificial baroreflex system using nano technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Yambe; Yasuyuki Shiraishi; Makoto Yoshizawa; Akira Tanaka; Ken-ichi Abe; Fumihiro Sato; Hidetoshi Matsuki; Masayoshi Esashi; Yoichi Haga; Shigenao Maruyama; Toshiyuki Takagi; Yun Luo; Eiji Okamoto; Yutaka Kubo; Motohisa Osaka; Shunsuke Nanka; Yoshifumi Saijo; Yoshiaki Mibiki; Tasuku Yamaguchi; Mune-ichi Shibata; Shinichi Nitta

    2003-01-01

    Where is the place which should be helped in a patient with congestive heart failure? The answer may be contraction of the heart. At Tohoku University, development research of ”the artificial myocardium” has been conducted, using a ball screw type electromagnetic motor. Furthermore, super-miniaturization is being attempted at present. Thus, a system with shape memory alloy is being developed. The

  10. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4–7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer term effects of FCCS on EE. PMID:23941499

  11. Consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries may reduce urinary tract infection incidence in susceptible women – a modified observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, and over 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetimes. Antibiotics are used for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs but can lead to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate nutritional strategies for prevention of UTIs. Cranberry juices and supplements have been used for UTI prophylaxis, but with variable efficacy. Because dried cranberries may contain a different spectrum of polyphenolics than juice, consuming berries may or may not be more beneficial than juice in decreasing the incidence of UTIs in susceptible women. The primary objectives of this study were to determine if consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries (SDC) decreases recurrent UTIs and whether this intervention would alter the heterogeneity, virulence factor (VF) profiles, or numbers of intestinal E. coli. Methods Twenty women with recurrent UTIs were enrolled in the trial and consumed one serving of SDC daily for two weeks. Clinical efficacy was determined by two criteria, a decrease in the six-month UTI rates pre- and post-consumption and increased time until the first UTI since beginning the study. Strain heterogeneity and virulence factor profiles of intestinal E. coli isolated from rectal swabs were determined by DNA fingerprinting and muliplex PCR, respectively. The numbers of intestinal E. coli eluted from rectal swabs pre- and post-consumption were also quantified. Results Over one-half of the patients did not experience a UTI within six months of SDC consumption, and the mean UTI rate per six months decreased significantly. Kaplan-Meier analysis of infection incidence in women consuming SDC compared to patients in a previous control group showed a significant reduction in time until first UTI within six months. The heterogeneity, VF profiles, and prevalence of intestinal E. coli strains were not significantly different after cranberry consumption. Conclusions Results of this study indicate a beneficial effect from consuming SDC to reduce the number of UTIs in susceptible women. Because there were no changes in the heterogeneity or VF profiles of E. coli, additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action of SDC for reduction of UTIs. PMID:24139545

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Y.H.; Afeiche, M.C.; Gaskins, A.J.; Williams, P.L.; Mendiola, J.; Jørgensen, N.; Swan, S.H.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009–2010. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (?1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (<0.2 serving/day) (P, trend = 0.03). This association was stronger among lean men (P, trend = 0.005) but absent among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.98). SSB intake was unrelated to other semen quality parameters or reproductive hormones levels. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As in all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. An additional problem is that only single semen sample was obtained from each subject. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), ‘Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health’ (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 and T32HD060454 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:24812311

  13. A VALIDATION INDEX FOR ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    A VALIDATION INDEX FOR ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS Stephen Roberts, Lionel Tarassenko, James Pardey and estimation properties of artificial neural networks. Like many `traditional' statistical techniques & David Siegwart Neural Network Research Group Department of Engineering Science University of Oxford, UK

  14. ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS

    E-print Network

    ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT., John L. Farley, Director ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION OF LAKES AND PONDS A Review of the Literature By John fertilization. ......... 2 Physical considerations ................... 2 Biological considerations

  15. Pallid Sturgeon Eggs on an Artificial Substrate

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Eggs collected from pallid sturgeon spawned in hatcheries are placed onto an artificial rock substrate.  Pallid sturgeon eggs are extremely sticky after fertilization and adhere to the artificial substrate, even in a current. ...

  16. MVC: A user-based on-line optimal control system for gas processing and treating plants. Development and results for claus sulfur recovery and sweetening modules. Topical report, June 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N.; Colwell, L.W.; Poe, W.; Yiu, Y.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and field validate modular, on-line, advanced control systems to optimize the operation of Claus sulfur recovery and sweetening in gas processing plants with emphasis on small and mid-sized facilities.

  17. Apparent lack of pharmacological effect of steviol glycosides used as sweeteners in humans. A pilot study of repeated exposures in some normotensive and hypotensive individuals and in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Barriocanal; Mafalda Palacios; Gilda Benitez; Sussam Benitez; Jorge T. Jimenez; Nora Jimenez; Vicenta Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Steviol glycosides, isolated from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, have been used as safe sweetening agents for more than 30 years. Beneficial effects of high doses of steviol glycosides on hyperglycemia and hypertension have been previously described when these abnormalities are present. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of steviol glycosides on blood glucose and on blood

  18. An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations

    E-print Network

    Güngör, Tunga

    An Investigation of Artificial Neural Network Architectures in Artificial Life Implementations environments. It is used to examine how different designs for the ants' Artificial Neural Network (ANN) brains aspects of the simulations was to test different artificial neural network structures as the controlling

  19. Worldwide variations in artificial skyglow.

    PubMed

    Kyba, Christopher C M; Tong, Kai Pong; Bennie, Jonathan; Birriel, Ignacio; Birriel, Jennifer J; Cool, Andrew; Danielsen, Arne; Davies, Thomas W; Outer, Peter N den; Edwards, William; Ehlert, Rainer; Falchi, Fabio; Fischer, Jürgen; Giacomelli, Andrea; Giubbilini, Francesco; Haaima, Marty; Hesse, Claudia; Heygster, Georg; Hölker, Franz; Inger, Richard; Jensen, Linsey J; Kuechly, Helga U; Kuehn, John; Langill, Phil; Lolkema, Dorien E; Nagy, Matthew; Nievas, Miguel; Ochi, Nobuaki; Popow, Emil; Posch, Thomas; Puschnig, Johannes; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schmidt, Wim; Schwarz, Robert; Schwope, Axel; Spoelstra, Henk; Tekatch, Anthony; Trueblood, Mark; Walker, Constance E; Weber, Michael; Welch, Douglas L; Zamorano, Jaime; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Despite constituting a widespread and significant environmental change, understanding of artificial nighttime skyglow is extremely limited. Until now, published monitoring studies have been local or regional in scope, and typically of short duration. In this first major international compilation of monitoring data we answer several key questions about skyglow properties. Skyglow is observed to vary over four orders of magnitude, a range hundreds of times larger than was the case before artificial light. Nearly all of the study sites were polluted by artificial light. A non-linear relationship is observed between the sky brightness on clear and overcast nights, with a change in behavior near the rural to urban landuse transition. Overcast skies ranged from a third darker to almost 18 times brighter than clear. Clear sky radiances estimated by the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness were found to be overestimated by ~25%; our dataset will play an important role in the calibration and ground truthing of future skyglow models. Most of the brightly lit sites darkened as the night progressed, typically by ~5% per hour. The great variation in skyglow radiance observed from site-to-site and with changing meteorological conditions underlines the need for a long-term international monitoring program. PMID:25673335

  20. WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of artificial wetlands at Santee, California demonstrated the capacity of wetlands systems for integrated secondary and advanced treatment of municipal wastewaters. When receiving a blend of primary and secondary wastewaters at a blend ratio of 1:2 (6 cm per day: 12 cm pe...

  1. Artificial Neural Networks: A Tutorial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Jain; Jianchang Mao; K. Moidin Mohiuddin

    1996-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been made in developing "intelligent" programs based onthe Von Neumann's centralized architecture. However, these efforts have not beenvery successful in building general-purpose intelligent systems. Inspired by biologicalneural networks, researchers in a number of scientific disciplines are designing artificialneural networks (ANNs) to solve a variety of problems in decision making, optimization,prediction, and control. Artificial neural networks can be

  2. Forecasting with artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqiang Zhang; B. Eddy Patuwo; Michael Y. Hu

    1998-01-01

    Interest in using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for forecasting has led to a tremendous surge in research activities in the past decade. While ANNs provide a great deal of promise, they also embody much uncertainty. Researchers to date are still not certain about the effect of key factors on forecasting performance of ANNs. This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of

  3. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  4. Artificial Vision CHANGE DETECTIONCHANGE DETECTION

    E-print Network

    , the entrance or the exit of an object from the scene, changes in illuminations, bad environmental conditions (e to evaluate the performance of a change detection method, ground truth images must be used 2011 ProfArtificial Vision CHANGE DETECTIONCHANGE DETECTION Dr. Claudio Piciarelli Department of Computer

  5. Artificial Life in Computer Graphics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A discussion of the use of artificial life techniques in computer animation. It includes sections on the flocking algorithms of Reynolds, the simulation of the motion of snakes and worms, and the simulation of the behaviors and motion of fish. This section includes html pages, images, and several videos.

  6. Artificial Intelligence Lisp Crash Course

    E-print Network

    Voris, Jonathan

    CS W4701 Artificial Intelligence Fall 2013 Lisp Crash Course Jonathan Voris (based on slides by Sal a list processing language for AI work Experiments with "Advice Talker" · 1958: MarCarthy invents LISP LISt Processor · 1960: McCarthy publishes Lisp Design ­ "Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions

  7. Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingyan Jiang; Dongfeng Yuan; Yongming Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is a novel intelligent optimization algorithm. It has many advantages, such as good robustness, global search ability, tolerance of parameter setting, and it is also proved to be insensitive to initial values. However, it has some weaknesses as low optimizing precision and low convergence speed in the later period of the optimization. In this paper,

  8. Artificial Inmune System Based Art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Romero; Estanislao Sanmartín; Penousal Machado; Antonino Santos

    2005-01-01

    Creating visual art using biologically inspired techniques is a new and exciting field. We describe an interactive image generation system based on an Artificial Immune System (AIS). In our system the user guides image evolution by cueing the system about the aesthetic content of selected areas of images in the current population.

  9. Artificial Intelligence and Financial Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis-françois Pau

    1991-01-01

    The author surveys key requirements and specific design techniques for artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the financial services industry. After discussing some of the fundamental challenges which the financial services industry presents for decision technology, the motivations for the use of AI are related to a number of typical applications, which are broadly categorized into suitable development and delivery environments

  10. Developmental Robotics, Optimal Artificial Curiosity,

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Developmental Robotics, Optimal Artificial Curiosity, Creativity, Music, and the Fine Arts J (Lugano), Switzerland juergen@idsia.ch - http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen Connection Science, vol. 18 (2), p the same. The author's basic idea for doing so (1990, 1991): a reinforcement learning (RL) controller

  11. Secret communication using artificial noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Negi; Satashu Goel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of secret communication between two nodes over a wireless link is considered, where a passive eaves- dropper may overhear the communication. It is desired that the eavesdropper be unable to decode the message. We show that secrecy can be achieved by adding artificially generated noise to the information bearing signal such that it does not degrade the intended

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawlor, Joseph

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the field of scientific inquiry concerned with designing machine systems that can simulate human mental processes. The field draws upon theoretical constructs from a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, computer science, and electronic engineering. Some of the…

  13. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karim Salehpoor; Mohsen Shahinpoor; Mehran Mojarrad

    1996-01-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and\\/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure

  14. PROLOG programming for artificial intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    This book is aimed at students and researchers in computer science, logic programming, programming languages and artificial intelligence. Japan's Fifth Generation Project has made Prolog the language which will form the basis for the new generation of computer systems. The author introduces Prolog as efficient language for non-numeric programming. The syntax and semantics are discussed and examples are used to

  15. Department of Physics Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    different natural and social sciences. It is a discipline that studies life and life-like behaviours: growth (Soft ALife) creates digital constructions and simulations that exhibit life-like behaviours. 1 The most of life-like systems. Examples of hardware based artificial life are autonomous robots. In this seminar we

  16. Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata

    E-print Network

    Hoelldobler, Steffen

    Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata And an Application to Digital Image neural networks and weighted automata. For this task, we introduce semiring artificial neural networks, that is, artificial neural networks which implement the addition and the multiplication of semirings. We

  17. Object Oriented Artificial Neural Network Implementations

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    1 Object Oriented Artificial Neural Network Implementations W. Curt Lefebvre Jose C. Principe Neuro artificial neural networks (ANNs). The conven- tion for ANN simulation has been a direct implementation to develop a graphical artificial neural network simulation environment motivated towards the pro- cessing

  18. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Steam Generator Modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Wright; Tshilidzi Marwala

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of different Artificial Intelligence methods to predict the values of several continuous variables from a Steam Generator. The objective was to determine how the different artificial intelligence methods performed in making predictions on the given dataset. The artificial intelligence methods evaluated were Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems. The types of

  19. Artificial Intelligence and Its Importance in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilmann, Martha J.

    Artificial intelligence, or the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent, is discussed in terms of what it is, what it has done, what it can do, and how it may affect the teaching of tomorrow. An extensive overview of artificial intelligence examines its goals and applications and types of artificial intelligence including (1) expert…

  20. Artificial time integration K. van den Doel

    E-print Network

    Ascher, Uri M.

    differential equation with artificial time and in terms of a simple optimization algorithm; such a dual to algorithms with improved efficiency. 1 Introduction The idea of adding an artificial time variableArtificial time integration U. Ascher H. Huang K. van den Doel November 11, 2006 Abstract Many

  1. Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos the approach, we develop a physics­based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes. As in nature, the detailed motions of artificial fishes in their vir­ tual habitat are not entirely predictable

  2. Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos-based, virtual marine world. The world is inhabited by artificial fishes that can swim hydrodynamically of artificial fishes in their virtual habitat are not entirely predictable because they are not scripted. 1

  3. Artificial Pets: Simple Behaviors Elicit Complex Attachments

    E-print Network

    in The Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, edited by Marc Bekoff. Greenwood Press. Artificial pets are robotic toys in a variety of forms, from the sim- ple "key-chain" pets to complex robots such as Aibo, an artificial dog, artificial dog. (Tamagotch image from http://star- bulletin.com/97/06/13/features/tamagoform.html ; Aibo

  4. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soteris A. Kalogirou

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems comprise two major areas, expert systems and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The major objective of this paper is to illustrate how artificial intelligence techniques might play an important role in modelling and prediction of the performance of solar energy systems. The paper outlines an understanding of how expert systems and neural networks operate by way of

  5. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (G51IAI) Dr Rong Qu Neural Networks #12;G51IAI ­ Introduction to AI Neural Networks Chapter 20 ­ Artificial Intelligence : A Modern Approach (AIMA) Russell ­ Introduction to AI Neural Networks More precisely: Artificial Neural Networks Simulating, on a computer, what

  6. Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Aircraft System Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Kenton Kirkpatrick Jim May Jr. John Networks 2 Artificial Neural Networks ANNSID Conclusions and Open Challenges #12;Motivation 3 #12;Motivating Questions Is it possible to use artificial neural networks to determine a linear model

  7. Artificial insemination history: hurdles and milestones

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.; Van Robays, J.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination with homologous (AIH) or donor semen (AID) is nowadays a very popular treatment procedure used for many subfertile women worldwide. The rationale behind artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilisation. The sequence of events leading to today’s common use of artificial insemination traces back to scientific studies and experimentation many centuries ago. Modern techniques used in human artificial insemination programmes are mostly adapted from the work on cattle by dairy farmers wishing to improve milk production by using artificial insemination with sperm of selected bulls with well chosen genetic traits. The main reason for the renewed interest in artificial insemination in human was associated with the refinement of techniques for the preparation of washed motile spermatozoa in the early years of IVF. The history of artificial insemination is reviewed with particular interest to the most important hurdles and milestones. PMID:26175891

  8. Sweetening Statistical Lemons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perreault, George

    2000-01-01

    Criticizes Jay Mathews'"Newsweek" article ranking the 100 "best" American high schools by a Challenge Index dividing the number of advanced placement/international baccalaureate tests taken by the number of graduating seniors. Clifford Adelman's research on good academic content and good teachers provides more useful criteria. (MLH)

  9. Toward the wearable artificial kidney.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio; Davenport, Andrew; Gura, Victor

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of technology in hemodialysis has gone through several steps including the feasibility phase, the search for reliability, the implementation of automation to improve efficiency and the quest towards increased tolerance and treatment adequacy. Today, a new challenge is appearing on the scene and it concerns miniaturization, transportability, wearability and the possibility of developing implantable devices for renal replacement therapies. Although we are not there yet, a new series of papers have recently been published disclosing interesting and promising results on the application of wearable ultrafiltration systems (WUF) and wearable artificial kidneys (WAK). Some of these use extracorporeal blood cleansing as a method of blood purification while others use peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality. This manuscript presents the initial results with these new devices and proposes an effort to make a quantum leap in technology making the wearable artificial kidney a reality rather than a dream. PMID:18638240

  10. Artificial ferroelectricity in perovskite superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumi, Takaaki; Harigai, Takakiyo; Tanaka, Daisuke; Nam, Song-Min; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Wada, Satoshi; Saito, Keisuke

    2004-11-01

    Artificial superlattices of SrZrO3(SZO)/SrTiO3(STO ) were fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy. Lattice parameters showed that the lattice distortion (c /a ratio) attained a maximum value in the [(SZO)10/(STO)10]4 superlattice. Dielectric relaxation was observed in the [(SZO)1/(STO)1]40 and [(SZO)10/(STO)10]4 superlattices in the low frequency domain. Dielectric permittivity of the SZO /STO superlattices was over 10 000 at 110MHz. The SZO /STO superlattices showed clear Q -V hysteresis curves, which indicated that ferroelectricity was induced artificially in the superlattices in spite of the paraelectric nature of SZO and STO. The origin of the ferroelectricity was related to the anisotropic lattice distortion in the superlattice structure.

  11. Artificial graphene with tunable interactions.

    PubMed

    Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Greif, Daniel; Hofstetter, Walter; Bissbort, Ulf; Esslinger, Tilman

    2013-11-01

    We create an artificial graphene system with tunable interactions and study the crossover from metallic to Mott insulating regimes, both in isolated and coupled two-dimensional honeycomb layers. The artificial graphene consists of a two-component spin mixture of an ultracold atomic Fermi gas loaded into a hexagonal optical lattice. For strong repulsive interactions, we observe a suppression of double occupancy and measure a gapped excitation spectrum. We present a quantitative comparison between our measurements and theory, making use of a novel numerical method to obtain Wannier functions for complex lattice structures. Extending our studies to time-resolved measurements, we investigate the equilibration of the double occupancy as a function of lattice loading time. PMID:24237536

  12. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people. PMID:26185245

  13. Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Luke P

    2006-04-28

    This work presents the fabrication of biologically inspired artificial compound eyes. The artificial ommatidium, like that of an insect's compound eyes, consists of a refractive polymer microlens, a light-guiding polymer cone, and a self-aligned waveguide to collect light with a small angular acceptance. The ommatidia are omnidirectionally arranged along a hemispherical polymer dome such that they provide a wide field of view similar to that of a natural compound eye. The spherical configuration of the microlenses is accomplished by reconfigurable microtemplating, that is, polymer replication using the deformed elastomer membrane with microlens patterns. The formation of polymer waveguides self-aligned with microlenses is also realized by a self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The angular acceptance is directly measured by three-dimensional optical sectioning with a confocal microscope, and the detailed optical characteristics are studied in comparison with a natural compound eye. PMID:16645090

  14. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  15. Binary artificial bee colony optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Pampara; A P Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization is a rela- tively new population-based, stochastic optimization technique. ABC was developed to optimize unconstrained problems within continuous-valued domains. This paper proposes three versions of ABC that enable it to be applied to optimization problems with binary-valued domains. The performances of these binary ABC algorithms are compared on a benchmark of unconstrained optimization problems. The

  16. The Novamente Artificial Intelligence Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Goertzel; Cassio Pennachin

    The Novamente AI Engine, a novel AI software system, is briefly reviewed. Novamente is an integrative artificial general intelligence design, which\\u000a integrates aspects of many prior AI projects and paradigms, including symbolic, probabilistic, evolutionary programming and\\u000a reinforcement learning approaches; but its overall architecture is unique, drawing on system-theoretic ideas regarding complex\\u000a mental dynamics and associated emergent patterns. The chapter reviews

  17. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    E-print Network

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  18. Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages: not a "holy grail" but a cup at least half comment on "food taxes: a new holy grail?".

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Willett, Walter C

    2013-08-01

    In this commentary, we argue for the implementation of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax as a tool to help address the global obesity and diabetes epidemics. Consumption of SSBs has increased exponentially over the last several decades, a trend that has been an important contributor to the obesity and diabetes epidemics. Prior evidence demonstrates that a SSB tax will likely decrease SSB consumption without significantly increasing consumption of other unhealthy food or beverages. Further, this tax is unlikely to have effects on income inequality and should not contribute to weight-based discrimination. A SSB tax also should raise revenue for government entities that already pay, through health care expenditures and health programs, for the consequences of excess SSB consumption. PMID:24596861

  19. Understanding differences in access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages in children?s environments: a pilot study in high and low deprivation neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amber L; de Latour, Phillip; Kemp, Gabrielle; Findlay, Nohoana; Halim, Angela; Atkinson, Nicola; Chong, Mark; Cameron, Rose; Brown, Courtney; Kim, Grace; Campbell, Paul; Hills, Toby; Jayawant, Aditya; Chae, Matthew; Bhagavan, Chiranth; French, Claire; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Smith, Moira; Signal, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Access to water fountains and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in children?s environments may impact on child obesity and may vary with neighbourhood deprivation. Our pilot analyses of access to water fountains and SSBs in Wellington, New Zealand revealed that water fountain access was high in school environments and low in recreational environments. There were also differences in water fountain and SSB access points by neighbourhood deprivation. The methods piloted in this study could be translated in a larger study, more capable of detecting significant differences in access and allowing for more sophisticated analyses. Such future studies may provide important evidence for the improvement of children?s health and well-being. PMID:25240488

  20. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  1. Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Shinjo, Teruya

    2013-01-01

    The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author's studies are described.(1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism.(2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures.(3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers.(4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires).A subject of particular interest in the author's research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author's research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint. PMID:23391605

  2. Artificial multilayers and nanomagnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    SHINJO, Teruya

    2013-01-01

    The author has been actively engaged in research on nanomagnetic materials for about 50 years. Nanomagnetic materials are comprised of ferromagnetic systems for which the size and shape are controlled on a nanometer scale. Typical examples are ultrafine particles, ultrathin films, multilayered films and nano-patterned films. In this article, the following four areas of the author’s studies are described. (1) Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of nanomagnetic materials and interface magnetism. (2) Preparation and characterization of metallic multilayers with artificial superstructures. (3) Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers. (4) Novel properties of nanostructured ferromagnetic thin films (dots and wires). A subject of particular interest in the author’s research was the artificially prepared multilayers consisting of metallic elements. The motivation to initiate the multilayer investigation is described and the physical properties observed in the artificial multilayers are introduced. The author’s research was initially in the field of pure physical science and gradually extended into applied science. His achievements are highly regarded not only from the fundamental point of view but also from the technological viewpoint. PMID:23391605

  3. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  4. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  5. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: a risk factor for prevalent gout with SLC2A9 genotype-specific effects on serum urate and risk of gout

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Caitlin; Phipps-Green, Amanda J; Black, Michael A; Cadzow, Murray; Merriman, Marilyn E; Topless, Ruth; Gow, Peter; Harrison, Andrew; Highton, John; Jones, Peter; Stamp, Lisa; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-01-01

    Objective Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages increases serum urate and risk of incident gout. Genetic variants in SLC2A9, that exchanges uric acid for glucose and fructose, associate with gout. We tested association between sugar (sucrose)-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalent gout. We also tested the hypothesis that SLC2A9 genotype and SSB consumption interact to determine gout risk. Methods Participants were 1634 New Zealand (NZ) European Caucasian, Ma¯ori and Pacific Island people and 7075 European Caucasians from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. NZ samples were genotyped for rs11942223 and ARIC for rs6449173. Effect estimates were multivariate adjusted. Results SSB consumption increased gout risk. The OR for four drinks/day relative to zero was 6.89 (p=0.045), 5.19 (p=0.010) and 2.84 (p=0.043) for European Caucasian, Ma¯ori and Pacific Islanders, respectively. With each extra daily SSB serving, carriage of the gout-protective allele of SLC2A9 associated with a 15% increase in risk (p=0.078), compared with a 12% increase in non-carriers (p=0.002). The interaction term was significant in pooled (pInteraction=0.01) but not meta-analysed (pInteraction=0.99) data. In ARIC, with each extra daily serving, a greater increase in serum urate protective allele carriers (0.005 (p=8.7×10?5) compared with 0.002 (p=0.016) mmol/L) supported the gout data (pInteraction=0.062). Conclusions Association of SSB consumption with prevalent gout supports reduction of SSB in management. The interaction data suggest that SLC2A9-mediated renal uric acid excretion is physiologically influenced by intake of simple sugars derived from SSB, with SSB exposure negating the gout risk discrimination of SLC2A9. PMID:24026676

  6. Induction of vacuolar invertase inhibitor mRNA in potato tubers contributes to cold-induced sweetening resistance and includes spliced hybrid mRNA variants

    PubMed Central

    Brummell, David A.; Chen, Ronan K. Y.; Harris, John C.; Zhang, Huaibi; Hamiaux, Cyril; Kralicek, Andrew V.; McKenzie, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Cold storage of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) compromises tuber quality in many cultivars by the accumulation of hexose sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. This is caused by the breakdown of starch to sucrose, which is cleaved to glucose and fructose by vacuolar acid invertase. During processing of affected tubers, the high temperatures involved in baking and frying cause the Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acids, resulting in the accumulation of acrylamide. cDNA clones with deduced proteins homologous to known invertase inhibitors were isolated and the two most abundant forms, termed INH1 and INH2, were shown to possess apoplastic and vacuolar localization, respectively. The INH2 gene showed developmentally regulated alternative splicing, so, in addition to the INH2? transcript encoding the full-length protein, two hybrid mRNAs (INH2?*A and INH2?*B) that encoded deduced vacuolar invertase inhibitors with divergent C-termini were detected, the result of mRNA splicing of an upstream region of INH2 to a downstream region of INH1. Hybrid RNAs are common in animals, where they may add to the diversity of the proteome, but are rarely described in plants. During cold storage, INH2? and the hybrid INH2? mRNAs accumulated to higher abundance in cultivars resistant to cold-induced sweetening than in susceptible cultivars. Increased amounts of invertase inhibitor may contribute to the suppression of acid invertase activity and prevent cleavage of sucrose. Evidence for increased RNA splicing activity was detected in several resistant lines, a mechanism that in some circumstances may generate a range of proteins with additional functional capacity to aid adaptability. PMID:21393382

  7. Internet advertising of artificial tanning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Team, Victoria; Markovic, Milica

    2006-08-01

    Artificial tanning, defined as deliberate exposure to ultraviolet rays produced by artificial tanning devices, is a new and emerging public health issue in Australia and globally. Epidemiological research suggests that artificial tanning may contribute to the incidence of melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer as well as other health problems. Given that Australia has a high incidence of skin cancer, we have undertaken a study to explore how artificial tanning has been promoted to its users. The aim was to analyze the completeness and accuracy of information about artificial tanning. A content analysis of web sites of tanning salons and distributors of tanning equipment in Australia was conducted. A total of 22 web sites were analyzed. None of the solarium operators or distributors of equipment provided full information about the risks of artificial tanning. Fifty-nine percent of web advertisements had no information and 41% provided only partial information regarding the risks of artificial tanning. Pictures with the image of bronze-tanned bodies, predominantly women, were used by all web advertisers. In light of the success of sun-safety campaigns in Australia, the findings of future epidemiological research on the prevalence of artificial tanning and sociological and anthropological research on why people utilize artificial tanning should be a basis for developing effective targeted health promotion on the elimination of artificial tanning in the country. PMID:16835509

  8. Electrically controllable artificial PAN muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpoor, Karim; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Mojarrad, Mehran

    1996-02-01

    Artificial muscles made with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers are traditionally activated in electrolytic solution by changing the pH of the solution by the addition of acids and/or bases. This usually consumes a considerable amount of weak acids or bases. Furthermore, the synthetic muscle (PAN) itself has to be impregnated with an acid or a base and must have an appropriate enclosure or provision for waste collection after actuation. This work introduces a method by which the PAN muscle may be elongated or contracted in an electric field. We believe this is the first time that this has been achieved with PAN fibers as artificial muscles. In this new development the PAN muscle is first put in close contact with one of the two platinum wires (electrodes) immersed in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Applying an electric voltage between the two wires changes the local acidity of the solution in the regions close to the platinum wires. This is because of the ionization of sodium chloride molecules and the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions at the negative and positive electrode sites, respectively. This ion accumulation, in turn, is accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease of the local acidity in regions close to either of the platinum wires, respectively. An artificial muscle, in close contact with the platinum wire, because of the change in the local acidity will contract or expand depending on the polarity of the electric field. This scheme allows the experimenter to use a fixed flexible container of an electrolytic solution whose local pH can be modulated by an imposed electric field while the produced ions are basically trapped to stay in the neighborhood of a given electrode. This method of artificial muscle activation has several advantages. First, the need to use a large quantity of acidic or alkaline solutions is eliminated. Second, the use of a compact PAN muscular system is facilitated for applications in active musculoskeletal structures. Third, the PAN muscles become electrically controllable and therefore the use of such artificial muscles in robotic structures and applications becomes more feasible. A muscle is designed such that it is exposed to either Na+ or Cl- ions effectively. Muscle contraction or expansion characteristics under the effect of the applied electric field are discussed.

  9. Semiring Artificial Neural Networks and Weighted Automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Bader; Steffen Hölldobler; Alexandre Scalzitti

    \\u000a In their seminal paper [1] McCulloch and Pitts have shown the strong relationship between finite automata and so-called McCulloch-Pitts\\u000a networks. Our goal is to extend this result to weighted automata. In other words, we want to integrate artificial neural networks\\u000a and weighted automata. For this task, we introduce semiring artificial neural networks, that is, artificial neural networks\\u000a which implement the

  10. Light-driven artificial molecular machines

    E-print Network

    electronics, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), nanophotonics, and nanomedicine are envisaged. Keywords: artificial molecular machines, molecular electronics, NEMS, nanophotonics, plasmonics, nanomedicine 1

  11. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  12. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  13. Natural and artificially initiated lightning.

    PubMed

    Uman, M A; Krider, E P

    1989-10-27

    Recent research on lightning has been motivated, in part, by the desire to prevent spectacular accidents, such as occurred in 1969 during the launch of Apollo 12 and in 1987 during the launch of Atlas-Centaur 67, and by the need to protect advanced ground-based and airborne systems that utilize low voltage, solid-state electronics. The present understanding of both natural and artificially initiated (triggered) lightning is reviewed, and suggestions are given for future research that can improve our understanding both of the physics of lightning and the parameters that are important for protection. PMID:17788696

  14. Added sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Bao; Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon; Amy F Subar; Michael F Leitzmann; Albert Hollenbeck; Arthur Schatzkin; Dominique S Michaud

    Background: Although it has been hypothesized that hyperglyce- mia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are involved in the development of pancreatic cancer, results from epidemiologic stud- ies of added sugar intake are inconclusive. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether the consump- tion of total added sugar and sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Design:In1995and1996,weprospectivelyexamined487 922men and

  15. Computational Hemodynamics Involving Artificial Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Feiereisen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the progress being made towards developing complete blood flow simulation capability in human, especially, in the presence of artificial devices such as valves and ventricular assist devices. Devices modeling poses unique challenges different from computing the blood flow in natural hearts and arteries. There are many elements needed such as flow solvers, geometry modeling including flexible walls, moving boundary procedures and physiological characterization of blood. As a first step, computational technology developed for aerospace applications was extended in the recent past to the analysis and development of mechanical devices. The blood flow in these devices is practically incompressible and Newtonian, and thus various incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedures can be selected depending on the choice of formulations, variables and numerical schemes. Two primitive variable formulations used are discussed as well as the overset grid approach to handle complex moving geometry. This procedure has been applied to several artificial devices. Among these, recent progress made in developing DeBakey axial flow blood pump will be presented from computational point of view. Computational and clinical issues will be discussed in detail as well as additional work needed.

  16. Artificial neural networks in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Parisa; Mohammadi, Hasan Reza; Benzel, Edward C; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) effectively analyze non-linear data sets. The aimed was A review of the relevant published articles that focused on the application of ANNs as a tool for assisting clinical decision-making in neurosurgery. A literature review of all full publications in English biomedical journals (1993-2013) was undertaken. The strategy included a combination of key words 'artificial neural networks', 'prognostic', 'brain', 'tumor tracking', 'head', 'tumor', 'spine', 'classification' and 'back pain' in the title and abstract of the manuscripts using the PubMed search engine. The major findings are summarized, with a focus on the application of ANNs for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Finally, the future of ANNs in neurosurgery is explored. A total of 1093 citations were identified and screened. In all, 57 citations were found to be relevant. Of these, 50 articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the data showed several applications of ANN in neurosurgery, including: (1) diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in low back pain, brain tumours and primary epilepsy; (2) enhancing clinically relevant information extraction from radiographic images, intracranial pressure processing, low back pain and real-time tumour tracking; (3) outcome prediction in epilepsy, brain metastases, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar disc herniation, childhood hydrocephalus, trauma mortality, and the occurrence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage; (4) the use in the biomechanical assessments of spinal disease. ANNs can be effectively employed for diagnosis, prognosis and outcome prediction in neurosurgery. PMID:24987050

  17. Artificial Allosteric Control of Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2005-03-01

    We built an artificial mechanism of allosteric control of a protein, based on mechanical stress. The Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) of E. coli undergoes a conformational change upon binding maltose. Introducing a mechanical stress favoring one or the other conformation will therefore alter the binding affinity for the substrate. We have constructed a chimera where the two lobes of the maltose binding protein are covalently coupled to the ends of a DNA oligomer. The mechanical tension on the protein is provided by the bending elasticity of the DNA, and is controlled by exploiting the difference between single stranded and double stranded DNA. We report that the binding affinity of MBP for maltose is significantly altered by the tension, which was varied by allowing DNA oligomers of various lengths to hybridize to the DNA of the chimera. By the same method, we control the enzymatic activity of a second protein: Guanylate Kinase from Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This study exemplifies a general strategy to introduce artificial control elements in the function of proteins.

  18. Evolution Engines and Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemker, Andreas; Becks, Karl-Heinz

    In the last years artificial intelligence has achieved great successes, mainly in the field of expert systems and neural networks. Nevertheless the road to truly intelligent systems is still obscured. Artificial intelligence systems with a broad range of cognitive abilities are not within sight. The limited competence of such systems (brittleness) is identified as a consequence of the top-down design process. The evolution principle of nature on the other hand shows an alternative and elegant way to build intelligent systems. We propose to take an evolution engine as the driving force for the bottom-up development of knowledge bases and for the optimization of the problem-solving process. A novel data analysis system for the high energy physics experiment DELPHI at CERN shows the practical relevance of this idea. The system is able to reconstruct the physical processes after the collision of particles by making use of the underlying standard model of elementary particle physics. The evolution engine acts as a global controller of a population of inference engines working on the reconstruction task. By implementing the system on the Connection Machine (Model CM-2) we use the full advantage of the inherent parallelization potential of the evolutionary approach.

  19. Functional characterization of the heterodimeric sweet taste receptor T1R2 and T1R3 from a New World monkey species (squirrel monkey) and its response to sweet-tasting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Ha, Matthew; Meng, Xuan-Yu; Khaleduzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Xia; Cui, Meng

    2012-01-01

    The family C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) T1R2 and T1R3 heterodimer functions as a broadly acting sweet taste receptor. Perception of sweet taste is a species-dependent physiological process. It has been widely reported that New World monkeys and rodents can not perceive some of the artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins that can be perceived by humans, apes, and Old World monkeys. Until now, only the sweet receptors of humans, mice and rats have been functionally characterized. Here we report characterization of the sweet taste receptor (T1R2/T1R3) from a species of New World squirrel monkey. Our results show that the heterodimeric receptor of squirrel monkey does not respond to artificial sweeteners aspartame, neotame, cyclamate, saccharin and sweet-tasting protein monellin, but surprisingly, it does respond to thaumatin at high concentrations (>18 ?M). This is the first report that New World monkey species can perceive some specific sweet-tasting proteins. Furthermore, the receptor responses to the sweeteners cannot be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor lactisole. We compared the response differences of the squirrel monkey and human receptors and found that the residues in T1R2 determine species-dependent sweet taste toward saccharin, while the residues in either T1R2 or T1R3 are responsible for the sweet taste difference between humans and squirrel monkeys toward monellin. Molecular models indicated that electrostatic properties of the receptors probably mediate the species-dependent response to sweet-tasting proteins. PMID:23000410

  20. Algorithms and Hardware for Implementing Artificial Neural Networks Nathan Hower

    E-print Network

    Algorithms and Hardware for Implementing Artificial Neural Networks Nathan Hower Abstract Complex problems require sophisticated processing techniques. Artificial neural networks are based require a parallel processing approach to be computed at practical speeds. Artificial neural networks

  1. STOCHASTIC 2-D NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH ARTIFICIAL COMPRESSIBILITY

    E-print Network

    Menaldi, Jose-Luis

    STOCHASTIC 2-D NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH ARTIFICIAL COMPRESSIBILITY Navier-Stokes equation wi* *th artificial compressibility. The main results of this work of the deterministic Navier- Stokes equation with artificial compressibility in bounded domains. In the rest

  2. Cosmesis: The Art of Making Artificial Limbs Look Lifelike

    MedlinePLUS

    Cosmesis: The Art of Making Artificial Limbs Look Lifelike Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting Original article by Rick Bowers Cosmesis is the art of making artificial limbs look lifelike. Artificial hands ...

  3. Generalized Artificial Selection Fast Plants Schedule

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lauffer, Hedi Baxter

    This fill-in-the-blank timeline is a planning tool for teachers to use when figuring out when to begin the steps associated with conducting a two-generation artificial selection experiment using Fast Plants. Teachers preparing for any selection experiment will find this timeline helpful, including those planning for the AP Biology Lab 1 of Big Idea 1: Evolution, Artificial Selection.

  4. A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Albert Horst

    2002-01-01

    We define native intelligence as the specified complexity inherent in the information content of an artificial system. The artificial system is defined as a system that can be encoded in some general purpose language, expressed minimally as some finite length bit string, and decoded by a finite set of rules defined a priori. Using this definition of native intelligence, we

  5. Artificial Neural Network Portion of Coil Study

    E-print Network

    Putten, Peter van der

    Artificial Neural Network Portion of Coil Study LTC William M. Crocoll School of Systems TO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS A neural network is a massively parallel system comprised of many highly of the brain (Dayhoff, 1990). A major task for a neural network is to learn and maintain a model of the world

  6. Are Artificial Neural Networks Black Boxes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ben; J. L. Castro; I. Requena

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are efficient computing models which have shown their strengths in solving hard prob- lems in artificial intelligence. They have also been shown to be universal approximators. Notwithstanding, one of the ma- jor criticisms is their being black boxes, since no satisfactory explanation of their behavior has been offered. In this paper, we provide such an interpretation of

  7. Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Biological Inspiration for Artificial Immune Systems Jamie Twycross and Uwe Aickelin School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, UK jpt@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract. Artificial immune systems (AISs immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure

  8. Recommended Research on Artificial Gravity. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan; Paloski, William; Fuller, Charles; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Based on the summaries presented in the above sections of what is still to be learned on the effects of artificial gravity on human functions, this chapter will discuss the short- and long-term steps of research required to understand fundamentals and to validate operational aspects of using artificial gravity as an effective countermeasure for long-duration space travel.

  9. The Education Professorate: Teaching an "Artificial" Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, James W.

    This paper argues that conceiving the education professor's role in higher education as that of teaching an "artificial" science is a helpful metaphor for re-contextualizing this mission. How the use of the metaphor of an artificial science bears on the role of the education professorate is examined by applying the purposive-inner…

  10. VISUAL AND OLFACTORY ATTRIBUTES OF ARTIFICIAL NESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila A. Rangen; Robert G. Clark; Keith A. Hobson

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT.--Artificial nests are commonly,used to investigate relative rates of nest pre- dation in birds, but several methodological considerations need to be addressed before re- suits from natural and artificial nests can be compared. Using field and laboratory experi- ments, we examined responses of predators to visual and olfactory cues that were associated with wicker nests and their contents. Avian predators

  11. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    PubMed

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  12. INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

  13. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This edited volume is the best source for the increasingly recognized impact of artificial night lighting on the living world. Fifteen chapters cover effects of artificial lighting on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates (mostly insects), and plants. The book was an outgrowt...

  14. Artificial Intelligence--Applications in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirot, James L.; Norris, Cathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    This first in a projected series of five articles discusses artificial intelligence and its impact on education. Highlights include the history of artificial intelligence and the impact of microcomputers; learning processes; human factors and interfaces; computer assisted instruction and intelligent tutoring systems; logic programing; and expert…

  15. Artificial Reefs--A Coastal Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindo, John J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the construction of artificial reefs for such uses as commercial fishing and recreational boating. Describes a class project in which students construct a small artificial reef and observe the changes over time in terms of temperature, salinity, flora and fauna. (TW)

  16. An Artificial Immune Networking Using Intelligent Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chandrasekaran; C. Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work is to formally verify and implement an Artificial Immune Networking model. The work focuses on the protection against computer viruses which disrupt the normal usage of the network. The vulnerability of the network due to the malfunctions is detected in terms of faulty or malicious nodes. An Artificial Immune System or Bio-Inspired approach is

  17. Characterization of artificial neural network algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Baker; Dan Hammerstrom

    1989-01-01

    Tradeoffs must be made when artificial neural network models are implemented efficiently. One popular artificial neural network model, the back-propagation algorithm, promises to be a powerful and flexible learning model. The effects on its performance when the model is modified for efficient hardware implementation are discussed. The modifications examined concern limited precision architectures, sign\\/threshold propagation, sum weight changes, and the

  18. Simulated annealing artificial fish swarm algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingyan Jiang; Yongming Cheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic approach called the simulated annealing-artificial fish swarm algorithm (SA-AFSA) for solving some multimodal problems. The proposed algorithm incorporates the simulated annealing (SA) into artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) to improve the performance of the AFSA. The hybrid algorithm has the following features: the hybrid algorithm maintains 1) the strong local searching ability of the

  19. Artificial Neural Networks and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia A.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), part of artificial intelligence, are discussed. Such networks are fed sample cases (training sets), learn how to recognize patterns in the sample data, and use this experience in handling new cases. Two cognitive roles for ANNs (intelligent filters and spreading, associative memories) are examined. Prototypes…

  20. Designing artificial enzymes by intuition and computation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas Nanda; Ronald L. Koder

    2010-01-01

    The rational design of artificial enzymes, either by applying physico-chemical intuition of protein structure and function or with the aid of computational methods, is a promising area of research with the potential to tremendously impact medicine, industrial chemistry and energy production. Designed proteins also provide a powerful platform for dissecting enzyme mechanisms of natural systems. Artificial enzymes have come a

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Financial Distress Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldeep Kumar; Clarence Tan

    In view of the failure of many high profile firms, bankruptcy prediction has become a topic of high interest. In this paper we have briefly reviewed the various techniques for the financial distress prediction. These techniques consist of statistical techniques like logit and probit models, multiple discriminant analysis, multivariate CUSUM methods etc. and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques like Artificial Neural

  2. Artificial Intelligence Measurement of Disclosure (AIMD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grüning

    2011-01-01

    Empirical research on voluntary disclosure lacks an appropriate measurement technique for quantifying the intensity of a firm's disclosure. In this paper, I introduce artificial intelligence measurement of disclosure (AIMD), a computerised technique for measuring disclosure using artificial intelligence, which derives disclosure proxies from English-language annual reports for 10 different information dimensions without human involvement. Criterion validity tests indicate that, controlling

  3. Humanlike reflex control for an artificial hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Folgheraiter; Giuseppina Gini

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the low level reflex control used to govern an anthropomorphic artificial hand. The paper develops the position and stiffness control strategy based on dynamic artificial neurons able to simulate the neurons acting in the human reflex control. The controller has a hierarchical structure. At the lowest level there are the receptors able to convert the

  4. Online learning processes artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Heskes, Tom

    On­line learning processes in artificial neural networks Tom M. Heskes Bert Kappen Department, The Netherlands. Abstract We study on­line learning processes in artificial neural networks from a general point of view. On­line learning means that a learning step takes place at each presentation of a randomly drawn

  5. Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt

    E-print Network

    Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt KMI-TR-33 September 1996 A revised Agents, Autumn 1996 #12;Artificial societies and psychological agents Stuart Watt Knowledge Media Institute and Department of Psychology Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes. MK7 6AA. Email: S

  6. Improving Artificial Intelligence In a Motocross Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Chaperot; Colin Fyfe

    2006-01-01

    We have previously investigated the use of artificial neural networks to ride simulated motorbikes in a new com- puter game. These artificial neural networks were trained using two different training techniques, the Evolutionary Algorithms and the Backpropagation Algorithm. In this paper, we detail some of the investigations to improve the training, with a view to having the computer controlled bikes

  7. Boolean Functions and Artificial Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys some connections between Boolean functions and artificial neural networks. The focus is on cases in which the individual neurons are linear threshold neu- rons, sigmoid neurons, polynomial threshold neurons, or spiking neurons. We explore the relationships between types of artificial neural network and classes of Boolean function. In particular, we investigate the type of Boolean functions a

  8. Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  9. Artificial Homeostatic System: A Novel Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia Amâncio Vargas; Renan C. Moioli; Leandro Nunes De Castro; Jon Timmis; Mark Neal; Fernando J. Von Zuben

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers are developing frameworks inspired by natural, es- pecially biological, systems to solve complex real-world problems. This work extends previous work in the field of biologically inspired computing, propos- ing an artificial endocrine system for autonomous robot navigation. Having in- trinsic self-organizing behaviour, the novel artificial endocrine system can be applied to a wide range of problems, particularly those

  10. Biopotential Neural Activation of Artificial Muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethan A. Kottke; L. Donald Partridge; Mohsen Shahinpoor

    2007-01-01

    Electrical activation of non-biological artificial muscles, such as biocompatible polymeric synthetic artificial muscles, by means of action potential produced by a biological nerve, may become important for people with muscular atrophy or dystrophy or general muscular weakness and deficiency, in the near future. This short article reports on how to stimulate and activate a non-biological muscle such as an ionic

  11. Artificial intelligence: Theory, logic and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brule

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the principles and applications of artificial intelligence. It provides the details on the most prominent languages currently being used to develop artificial intelligence, LISP and Prolog. It is shown how the computer is made to understand knowledge and how it can retrieve and manipulate that knowledge through frames, semantic networks, state space, belief systems, and the LEAP

  12. Artificial immune system based intrusion detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vadim D. Kotov; Vladimir I. Vasilyev

    2009-01-01

    In this work the intrusion detection system (IDS) based on artificial immune systems is presented. This IDS traces sequences of applications system calls and then uses the negative selection algorithm to detect changes in the normal system behavior. It works on MS Windows operation system. This IDS also shows a high performance on local area networks when artificial immune systems

  13. Artificial Bee Colony Training of Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Bullinaria, John

    led to the introduction of many nature inspired optimization algorithms [6]. Such swarm intelligence.bham.ac.uk Abstract. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is a recently introduced swarm intelligence algorithm. A more recent, and less well studied, swarm intelligence algorithm is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC

  14. Reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier.

    PubMed

    Karakose, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. PMID:23935424

  15. [Advances and perspectives in artificial chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Chuan; Han, Fang-Pu

    2011-04-01

    Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are genetic-engineered vector systems with defined native chromosomal elements. ACs have large carrying capacity and genetic stability without integration into host genome, thus avoiding random insertion and positional effects. ACs were first successfully developed in yeast (Yeast artificial chromosome, YAC), and then in bacterium (Bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC), human (Human artificial chromosome, HAC), and plant (Plant artificial chromosome, PAC). Here, we summarized recent progress on ACs, especially, on PAC. To date, YAC and BAC have been widely applied in genome sequencing and gene isolation, while HAC and PAC have been subjected to gene therapy, protein production, and plant transgenesis, respectively. Recently, American scientists reported a man-made genome of prokaryote Mycoplasma mycoides. However, like ACs, this man-made genome was also genetic-engineered product and can't survive as an independent life without a cellular environment. PMID:21482517

  16. Artificial intelligence and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Ron

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined and related to intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) and science education. Modeling the student, the teacher, and the natural environment are discussed as important parts of ICAI and the concept of microworlds as a powerful tool for science education is presented. Optimistic predictions about ICAI are tempered with the complex, persistent problems of: 1) teaching and learning as a soft or fuzzy knowledge base, 2) natural language processing, and 3) machine learning. The importance of accurate diagnosis of a student's learning state, including misconceptions and naive theories about nature, is stressed and related to the importance of accurate diagnosis by a physician. Based on the cognitive science/AI paradigm, a revised model of the well-known Karplus/Renner learning cycle is proposed.

  17. Research and applications: Artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R. E.; Chaitin, L. J.; Hart, P. E.; Duda, R. O.; Nilsson, N. J.

    1971-01-01

    A program of research in the field of artificial intelligence is presented. The research areas discussed include automatic theorem proving, representations of real-world environments, problem-solving methods, the design of a programming system for problem-solving research, techniques for general scene analysis based upon television data, and the problems of assembling an integrated robot system. Major accomplishments include the development of a new problem-solving system that uses both formal logical inference and informal heuristic methods, the development of a method of automatic learning by generalization, and the design of the overall structure of a new complete robot system. Eight appendices to the report contain extensive technical details of the work described.

  18. Artificial fibrous proteins: a review.

    PubMed

    Heslot, H

    1998-01-01

    Several kinds of natural fibrous proteins have been chosen as models: silk fibroin from Bombyx mori, silks from various species of spiders and collagens. The dragline silk of the spider Nephila clavipes is able to stretch by 30% before breaking and has a high tensile strength. It is stronger per unit weight than high tensile steel. Although the partial sequence of the two components of dragline silk is known, its molecular structure is still far from being clearly established. It is however demonstrated that it contains beta-sheet crystals composed of polyalanine residues. Artificial fibrous proteins have been prepared in vivo using either Escherichia coli or the yeast Pichia pastoris. As these proteins contain repetitive sequences, there is a risk of deletion at the DNA level. This difficulty has been solved by making use of the genetic code degeneracy. One group has successfully synthesized silk-like polymers; prolastin polymers containing both silk-like and elastin-like blocks; proNectin polymers containing the RGD triplet coming from fibronectin and able to fix numerous mammalian cell types; and synthetic collagen analogs. Some of these polymers have been spun into fibers that, up-to-now, do not display any measurable molecular orientation. Another group has studied artificial fibrous proteins able to form beta-sheet crystals of defined thickness and bearing functional groups at their surface, for instance Glu residues, selenomethionine or p-fluorophenylalanine. Apart from university laboratories, a venture capital society, an industrial research center and a US army research center are quite active in this field. A number of patents has been deposited. PMID:9587659

  19. Does weight status influence weight-related beliefs and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food purchases in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O; Pasch, Keryn E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Lytle, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design Observational, cross-sectional. Setting Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods Body composition and psychosocial survey were obtained for 345 adolescents. General Linear Models tested adjusted (age and sex) associations between weight-related beliefs and consumption of SSB and FCFP. Significant associations were tested for moderation by weight status. Results SSB was positively related to perceptions that people worry too much about their weight (? = 0.103, p = 0.016), with no moderation present. FCFP were positively associated to perceived barriers to maintaining a healthy weight (? = 0.042, p = 0.004) with a subsequent significant interaction by weight status. Stratified models showed a significant association between perceived barriers to a healthy weight and FCFP for overweight adolescents (? = 0.345, p = 0.022). Conclusions Addressing perceived barriers to a healthy diet may lead to important risk reduction. PMID:21278806

  20. The Metabolic and Endocrine Response and Health Implications of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Findings From Recent Randomized Controlled Trials123

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including fructose itself, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and sucrose have engendered considerable controversy. The effects of HFCS and sucrose in sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, have generated intense scientific debate that has spilled over to the public. This controversy is related to well-known differences in metabolism between fructose and glucose in the liver. In addition, research studies have often been conducted comparing pure fructose and pure glucose even though neither is consumed to any appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Other evidence has been drawn from animal studies and epidemiologic or cohort studies. Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared HFCS with sucrose (the 2 sugars most commonly consumed in the human diet) at dosage amounts within the normal human consumption range. This review compares results of recently concluded RCTs with other forms of evidence related to fructose, HFCS, and sucrose. We conclude that great caution must be used when suggesting adverse health effects of consuming these sugars in the normal way they are consumed and at the normal amounts in the human diet, because RCTs do not support adverse health consequences at these doses when employing these sugars. PMID:24228199

  1. Studies on molecular interactions of some sweeteners in water by volumetric and ultrasonic velocity measurements at T=(20.0-45.0°C).

    PubMed

    Jamal, Muhammad Asghar; Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem; Rashad, Muhammad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Naz, Sadaf

    2014-03-01

    Densities and ultrasonic velocity values for aqueous solutions of two sweeteners viz., maltose monohydrate and acesulfame-K have been measured as a function of concentration at 20.0-45.0°C and atmospheric pressure. Solutions of acesulfame-K were treated as electrolyte, while maltose was considered as non-electrolyte. The apparent molar and specific volumes, their isentropic apparent molar and specific compressibilities, as well as their compressibility hydration numbers have been calculated and reported. Negative deviations from Debye-Huckel limiting law of apparent molar volume for acesulfame-K was obtained at given temperatures and can be used as a direct measure of the ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. Furthermore, apparent specific volumes of the solutes were calculated and it was found that these values of the investigated solutes lie on the borderline between the values reported for sweet substances. The partial molar expansibility, its second derivative values, (?(2)V(0)/?T(2)) and thermal expansion coefficient have been estimated. PMID:24176368

  2. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P < .05). Kernel-based propensity score matching shows the SSB consumption difference to be 0.158 on the prior day (P < .05). This paper strengthens the evidence for the association between SSB availability via school vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available. PMID:20976298

  3. Will reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption reduce obesity? Evidence supporting conjecture is strong, but evidence when testing effect is weak

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Shikany, James M.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    We provide arguments to the debate question and update a previous meta-analysis with recently published studies on effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on body weight/composition indices (BWIs). We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials examining effects of consumption of SSBs on BWIs. Six new studies met these criteria: 1) human trials, 2) 3 weeks duration, 3) random assignment to conditions differing only in consumption of SSBs, and 4) including a BWI outcome. Updated meta-analysis of a total of seven studies that added SSBs to persons’ diets showed dose-dependent increases in weight. Updated meta-analysis of eight studies attempting to reduce SSB consumption showed an equivocal effect on BWIs in all randomized subjects. When limited to subjects overweight at baseline, meta-analysis showed a significant effect of roughly 0.25 standard deviations (more weight loss/less weight gain) relative to controls. Evidence to date is equivocal in showing that decreasing SSB consumption will reduce the prevalence of obesity. Although new evidence suggests that an effect may yet be demonstrable in some populations, the integrated effect size estimate remains very small and of equivocal statistical significance. Problems in this research area and suggestions for future research are highlighted. PMID:23742715

  4. Title: Affective Artificial Intelligence for loving robots By Professor Hooman Samani, NTPU, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chaur-Chin

    advanced artificial intelligence system of Lovotics includes an Artificial Endocrine System (based artificial intelligence employs artificial endocrine system consisting of artificial emotional and biological, etc. The affective system of the robot analyzes system inputs to generate suitable states

  5. Computed Flow Through An Artificial Heart Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stewart E.; Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses computations of blood flow through prosthetic tilting disk valve. Computational procedure developed in simulation used to design better artificial hearts and valves by reducing or eliminating following adverse flow characteristics: large pressure losses, which prevent hearts from working efficiently; separated and secondary flows, which causes clotting; and high turbulent shear stresses, which damages red blood cells. Report reiterates and expands upon part of NASA technical memorandum "Computed Flow Through an Artificial Heart and Valve" (ARC-12983). Also based partly on research described in "Numerical Simulation of Flow Through an Artificial Heart" (ARC-12478).

  6. Designing Artificial Enzymes by Intuition and Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Vikas; Koder, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    The rational design of artificial enzymes either by applying physio-chemical intuition of protein structure and function or with the aid of computation methods is a promising area of research with the potential to tremendously impact medicine, industrial chemistry and energy production. Designed proteins also provide a powerful platform for dissecting enzyme mechanisms of natural systems. Artificial enzymes have come a long way, from simple ?-helical peptide catalysts to proteins that facilitate multi-step chemical reactions designed by state-of-the-art computational methods. Looking forward, we examine strategies employed by natural enzymes which could be used to improve the speed and selectivity of artificial catalysts. PMID:21124375

  7. Modulation of autoimmunity with artificial peptides

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The loss of immune tolerance to self antigens leads to the development of autoimmune responses. Since self antigens are often multiple and/or their sequences may not be known, one approach to restore immune tolerance uses synthetic artificial peptides that interfere or compete with self peptides in the networks of cellular interactions that drive the autoimmune process. This review describes the rationale behind the use of artificial peptides in autoimmunity and their mechanisms of action. Examples of use of artificial peptides in preclinical studies and in the management of human autoimmune diseases are provided. PMID:20807590

  8. The Ultimate Future of Artificial Life: Towards Artificial Cosmogenesis

    E-print Network

    Vidal, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical paper tries to tackle the question of what could be the ultimate future of ALife from a cosmic viewpoint. We first argue that the natural direction of ALife is a simulation of an entire universe. Two new challenges naturally arise. The first is to simulate open-ended evolution at all levels in a single simulation; i.e. not only in biology, but also to link it up a level below (physical evolution) and a level above (cultural evolution). The second challenge is to probe what would happen if we would "replay the tape of the universe". Assuming that intelligent life would indeed simulate an entire universe, this leads to two tentative hypotheses. Following the soft-ALife program, some authors argued that we could be in a simulation run by an intelligent entity. Following the hard/wet-ALife program, this would lead to an artificial cosmogenesis. This last direction is argued with a careful speculative philosophical approach, emphasizing the imperative to find a solution to the heat death problem...

  9. From natural to artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO2 levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an ‘artificial leaf’ able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural photosynthesis, particularly the water-splitting reaction of photosystem II and the hydrogen-generating reaction of hydrogenases. We then follow on to describe how these two reactions are being mimicked in physico-chemical-based catalytic or electrocatalytic systems with the challenge of creating a large-scale robust and efficient artificial leaf technology. PMID:23365193

  10. Optimum design of short journal bearings by artificial life algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Suk Yang; Yun-Hi Lee; Byeong-Keun Choi; Hyung-Ja Kim

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced artificial life algorithm for optimum design of short journal bearing. As artificial life organisms have a sensing system, they can find the resource they want and metabolize it. The characteristics of artificial life are emergence and dynamic interaction with the environment. In other words, the micro-interaction with each other in the artificial life's group results

  11. Artificial Muscle Construction Using Natural Rubber Latex in Thailand

    E-print Network

    Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

    Artificial Muscle Construction Using Natural Rubber Latex in Thailand Sathaporn Laksanacharoen THAILAND Email: STL@kmitnb.ac.th Abstract-- This artificial muscle, also known as McKibben artificial muscle, is a pneumatic actuator which gives high force to weight ratio. The artificial muscle consists

  12. ONCE MORE UNTO THE BREACH ... TOWARDS ARTIFICIAL HOMEOSTASIS?

    E-print Network

    Timmis, Jon

    artificial neural networks, artificial immune systems and a novel artificial endocrine system. The natural counterparts for inspiration. A case study is presented, in which aspects of the nervous and endocrine systems neural networks, artificial endocrine systems, autonomous control, robotics #12;INTRODUCTION The practice

  13. [The results of the artificial heart].

    PubMed

    Flecher, E; Joudinaud, T

    2007-01-01

    The artificial heart is no more a dream but a reality. Over the last 40 years, many circulatory assist devices have been developed. First were the pneumatic devices, external or implantable, providing uni- or biventricular support; next were the partially implantable electromecanical devices. We went from the first generation of devices with all components (pump, energy power, control system) outside of the body to the second generation of devices with the pump and the motor implanted inside the body. Recently, the third generation of artificial hearts appeared with all components implanted inside the body allowing better mobility and quality of life. Results depend on the indication and on the kind of artificial heart implanted: partial (native heart still in place) or total (native heart removed). Essentially developped as a bridge to transplant, the artificial heart is now allowed as destination therapy. PMID:17343040

  14. Logicism: Exact Philosophy, Linguistics, and Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Thomason, Richmond H.

    Logicism: Exact Philosophy, Linguistics, and Artificial Intelligence Richmond H. Thomason not quote. Comments welcome. 0 #12; Logicism: Exact Philosophy, Linguistics, Computer Science Abstract/Rough Draft of a Paper Submitted to The 1995 Society for Exact Philosophy Meeting Calgary, Alberta

  15. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  16. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control

    E-print Network

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  17. Artificial Vision A vital component of

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Artificial Vision A vital component of transhumanism #12;Machinehead · Merger of human and machine. · Transhumanism ­ Our design is flawed. · Blind spot · Blinking #12;Beyond the blind spot · Eventually plug

  18. Scientists Bioengineer First Artificial Animal Limb

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152909.html Scientists Bioengineer First Artificial Animal Limb Rat forelimb designed and grown in lab ... appropriate fibers of muscle cells. When transplanted into animals, blood circulated through the vascular system, and electrical ...

  19. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  20. Similarity and MIA -Master on Artificial Intelligence

    E-print Network

    Ageno, Alicia

    Advanced Natural Language Processing Similarity and Clustering MIA - Master on Artificial Intelligence Advanced Natural Language Processing #12;Advanced Natural Language Processing Similarity-hierarchical Clustering Evaluation #12;Advanced Natural Language Processing Similarity and Clustering Similarity 1

  1. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control 

    E-print Network

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  2. Quantization of games: Towards quantum artificial intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Miakisz; Edward W. Piotrowski; Jan Sladkowski

    2006-01-01

    On grounds of the discussed material, we reason about possible future development of quantum game theory and its impact on information processing and the emerging information society. The idea of quantum artificial intelligence is explained.

  3. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part C: Basic AI topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Readily understandable overviews of search oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic are provided. Mechanization, automation and artificial intelligence are discussed as well as how they interrelate.

  4. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  5. Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Herath, S; Puente, N P; Chaikina, E I; Yamilov, A

    2012-02-13

    We develop and experimentally verify a theory of evolution of polarization in artificially-disordered multi-mode optical fibers. Starting with a microscopic model of photo-induced index change, we obtain the first and second order statistics of the dielectric tensor in a Ge-doped fiber, where a volume disorder is intentionally inscribed via UV radiation transmitted through a diffuser. A hybrid coupled-power & coupled-mode theory is developed to describe the transient process of de-polarization of light launched into such a fiber. After certain characteristic distance, the power is predicted to be equally distributed over all co-propagating modes of the fiber regardless of their polarization. Polarization-resolved experiments, confirm the predicted evolution of the state of polarization. Complete mode mixing in a segment of fiber as short as ? 10cm after 3.6dB insertion loss is experimentally observed. Equal excitation of all modes in such a multi-mode fiber creates the conditions to maximize the information capacity of the system under e.g. multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmission setup. PMID:22418121

  6. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst. PMID:26052419

  7. Forecast Combination by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Çagdas Hakan Aladag; Erol Egrioglu; Ufuk Yolcu

    2010-01-01

    One of the efficient ways for obtaining accurate forecasts is usage of forecast combination method. This approach consists\\u000a of combining different forecast values obtained from different forecasting models. Also artificial neural networks and fuzzy\\u000a time series approaches have proved their success in the field of forecasting. In this study, a new forecast combination approach\\u000a based on artificial neural networks is

  8. Breast Cancer Classification Applying Artificial Metaplasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis Marcano-cedeño; Fulgencio S. Buendía-Buendía; Diego Andina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are apply Artificial Metaplasticity MLP (MMLPs) to Breast Cancer Classification. Artificial Metaplasticity\\u000a is a novel ANN training algorithm that gives more relevance to less frequent training patterns and subtract relevance to the\\u000a frequent ones during training phase, achieving a much more efficient training, while at least maintaining the Multilayer Perceptron\\u000a performance. Wisconsin Breast Cancer Database (WBCD)

  9. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. Clustering in artificial categories: An equivalence analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Galizio; Katherine L. Stewart; Carol hPilgrim

    2001-01-01

    Category clustering is a robust finding in the free recall of familiar category members, but has rarely been studied with\\u000a artificial categories. In the present study, college students learned artificial categories via stimulus-equivalence methodology.\\u000a Arbitrary match-to-sample training with nonsense syllables established three interrelated conditional discriminations, and,\\u000a for most subjects, unreinforced test trials revealed the emergent stimulus-control relations considered to be

  11. Honeycomb artificial spin ice at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Cohen, Lesley; Branford, Will

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice is a macroscopic playground for magnetically frustrated systems. It consists of a geometrically ordered but magnetically frustrated arrangement of ferromagnetic macros spins, e.g. an arrangement of single domain ferromagnetic nanowires on a honeycomb lattice. Permalloy and cobalt which have critical temperature scales far above 290 K, are commonly used in the construction of such systems. Previous measurements have shown unusual features in the magnetotransport signature of cobalt honeycomb artificial spin ice at temperatures below 50 K which are due to changes in the artificial spin ice's magnetic reversal. In that case, the artificial spin ice bars were 1 micron long, 100 nm wide and 20 nm thick. Here we explore the low temperature magnetic behavior of honeycomb artificial spin ice structures with a variety of bar dimensions, indirectly via electrical transport, as well as, directly using low temperature magnetic imaging techniques. We discuss the extent to which this change in the magnetic reversal at low temperatures is generic to the honeycomb artificial spin ice geometry and whether the bar dimensions have an influence on its onset temperature. The EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G004765/1; Grant No. EP/L504786/1) and the Leverhulme Trust (Grant No. RPG 2012-692) funded this scientific work.

  12. Biotribology of artificial hip joints

    PubMed Central

    Di Puccio, Francesca; Mattei, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Hip arthroplasty can be considered one of the major successes of orthopedic surgery, with more than 350000 replacements performed every year in the United States with a constantly increasing rate. The main limitations to the lifespan of these devices are due to tribological aspects, in particular the wear of mating surfaces, which implies a loss of matter and modification of surface geometry. However, wear is a complex phenomenon, also involving lubrication and friction. The present paper deals with the tribological performance of hip implants and is organized in to three main sections. Firstly, the basic elements of tribology are presented, from contact mechanics of ball-in-socket joints to ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear laws. Some fundamental equations are also reported, with the aim of providing the reader with some simple tools for tribological investigations. In the second section, the focus moves to artificial hip joints, defining materials and geometrical properties and discussing their friction, lubrication and wear characteristics. In particular, the features of different couplings, from metal-on-plastic to metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic, are discussed as well as the role of the head radius and clearance. How friction, lubrication and wear are interconnected and most of all how they are specific for each loading and kinematic condition is highlighted. Thus, the significant differences in patients and their lifestyles account for the high dispersion of clinical data. Furthermore, such consideration has raised a new discussion on the most suitable in vitro tests for hip implants as simplified gait cycles can be too far from effective implant working conditions. In the third section, the trends of hip implants in the years from 2003 to 2012 provided by the National Joint Registry of England, Wales and Northern Ireland are summarized and commented on in a discussion. PMID:25621213

  13. Talking Health, A pragmatic randomized-controlled health literacy trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adults: Rationale, design & methods

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Jamie; Chen, Yvonnes; Davy, Brenda; You, Wen; Hedrick, Valisa; Corsi, Terri; Estabrooks, Paul

    2014-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contributes to a wide range of poor health outcomes. Further, few US adults drink less than the recommended ?8 ounces per day; and individuals with low socioeconomic, low health literacy status, and in rural areas are even less likely to meet recommendations. Unfortunately, few SSB behavioral interventions exist targeting adults, and none focus on low health literacy in rural areas. Talking Health, a type 1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial targeting adults in rural southwest Virginia, was developed using the RE-AIM planning and evaluation framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). The primary aim of this pragmatic randomized-controlled trial was to determine the effectiveness of a scalable 6-month intervention aimed at decreasing SSB consumption (SIPsmartER) when compared to a matched contact physical activity promotion control group (MoveMore). SIPsmartER was developed based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior and uses health literacy strategies to improve comprehension of the intervention content among participants. MoveMore is based on a research-tested intervention that was adapted to address all theory of planned behavior constructs and health literacy principles. Secondary aims include additional health outcomes (e.g., physical activity, weight) and reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance indicators. This paper highlights the opportunities and considerations for developing health behavior trials that aim to determine intervention effectiveness, provide all study participants an opportunity to benefit from research participation, and collect key information on reach and the potential for organizational adoption, implementation, and maintenance with the longer-term goal of speeding translation into practice settings. PMID:24246819

  14. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53 %. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57 % female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32 % met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  15. Factors Associated With Daily Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among Adult Patients at Four Federally Qualified Health Centers, Bronx, New York, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Arthur E.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study examined the relationships between SSB consumption and demographic, health behavior, health service, and health condition characteristics of adult patients of a network of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in a low-income, urban setting. Methods Validated, standardized self-reported health behavior questions were incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) and asked of patients yearly, at 4 FQHCs. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of EHR data collected in 2013 from 12,214 adult patients by using logistic regression. Results Forty percent of adult patients consumed 1 or more SSBs daily. The adjusted odds ratios indicated that patients who consumed more than 1 SSB daily were more likely to be aged 18 to 29 years versus age 70 or older, current smokers versus never smoking, eating no servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily or 1 to 4 servings daily versus 5 or more servings daily, and not walking or biking more than 10 blocks in the past 30 days. Patients consuming 1 or more servings of SSBs daily were less likely to speak Spanish than English, be women than men, be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes versus no diabetes, and be diagnosed with hypertension versus no hypertension. Conclusion SSB consumption differed by certain demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and health conditions. Recording SSB intake and other health behaviors data in the EHR could help clinicians in identifying and counseling patients to promote health behavior changes. Future studies should investigate how EHR data on patient health behavior can be used to improve the health of patients and communities. PMID:25569695

  16. A systematic review investigating interventions that can help reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children leading to changes in body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Avery, A; Bostock, L; McCullough, F

    2015-01-01

    Background Both the prevalence of childhood obesity and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have increased globally. The present review describes interventions that reduce the consumption of SSBs in children and determines whether this leads to subsequent changes in body fatness. Methods Three databases were searched from 2000 to August 2013. Only intervention control trials, ?6 months in duration, which aimed to reduce the consumption of SSBs in >100 children aged 2–18 years, and reporting changes in body fatness, were included. The quality of selected papers was assessed. Results Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Six interventions achieved significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SSB intake, although this was not always sustained. In the two interventions providing replacement drinks, significant differences in body mass index (12- or 18-month follow-up) were reported (P = 0.001 and 0.045). The risk of being overweight/obesity was reduced (P < 0.05) in three of the five education programmes but in one programme only for girls who were overweight at baseline and in one programme only for pupils perceived to be at greater risk at baseline. In the one study that included both provision of water and education, the risk of being overweight was reduced by 31% (P = 0.04) in the intervention group. Conclusions The evidence suggests that school-based education programmes focusing on reducing SSB consumption, but including follow-up modules, offer opportunities for implementing effective, sustainable interventions. Peer support and changing the school environment (e.g. providing water or replacement drinks) to support educational programmes could improve their effectiveness. Home delivery of more suitable drinks has a big impact on reducing SSB consumption, with associated reductions in body weight. PMID:25233843

  17. COFFEE, TEA AND SUGAR-SWEETENED CARBONATED SOFT DRINK INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; Black, Amanda; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Koushik, Anita; Männistö, Satu; Marshall, James R.; Miller, Anthony B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Robien, Kim; z, Thomas E.; Schairer, Catherine; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties, while tea may contain anti-carcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, while findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (abbreviated as SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. METHODS In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR=1.10, 95% CI=0.81-1.48 comparing ?900 to <0g/day; 237g?8oz), tea (MVRR=0.96, 95% CI=0.78-1.16 comparing ?400 to 0g/day; 237g?8oz) or SSB (MVRR=1.19, 95% CI=0.98-1.46 comparing ?250 to 0g/day; 355g?12oz) (p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity >0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.12). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB. PMID:22194529

  18. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively related to insulin resistance and higher plasma leptin concentrations in men and nonoverweight women.

    PubMed

    Lana, Alberto; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms for the association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with obesity and type 2 diabetes are only partly understood. The objective of the study was to examine the association of habitual SSB consumption with biomarkers of energy metabolism, including serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], and leptin. Data were taken from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA), a cross-sectional study conducted during 2008-2010 in 7842 individuals representative of the population of Spain aged 18-59 y. Diet was assessed with a validated computerized diet history. Biomarkers were determined in 12-h fasting blood samples. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for the main confounders, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and morbidity. In men, a 1-serving (200 mL)/d increase in the consumption of SSBs was associated with higher plasma concentrations of insulin (2.14%, P = 0.01), higher HOMA-IR (1.90%, P = 0.04), and higher concentrations of leptin (2.73%, P = 0.01). Among women, these associations were found only in those with a BMI <25 kg/m² (insulin: 2.88%, P = 0.004; HOMA-IR: 3.03%, P = 0.01; and leptin: 4.57%, P = 0.01) or with a waist circumference <80 cm (insulin: 2.79%, P = 0.01; HOMA-IR: 3.00%, P = 0.01; and leptin: 3.63%, P = 0.05). In conclusion, the consumption of SSBs was associated with higher concentrations of insulin and leptin and a higher HOMA-IR in men and in nonoverweight women. Insulin resistance and higher leptin may be early markers of metabolic dysfunction associated with SSBs. PMID:24828025

  19. Allelic Variation of the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene Selectively Affects Behavioral and Neural Taste Responses to Sweeteners in the F2 Hybrids between C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masashi; Reed, Danielle R.; Li, Xia; Tordoff, Michael G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the T1R3 receptor protein encoded by the Tas1r3 gene is involved in transduction of sweet taste. To assess ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor, we analyzed the association of Tas1r3 allelic variants with taste responses in mice. In the F2 hybrids between the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) and 129P3/J (129) inbred mouse strains, we determined genotypes of markers on chromosome 4, where Tas1r3 resides, measured consumption of taste solutions presented in two-bottle preference tests, and recorded integrated responses of the chorda tympani gustatory nerve to lingual application of taste stimuli. For intakes and preferences, significant linkages to Tas1r3 were found for the sweeteners sucrose, saccharin, and d-phenylalanine but not glycine. For chorda tympani responses, significant linkages to Tas1r3 were found for the sweeteners sucrose, saccharin, d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and SC-45647 but not glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, or l-glutamine. No linkages to distal chromosome 4 were detected for behavioral or neural responses to non-sweet quinine, citric acid, HCl, NaCl, KCl, monosodium glutamate, inosine 5?-monophosphate, or ammonium glutamate. These results demonstrate that allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene affects gustatory neural and behavioral responses to some, but not all, sweeteners. This study describes the range of ligand sensitivity of the T1R3 receptor using an in vivo approach and, to our knowledge, is the first genetic mapping study of activity in gustatory nerves. PMID:14999080

  20. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Elizabeth K; Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month's exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

  1. Functional artificial free-standing yeast biofilms.

    PubMed

    Konnova, Svetlana A; Kahraman, Mehmet; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Culha, Mustafa; Paunov, Vesselin N; Fakhrullin, Rawil F

    2011-12-01

    Here we report fabrication of artificial free-standing yeast biofilms built using sacrificial calcium carbonate-coated templates and layer-by-layer assembly of extracellular matrix-mimicking polyelectrolyte multilayers. The free-standing biofilms are freely floating multilayered films of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and live cells incorporated in the polyelectrolyte layers. Such biofilms were initially formed on glass substrates of circular and ribbon-like shapes coated with thin layers of calcium carbonate microparticles. The templates were then coated with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes to produce a supporting multilayered thin film. Then the yeast alone or mixed with various micro- and nanoparticle inclusions was deposited onto the multilayer composite films and further coated with outer polyelectrolyte multilayers. To detach the biofilms from the glass substrates the calcium carbonate layer was chemically dissolved yielding free-standing composite biofilms. These artificial biofilms to a certain degree mimic the primitive multicellular and colonial species. We have demonstrated the added functionality of the free-standing artificial biofilms containing magnetic, latex and silver micro- and nanoparticles. We have also developed "symbiotic" multicellular biofilms containing yeast and bacteria. This approach for fabrication of free-standing artificial biofilms can be potentially helpful in development of artificial colonial microorganisms composed of several different unicellular species and an important tool for growing cell cultures free of supporting substrates. PMID:21855301

  2. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation. PMID:6838394

  3. Artificial full scale shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnion, L.; Volkwein, A.; Denk, M.

    2009-04-01

    Shallow landslides are mixtures of water, soil and debris that initiate on steep slopes during periods of intense rainfall. Infrastructure, buildings, roads and railways are thereby threatened by destruction or closure. Once triggered, the geomorphologic process lays in-between a slide and a flow of the mixed material. A full understanding of the process is necessary to (i) enable a proper simulation and modelling on the computer and to (ii) plan and design new and suitable protection measures. Both needs can be satisfied if full scale field data are available. However, it is difficult to trigger or even to predict natural shallow landslides. Therefore, an experimental setup is explained in this contribution that enables clearly defined, full scale and repeatable shallow landslides. A new test site has been set up in a quarry close to Veltheim in Switzerland along a 30 degree steep slope. The soil material on top of the slope was removed down to the rock face in a way that a 10 m wide channel was retrieved with a length of up to 100 m. A specially developed start device enables the release of up to 60 m3 all at once. The test material consists of granular soil, gravel and water. The mixture is prepared by excavators and optimized to produce a flow process typical for shallow landslides with front velocities of 8 - 10 m/s. Along the first 40 m the channel has been equipped with laser and video systems to measure flow height and front velocity. Furthermore, additional devices will measure parameters influencing the shallow landslide process: flow velocity, pore water pressure, normal and shear forces and the material composition (also through later analysis in the laboratory). At the end of the test track a flexible protection system is installed in order to stop the material flow and to measure the forces acting within the barrier during the artificial landslide events. After having finished the first test series measurment results and according interpretations will be presented. In addition, the interaction between the released material and the barrier will be compared to similar protection barriers against debris flows.

  4. ASAP- ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Artificial Satellite Analysis Program (ASAP) is a general orbit prediction program which incorporates sufficient orbit modeling accuracy for mission design, maneuver analysis, and mission planning. ASAP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with spacecraft trajectories of reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) nature. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. ASAP uses Cowell's method in the numerical integration of the equations of motion. The orbital mechanics calculation contains perturbations due to non-sphericity (up to a 40 X 40 field) of the planet, lunar and solar effects, and drag and solar radiation pressure. An 8th order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with variable step size control is used for efficient propagation. The input includes the classical osculating elements, orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficient, gravitational constants, and planet radius, rotation rate, etc. The printed output contains Cartesian coordinates, velocity, equinoctial elements, and classical elements for each time step or event step. At each step, selected output is added to a plot file. The ASAP package includes a program for sorting this plot file. LOTUS 1-2-3 is used in the supplied examples to graph the results, but any graphics software package could be used to process the plot file. ASAP is not written to be mission-specific. Instead, it is intended to be used for most planetary orbiting missions. As a consequence, the user has to have some basic understanding of orbital mechanics to provide the correct input and interpret the subsequent output. ASAP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible computer operating under MS-DOS. The ASAP package requires a math coprocessor and a minimum of 256K RAM. This program was last updated in 1988 with version 2.03. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Lotus and 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation.

  5. Folding pathways explored with artificial potential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluta?, B.; Haliloglu, T.; Bozma, I.

    2009-09-01

    This paper considers the generation of trajectories to a given protein conformation and presents a novel approach based on artificial potential functions—originally proposed for multi-robot navigation. The artificial potential function corresponds to a simplified energy model, but with the novelty that—motivated by work on robotic navigation—a nonlinear compositional scheme of constructing the energy model is adapted instead of an additive formulation. The artificial potential naturally gives rise to a dynamic system for the protein structure that ensures collision-free motion to an equilibrium point. In cases where the equilibrium point is the native conformation, the motion trajectory corresponds to the folding pathway. This framework is used to investigate folding in a variety of protein structures, and the results are compared with those of other approaches including experimental studies.

  6. Artificial photosynthetic systems for production of hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2015-04-01

    The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has caused unacceptable environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect, which may lead to disastrous climatic consequences. Because fossil fuels are the products of long-term photosynthesis, it is highly desirable to develop artificial photosynthetic systems for the production of renewable and clean energy such as hydrogen. This article summarizes recent advances on studies of artificial photosynthetic systems for photocatalytic production of hydrogen with hydrogenases and their functional mimics including hybrids of natural and artificial components. Because it is highly desired to convert gaseous H2 to an easily storable form, recent progress on storage of hydrogen as liquid or solid form has also been described in this article. PMID:25531176

  7. Light-driven artificial molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Hao, Qingzhen; Yang, Ying-Wei; Kiraly, Brian; Chiang, I.-Kao; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-08-01

    Artificial molecular machines represent a growing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stimulated by chemical reagents, electricity, or light, artificial molecular machines exhibit precisely controlled motion at the molecular level; with this ability molecular machines have the potential to make significant impacts in numerous engineering applications. Compared with molecular machines powered by chemical or electrical energy, light-driven molecular machines have several advantages: light can be switched much faster, work without producing chemical waste, and be used for dual purposes-inducing (writing) as well as detecting (reading) molecular motions. The following issues are significant for light-driven artificial molecular machines in the following aspects: their chemical structures, motion mechanisms, assembly and characterization on solid-state surfaces. Applications in different fields of nanotechnology such as molecular electronics, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), nanophotonics, and nanomedicine are envisaged.

  8. Biomedical coatings on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-02-01

    This review comprehensively covers research conducted to enhance polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament osseointegration in the bone tunnel. These strategies, using biocompatible or bioactive coatings, had a positive effect in promoting PET ligament osseointegration by increasing bone formation and decreasing fibrous scar tissue at the ligament-to-bone interface. The improved osseointegration can be translated into a significant increase in the biomechanical pull-out loads. However, the load-to-failure of coated ligament is far lower than that of native ACL. Coatings to promote intra-articular ligamentization are also discussed in this study. Collectively, our investigations may arouse further study of the biological coating of PET artificial ligaments in order to effectively enhance ligament osseointegration and promote artificial ligament ligamentization. PMID:24825100

  9. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their response mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are still not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the current state of- the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  10. Artificial Muscle Kits for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "artificial muscles," electroactive polymer (EAP) materials are lightweight strips of highly flexible plastic that bend or stretch when subjected to electric voltage. EAP materials may prove to be a substitution for conventional actuation components such as motors and gears. Since the materials behave similarly to biological muscles, this emerging technology has the potential to develop improved prosthetics and biologically-inspired robots, and may even one day replace damaged human muscles. The practical application of artificial muscles provides a challenge, however, since the material requires improved effectiveness and durability before it can fulfill its potential.

  11. Artificial dissipation models for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    Various artificial dissipation models which are used with central difference algorithms for the Euler equations are analyzed for their effect on accuracy, stability and convergence rates. In particular, linear and nonlinear models are investigated using an implicit approximate factorization code (ARC2D) for transonic airfoils. Fully implicit application of the dissipation models is shown to improve robustness and convergence rates. The treatment of dissipation models at boundaries will be examined. It will be shown that accurate, error free solutions with sharp shocks can be obtained using a central difference algorithm coupled with an appropriate nonlinear artificial dissipation model.

  12. Artificial Allosteric Control of Maltose Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Brian; Zocchi, Giovanni; Canale, Stephan; Wu, Yim; Chan, Sum; Perry, Jeanne

    2004-03-01

    We demonstrate an artificial mechanism of allosteric control of a protein, based on mechanical stress. The Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) of E. coli undergoes a ˜ 1 nm conformational change upon binding maltose. Introducing a mechanical stress favoring one or the other conformation will alter the binding affinity for the substrate. We realize this situation in an ensemble experiment where the source of the mechanical stress is the change in stiffness upon hybridization of a DNA oligomer covalently coupled to the protein. This study exemplifies a general strategy to introduce artificial control elements in the function of proteins.

  13. Energy Conversion in Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil fuel dependence has severe consequences including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices including photoelectrochemical cells for solar energy conversion. PMID:20534342

  14. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  15. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish aggregations associated with Senigallia reef based on the analysis of multibeam backscatter data in the water column is also explored. The settlement of the reefs and any terrain change are investigated over time providing a useful description of the local hydrodynamics and geological processes. All the artificial structures (made up by water-based concrete for Senigallia reef and mainly steel for St. Petersburg Beach reef) are identified and those showing substantial horizontal and/or vertical movements are analyzed in detail. Most artificial modules of Senigallia reef are not intact and scour signatures are well depicted around them, indicating reversals of the local current. This is due to both the wind pattern and to the quite close arrangement of the reef units that tend to deflect the bottom flow. As regards to the St. Petersburg Beach reef, all the man-made steel units are still in their upright position. Only a large barge shows a gradual collapse of its south side, and presents well-developed scouring at its east-northeast side, indicating dominant bottom flow from west-southwest to east-northeast. While an overall seafloor depth shallowing of about 0.30 m from down-current deposits was observed for Senigallia reef, an overall deepening of about 0.08 m due to scour was observed at the St. Petersburg Beach reef. Based on the backscatter data interpretation, surficial sediments are coarser in the vicinities of both artificial reefs than corresponding surrounding sediments. Scouring reveals this coarser layer underneath the prevalent mud sediment at Senigallia reef, and the predominant silt sediment at St. Petersburg Beach reef. In the ten years of Senigalia reef study, large-scale variations between clay and silt appear to be directly linked to large flood events that have occurred just prior to the change. As regards the water column investigation, acoustic backscatter from fish aggregations gives detailed information on their morphology and spatial distribution. In addition, relative fish biomass estimates can be extrapolated. Results suggest that most of

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Artificial selection shifts flowering phenology and

    E-print Network

    Galloway, Laura F.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Artificial selection shifts flowering phenology and other correlated traits with shifts in flowering phenologies. We conducted a three-generation artificial selection experiment to a changing climate, phenological shifts may be associated with reduced plant fitness possibly hindering

  17. A Primer for Problem Solving Using Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, George P.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the development of artificial intelligence systems and the mechanisms used, including knowledge representation, programing languages, and problem processing systems. Eleven books and 6 journals are listed as sources of information on artificial intelligence. (23 references) (CLB)

  18. Nativity is associated with sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food meal consumption among mexican-origin women in Texas border colonias

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trends of increasing obesity are especially pronounced among Mexican-origin women. There is little understanding of dietary patterns among U.S.- and Mexico-born Mexican-origin individuals residing in new-destination immigrant communities in the United States, especially behaviors related to obesity, such as consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast-food meals (FFM). Methods The study used survey data of 599 adult Mexican-origin women from the 610 women who completed the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA), which was completed in person by trained promotora-researchers in 44 colonias near the Texas border towns of Progreso and La Feria. Data included demographic characteristics (age, education, nativity or country of birth, household income, household composition, and employment status), access to transportation, self-reported height and weight, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and consumption of SSB and FFM. Descriptive statistics were calculated by nativity (U.S.-born vs. Mexico-born); multivariable linear regression models were estimated for correlates of consumption of SSB and FFM. Results There are three major findings related to nativity. First, U.S.-born women consumed more SSB and FFM than Mexican-born counterparts in the same areas of colonias. Second, in the combined sample and controlling for other population characteristics, being born in Mexico was independently associated with FFM (fewer FFM), but not with SSB. Third, in analyses stratified by nativity, FFM and SSB were associated with each other among both nativity groups. Among Mexico-born women only, age, presence of a child, or being a lone parent was significantly associated with SSB; full-time employment, being a lone parent, and SSB consumption were each independently associated with increased frequency of FFM. Conclusions Our analyses revealed differences in prevalence and correlates of SSB and FFM based on country of birth. Nativity, as a proxy for acculturation, may indicate the extent that immigrants have adopted behaviors from their new environment. However, nativity could also indicate limited accessibility to resources such as food/nutrition assistance programs, transportation, and proper documentation. Additionally, future research should focus on expanding our understanding of the meaning of nativity among individuals who share common contextual factors, but may have different life course experiences and resources needed to transition into a new place. Additional measures should be considered such as educational and occupational background, migration history, documentation status, and dietary acculturation, which may better explain heterogeneity within Hispanic subgroups. PMID:21962014

  19. Effects of a dietary sweetener on growth performance and health of stressed beef calves and on diet digestibility and plasma and urinary metabolite concentrations of healthy calves.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Brown, M S; Silva, J S; Schlegel, P; Rounds, W; Hallford, D M

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the effects of a sodium saccharin-based dietary sweetener (Sucram) on growth performance, health, and physiological responses of feedlot steers. In Exp. 1, 173 newly-received male calves purchased from auction barns were fed 0, 100, 200, or 300 g of Sucram/t of DM over 56 d. Overall, ADG and G:F (P > 0.10) were not different among treatments, but steers receiving 200 g Sucram/t displayed numerically greater ADG (23%). In addition, DMI was 17% greater for steers receiving 200 g of Sucram/t compared to steers fed the control diet (cubic effect, P = 0.09). The morbidity rate for respiratory disease did not differ (P > 0.50) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 15 steers (initial BW = 261 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of Sucram on apparent total tract digestibility, plasma metabolite concentrations, and urine monoamine metabolite concentrations. Treatments consisted of ad libitum access to a 60% concentrate diet (Control), ad libitum access to Control + 200 g of Sucram/t of DM (Adlib), and Control + 200 g of Sucram/t of DM with feed intake paired to the Control (Paired). By design, steer DMI during the metabolism period did not differ (P = 0.34) between Paired and Control, but DMI tended (P = 0.14) to be 8.2% greater for Adlib than for Control. Treatments did not alter (P > 0.17) apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. Postprandial plasma citrulline concentration was lower (P = 0.03) for Adlib than for Control and tended to be lower (P = 0.13) for Paired than for Control. Plasma homocysteine concentration was reduced (P < 0.03) by feeding Sucram. Urinary concentrations of ethylmalonic acid, vanillymandelic acid, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid were greater (P < 0.06) for Adlib than for Control; Paired steers had a greater (P = 0.02) urine vanillymandelic acid concentration than Control steers and tended (P < 0.12) to have a greater urinary concentration of ethylmalonic and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid than Control steers. Serum insulin was greater for Adlib than for Control steers (P = 0.04) and tended to be greater for Paired than for Control steers (P = 0.14), but serum prolactin area did not differ (P > 0.22) among treatments. Supplementation with Sucram may increase feed intake by newly-received, stressed feedlot calves. Saccharin supplementation reduced plasma homocysteine and increased urinary excretion of vanillymandelic acid, suggesting an improved activity of the dopamine reward system. PMID:24663208

  20. The potential impact on obesity of a 10% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Ireland, an effect assessment modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some governments have recently shown a willingness to introduce taxes on unhealthy foods and drinks. In 2011, the Irish Minister for Health proposed a 10% tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) as a measure to combat childhood obesity. Whilst this proposed tax received considerable support, the Irish Department of Finance requested a Health Impact Assessment of this measure. As part of this assessment we set out to model the impact on obesity. Methods We used price elasticity estimates to calculate the effect of a 10% SSB tax on SSB consumption. SSBs were assumed to have an own-price elasticity of ?0.9 and we assumed a tax pass-on rate to consumers of 90%. Baseline SSB consumption and obesity prevalence, by age, sex and income-group, for Ireland were taken from the 2007 Survey on Lifestyle and Attitude to Nutrition. A comparative risk assessment model was used to estimate the effect on obesity arising from the predicted change in calorie consumption, both for the whole population and for sub-groups (age, sex, income). Sensitivity analyses were conducted on price-elasticity estimates and tax pass-on rates. Results We estimate that a 10% tax on SSBs will result in a mean reduction in energy intake of 2.1 kcal/person/day. After adjustment for self-reported data, the 10% tax is predicted to reduce the percentage of the obese adult population (body mass index [BMI] ?30 kg/m2) by 1.3%, equating to 9,900 adults (95% credible intervals: 7,750 to 12,940), and the overweight or obese population (BMI???25 kg/m2) by 0.7%, or 14,380 adults (9,790 to 17,820). Reductions in obesity are similar for men (1.2%) and women (1.3%), and similar for each income group (between 1.1% and 1.4% across income groups). Reductions in obesity are greater in young adults than older adults (e.g. 2.9% in adults aged 18–24 years vs 0.6% in adults aged 65 years and over). Conclusions This study suggests that a tax on SSBs in Ireland would have a small but meaningful effect on obesity. While such a tax would be perceived as affecting the whole population, from a health prospective the tax will predominantly affect younger adults who are the main consumers of SSBs. PMID:24044370

  1. The Association of Dietary Intake of Purine-Rich Vegetables, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Dairy with Plasma Urate, in a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zgaga, Lina; Theodoratou, Evropi; Kyle, Janet; Farrington, Susan M.; Agakov, Felix; Tenesa, Albert; Walker, Marion; McNeill, Geraldine; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Campbell, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a) food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and purine-rich vegetables; b) related nutrients: lactose, calcium and fructose. Methods A total of 2,076 healthy participants (44% female) from a population-based case-control study in Scotland (1999–2006) were included in this study. Dietary data was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient intake was calculated using FFQ and composition of foods information. Urate concentration was measured in plasma. Results Mean urate concentration was 283.8±72.1 mmol/dL (females: 260.1±68.9 mmol/dL and males: 302.3±69.2 mmol/dL). Using multivariate regression analysis we found that dairy, calcium and lactose intakes were inversely associated with urate (p?=?0.008, p?=?0.003, p?=?0.0007, respectively). Overall SSB consumption was positively associated with urate (p?=?0.008), however, energy-adjusted fructose intake was not associated with urate (p?=?0.66). The intake of purine-rich vegetables was not associated to plasma urate (p?=?0.38). Conclusions Our results suggest that limiting purine-rich vegetables intake for lowering plasma urate may be ineffectual, despite current recommendations. Although a positive association between plasma urate and SSB consumption was found, there was no association with fructose intake, suggesting that fructose is not the causal agent underlying the SSB-urate association. The abundant evidence supporting the inverse association between plasma urate concentration and dairy consumption should be reflected in dietary guidelines for hyperuricemic individuals and gout patients. Further research is needed to establish which nutrients and food products influence plasma urate concentration, to inform the development of evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:22701608

  2. Homework Assignments Math 163: Discrete Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Laison, Josh

    , and then add either regular sugar, sugar in the raw, artificial sweetener, or no sweetener, and skim, half.1 and 5.2. Reading problems: Explain what the following algorithms do. Algorithm FRED: (Input a natural

  3. Small orbital debris producing artificial meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silha, Jiri; Toth, Juraj

    The increasing number of orbital debris and their atmospheric entries offer the possibility of artificial meteors observations. We discuss the determination of artificial meteors rate for visual observers, video network systems (e.g. SonotaCo network) or all-sky video cameras as we operated from our Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Slovakia. The source of information comes from orbital debris population model MASTER 2005 (ESA), Satellite Situation Report (DoD of USA) and model of space debris orbital decays DAS (NASA). We have analyzed orbital debris larger than 10 cm and separately 1 -10 cm population. Assuming entry velocity 7.8 km/s, material constants of orbital debris particles with diameter 10 cm, 3cm and 1cm, we receive absolute magnitude of artificial meteors about -1 mag., +3 mag. and +6 mag. respectively. Annually, there are about 400 reentries of catalogued object larger than 10 cm. We are presenting artificial meteors rate for given size and particular visual or video system observations.

  4. A wearable artificial kidney: dream or reality?

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio; Davenport, Andrew; Gura, Victor

    2008-11-01

    The development of a wearable device that can replace conventional dialysis in patients needing chronic renal replacement therapy is not as far-fetched as it once was. Ronco et al. describe technological achievements, propose future research directions and discuss the clinical, technical and socioeconomic reasons for continuing the push to realize the wearable artificial kidney. PMID:18779855

  5. Artificial Intelligence and Natural Resource Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Coulson; L. Joseph Folse; Douglas K. Loh

    1987-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in natural resource management began with the development of expert systems for problem-solving and decision-making. The use of expert systems in turn led to the development of other AI procedures pertinent to natural resource management. Of particular significance are (i) integrated expert systems, which link management models with natural resource models; (ii) intelligent geographic

  6. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwer, Herman

    2002-02-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4.

  7. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  8. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  9. Artificial neural network based mobile robot navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    István Engedy; Gábor Horváth

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic artificial neural network based mobile robot motion and path planning system. The method is able to navigate a robot car on flat surface among static and moving obstacles, from any starting point to any endpoint. The motion controlling ANN is trained online with an extended backpropagation through time algorithm, which uses potential fields for obstacle

  10. An embedded artificial skin for humanoid robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Cannata; Marco Maggiali; Giorgio Metta; Giulio Sandini

    2008-01-01

    A novel artificial skin for covering the whole body of a humanoid robot is presented. It provides pressure measurements and shape information about the contact surfaces between the robot and the environment. The system is based on a mesh of sensors interconnected in order to form a networked structure. Each sensor has 12 capacitive taxels, has a triangular shape and

  11. Symbolic Interpretation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail A. Taha; Joydeep Ghosh

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid intelligent systems that combine knowledge-based and artificial neural network systems typically have four phases, involving domain knowledge representation, mapping of this knowledge into an initial connectionist architecture, network training and rule extraction, respectively. The final phase is important because it can provide a trained connectionist architecture with explanation power and validate its output decisions. Moreover, it can be used

  12. Modulation recognition using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Nandi; E. E. Azzouz

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the recognition of either analogue or digital modulation types. Computer simulations of different types of band-limited, modulated signals corrupted by band-limited Gaussian noise sequence have been carried out to measure the performance of the ANN approach. The threshold SNR for the recognition of either analogue or digitally modulated signals with average success

  13. A review of evolutionary artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yao

    1993-01-01

    Research on potential interactions between connectionist learning systems, i.e., artificial neural networks (ANNs), and evolutionary search procedures, like genetic algorithms (GAs), has attracted a lot of attention recently. Evolutionary ANNs (EANNs) can be considered as the combination of ANNs and evolutionary search procedures. This paper first distinguishes among three kinds of evolution in EANNs, i.e., the evolution of connection weights,

  14. Towards designing artificial neural networks by evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yao; Yong Liu

    1998-01-01

    Designing artificial neural networks (ANNs) for different applications has been a key issue in the ANN field. At present, ANN design still relies heavily on human experts who have sufficient knowledge about ANNs and the problem to be solved. As ANN complexity increases, designing ANNs manually becomes more difficult and unmanageable. Simulated evolution offers a promising approach to tackle this

  15. Towards Designing Artificial Neural Networks by Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yao; Yong Liu

    1996-01-01

    Designing artificial neural networks (ANNs) for different applications has been a keyissue in the ANN field. At present, ANN design still relies heavily on human expertswho have sufficient knowledge about ANNs and the problem to be solved. As ANN'scomplexity increases, designing ANNs manually becomes more difficult and unmanageable.Simulated evolution offers a promising approach to tackle this problem. Thispaper describes an

  16. Two adaptation methods of artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baocheng Sun; Zhifang Zhang

    1994-01-01

    In order to cope with the existing errors in modeling of multilayered feedforward neural networks (MLF), this paper presents two adaptation methods of artificial neural networks: feedback adaptation and Taylor series expansion based adaptation, based on the trained MLF with some modeling errors. Simulation results show that the proposed two adaptation methods give good error-reduction in modeling and forecasting of

  17. Artificial neural network methods in quantum mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Lagaris; A. Likas; D. I. Fotiadis

    1997-01-01

    In a previous article we have shown how one can employ Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in order to solve non-homogeneous ordinary and partial differential equations. In the present work we consider the solution of eigenvalue problems for differential and integrodifferential operators, using ANNs. We start by considering the Schrödinger equation for the Morse potential that has an analytically known solution,

  18. Design of metamaterials using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. F. Freitas; S. L. Rego; C. F. L. Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the resonant characteristics of a composite medium based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators (SRR) and continuous thin wires (TW). The medium exhibits simultaneously negative values of effective permeability (?eff) and permittivity (?eff) within a microwave frequency band, characterizing a metamaterial. An analysis using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is

  19. Artificial neural networks for streamflow prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar R. Dolling; Eduardo A. Varas

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents monthly streamflow prediction using artificial neural networks (ANN) on mountain watersheds. The procedure addresses the selection of input variables, the definition of model architecture and the strategy of the learning process. Results show that spring and summer monthly streamrlows can be adequately represented, improving the results of calculations obtained using other methods. Better streamflow prediction methods should

  20. Immunity by Design: An Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    We describe an artificial immune system (AIS)that is distributed, robust, dynamic, diverse andadaptive. It captures many features of the vertebrateimmune system and places them in thecontext of the problem of protecting a networkof computers from illegal intrusions.1 INTRODUCTIONThe immune system is highly complicated and appears tobe precisely tuned to the problem of detecting and eliminatinginfections. We believe that it also