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Sample records for arvensis agg dipsacaceae

  1. Towards resolving the Knautia arvensis agg. (Dipsacaceae) puzzle: primary and secondary contact zones and ploidy segregation at landscape and microgeographic scales

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Rauchová, Jana; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Kubešová, Magdalena; Suda, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Detailed knowledge of variations in ploidy levels and their geographic distributions is one of the key tasks faced in polyploid research in natural systems. Flow cytometry has greatly facilitated the field of cytogeography by allowing characterization of ploidy levels at both the regional and population scale, and at multiple stages of the life cycle. In the present study, flow cytometry was employed to investigate the patterns and dynamics of ploidy variation in the taxonomically challenging complex Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) and some of its allies (K. dipsacifolia, K. slovaca) in Central Europe. Methods DNA ploidy levels were estimated by DAPI flow cytometry in 5205 adult plants, 228 seedlings and 400 seeds collected from 292 Knautia populations in seven European countries. The flow cytometric data were supplemented with conventional chromosome counts. A subset of 79 accessions was subjected to estimation of the absolute genome size using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Key Results and Conclusions Five different ploidy levels (from 2x to 6x) were found, with triploids of K. arvensis being recorded for the first time. The species also exhibited variation in the monoploid genome size, corresponding to the types of habitats occupied (grassland diploid populations had larger genome sizes than relict and subalpine diploid populations). Disregarding relict populations, the distribution of 2x and 4x cytotypes was largely parapatric, with a diffuse secondary contact zone running along the north-west margin of the Pannonian basin. Spatial segregation of the cytotypes was also observed on regional and microgeographic scales. The newly detected sympatric growth of diploids and tetraploids in isolated relict habitats most likely represents the primary zone of cytotype contact. Ploidy level was found to be a major determinant of the strength of inter-cytotype reproductive barriers. While mixed 2x + 4x populations virtually lacked the intermediate

  2. Bringing Together Evolution on Serpentine and Polyploidy: Spatiotemporal History of the Diploid-Tetraploid Complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Fér, Tomáš; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Dušková, Eva; Schönswetter, Peter; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary ‘dead-ends’ but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e

  3. Bringing together evolution on serpentine and polyploidy: spatiotemporal history of the diploid-tetraploid complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae).

    PubMed

    Kolář, Filip; Fér, Tomáš; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Dušková, Eva; Schönswetter, Peter; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e.g., via

  4. Anatomical Injuries Induced by Leipotrix dipsacivagus Petanovic & Rector on Cut-leaf Teasel, Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study highlighted some conspicuous structural malformations of the native Eurasian plant Dipsacus laciniatus L. (cutleaf teasel, Dipsacaceae) provoked by infestation by recently described eriophyid mite, Leipothrix dipsacivagus Petanovic & Rector. The most striking structural changes induced by...

  5. Signaling specificity provided by the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G-protein γ subunits AGG1 and AGG2 is partially but not exclusively provided through transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Thung, Leena; Chakravorty, David; Trusov, Yuri; Jones, Alan M; Botella, José Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The heterotrimeric G-protein complex in Arabidopsis thaliana consists of one α, one ß and three γ subunits. While two of the γ subunits, AGG1 and AGG2 have been shown to provide functional selectivity to the Gßγ dimer in Arabidopsis, it is unclear if such selectivity is embedded in their molecular structures or conferred by the different expression patterns observed in both subunits. In order to study the molecular basis for such selectivity we tested genetic complementation of AGG1- and AGG2 driven by the respectively swapped gene promoters. When expressed in the same tissues as AGG1, AGG2 rescues some agg1 mutant phenotypes such as the hypersensitivity to Fusarium oxysporum and D-mannitol as well as the altered levels of lateral roots, but does not rescue the early flowering phenotype. Similarly, AGG1 when expressed in the same tissues as AGG2 rescues the osmotic stress and lateral-root phenotypes observed in agg2 mutants but failed to rescue the heat-stress induction of flowering. The fact that AGG1 and AGG2 are functionally interchangeable in some pathways implies that, at least for those pathways, signaling specificity resides in the distinctive spatiotemporal expression patterns exhibited by each γ subunit. On the other hand, the lack of complementation for some phenotypes indicates that there are pathways in which signaling specificity is provided by differences in the primary AGG1 and AGG2 amino acid sequences. PMID:23520518

  6. A new species of Aculops (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Serbia on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae), a weed target of classical biological control in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...

  7. Fully and partially Li-stuffed diamond polytypes with Ag-Ge structures: Li2AgGe and Li2.53AgGe2.

    PubMed

    Henze, Alexander; Hlukhyy, Viktor; Fässler, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In view of the search for and understanding of new materials for energy storage, the Li-Ag-Ge phase diagram has been investigated. High-temperature syntheses of Li with reguli of premelted Ag and Ge led to the two new compounds Li(2)AgGe and Li(2.80-x)AgGe(2) (x = 0.27). The compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds show diamond-polytype-like polyanionic substructures with tetrahedrally coordinated Ag and Ge atoms. The Li ions are located in the channels provided by the network. The compound Li(2)AgGe crystallizes in the space group R3̅m (No. 166) with lattice parameters of a = 4.4424(6) Å and c = 42.7104(6) Å. All atomic positions are fully occupied and ordered. Li(2.80-x)AgGe(2) crystallizes in the space group I4(1)/a (No. 88) with lattice parameters of a = 9.7606(2) Å and c = 18.4399(8) Å. The Ge substructure consists of unique (1)(∞)[Ge(10)] chains that are interconnected by Ag atoms to build a three-dimensional network. In the channels of this diamond-like network, not all of the possible positions are occupied by Li ions. Li atoms in the neighborhood of the vacancies show considerably enlarged displacement vectors. The occurrence of the vacancy is traced back to short Li-Li distances in the case of the occupation of the vacancy with Li. Both compounds are not electron-precise Zintl phases. The density of states, band structure, and crystal orbital Hamilton population analyses of Li(2.80-x)AgGe(2 )reveal metallic properties, whereas a full occupation of all Li sites leads to an electron-precise Zintl compound within a rigid-band model. Li(2)AgGe reveals metallic character in the ab plane and is a semiconductor with a small band gap along the c direction. PMID:25521213

  8. Evaluation of flavonoids and diverse antioxidant activities of Sonchus arvensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sonchus arvensis is used in the treatment of various human aliments as a traditional medicine in Pakistan. In the study its various fractions are characterized for scavenging of diverse free radicals. Results Results of the present study revealed that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radicals (DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide), however its methanolic fraction is more potent than other fractions. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical and total antioxidant activity with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. Phytochmical analysis revealed the presence kaempferol, quercetin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion From the present data it is concluded that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radical, which might be due the presence of polyphenolic constituent. PMID:23107458

  9. Biological control studies on Convolvulus arvensis L. with fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a perennial, noxious weed in Europe and in many agricultural areas of the world, including Turkey. Some pathogenic fungi were identified with potential to control bindweed and some of them could be used as mycoherbicide components. In the summers of 2008, 200...

  10. [The Swedish ambulance services 1935-1936 of Gunnar Agge].

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Pär; Nilsson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The fact that Sweden has been spared from war on its soil for almost 200 years, has not stopped Swedish citizens from participating in conflicts worldwide during this period. This has been described, especially from the soldiers perspective. The contribution of Swedish physicians has not been written about to the same extent. When Mussolini's Italy in October 1935 invaded the poor and underdeveloped country of Ethiopia (former Abyssinia) an ambulance was immediately organized by the Swedish Red Cross. To lead such an expedition, a great knowledge of Ethiopian culture och maybe most importantly, of the weather and geographical conditions, was undoubtedly demanded. Therefore, the Swedish Red Cross turned to two Ethiopian veterans. Doctor Fride Hylander, a missionary-son who had been working on a hospital project in the Ethiopian province of Harrar and his friend since school years, doctor Gunnar Agge, were assigned the leadership of the ambulance. Dr Agge had also participated in improving the Ethiopian health care both in Harrar and later as civilian and military doctor in the province of Ogaden, where he was medically responsible for the more than 9 000 men strong army that the Ethiopian emperor had stationed there after Italian provocations. Most of the other members of the ambulance were handpicked by these two leaders and many of them had, just like themselves, a stong religious belief. A money-raise was immediately initiated and in less than six weeks 700 000 Swedish crowns had been collected, more then twice the sum the ambulance was calculated to cost. In early november 1935 the ambulance was clear to go. Their primary objective was to travel through British Somaliland and establish a field-hospital in the province of Harrar. However, the Ethiopian emperor had other things in mind. He wanted to reorganize the ambulance and divide it in two and place it closer to the front line. The ambulance decided to go along with his wish. Both groups started eventually

  11. First report of leaf spot of Convolvulus arvensis caused by Phoma macrostoma var. macrostoma in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is an exotic perennial vine that is invasive in the USA and problematic in Turkey. In May 2012, diseased Convolvulus arvensis plants were found near Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Symptoms were irregular tan-colored necrotic lesions on leaves. Leav...

  12. Structure of amorphous Ag/Ge/S alloys: experimentally constrained density functional study.

    PubMed

    Akola, J; Beuneu, B; Jones, R O; Jóvári, P; Kaban, I; Kolář, J; Voleská, I; Wágner, T

    2015-12-01

    Density functional/molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to determine structural and other properties of amorphous Ag/Ge/S and Ge/S alloys. In the former, the calculations have been combined with experimental data (x-ray and neutron diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure). Ag/Ge/As alloys have high ionic conductivity and are among the most promising candidates for future memristor technology. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and large-scale (500 atoms) simulations in Ag/Ge/S, and we compare and contrast the structures of Ge/S and Ag/Ge/S. The calculated electronic structures, vibrational densities of states, ionic mobilities, and cavity distributions of the amorphous materials are discussed and compared with data on crystalline phases where available. The high mobility of Ag in solid state electrolyte applications is related to the presence of cavities and can occur via jumps to a neighbouring vacant site. PMID:26569035

  13. Structure of amorphous Ag/Ge/S alloys: experimentally constrained density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akola, J.; Beuneu, B.; Jones, R. O.; Jóvári, P.; Kaban, I.; Kolář, J.; Voleská, I.; Wágner, T.

    2015-12-01

    Density functional/molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to determine structural and other properties of amorphous Ag/Ge/S and Ge/S alloys. In the former, the calculations have been combined with experimental data (x-ray and neutron diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure). Ag/Ge/As alloys have high ionic conductivity and are among the most promising candidates for future memristor technology. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and large-scale (500 atoms) simulations in Ag/Ge/S, and we compare and contrast the structures of Ge/S and Ag/Ge/S. The calculated electronic structures, vibrational densities of states, ionic mobilities, and cavity distributions of the amorphous materials are discussed and compared with data on crystalline phases where available. The high mobility of Ag in solid state electrolyte applications is related to the presence of cavities and can occur via jumps to a neighbouring vacant site.

  14. FamAgg: an R package to evaluate familial aggregation of traits in large pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, Johannes; Taliun, Daniel; D’Elia, Yuri; Pattaro, Cristian; Domingues, Francisco S.; Weichenberger, Christian X.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Familial aggregation analysis is the first fundamental step to perform when assessing the extent of genetic background of a disease. However, there is a lack of software to analyze the familial clustering of complex phenotypes in very large pedigrees. Such pedigrees can be utilized to calculate measures that express trait aggregation on both the family and individual level, providing valuable directions in choosing families for detailed follow-up studies. We developed FamAgg, an open source R package that contains both established and novel methods to investigate familial aggregation of traits in large pedigrees. We demonstrate its use and interpretation by analyzing a publicly available cancer dataset with more than 20 000 participants distributed across approximately 400 families. Availability and implementation: The FamAgg package is freely available at the Bioconductor repository, http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/FamAgg. Contact: Christian.Weichenberger@eurac.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26803158

  15. Micro-morphological alterations in young rosette leaves of Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) caused by infestation of the eriophyid mite Leipotrix dipsacivagus Petanovic et Rector (Acari: Eriophyoidea) under laboratory con

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes micro-morphological and hystological changes to the native Eurasian plant species Dipsacus laciniatus (Dipsacaceae) provoked by infestation of the eriophyid mite, Leipothrix dipsacivagus Petanovic et Rector. Conspicuous injuries to the leaf tissue were induced by mites f...

  16. Aminocyclopyrachlor absorption, translocation and metabolism in field 1 bindweed (convolulus arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is extremely susceptible to aminocyclopyrachlor compared to other weed species. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine if absorption, translocation, and metabolism of aminocyclopyrachlor in field bindweed differs from other, less susceptible species....

  17. Dormancy in Seeds of Charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Miriam

    1976-01-01

    Charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds were imbibed with 10 mm GA3 for 24 hours at 0 C. After equilibration at 25 C, a 5-fold increase in radioactivity in the amino acids labeled from 2-14C-acetate was observed within 2 hours. The total amount of amino acids was reduced to half, and the specific radioactivity increased approximately 10-fold, indicating a diversion of metabolites for amino acid and protein synthesis in GA3-treated seeds. The rate of incorporation of l-14 C-leucine into protein was doubled. Autoradiographs showed that enhancement of protein synthesis was localized in the shoot and root meristems, the developing vascular tissues, and in the endosperm cells inside the testa. Images PMID:16659732

  18. AggModel: A soil organic matter model with measurable pools for use in incubation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Segoli, Moran; De Gryze, S.; Dou, Fugen; Lee, J.; Post, Wilfred M; Denef, K.; Six, Johan W U A

    2013-01-01

    Current soil organic matter (SOM) models are empirical in nature by employing few conceptual SOM pools that have a specific turnover time, but that are not measurable and have no direct relationship with soil structural properties. Most soil particles are held together in aggregates and the number, size and stability of these aggregates significantly affect the size and amount of organic matter contained in these aggregates, and its susceptibility to decomposition. While it has been shown that soil aggregates and their dynamics can be measured directly in the laboratory and in the field, the impact of soil aggregate dynamics on SOM decomposition has not been explicitly incorporated in ecosystem models. Here, we present AggModel, a conceptual and simulation model that integrates soil aggregate and SOM dynamics. In AggModel, we consider unaggregated and microaggregated soil that can exist within or external to macroaggregated soil. Each of the four aggregate size classes contains particulate organic matter and mineral-associated organic matter fractions. We used published data from laboratory incubations to calibrate and validate the biological and environmental effects on the rate of formation and breakdown of macroaggregates and microaggregates, and the organic matter dynamics within these different aggregate fractions. After calibration, AggModel explained more than 70% of the variation in aggregate masses and over 90% of the variation in aggregate-associated carbon. The model estimated the turnover time of macroaggregates as 32 days and 166 days for microaggregates. Sensitivity analysis of AggModel parameterization supported the notion that macroaggregate turnover rate has a strong control over microaggregate masses and, hence, carbon sequestration. In addition to AggModel being a proof-of-concept, the advantage of a model that is based on measurable SOM fractions is that its internal structure and dynamics can be directly calibrated and validated by using

  19. A DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGER ORIGIN FOR THE COSMOLOGICAL RELATIVISTIC FADING SOURCE PTF11agg?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2014-01-20

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) team recently reported the discovery of a rapidly fading optical transient source, PTF11agg. A long-lived scintillating radio counterpart was identified, but the search for a high-energy counterpart showed negative results. The PTF team speculated that PTF11agg may represent a new class of relativistic outbursts. Here we suggest that a neutron star (NS)-NS merger system with a supra-massive magnetar central engine could be a possible source to power such a transient, if our line of sight is not on the jet axis direction of the system. These systems are also top candidates for gravitational wave sources to be detected in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We find that the PTF11agg data could be explained well with such a model, suggesting that at least some gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers may be associated with such a bright electromagnetic counterpart without a γ-ray trigger.

  20. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work. PMID:11903908

  1. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  2. Mentha arvensis exhibit better adaptive characters in contrast to Mentha piperita when subjugated to sustained waterlogging stress.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Timbre, Khilesh; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Waterlogging is becoming a critical threat to plants growing in areas prone to flooding. Some plants adapt various morphological and biochemical alterations which are regulated transcriptionally to cope with the situation. A comparative study of waterlogging response in two different varieties of Mentha namely Mentha piperita and Mentha arvensis was performed. M. arvensis showed better response towards waterlogging in comparison to M. piperita. M. arvensis maintained a healthy posture by utilizing its carbohydrate content; also, it showed a flourished vegetative growth under waterlogged condition. Soluble protein, chlorophyll content, relative water content, and nitric oxide scavenging activity were comparatively more salient in M. arvensis during this hypoxia treatment. Lipid peroxidation was less in M. arvensis. M. arvensis also showed vigorous outgrowth of adventitious roots to assist waterlogging tolerance. To further investigate the possible gene transcripts involved in this response, we did cDNA subtraction of waterlogging treated M. piperita and M. arvensis seedlings. cDNA subtraction has identified thirty seven novel putative Expressed Sequence Tags which were further classified functionally. Functional classification revealed that maximum percentage of proteins belonged to hypothetical proteins followed by proteins involved in biosynthesis. Some of the identified ESTs were further quantified for their induced expression in M. arvensis in comparison to M. piperita through quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:24154494

  3. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  4. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  5. Deep RNA-Seq to unlock the gene bank of floral development in Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yunchang; Huang, Shunmou; Hu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Sinapis arvensis is a weed with strong biological activity. Despite being a problematic annual weed that contaminates agricultural crop yield, it is a valuable alien germplasm resource. It can be utilized for broadening the genetic background of Brassica crops with desirable agricultural traits like resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans), stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotium) and pod shatter (caused by FRUITFULL gene). However, few genetic studies of S. arvensis were reported because of the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive dataset for S. arvensis for the first time. We used Illumina paired-end sequencing technology to sequence the S. arvensis flower transcriptome and generated 40,981,443 reads that were assembled into 131,278 transcripts. We de novo assembled 96,562 high quality unigenes with an average length of 832 bp. A total of 33,662 full-length ORF complete sequences were identified, and 41,415 unigenes were mapped onto 128 pathways using the KEGG Pathway database. The annotated unigenes were compared against Brassica rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Among these unigenes, 76,324 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, of which 1194 were associated with plant hormone signal transduction and 113 were related to gibberellin homeostasis/signaling. Unigenes that did not match any of those sequence datasets were considered to be unique to S. arvensis. Furthermore, 21,321 simple sequence repeats were found. Our study will enhance the currently available resources for Brassicaceae and will provide a platform for future genomic studies for genetic improvement of Brassica crops. PMID:25192023

  6. AggLb Is the Largest Cell-Aggregation Factor from Lactobacillus paracasei Subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64, Functions in Collagen Adhesion, and Pathogen Exclusion In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Marija; Strahinic, Ivana; Tolinacki, Maja; Zivkovic, Milica; Kojic, Snezana; Golic, Natasa; Kojic, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Eleven Lactobacillus strains with strong aggregation abilities were selected from a laboratory collection. In two of the strains, genes associated with aggregation capability were plasmid located and found to strongly correlate with collagen binding. The gene encoding the auto-aggregation-promoting protein (AggLb) of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGNJ1-64 was cloned using a novel, wide-range-host shuttle cloning vector, pAZILSJ. The clone pALb35, containing a 11377-bp DNA fragment, was selected from the SacI plasmid library for its ability to provide carriers with the aggregation phenotype. The complete fragment was sequenced and four potential ORFs were detected, including the aggLb gene and three surrounding transposase genes. AggLb is the largest known cell-surface protein in lactobacilli, consisting of 2998 aa (318,611 Da). AggLb belongs to the collagen-binding superfamily and its C-terminal region contains 20 successive repeats that are identical even at the nucleotide level. Deletion of aggLb causes a loss of the capacity to form cell aggregates, whereas overexpression increases cellular aggregation, hydrophobicity and collagen-binding potential. PCR screening performed with three sets of primers based on the aggLb gene of BGNJ1-64 enabled detection of the same type of aggLb gene in five of eleven selected aggregation-positive Lactobacillus strains. Heterologous expression of aggLb confirmed the crucial role of the AggLb protein in cell aggregation and specific collagen binding, indicating that AggLb has a useful probiotic function in effective colonization of host tissue and prevention of pathogen colonization. PMID:25955159

  7. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol tolerance in Mentha arvensis L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shasany, A K; Khanuja, S P; Dhawan, S; Kumar, S

    2000-09-01

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in Mentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of large scale in vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders' material for selection of elite genotypes. PMID:11022228

  8. A rare chemical burn due to Ranunculus arvensis: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Abdullah O; Saritemur, Murat; Atac, Kenan; Guclu, Sibel; Ozlu, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis, a plant that is a member of Ranunculaceae family, generally used for local treatment of joint pain, muscle pain, burns, lacerations, edema, abscess drainage, hemorrhoids, and warts among the population. In this case report, we presented three patients who developed chemical skin burns after using R. arvensis plant locally for knee pain. The destructive effect of the plant has been reported previously to be more in fresh plants and less in dried plants. Although protoanemonin, which is considered as the main toxic substance, was reported to be absent in dried or boiled plants, the plant was boiled, cooled, and wrapped over the region with pain in our cases. Therefore, we thought that protoanemonin may be considered to be heat resistant. Also, the burn management proceeded up to surgery by using the flap technique in one of our patients in contrast to the cases found in published reports who were treated by antibiotics and dressings. PMID:26922695

  9. Expression of terrain and surface geology in high-resolution helicopter-borne gravity gradient (AGG) data: examples from Great Sand Dunes National Park, Rio Grande Rift, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gravity gradient (AGG) data are rapidly becoming standard components of geophysical mapping programs, due to their advantages in cost, access, and resolution advantages over measurements of the gravity field on the ground. Unlike conventional techniques that measure the gravity field, AGG methods measure derivatives of the gravity field. This means that effects of terrain and near-surface geology are amplified in AGG data, and that proper terrain corrections are critically important for AGG data processing. However, terrain corrections require reasonable estimates of density for the rocks and sediments that make up the terrain. A recommended philosophical approach is to use the terrain and surface geology, with their strong expression in AGG data, to the interpreter’s advantage. An example of such an approach is presented here for an area with very difficult ground access and little ground gravity data. Nettleton-style profiling is used with AGG data to estimate the densities of the sand dunefield and adjacent Precambrian rocks from the area of Great Sand Dunes National Park in southern Colorado. Processing of the AGG data using the density estimate for the dunefield allows buried structures, including a hypothesized buried basement bench, to be mapped beneath the sand dunes.

  10. The STAT3 HIES mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that activates genes via AGG-element carrying promoters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Ji, Jin-Jun; Le, Wangping; Xu, Yan S; Dou, Dandan; Pan, Jieli; Jiao, Yifeng; Zhong, Tianfei; Wu, Dehong; Wang, Yumei; Wen, Chengping; Xie, Guan-Qun; Yao, Feng; Zhao, Heng; Fan, Yong-Sheng; Chin, Y Eugene

    2015-10-15

    Cytokine or growth factor activated STAT3 undergoes multiple post-translational modifications, dimerization and translocation into nuclei, where it binds to serum-inducible element (SIE, 'TTC(N3)GAA')-bearing promoters to activate transcription. The STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD, 320-494) mutation in hyper immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), called the HIES mutation (R382Q, R382W or V463Δ), which elevates IgE synthesis, inhibits SIE binding activity and sensitizes genes such as TNF-α for expression. However, the mechanism by which the HIES mutation sensitizes STAT3 in gene induction remains elusive. Here, we report that STAT3 binds directly to the AGG-element with the consensus sequence 'AGG(N3)AGG'. Surprisingly, the helical N-terminal region (1-355), rather than the canonical STAT3 DBD, is responsible for AGG-element binding. The HIES mutation markedly enhances STAT3 AGG-element binding and AGG-promoter activation activity. Thus, STAT3 is a dual specificity transcription factor that promotes gene expression not only via SIE- but also AGG-promoter activity. PMID:26384563

  11. Vegetative reproduction and chemical control with post-emergent herbicides of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Gyenes, V; Béres, I; Lehoczky, E; Kazinczi, G; Nyári, A

    2005-01-01

    It is clearly seen from data that roots of Convolvulus arvensis L. have more and less intensive regenerative period during growing season. The more intensive period is in autumn, because in that time roots culminate nutrients, carbohydrate as starch and sugar. The less intensive regenerative or shoot-growing period is in spring, called "late spring bud dormancy". Experiments were conducted to get more information and further details about the regenerative capacity of roots close to and far from the collar of Convolvulus arvensis L. Root segments closer to collar have an intensive regenerative capacity than those ones further to collar. By data of Bakke et al. (1939) is well known, roots exhumed from deep soil layers are able to create shoots with low intensity. So finally we can exclaim that regenerative capacity is decreasing further to collar. Using mechanical weed control it is sufficient to till the upper layer of soil, but many times. Chemical treatments are most effective in the integrated weed control. It is clearly seen that auxin-type herbicide such as 2,4-D, fluroxipir, MCPA. dicamba give the best result. They gave 95% weed control effect used them separately or in combination with other herbicides. Combination of Banvel 480 S (dicamba) and Logran 75 WG (triasulfuron) introduced 95% weed control effect. Only one time got absolutely 100% weed control effect, in the case of Glyphosate active substance. Caused total plant destruction. Excellent result was given with the application of Pledge 50WP (flumioxazin). Herbicides mentioned above are absolutely allowed to take an important and significant part in chemical plant protection against Convolvulus arvensis L. Other herbicides like Granstar 75DF (tribenuron-methyl), Basis 75DF (rimsulfuron + tifensulfuron-methyl) and Huszár (jodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + mefenpir-diethyl) are not so effective against Convolvulus arvensis L., as compared to the previous ones. PMID:16637219

  12. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature. PMID:21408003

  13. STM study of azobenzene self-assembly on Ag/Ge(1 1 1)-( √{3}×√{3})R30°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.-C.; Chou, L.-W.; Lee, Y.-R.; Su, C.; Lin, J.-C.

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption and self-organization of trans-azobenzene (TAB) on Ag/Ge(1 1 1)-( √{3}×√{3})R30° (Ag/Ge(1 1 1)- √{3}) were studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). High-resolution STM images allow the observation of individual TAB molecules and the commensurate TAB chain domains formed via the hydrogen bond enhanced intermolecular interaction and molecule-substrate interaction on Ag/Ge(1 1 1)- √{3}. From in situ observation of the substrate lattice, the TAB monolayers were found to form a (2 × 1) structure. Some coexisting cis-azobenzene (CAB) molecules were observed on the domain boundary of TAB overlayer. The structural model and the molecule registry corresponding to STM images for the monolayer of TAB on Ag/Ge(1 1 1)- √{3} are proposed and discussed.

  14. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies. PMID:22314667

  15. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  16. PTF11agg as the First Evidence for Reverse Shock Emission from a Post-merger Millisecond Magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2013-09-01

    Based on the stiff equations of state of neutron stars (NS) and the discovery of high-mass NSs, it is highly probable that a NS-NS merger will result in a rapidly rotating massive magnetar. The central magnetar will dissipate its rotational energy to the outflow by injecting Poynting flux, which will become lepton-dominated so that a long-lasting reverse shock (RS) develops. We calculate the emission of the RS as well as the emission of forward shock (FS) and find that, in most cases, the RS emission is stronger than FS emission. It is found that the recently discovered transient, PTF11agg, can be neatly accounted for by the RS emission powered by a millisecond magnetar. Other alternative models have been considered and cannot explain the observed light curves well. We therefore suggest that PTF11agg is the first evidence for RS emission from a post-merger millisecond magnetar.

  17. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Camelina sativa Seeds Overexpressing the AGG3 Gene to Identify the Proteomic Basis of Increased Yield and Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sophie; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Hicks, Leslie M; Pandey, Sona

    2015-06-01

    Camelina sativa, a close relative of Arabidopsis, is an oilseed plant that is emerging as an important biofuel resource. The genome and transcriptome maps of Camelina have become available recently, but its proteome composition remained unexplored. A labeling LC-based quantitative proteomics approach was applied to decipher the Camelina seed proteome, which led to the identification of 1532 proteins. In addition, the effect of overexpression of the Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) on the Camelina seed proteome was elucidated to identify the proteomic basis of its increased seed size and improved stress tolerance. The comparative analysis showed a significantly higher expression of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and abscisic acid related responses, corroborating the physiological effects of AGG3 overexpression. More importantly, the proteomic data suggested involvement of the AGG3 protein in the regulation of oxidative stress and heavy metal stress tolerance. These observations were confirmed by the physiological and biochemical characterization of AGG3-overexpressing seeds, which exhibit a higher tolerance to exogenous cadmium in a glutathione-dependent manner. The activity of multiple redox-regulating enzymes is higher in seeds expressing enhanced levels of AGG3. Overall, these data provide critical evidence for the role of redox regulation by the AGG3 protein in mediating important seed-related traits. PMID:25944359

  18. Evidence for an unusual transmembrane configuration of AGG3, a Class C Gγ Subunit, of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Susanne; Chakravorty, David; Kula, Ryan; Urano, Daisuke; Trusov, Yuri; McCurdy, David W.; Assmann, Sarah M.; Jones, Alan M.; Botella, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial for the perception of external signals and subsequent signal transduction in animal and plant cells. In both model systems, the complex is comprised of one Gα, one Gβ and one Gγ subunit. However, in addition to the canonical Gγ subunits (Class A), plants also possess two unusual, plant-specific classes of Gγ subunits (Classes B and C) not yet found in animals. These include Gγ subunits lacking the C-terminal CaaX motif (Class B) which is important for membrane anchoring of the protein, and thus give rise to a flexible subpopulation of Gβ/γ heterodimers that is not necessarily restricted to the plasma membrane. Even more interesting, plants also contain Class C Gγ subunits which are twice the size of canonical Gγs, with a predicted transmembrane domain, and a large cysteine-rich, extracellular C-terminus. However, neither the presence of the transmembrane domain nor the membrane topology has been unequivocally demonstrated. Here, we provide compelling evidence that AGG3, a Class C Ggamma subunit of Arabidopsis, contains a functional transmembrane domain, which is sufficient but not essential for plasma membrane localization, and that the cysteine-rich C-terminus is extracellular. PMID:25430066

  19. AggNet: Deep Learning From Crowds for Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images.

    PubMed

    Albarqouni, Shadi; Baur, Christoph; Achilles, Felix; Belagiannis, Vasileios; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    The lack of publicly available ground-truth data has been identified as the major challenge for transferring recent developments in deep learning to the biomedical imaging domain. Though crowdsourcing has enabled annotation of large scale databases for real world images, its application for biomedical purposes requires a deeper understanding and hence, more precise definition of the actual annotation task. The fact that expert tasks are being outsourced to non-expert users may lead to noisy annotations introducing disagreement between users. Despite being a valuable resource for learning annotation models from crowdsourcing, conventional machine-learning methods may have difficulties dealing with noisy annotations during training. In this manuscript, we present a new concept for learning from crowds that handle data aggregation directly as part of the learning process of the convolutional neural network (CNN) via additional crowdsourcing layer (AggNet). Besides, we present an experimental study on learning from crowds designed to answer the following questions. 1) Can deep CNN be trained with data collected from crowdsourcing? 2) How to adapt the CNN to train on multiple types of annotation datasets (ground truth and crowd-based)? 3) How does the choice of annotation and aggregation affect the accuracy? Our experimental setup involved Annot8, a self-implemented web-platform based on Crowdflower API realizing image annotation tasks for a publicly available biomedical image database. Our results give valuable insights into the functionality of deep CNN learning from crowd annotations and prove the necessity of data aggregation integration. PMID:26891484

  20. Leaf extracts from Moricandia arvensis promote antiproliferation of human cancer cells, induce apoptosis, and enhance antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Limem, Ilef; Kilani, Soumaya; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidant activities from leaf extracts of Moricandia arvensis, which are used in traditional cooking and medicines, were investigated. The MTT assay revealed that only TOF (total oligomer flavonoids), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells. Apoptosis plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer by promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells and limiting the concurrent death of normal cells. Thus, the possible effects of M. arvensis extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells (K562 cells) were investigated. The electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation confirms that TOF, Chl, PE, and EA extracts provoke DNA fragmentation. Using the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the antioxidant capacity of M. arvensis extracts was evaluated by the ability of each extract to inhibit malondialdehyde formation. It was revealed that EA and TOF extracts are the most active in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. PMID:19995267

  1. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-03-15

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [Spanish] En el presente articulo se aportan los resultados y conclusiones de un estudio, llevado a cabo en Nepal, en el que se abordaron aspectos ecologicos, comportamentales y morfologicos (tanto del ultimo estado de la fase larvaria como del adulto) de Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888. El principal objetivo del estudio radicaba en mostrar las principales diferencias que separan a esta

  2. Moricandia arvensis extracts protect against DNA damage, mutagenesis in bacteria system and scavenge the superoxide anion.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Kilani, Soumaya; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira-Chekir, Leila

    2009-02-01

    The mutagenic potential of total aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), petroleum ether (PE) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from aerial parts of Moricandia arvensis was assessed using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA100 and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9), and using plasmid pBluescript DNA assay. None of the different extracts produced a mutagenic effect, except aqueous extract when incubated with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 after metabolic activation. Likewise, the antimutagenicity of the same extracts was tested using the "Ames test". Our results showed that M. arvensis extracts possess antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA) in the two tested Salmonella assay systems, except metabolized aqueous and PE extracts when tested with S. typhimurium TA100 assay system. Different extracts were also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals, except PE and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the more effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction. PMID:19015021

  3. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  4. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  5. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (sinapis arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  6. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Jugulam, M.; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K. Y.; Chen, Shu; Hall, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  7. Transmission of the FRAXA haplotype from three nonpenetrant brothers to their affected grandsons: an update with AGG interspersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Mogk, R L; Carson, N L; Chudley, A E; Dawson, A J

    1998-01-01

    Recently, we reported on a family showing transmission of the FRAXA gene by three nonpenetrant, normally intelligent, full and half brothers to their affected grandsons [Kirkilionis et al., 1992]. We have reanalyzed this family for CGG repeat size by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification/Southern blot and FMR1 methylation status using EcoRI/BssHII double digests with pE5-1 as the hybridization probe. The half brother was found to have a premutation allele size of 59 CGG repeats. MnlI digestion of PCR products showed the absence of intervening AGG sequences. All of his obligate carrier daughters had CGG alleles ranging from 65 to 90 repeats, with a final expansion of more than 200 repeats in his FRAXA-affected grandson and 131 repeats in his carrier granddaughter. Two full brothers were shown to have inherited a 47-CGG repeat premutation allele. Analysis of one brother showed that he stably transmitted the 47-repeat allele to his daughter. Analysis of the second brother, his daughter, and his granddaughter showed that this allele was meiotically unstable, with the allele size increasing from 47, to 48, to 49 from the father, to the daughter to the granddaughter, respectively. MnlI digestion and DNA sequencing of PCR products showed the absence of intervening AGG sequences. This is the first case in which the lack of AGG interspersions has been associated with instability of a gray zone allele resulting in a one-repeat increase in two successive generations. PMID:9450853

  8. An extra tRNAGly(U*CU) found in ascidian mitochondria responsible for decoding non-universal codons AGA/AGG as glycine.

    PubMed

    Kondow, A; Suzuki, T; Yokobori, S; Ueda, T; Watanabe, K

    1999-06-15

    Amino acid assignments of metazoan mitochondrial codons AGA/AGG are known to vary among animal species; arginine in Cnidaria, serine in invertebrates and stop in vertebrates. We recently found that in the mitochondria of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi these codons are exceptionally used for glycine, and postulated that they are probably decoded by a tRNA(UCU). In order to verify this notion unambig-uously, we determined the complete RNA sequence of the mitochondrial tRNA(UCU) presumed to decode codons AGA/AGG in the ascidian mitochondria, and found it to have an unidentified U derivative at the anticodon first position. We then identified the amino acids attached to the tRNA(U*CU), as well as to the conventional tRNAGly(UCC) with an unmodified U34, in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that glycine was attached to both tRNAs. Since no other tRNA capable of decoding codons AGA/AGG has been found in the mitochondrial genome, it is most probable that this tRNA(U*CU) does actually translate codons AGA/AGG as glycine in vivo. Sequencing of tRNASer(GCU), which is thought to recognize only codons AGU/AGC, revealed that it has an unmodified guanosine at position 34, as is the case with vertebrate mitochondrial tRNASer(GCU) for codons AGA/AGG. It was thus concluded that in the ascidian, codons AGU/AGC are read as serine by tRNASer(GCU), whereas AGA/AGG are read as glycine by an extra tRNAGly(U*CU). The possible origin of this unorthodox genetic code is discussed. PMID:10352185

  9. Unique AGG Interruption in the CGG Repeats of the FMR1 Gene Exclusively Found in Asians Linked to a Specific SNP Haplotype

    PubMed Central

    Limprasert, Pornprot; Thanakitgosate, Janpen; Jaruthamsophon, Kanoot; Sripo, Thanya

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by the occurrence of more than 200 pure CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene. Normal individuals have 6–54 CGG repeats with two or more stabilizing AGG interruptions occurring once every 9- or 10-CGG-repeat blocks in various populations. However, the unique (CGG)6AGG pattern, designated as 6A, has been exclusively reported in Asians. To examine the genetic background of AGG interruptions in the CGG repeats of the FMR1 gene, we studied 8 SNPs near the CGG repeats in 176 unrelated Thai males with 19–56 CGG repeats. Of these 176 samples, we identified AGG interruption patterns from 95 samples using direct DNA sequencing. We found that the common CGG repeat groups (29, 30, and 36) were associated with 3 common haplotypes, GCGGATAA (Hap A), TTCATCGC (Hap C), and GCCGTTAA (Hap B), respectively. The configurations of 9A9A9, 10A9A9, and 9A9A6A9 were commonly found in chromosomes with 29, 30, and 36 CGG repeats, respectively. Almost all chromosomes with Hap B (22/23) carried at least one 6A pattern, suggesting that the 6A pattern is linked to Hap B and may have originally occurred in the ancestors of Asian populations. PMID:27042357

  10. Does Cold Plasma Affect Breaking Dormancy and Seed Germination? A Study on Seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božena, Šerá; Michal, Šerý; Vitězslav, Štrañák; Petr, Špatenka; Milan, tichý

    2009-12-01

    Low-pressure discharge is applied for stimulation of germination of two seed lots of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) with different starting germinations (17%, 8%) and in different stages of dormancy. Different exposition durations with cold plasma treatment were applied. The variable of the ratio cumulative germination was calculated. The Richards' equation was used for curve-fitting and simulation of the growth curves. Population parameters, namely Vi - viability, Me - time, Qu - dispersion, and Sk - skewness, counted from the curves described the germination rate well. Significant differences among Qu confirmed the erratic dormancy and gradual germination of Lamb's Quarters. No difference in the Me parameter was found between two tested seed lots, and no interspecies characteristics were changed using low-pressure discharge. The results suggested that plasma treatment changed seed germination in Lamb's Quarters seeds.

  11. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Juliá, Luis; Fajari, Lluis; Almajano, MaríaPilar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA) ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% O2 and 20% CO2) was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant. PMID:26785344

  12. Air pollution induced alterations in assimilate partitioning in Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, F.A.; Iqbal, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Saquib, M.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) emits enormous amounts of oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon as well as particulate matters on consuming 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents induce significant alterations in carbon allocation in Anagallis arvensis populations. Monthly samples of 10 plants each were collected on random basis at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant. In oven dried samples, assimilate partitioning was noted to be more severely altered by the air pollutants in the seedling stage. In 2 and 3 months old populations, photosynthate allocation to root and shoot was not altered noticeably. Considerable changes in carbon allocation were noted in 4 mo old mature stage. The carbon allocation to fruit was 3 fold and to seed was about 4 fold greater in the population thriving 20 km away from the source than in those growing in the vicinity of the source. Assimilate partitioning was linearly related to the distance from power plant and the productivity of the populations.

  13. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  14. Participation of Photosynthesis in Floral Induction of the Long Day Plant Anagallis arvensis L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Quedado, Rosario M.; Friend, Douglas J.

    1978-01-01

    The saturating photon flux density (400 to 700 nanometers) for induction of flowering of the long day plant Anagallis arvensis L. was 1,900 micromoles per square meter per second (6,000 foot-candles) when an 8-hour daylength was extended to 24 hours by a single period of supplementary irradiation. The saturating photon flux density for photosynthetic CO2 uptake during the same single supplementary light period was lower, at about 1,000 to 650 micromoles per square meter per second (3,000 to 2,000 foot-candles). The per cent flowering and mean number of floral buds per plant were significantly reduced when the light extension treatment was given in CO2-free air, and glucose (10 kilograms per cubic meter in water) relieved this effect. Glucose solution also significantly increased flowering of plants given supplementary light treatment in atmospheric air under a photon flux density of 80 micromoles per square meter per second. Increasing the CO2 concentration to 1.27 grams per cubic meter of CO2 in air during the supplementary light period did not increase flowering. It is concluded that high photon flux densities promote flowering of Anagallis through both increased photosynthesis and the photomorphogenic action of high irradiance. PMID:16660610

  15. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    PubMed Central

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2015-01-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (“R”) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the “R” S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis “R” biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4–48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (“S”) biotypes. Seeds of the “S” biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the “R” biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months' of dry storage. The “R” biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of “R” and “S” biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, “R” seeds were significantly heavier than those of the “S” seeds. Differential seed germinability between “S” and “R” biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination. PMID:26258120

  16. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis).

    PubMed

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K

    2015-01-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant ("R") biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the "R" S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis "R" biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4-48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible ("S") biotypes. Seeds of the "S" biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the "R" biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months' of dry storage. The "R" biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of "R" and "S" biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, "R" seeds were significantly heavier than those of the "S" seeds. Differential seed germinability between "S" and "R" biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination. PMID:26258120

  17. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  18. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. PMID:24102738

  19. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion

  20. Efficacy of essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis against some storage pests causing biodeterioration of food commodities.

    PubMed

    Varma, J; Dubey, N K

    2001-09-01

    The essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis have been tested for their fumigant activity in the management of biodeterioration of stored wheat samples by Aspergillus flavus and the insect pests, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum, at 1300 and 600 ppm, respectively. The findings indicate the efficacy of the oils as potent fumigants for management of the biodeterioration of stored wheat samples. The oils also controlled the blue mould rot of oranges caused by Penicillium italicum and enhanced the market life of the oranges for a considerable period, showing their efficacy as postharvest fungicides of higher plant origin. PMID:11529443

  1. Layered Seed-Growth of AgGe Football-like Microspheres via Precursor-Free Picosecond Laser Synthesis in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Notthoff, Christian; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid particles are of great significance in terms of their adjustable optical, electronic, magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties. As a novel technique, laser ablation in liquids (LAL) is famous for its precursor-free, “clean” synthesis of hybrid particles with various materials. Till now, almost all the LAL-generated particles originate from the nucleation-growth mechanism. Seed-growth of particles similar to chemical methods seems difficult to be achieved by LAL. Here, we not only present novel patch-joint football-like AgGe microspheres with a diameter in the range of 1 ~ 7 μm achievable by laser ablation in distilled water but also find direct evidences of their layered seed growth mechanism. Many critical factors contribute to the formation of AgGe microspheres: fast laser-generated plasma process provide an excellent condition for generating large amount of Ge and Ag ions/atoms, their initial nucleation and galvanic replacement reaction, while cavitation bubble confinement plays an important role for the increase of AgGe nuclei and subsequent layered growth in water after bubble collapse. Driven by work function difference, Ge acts as nucleation agent for silver during alloy formation. This new seed-growth mechanism for LAL technique opens new opportunities to develop a large variety of novel hybrid materials with controllable properties.

  2. Layered Seed-Growth of AgGe Football-like Microspheres via Precursor-Free Picosecond Laser Synthesis in Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Notthoff, Christian; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid particles are of great significance in terms of their adjustable optical, electronic, magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties. As a novel technique, laser ablation in liquids (LAL) is famous for its precursor-free, “clean” synthesis of hybrid particles with various materials. Till now, almost all the LAL-generated particles originate from the nucleation-growth mechanism. Seed-growth of particles similar to chemical methods seems difficult to be achieved by LAL. Here, we not only present novel patch-joint football-like AgGe microspheres with a diameter in the range of 1 ~ 7 μm achievable by laser ablation in distilled water but also find direct evidences of their layered seed growth mechanism. Many critical factors contribute to the formation of AgGe microspheres: fast laser-generated plasma process provide an excellent condition for generating large amount of Ge and Ag ions/atoms, their initial nucleation and galvanic replacement reaction, while cavitation bubble confinement plays an important role for the increase of AgGe nuclei and subsequent layered growth in water after bubble collapse. Driven by work function difference, Ge acts as nucleation agent for silver during alloy formation. This new seed-growth mechanism for LAL technique opens new opportunities to develop a large variety of novel hybrid materials with controllable properties. PMID:26334136

  3. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L

    2015-05-01

    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer. PMID:25698113

  4. Do the effects of crops on skylark (Alauda arvensis) differ between the field and landscape scales?

    PubMed Central

    Barbottin, Aude; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of biodiversity in agricultural areas involves actions at the landscape scale, and the management of cropping patterns is considered an important means of achieving this goal. However, most of the available knowledge about the impact of crops on biodiversity has been obtained at the field scale, and is generally grouped together under the umbrella term “crop suitability.” Can field-scale knowledge be used to predict the impact on populations across landscapes? We studied the impact of maize and rapeseed on the abundance of skylark (Alauda arvensis). Field-scale studies in Western Europe have reported diverse impacts on habitat selection and demography. We assessed the consistency between field-scale knowledge and landscape-scale observations, using high-resolution databases describing crops and other habitats for the 4 km2 grid scales analyzed in the French Breeding Bird Survey. We used generalized linear models to estimate the impact of each studied crop at the landscape scale. We stratified the squares according to the local and geographical contexts, to ensure that the conclusions drawn were valid in a wide range of contexts. Our results were not consistent with field knowledge for rapeseed, and were consistent for maize only in grassland contexts. However, the effect sizes were much smaller than those of structural landscape features. These results suggest that upscaling from the field scale to the landscape scale leads to an integration of new agronomic and ecological processes, making the objects studied more complex than simple “crop ∗ species” pairs. We conclude that the carrying capacity of agricultural landscapes cannot be deduced from the suitability of their components. PMID:26213656

  5. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. PMID:25682510

  6. Nickel tolerance of serpentine and non-serpentine Knautia arvensis plants as affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Pavla; Sudová, Radka

    2014-04-01

    Serpentine soils have naturally elevated concentrations of certain heavy metals, including nickel. This study addressed the role of plant origin (serpentine vs. non-serpentine) and symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant Ni tolerance. A semi-hydroponic experiment involving three levels of Ni and serpentine and non-serpentine AMF isolates and populations of a model plant species (Knautia arvensis) revealed considerable negative effects of elevated Ni availability on both plant and fungal performance. Plant growth response to Ni was independent of edaphic origin; however, higher Ni tolerance of serpentine plants was indicated by a smaller decline in the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and restricted root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Serpentine plants also retained relatively more Mg in their roots, resulting in a higher shoot Ca/Mg ratio. AMF inoculation, especially with the non-serpentine isolate, further aggravated Ni toxicity to host plants. Therefore, AMF do not appear to be involved in Ni tolerance of serpentine K. arvensis plants. PMID:24136374

  7. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  8. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Sahi, S. V.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  9. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-01-01

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae). PMID:25543737

  10. Study of electric properties of amorphous AgGe1+xAs1-xS3 with content of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, Nina; Kurochka, Kirill; Volkova, Yana

    2013-06-01

    Multicomponent copper and silver chalcogenides have been known as promising materials for scientific and applied purposes. These materials are also under intense investigation for application in a phase-change random access memory. In order to obtain materials with a high ionic conductivity component, glassy silver chalcogenides AgGe1+xAs1-xS3 with the addition of nanotubes were synthesized. In this work the study of electrical properties of the amorphous chalcogenide AgGe1.4As0.6S3 (x = 0.4) with carbon nanotube content at a frequency of the alternating-current electric field varying from 1 Hz to 5 MHz and on direct current at ambient pressure and at pressure up to 30 GPa are presented. The ion transport was confirmed by means DC measurements in cells with blocking ion component of conductivity electrodes. An evaluation of the proportion of ionic conductivity can make a preliminary conclusion that the ionic component of the conductivity of at least 98%. Analyze of the baric dependences of AC properties have shown that the dielectric loss tangent and the real part of an admittance of the AgGe1.4As0.6S3 with carbon nanotube content compound exponentially increase with a pressure increase from 1 up to 30 GPa. The study was supported in part by the Ural Federal University development program with the financial support of young scientists; and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project No. 12-02-31607.

  11. Effects of thermal power plant effluents on formation and senescence of reproductive parts of Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Saquib, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon and particulates are the major air pollutants emitted in huge amounts by the Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) running on 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents significantly affect reproductive phase of Anagallis arvensis L. Samples of 10 plants each were randomly collected at monthly intervals at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant complex. Bud formation and flowering were delayed in the population thriving at 0.5 km from the pollution source. As a 2 month old stage, 60% of the population showed a decline in bud formation in the vicinity of the source compared to a heavy bud emergence in the whole population thriving 20 km away from it. Bud formation, flowering fruit set and seed set showed a correlation with multiple growth factors viz productivity, shoot length and distance from the source.

  12. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  13. Predisposition to the fragile X syndrome in Jews of Tunisian descent is due to the absence of AGG interruptions on a rare Mediterranean haplotype.

    PubMed Central

    Falik-Zaccai, T C; Shachak, E; Yalon, M; Lis, Z; Borochowitz, Z; Macpherson, J N; Nelson, D L; Eichler, E E

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the ethnic distribution of the fragile X syndrome in Israel and have found that 36/136 (26.5%) of apparently unrelated pedigrees were of Tunisian Jewish descent. The Tunisian Jews, however, constitute only 2%-3% of the general Israeli population, identifying the first ethnic group significantly (P < .001) predisposed to the development of this disease. Associated with this increase in disease prevalence, we have found an unusually high incidence of FMR1 CGG repeats devoid of AGG interruptions among the normal Tunisian Jewish population (30/150, or 20.0%). Furthermore, the proportion of these alleles beyond the FMR1 CGG repeat instability threshold (>35 repeats) (8/150, or 5.3%) was significantly greater (P < .04) than that proportion found among non-Tunisian Jewish controls in Israel (1/136). Haplotype analysis has indicated that these large uninterrupted CGG repeat alleles are present on a previously unreported (DXS548-FRAXAC1-FRAXAC2) haplotype that accounts for all observed cases of disease among Tunisian Jewish X chromosomes. The high prevalence of disease among Tunisian Jews, we suggest, is due to a founder effect of this rare haplotype, which is completely devoid of AGG interruptions in the Jewish population of Tunisia. PMID:8981953

  14. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) analysis of the genomic relationships among Sinapis arvensis, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shufang; Han, Yonghua; Wu, Xiaoming; An, Tingting; Tang, Jiali; Shen, Junjun; Li, Zongyun

    2012-06-01

    To further understand the relationships between the SS genome of Sinapis arvensis and the AA, BB genomes in Brassica, genomic DNA of Sinapis arvensis was hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of Brassica nigra (BB genome), and the metaphase chromosomes and interphase nucleus of Brassica rapa (AA genome) by comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH). As a result, every chromosome of B. nigra had signals along the whole chromosomal length. However, only half of the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus and the chromosomes showed rich signals in Brassica rapa. Interphase nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes of S. arvensis were simultaneously hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA of B. nigra and biotin-labeled genomic DNA of B. rapa. Signals of genomic DNA of B. nigra hybridized throughout the length of all chromosomes and all the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus, except chromosome 4, of which signals were weak in centromeric regions. Signals of the genomic DNA of B. rapa patterned the most areas of ten chromosomes and ten condensed heterochromatic areas, others had less signals. The results showed that the SS genome had homology with AA and BB genomes, but the homology between SS genome and AA genome was clearly lower than that between the SS genome and BB genome. PMID:22804340

  15. Atomic structures of Ag/Ge(1 1 1) √39 × √39 and 6 × 6 surfaces studied by STM: observations of bias dependent reconstruction transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. M.; Uhrberg, R. I. G.

    2003-05-01

    The 6×6 and √39×√39 phases on Ag/Ge(1 1 1) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Four types of 6×6 configurations are found which all consist of a √3×√3 layer with six extra Ag adatoms per 6×6 unit cell. These reconstructions show either mirrored or complementary relations. We observe interesting transitions between the different 6×6 reconstructions. The √39×√39 surface appears to have five extra Ag atoms per unit cell. By using various tip biases, we show that the √39×√39 domain orientation can be changed. Surface structure models of the √39×√39 and 6×6 phases are proposed based on the HCT structure of the underlying √3×√3 surface.

  16. Soil nutritional status, not inoculum identity, primarily determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Knautia arvensis plants.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Pavla; Kohout, Petr; Sudová, Radka

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is among the factors contributing to plant survival in serpentine soils characterised by unfavourable physicochemical properties. However, AM fungi show a considerable functional diversity, which is further modified by host plant identity and edaphic conditions. To determine the variability among serpentine AM fungal isolates in their effects on plant growth and nutrition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted involving two serpentine and two non-serpentine populations of Knautia arvensis plants grown in their native substrates. The plants were inoculated with one of the four serpentine AM fungal isolates or with a complex AM fungal community native to the respective plant population. At harvest after 6-month cultivation, intraradical fungal development was assessed, AM fungal taxa established from native fungal communities were determined and plant growth and element uptake evaluated. AM symbiosis significantly improved the performance of all the K. arvensis populations. The extent of mycorrhizal growth promotion was mainly governed by nutritional status of the substrate, while the effect of AM fungal identity was negligible. Inoculation with the native AM fungal communities was not more efficient than inoculation with single AM fungal isolates in any plant population. Contrary to the growth effects, a certain variation among AM fungal isolates was revealed in terms of their effects on plant nutrient uptake, especially P, Mg and Ca, with none of the AM fungi being generally superior in this respect. Regardless of AM symbiosis, K. arvensis populations significantly differed in their relative nutrient accumulation ratios, clearly showing the plant's ability to adapt to nutrient deficiency/excess. PMID:23568184

  17. Distribution of hydrogen-metabolizing bacteria in alfalfa field soil. [Medicago sativa L. ; Convolvulus arvensis L. ; Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, S.D.; Kapulnik, Y.; Phillips, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    H/sub 2/ evolved by alfalfa root nodules during the process of N/sub 2/ fixation may be an important factor influencing the distribution of soil bacteria. To test this hypothesis under field conditions, over 700 bacterial isolates were obtained from fallow soil or from the 3-mm layer of soil surrounding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules, alfalfa roots, or bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) roots. Bacteria were isolated under either aerobic or microaerophilic conditions and were tested for their capacity to metabolize H/sub 2/. Isolates showing net H/sub 2/ uptake and /sup 3/H/sub 2/ incorporation activity under laboratory conditions were assigned a Hup/sup +/ phenotype, whereas organisms with significant H/sub 2/ output capacity were designated as a Hout/sup +/ phenotype. Under aerobic isolation conditions two Hup/sup +/ isolates were obtained, whereas under microaerophilic conditions five Hup/sup +/ and two Hout/sup +/ isolates were found. The nine isolates differed on the basis of 24 standard bacteriological characteristics or fatty acid composition. Five of the nine organisms were isolated from soil around root nodules, whereas the other four were found distributed among the other three soil environments. On the basis of the microaerophilic isolations, 4.8% of the total procaryotic isolates from soil around root nodules were capable of oxidizing H/sub 2/, and 1.2% could produce H/sub 2/. Two of the Hup/sup +/ isolates were identified as Rhizobium meliloti by root nodulation tests, but the fact that none of the isolates reduced C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ under the assay conditions suggested that the H/sub 2/ metabolism traits were associated with various hydrogenase systems rather than with nitrogenase activity.

  18. Nonadaptive processes governing early stages of polyploid evolution: Insights from a primary contact zone of relict serpentine Knautia arvensis (Caprifoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Hanzl, Martin; Kolář, Filip; Nováková, Dora; Suda, Jan

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Contact zones between polyploids and their diploid progenitors may provide important insights into the mechanisms of sympatric speciation and local adaptation. However, most published studies investigated secondary contact zones where the effects of genome duplication can be confounded by previous independent evolution of currently sympatric cytotypes. We compared genetically close diploid and autotetraploid serpentine cytotypes of Knautia arvensis (Caprifoliaceae) in a primary contact zone and evaluated the role of adaptive and nonadaptive processes for cytotype coexistence.• Methods: DNA flow cytometry was used to determine ploidy distribution at various spatial scales (from across the entire contact zone to microgeographic). Habitat preferences of diploids and polyploids were assessed by comparing vegetation composition of nearby ploidy-uniform sites and by recording plant species immediately surrounding both cytotypes in mixed-ploidy plots.• Key results: Tetraploids considerably outnumbered their diploid progenitors in the contact zone. Both cytotypes were segregated at all investigated spatial scales. This pattern was not driven by ecological shifts, because both diploids and tetraploids inhabited sites with nearly identical vegetation cover. Certain interploidy niche differentiation was indicated only at the smallest spatial scale; ecologically nonadaptive processes were most likely responsible for this difference.• Conclusions: We conclude that a shift in ecological preferences (i.e., the adaptive scenario) is not necessary for the establishment and evolutionary success of autopolyploid derivatives in primary contact zones. Spatial segregation that would support ploidy coexistence can also be achieved by ecologically nonadaptive processes, including the founder effect, limited dispersal ability, intense clonal growth, and triploid block. PMID:24920762

  19. Assessment of phenolic content, free-radical-scavenging capacity genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effect of aqueous extract prepared from Moricandia arvensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, I; Limem, I; Neffati, A; Boubaker, J; Ben Sghaier, M; Bhouri, W; Bouhlel, I; Kilani, S; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2010-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data on the safety of an aqueous extract (AQE) from Moricandia arvensis. For this reason, Escherichia coli tested strains PQ35 and PQ37 were used to detect induction of DNA lesions by AQE. The SOS Chromotest showed that AQE induced a marginally genotoxic effect, as expressed by the induction factor (IF) value only with E. coli PQ37 tested strain (IF=1.77 at a dose of 250 microg/assay). The measurement of the anti-genotoxic activity of the AQE was also studied by inhibition of beta-galactosidase induction. A significant anti-genotoxic effect was observed with different tested doses of AQE, which suggests that M. arvensis extract has the potential to protect DNA from the action of nitrofurantoïn (NF) and free radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, AQE showed a free-radical-scavenging capacity towards ABTS+* and DPPH*. Total phenolic content was also evaluated following Folin-Ciocalteu method and results indicated high correlation between total phenol content and anti-genotoxic and antioxidant activities for AQE, but the highest correlation was showed with its capacity to stabilize ABTS+* (R2=0.9944). PMID:19951736

  20. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits. PMID:26304428

  1. Extensive frameshift at all AGG and CCC codons in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of Perkinsus marinus (Alveolata; Dinoflagellata)

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Isao; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Diverse mitochondrial (mt) genetic systems have evolved independently of the more uniform nuclear system and often employ modified genetic codes. The organization and genetic system of dinoflagellate mt genomes are particularly unusual and remain an evolutionary enigma. We determined the sequence of full-length cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mRNA of the earliest diverging dinoflagellate Perkinsus and show that this gene resides in the mt genome. Apparently, this mRNA is not translated in a single reading frame with standard codon usage. Our examination of the nucleotide sequence and three-frame translation of the mRNA suggest that the reading frame must be shifted 10 times, at every AGG and CCC codon, to yield a consensus COX1 protein. We suggest two possible mechanisms for these translational frameshifts: a ribosomal frameshift in which stalled ribosomes skip the first bases of these codons or specialized tRNAs recognizing non-triplet codons, AGGY and CCCCU. Regardless of the mechanism, active and efficient machinery would be required to tolerate the frameshifts predicted in Perkinsus mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of translational frameshifts in protist mitochondria and, by far, is the most extensive case in mitochondria. PMID:20507907

  2. Morphogenesis at the inflorescence shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis: surface geometry and growth in comparison with the vegetative shoot

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geometry and surface growth based on the sequential replica method is used to compare morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis in the reproductive and vegetative phases of development. Formation of three types of lateral organs takes place at the Anagallis shoot apical meristem (SAM): vegetative leaf primordia are formed during the vegetative phase and leaf-like bracts and flower primordia during the reproductive phase. Although the shapes of all the three types of primordia are very similar during their early developmental stages, areal growth rates and anisotropy of apex surface growth accompanying formation of leaf or bract primordia are profoundly different from those during formation of flower primordia. This provides an example of different modes of de novo formation of a given shape. Moreover, growth accompanying the formation of the boundary between the SAM and flower primordium is entirely different from growth at the adaxial leaf or bract primordium boundary. In the latter, areal growth rates at the future boundary are the lowest of all the apex surface, while in the former they are relatively very high. The direction of maximal growth rate is latitudinal (along the future boundary) in the case of leaf or bract primordium but meridional (across the boundary) in the case of flower. The replica method does not enable direct analysis of growth in the direction perpendicular to the apex surface (anticlinal direction). Nevertheless, the reconstructed surfaces of consecutive replicas taken from an individual apex allow general directions of SAM surface bulging accompanying primordium formation to be recognized. Precise alignment of consecutive reconstructions shows that the direction of initial bulging during the leaf or bract formation is nearly parallel to the shoot axis (upward bulging), while in the case of flower it is perpendicular to the axis (lateral bulging). In future, such 3D reconstructions can be used to assess

  3. Medicinal and aromatic plant materials as nitrification inhibitors for augmenting yield and nitrogen uptake of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. Var. Piperascens).

    PubMed

    Kiran, Usha; Patra, D D

    2003-02-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the relative performance of medicinal and aromatic plant materials and dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors to regulate transformation of N from urea. Their effect on the efficiencies of use of N by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis cv. Hy 77) was tested. Urea was coated with these materials viz., Mentha spicata, Artemisia annua or DCD at the rate of 5% (w/w) of fertilizer urea using an appropriate coating technique. Nimin (tetranortriterpenoids, an ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) coating was done at the rate of 1% w/w of urea. Fertilizer nitrogen was applied at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) soil. These natural coating materials significantly increased the herb and essential oil yields of the crop at both rates of fertilizer nitrogen compared to urea alone and were found to be as effective as DCD in retarding NO3- formation in soil. Herb yield increased by 6-81% when compared to uncoated urea. The increase in essential oil yield ranged between 3% and 68% due to coating. The effectiveness of the nitrification-inhibitor--coated urea, however, varied with the soils used and the rate of fertilizer nitrogen applied. The results suggest that the natural products could be potential nitrification inhibitors for increasing fertilizer N use efficiency. PMID:12688470

  4. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    PubMed

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in mint extract (ME) treated fishes compared to citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C. PMID:26396373

  5. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Nesa, Mst Luthfun; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2015-01-01

    Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56%) of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69%) by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain. PMID:25648520

  6. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil. PMID:19763744

  7. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nesa, Mst. Luthfun; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2015-01-01

    Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56%) of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69%) by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain. PMID:25648520

  8. Modelling Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) to Predict Impacts of Changes in Land Management and Policy: Development and Testing of an Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Topping, Christopher J.; Odderskær, Peter; Kahlert, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication of the models. We present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for Skylark (Alauda arvensis) in Danish agricultural landscapes. The model is part of the ALMaSS system, which considers not only individual skylarks, but also the detailed dynamic environment from which they obtain the information necessary to simulate their behaviour. Population responses emerge from individuals interacting with each other and the environment. Model development and testing was carried out using pattern-oriented modelling. The testing procedure was based on the model's ability to represent detailed real world patterns of distribution and density, reproductive performance and seasonal changes in territory numbers. Data to support this was collected over a 13-year period and comprised detailed field observations of breeding birds and intensive surveys. The model was able to recreate the real world data patterns accurately; it was also able to simultaneously fit a number of other secondary system properties which were not formally a part of the testing procedure. The correspondence of model output to real world data and sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed, and the model's description is provided in ODdox format (a formal description inter-linked to the program code). Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility of the model, this open process is essential to engender the user trust and ensure continued development of these comprehensive systems for applied purposes. PMID:23762430

  9. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. PMID:23514759

  10. Electronic and atomic structures of a Sn induced 3√{ 3} × 3√{ 3} superstructure on the Ag/Ge(111) √{ 3} ×√{ 3} surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Hafiz M.; Uhrberg, R. I. G.

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated sub-monolayer coverages of Sn on the Ag/Ge(111) √{ 3} ×√{ 3} surface. It was found that ≈ 0.45 monolayer (ML) resulted in a new, well-defined, reconstruction with a 3√{ 3} × 3√{ 3} periodicity. The periodic structure of the surface atoms was verified by low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. The electronic structure was studied in detail using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and core level spectroscopy at a temperature of 100 K. Several surface bands were identified and their dispersions are presented along the Γbar -Mbar -Γbar and Γbar -Kbar -Mbar high symmetry lines of the 3√{ 3} × 3√{ 3} surface Brillouin zone (SBZ). The 3√{ 3} × 3√{ 3} surface has a metallic character since there is a strong surface band crossing the Fermi level near Γbar points coinciding with Kbar points of the 1 × 1 SBZ. The Fermi contour of the metallic band showed a hexagonal shape in contrast to the circular shaped Fermi contour of the initial √{ 3} ×√{ 3} surface. Both empty and filled state STM images showed a hexagonal arrangement of protrusions with a local √{ 3} ×√{ 3} periodicity and a superimposed modulation of the apparent heights resulting in a 3√{ 3} × 3√{ 3} periodicity.

  11. Effect of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum on the essential oil yield related characters and nutrient acquisition in the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M L; Prasad, Arun; Ram, Muni; Kumar, Sushil

    2002-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomusfasciculatum on the root colonization, growth, essential oil yield and nutrient acquisition of three cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis); Kalka, Shivalik and Gomti, were studied under field conditions. The VAM inoculation significantly increased the root colonization, plant height, fresh herbage and dry matter yield. oil content and oil yield as compared to non-inoculated cultivars. The effect of VAM inoculation on the root colonization, growth and yield of mint was more pronounced with the cv Shivalik than the cvs Kalka and Gomati, indicating Shivalik as a highly mycorrhizal dependent genotype. VAM inoculation significantly increased the uptake of N, P and K by shoot tissues of mint, but most markedly increased the uptake of P. The VAM-inoculated mint plants depleted the available N, P and K in the rhizosphere soil as compared to non-inoculated control plants, however the extent of nutrient depletion was greater for P than N and K. We conclude that the VAM inoculation could significantly increase the root colonization, growth, essential oil yield and nutrient acquisition of mint for obtaining economic production under field conditions. PMID:11708758

  12. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  13. A New Species of Aculops Keifer (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) on Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations have been conducted in Europe in the last decade in order to find potential agents for biological control of invasive teasels in North America. During surveys conducted in Serbia in May 2007, the new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) was ...

  14. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  15. Niche partitioning in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities in temperate grasslands: a lesson from adjacent serpentine and nonserpentine habitats.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Petr; Doubková, Pavla; Bahram, Mohammad; Suda, Jan; Tedersoo, Leho; Voříšková, Jana; Sudová, Radka

    2015-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent an important soil microbial group playing a fundamental role in many terrestrial ecosystems. We explored the effects of deterministic (soil characteristics, host plant life stage, neighbouring plant communities) and stochastic processes on AMF colonization, richness and community composition in roots of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) plants from three serpentine grasslands and adjacent nonserpentine sites. Methodically, the study was based on 454-sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA. In total, we detected 81 molecular taxonomical operational units (MOTUs) belonging to the Glomeromycota. Serpentine character of the site negatively influenced AMF root colonization, similarly as higher Fe concentration. AMF MOTUs richness linearly increased along a pH gradient from 3.5 to 5.8. Contrary, K and Cr soil concentration had a negative influence on AMF MOTUs richness. We also detected a strong relation between neighbouring plant community composition and AMF MOTUs richness. Although spatial distance between the sampled sites (c. 0.3-3 km) contributed to structuring AMF communities in K. arvensis roots, environmental parameters were key factors in this respect. In particular, the composition of AMF communities was shaped by the complex of serpentine conditions, pH and available soil Ni concentration. The composition of AMF communities was also dependent on host plant life stage (vegetative vs. generative). Our study supports the dominance of deterministic factors in structuring AMF communities in heterogeneous environment composed of an edaphic mosaic of serpentine and nonserpentine soils. PMID:25753913

  16. Structural comparison of Ag-Ge-S bulk glasses and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Jain, Mukul; Dunn, Porter; de Leo, Carter; Boolchand, Punit

    2007-03-01

    Ternary glasses of composition (GeS3)1-xAgx (x=0.1 and 0.2) are studied in form of bulk and thin films. Bulk glasses are synthesized and examined in Raman scattering and SEM. Raman scattering results of bulk glasses show that with increasing x, an increasing fraction of the Ag additive enters the base glass as Ag^+ with S^-anions serving to form thiogermanate species with one, two and three non-bridging S^- species. SEM measurements of the bulk glass show the material is intrinsically phase separated. White colored islands are observed distributed in a dark base. The EDS measurements show islands are Ag rich and the base is relatively Ag deficient. The Ag rich islands are expected to be mainly glassy phase Ag2S. Thin films of same compositions are fabricated using thermal evaporation. Films are evaporated following two different procedures to prevent the material from spitting. One method was preheating outgas and the other method was using tungsten mesh wrapped boats. The stoichiometry and molecular structure of films under each procedure are analyzed by Raman scattering and SEM to be compared with bulk glasses.

  17. Materials Data on Ce3(AgGe)4 (SG:71) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is evident from acute toxicity study that it is safe in concentration 100 mg/kg. Further work is required to isolate pharmacologically active compounds. PMID:23773797

  19. Morphological injury to cut-leaf teasel, Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) induced by the eriophyid mite Leipothrix dipsacivagus Petanovic et Rector (Acari: Eriophyoidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eriophyid mite Leipothrix dipsacivagus Petanovic et Rector provokes severe malformations to its host plant, cut-leaf teasel (Dipsacus laciniatus L.), in the field. These injuries were examined at the morpho-anatomical level in infested plants collected in the field and experimentally infested p...

  20. Phenotypic Differences Among Leipothrix dipsacivagus Pet. et Rector and L. knautiae (Liro) (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) Populations Inhabiting Dipsacus L. and Knautia L. (Dipsacaceae) Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only three eriophyoid mite species of the genus Leipothrix Keifer are known to occur on dipsacaceous plants including hosts in the genera Knautia (L.) Succisa Haller, and Dipsacus L.. These three species are similar, but differ in few key characters. Description of eriophyoids includes over 250 char...

  1. Effect of foliar treatments on distribution of /sup 14/C-glyphosate in Convolvulus arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Lauridson, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Field bindweed is a perennial weed which produces shoots from buds on its roots. Herbicides, such as glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) used for control of field bindweed usually do not kill all shoot buds on the roots, thus field bindweed often reinfests areas within 3 to 6 weeks of treatment. This dissertation deals with the development of a technique to change glyphosate distribution in field bindweed roots and could result in less shoot regrowth after glyphosate application. In field studies eight plant growth regulators were applied in September, 3 days before 2.24 kg/ha of 2.4-D((2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid) or 1.68 kg/ha of glyphosate. Eight months later, regrowth of shoots was least where glyphosate was applied at 0.028 kg/ha as a pretreatment, followed by a standard rate of 1.68 kg/ha. In subsequent greenhouse studies, typical patterns of shoot growth and /sup 14/C-glyphosate distribution in isolated root sections taken from 15-week-old intact plants were determined. In subsequent growth chamber studies, plants were decapitated to observe the effect of shoot apical dominance on /sup 14/C-glyphosate translocation. After /sup 14/C-glyphosate was applied, intact plants had about twice as much /sup 14/C in distal root sections as in proximal or middle root sections. Decapitated plants had more /sup 14/C in proximal and middle root sections than in distal sections, and about twice as much /sup 14/C was translocated to roots of decapitated plants than intact plants. Eight concentrations of 2,4,-D or glyphosate from 1 to 5000 ppm were applied in logarithmic series to 6-week old plants.

  2. A novel mutation, IVS2-2AgG, associated with acute intermittent porphyria in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Huang; Xianfeng, Zhang; Hui, Han; Yuhong, Zhan; Chu, Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Porphyria is a group of disorders caused by the accumulation of porphyrin and porphyrin precursors due to the abnormalities in certain enzymes that normally participate in the production of haem. We report a case of a woman with severe menstruation-related abdominal pain, hyponatraemia, and psychiatric symptoms. Excessive porphobilinogen was found in her urine. A new mutation in intron 2 (IVS2-2Ag→G), which had never previously been reported in patients with porphyria or in healthy Chinese population, was identified in the heterozygous state in the patient and her mother. PMID:26228342

  3. Yield and composition of oil from japanese cornmint fresh and dry material harvested successively

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvest time and drying on Mentha canadensis L. cvs. ‘Arvensis 2’ and ‘Arvensis 3’. Biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. ‘Arvensis 2’ had greater oil content than ‘Arvensis 3’, while ‘Arvensis 3’ had h...

  4. Organic C dynamics and its conservation under wheat (Triticum aesetivum) - mint (Mentha arvensis)-Sesbania rostrata cropping in sub-tropical condition of northern Indo-Gangetic plains.

    PubMed

    Patra, D D; Chand, Sukhmal; Anwar, M

    2014-03-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is accumulated or depleted as a result of cropping and management strategies. It plays a significant role in maintaining soil quality, plant productivity and mitigating greenhouse gas emission. We studied the long-term (20 years) influence of a wheat-mint-Sesbania cropping system on the SOC stock. Estimates of stabilization of SOC in different pools and a tentative C budget were also developed. Twenty years of cultivation caused a decrease in SOC only in control soils, which received no manure and fertilizer. However, it increased with balanced use of NPK inputs. Soil C stock decreased significantly with increased in soil depth 0-15 cm to 15-30 and 30-45 cm. About 6% (-2 to+14) of the C added in crop residues and green manure were stabilized in the soil. On an average 12%, 14%, 59%, 15% of the water stable aggregates were in the >2 mm, 2.0-0.25 mm, 0.25-0.05 mm, and <0-0.5 size fractions, respectively. Significant improvements in structural stability and nitrogen availability were detected in all the treatments compared to the control. The amount of organic C oxidizable by a modified Walkley and Black method, which involves using only half of the amount of sulphuric acid, is a more sensitive indicator of the improvement in soil quality parameters under investigation, namely SOC, and increases in mineralizable N and water stable aggregation than the standard method. PMID:24531383

  5. Optimization of water and nitrogen application to menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) through sugarcane trash mulch in a sandy loam soil of semi-arid subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dasha; Ram, Muni; Singh, Ranjeet

    2006-05-01

    Studies were carried out to optimize the use of water and nutrients by the crop with three moisture regimes [0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 irrigation water:cumulative pan evaporation (IW:CPE) ratios], two variables of organic mulch (control and sugarcane trash at 7 t/ha) and three levels of nitrogen (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha). Soil moisture regimes maintained at 1.2 IW:CPE ratio significantly increased the crop growth and herb and essential oil yields as compared with that of 0.9 IW:CPE ratio. The increase in herb yield due to 1.5 and 1.2 IW:CPE ratios was recorded to be 28.5% and 19%, respectively, over the irrigation given at 0.9 IW:CPE ratio, with the corresponding increase in essential oil yield to the extent of 23.5% and 15.5%. Interaction effect of moisture regimes and nitrogen rates indicated that increasing levels of irrigation at the highest level of N (200 kg/ha) improved essential oil yield of the crop. Application of N at 200 kg/ha in the mulched plots significantly enhanced the N uptake by the crop and essential oil yield over the control and 100 kg N/ha applied in the mulched/or unmulched plots and 200 kg N/ha applied in the unmulched plots. Application of organic mulch and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha improved the water use efficiency (WUE) in menthol mint crop. Higher moisture regimes maintained up to 1.2 IW:CPE ratio increased the WUE. The quality of essential oil in terms of its major constituent, menthol, improved slightly with 1.2 IW:CPE ratio as compared to 0.9 and 1.5 IW:CPE ratios at first and second harvests of the crop. It is recommended that menthol mint crop could be grown profitably by providing 16 irrigations, that is 80 cm water (based on 1.2 IW:CPE ratio) and nitrogen at 200 kg/ha in the sugarcane trash mulched plots, which could give a highest benefit:cost ratio from menthol mint cropping. PMID:16005209

  6. FIRST REPORT OF POWDERY MILDEW ON DIPSACUS SYLVESTRIS CAUSED BY SPHAEROTHECA DIPSACEARUM IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dipsacus sylvestris (syn. D. fullonum, common teasel) (Dipsacaceae) is a European species introduced into North America, and now widely established and regarded as a noxious weed. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) reported previously from this host included Phyllactinia species in Washington State...

  7. A new species of Leipothrix Keifer, 1966 (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Dipsacus spp. in Europe and reassignment of two Epitrimerus spp. (Acari: Eriophyidae) to the genus Leipothrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of eriophyid mite, Leipothrix dipsacivagus n. sp., collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) and D. fullonum L. in Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria, and France, is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Leipothrix knautiae (Liro) n. co...

  8. Host range testing and biology of Abia sericea (Cimbicidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp., Dipsacaceae) are widespread in the USA, being present in 43 states and listed as noxious in five. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (L.) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. The host range, biology, and life history of this ins...

  9. Biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes key aspects of the biology of Leipothrix dipsacivagus, an eriophyid mite that was recently described as a new species from Dipsacus fullonum and D. laciniatus (Dipsacaceae). Preliminary host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus s...

  10. Host-specificity testing on Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae), a candidate for biological control of Dipsacus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leipothrix dipsacivagus Petanovic & Rector is the first eriophyid mite recorded from hosts in the genus Dipsacus and is considered a potential candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacaceae). Host-specificity testing on Leipothrix dipsacivagus (Acari: Eriophyidae) was carried out ...

  11. Effect of Process Parameters on Abnormal Grain Growth during Friction Stir Processing of a Cast Al Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Baumann, John A.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2010-11-25

    The effects of process parameters and friction stir processing (FSP) run configurations on the stability of nugget microstructure at elevated temperatures were evaluated. Cast plates of an Al-7Si- 0.6Mg alloy were friction stir processed using a combination of tool rotation rates and tool traverse speeds. All single pass runs showed some extent of abnormal grain growth (AGG), whereas multi-pass runs were more resistant to AGG. Additionally, higher tool rpm was found to be beneficial for controlling AGG. These effects were analyzed by comparing the result of this work with other published results and AGG models.

  12. Agglutinogens and fimbriae of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, L A; Robinson, A; Funnell, S; Gorringe, A R; Irons, L I; Seabrook, R N

    1988-01-01

    Agglutinogen 2 (AGG2) of Bordetella pertussis is a fimbrial antigen and therefore a potential adhesin and acellular vaccine component. AGG2 was found to dissociate only under harsh conditions into the subunits of mol. wt. 22500 seen in SDS-PAGE. Results from studies of agglutinogen 3 (AGG3) are presented which confirm previous findings from this Laboratory that AGG3 is also a fimbrial protein but with a subunit mol. wt. of 22000. The amino acid sequence of AGG2, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding it, was used as a basis for synthesis of three peptides. Coupled to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), the peptides were immunogenic in mice, inducing antibodies which bound well to homologous peptide in ELISA but poorly to intact fimbriae. Monoclonal and polyclonal serotype-specific antibodies failed to react significantly with the peptides or their KLH-conjugates. These results indicate that the synthetic peptides do not represent the serotype 2 epitope. Mice immunized with purified AGG2 or AGG3 were found to be protected against respiratory infection with B. pertussis. Results presented here indicate that this protection is, to a large extent, serotype-specific and that immunization of mice with AGG2 or AGG3 can lead to a change in serotype of the infecting strain. These results are analogous to findings from epidemiological studies of the protection induced in children by whole cell vaccines. They reaffirm the importance of both AGG2 and AGG3 as components of whole cell and acellular vaccines. PMID:2908520

  13. Abrus agglutinin suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo by inducing caspase-mediated cell death

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Das, Durgesh Nandini; Sinha, Niharika; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Bhutia, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Abrus agglutinin (AGG) from the seeds of Indian medicinal plant Abrus precatorius belongs to the class II ribosome inactivating protein family. In this study we investigated the anticancer effects of AGG against human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cell proliferation, DNA fragmentation, Annexin V binding, immunocytofluorescence, Western blotting, caspase activity assays and luciferase assays were performed to evaluate AGG in human liver cancer cells HepG2. Immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL expression were studied in tumor samples of HepG2-xenografted nude mice. Results: AGG induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AGG-treated HepG2 cells demonstrated an increase in caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 activities and a sharp decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating activation of a caspase cascade. Co-treatment of HepG2 cells with AGG and a caspase inhibitor or treatment of AGG in Bax knockout HepG2 cells decreased the caspase 3/7 activity in comparison to HepG2 cells exposed only to AGG. Moreover, AGG decreased the expression of Hsp90 and suppressed Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB expression in HepG2 cells. Finally, AGG treatment significantly reduced tumor growth in nude mice bearing HepG2 xenografts, increased TUNEL expression and decreased CD-31 and Ki-67 expression compared to levels observed in the untreated control mice bearing HepG2 cells. Conclusion: AGG inhibits the growth and progression of HepG2 cells by inducing caspase-mediated cell death. The agglutinin could be an alternative natural remedy for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:24793310

  14. Etiological Distinctions between Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behavior: Results from a Nuclear Twin Family Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt ("Clinical Psychology Review," 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment.…

  15. Abrus agglutinin is a potent anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic agent in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Sujit K; Behera, Birendra; Nandini Das, Durgesh; Mukhopadhyay, Subhadip; Sinha, Niharika; Panda, Prashanta Kumar; Naik, Prajna Paramita; Patra, Samir K; Mandal, Mahitosh; Sarkar, Siddik; Menezes, Mitchell E; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Maiti, Tapas K; Das, Swadesh K; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2016-07-15

    Abrus agglutinin (AGG), a plant lectin isolated from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, has documented antitumor and immunostimulatory effects in murine models. To examine possible antitumor activity against breast cancer, we established human breast tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice and intraperitoneally administered AGG. AGG inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis as confirmed by monitoring the expression of Ki-67 and CD-31, respectively. In addition, TUNEL positive cells increased in breast tumors treated with AGG suggesting that AGG mediates anti-tumorigenic activity through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. On a molecular level, AGG caused extrinsic apoptosis through ROS generation that was AKT-dependent in breast cancer cells, without affecting primary mammary epithelial cells, suggesting potential cancer specificity of this natural compound. In addition, using HUVECs, AGG inhibited expression of the pro-angiogenic factor IGFBP-2 in an AKT-dependent manner, reducing angiogenic phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the present results establish that AGG promotes both apoptosis and anti-angiogenic activities in human breast tumor cells, which might be exploited for treatment of breast and other cancers. PMID:26914517

  16. Reassignment of a rare sense codon to a non-canonical amino acid in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Mihoko; Hayashi, Akiko; Iraha, Fumie; Kira, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Tatsuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hoshi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takatsugu; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    The immutability of the genetic code has been challenged with the successful reassignment of the UAG stop codon to non-natural amino acids in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we demonstrated the in vivo reassignment of the AGG sense codon from arginine to l-homoarginine. As the first step, we engineered a novel variant of the archaeal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) able to recognize l-homoarginine and l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (l-NIL). When this PylRS variant or HarRS was expressed in E. coli, together with the AGG-reading tRNAPylCCU molecule, these arginine analogs were efficiently incorporated into proteins in response to AGG. Next, some or all of the AGG codons in the essential genes were eliminated by their synonymous replacements with other arginine codons, whereas the majority of the AGG codons remained in the genome. The bacterial host's ability to translate AGG into arginine was then restricted in a temperature-dependent manner. The temperature sensitivity caused by this restriction was rescued by the translation of AGG to l-homoarginine or l-NIL. The assignment of AGG to l-homoarginine in the cells was confirmed by mass spectrometric analyses. The results showed the feasibility of breaking the degeneracy of sense codons to enhance the amino-acid diversity in the genetic code. PMID:26240376

  17. An examination of abnormal grain growth in low strain nickel-200

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Underwood, O.; Madison, J.; Martens, R. M.; Thompson, G. B.; Welsh, S.; Evans, J.

    2016-06-21

    Here, this study offers experimental observation of the effect of low strain conditions (ε < 10%) on abnormal grain growth (AGG) in Nickel-200. At such conditions, stored mechanical energy is low within the microstructure enabling one to observe the impact of increasing mechanical deformation on the early onset of AGG compared to a control, or nondeformed, equivalent sample. The onset of AGG was observed to occur at specific pairings of compressive strain and annealing temperature and an empirical relation describing the influence of thermal exposure and strain content was developed. The evolution of low-Σ coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries andmore » overall grain size distributions are quantified using electron backscatter diffraction preceding, at onset and during ensuing AGG, whereby possible mechanisms for AGG in the low strain regime are offered and discussed.« less

  18. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein regulates cell wall defense and resistance to necrotrophic fungi.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Escudero, Viviana; Miedes, Eva; Fernández, Paula Virginia; Jordá, Lucía; Hernández-Blanco, Camilo; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Bednarek, Pawel; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Somerville, Shauna; Estevez, José Manuel; Persson, Staffan; Molina, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein controls defense responses to necrotrophic and vascular fungi. The agb1 mutant impaired in the Gβ subunit displays enhanced susceptibility to these pathogens. Gβ/AGB1 forms an obligate dimer with either one of the Arabidopsis Gγ subunits (γ1/AGG1 and γ2/AGG2). Accordingly, we now demonstrate that the agg1 agg2 double mutant is as susceptible as agb1 plants to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. To elucidate the molecular basis of heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated resistance, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of agb1-1 mutant and wild-type plants upon inoculation with P. cucumerina. This analysis, together with metabolomic studies, demonstrated that G-protein-mediated resistance was independent of defensive pathways required for resistance to necrotrophic fungi, such as the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, abscisic acid, and tryptophan-derived metabolites signaling, as these pathways were not impaired in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants. Notably, many mis-regulated genes in agb1 plants were related with cell wall functions, which was also the case in agg1 agg2 mutant. Biochemical analyses and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy of cell walls from G-protein mutants revealed that the xylose content was lower in agb1 and agg1 agg2 mutants than in wild-type plants, and that mutant walls had similar FTIR spectratypes, which differed from that of wild-type plants. The data presented here suggest a canonical functionality of the Gβ and Gγ1/γ2 subunits in the control of Arabidopsis immune responses and the regulation of cell wall composition. PMID:21980142

  19. How do we optimally conceptualize the heterogeneity within antisocial behavior? An argument for aggressive versus non-aggressive behavioral dimensions.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2012-06-01

    Extant research has highlighted meaningful distinctions in the correlates, developmental trajectories, and etiologies of physically aggressive (AGG) as compared to non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior. AGG is a highly heritable behavioral dimension that emerges in early childhood and exhibits specific ties to negative emotionality and executive dysfunction. Although the frequency of aggressive behaviors decreases after early childhood, those who are most aggressive early in life typically continue to aggress at relatively high rates across the lifespan. By contrast, RB demonstrates specific associations with impulsivity, is most frequent during adolescence, and evidences more moderate levels of stability and stronger environmental influences as compared to AGG. These etiological and developmental differences link up quite well to Moffitt's (1993) developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior, providing a clear theoretical basis for examining differences between AGG and RB. Perhaps more importantly, however, the link between AGG/RB and Moffitt's taxonomy allows us to conceptualize her categorical taxonomy in dimensional terms, an important development given the recent emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology. Available evidence further indicates that neither AGG nor RB is redundant with callous-unemotional traits. The current review thus underscores the clear advantages of differentiating between AGG and RB when studying antisocial behavior. PMID:22459789

  20. Analysis of FMR1 (CGG)n alleles and FRAXA microsatellite haplotypes in the population of Greenland: implications for the population of the New World from Asia.

    PubMed

    Larsen, L A; Armstrong, J S; Grønskov, K; Hjalgrim, H; Brøndum-Nielsen, K; Hasholt, L; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Vuust, J

    1999-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is caused by the expansion of a polymorphic (CGG)n tract in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene. Apparently the incidence of fragile X syndrome is rare in the population of Greenland. In order to examine population-related factors involved in stability of the (CGG)n sequence, DNA samples obtained randomly from the Greenlandic population were analysed for size and AGG interspersion pattern of the FMR1 (CGG)n region and associated DXS548-FRAXAC1 haplotypes. In addition a large Greenland family with unstable transmission in the premutation range was analysed. The (CGG)n allele sizes in the Greenland population showed a narrow distribution similar to that reported for Asian populations. DNA sequencing of alleles with 36 CGG repeats revealed an AGG(CGG)6 insertion previously reported exclusively in Asian populations and a high frequency of alleles with a (CGG)10AGG(CGG)9AGG(CGG)9 or (CGG)9AGG(CGG)9AGG(CGG)6AGG(CGG)9 sequence pattern was found. Thus the data confirm the Asian origin of the Greenlandic (Eskimo) population and indicates that some (CGG)n alleles have remained stable for 15-30,000 years, since the population of the New World arrived from Asia via the Bering Strait. PMID:10573009

  1. Recoding method that removes inhibitory sequences and improves HIV gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Rabadan, Raul; Krasnitz, Michael; Robins, Harlan; Witten, Daniela; Levine, Arnold

    2016-08-23

    The invention relates to inhibitory nucleotide signal sequences or "INS" sequences in the genomes of lentiviruses. In particular the invention relates to the AGG motif present in all viral genomes. The AGG motif may have an inhibitory effect on a virus, for example by reducing the levels of, or maintaining low steady-state levels of, viral RNAs in host cells, and inducing and/or maintaining in viral latency. In one aspect, the invention provides vaccines that contain, or are produced from, viral nucleic acids in which the AGG sequences have been mutated. In another aspect, the invention provides methods and compositions for affecting the function of the AGG motif, and methods for identifying other INS sequences in viral genomes.

  2. Digital data from the Great Sand Dunes airborne gravity gradient survey, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Labson, V.F.; Hodges, G.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains digital data and supporting explanatory files describing data types, data formats, and survey procedures for a high-resolution airborne gravity gradient (AGG) survey at Great Sand Dunes National Park, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, south-central Colorado. In the San Luis Valley, the Great Sand Dunes survey covers a large part of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. The data described were collected from a high-resolution AGG survey flown in February 2012, by Fugro Airborne Surveys Corp., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. Scientific objectives of the AGG survey are to investigate the subsurface structural framework that may influence groundwater hydrology and seismic hazards, and to investigate AGG methods and resolution using different flight specifications. Funding was provided by an airborne geophysics training program of the U.S. Department of Defense's Task Force for Business & Stability Operations.

  3. CTEPP OVERVIEW: A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study, "Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants," (CTEPP) is a pilot-scale project involving about 260 children in their everyday surroundings. The objectives of CTEPP are twofold: (1) To measure the agg...

  4. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  5. Comparative Study of Bone Marrow and Blood B Cells in Infantile and Acquired Agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Nabih I.; Casella, Salvatore R.; Abdou, Nancy L.; Abrahamsohn, Ises A.

    1973-01-01

    The status of immunoglobulin (Ig) receptors of the bone marrow dependent (B) cells present in either the bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) of three patients with infantile agammaglobulinemia (I-AGG), or seven patients with acquired agammaglobulinemia (A-AGG) is compared with those of 12 controls. Quantitative and qualitative changes of the different classes of Ig receptors on B cells were evaluated by their capacity to bind [125I]anti-Ig, to be stained with fluorescinated anti-Ig and their in vitro proliferative capacity upon incubation with the anti-Ig. Patients with I-AGG lacked B cells in both the BM and PB. Whereas BM cells of patients with A-AGG carried receptors similar to control cells, their blood B cells had fewer IgM, IgG, and IgA cells which failed to proliferate in vitro in the presence of the anti-Ig. An anti-IgM of the IgG class was detected in the sera of patients with A-AGG but not in sera of I-AGG. The isolated anti-IgM agglutinated human red cells coated with IgM. The anti-IgM partially blocked the binding of fluorescinated or radiolabeled anti-IgM to IgM peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal controls. The eluted anti-IgM in presence of complement was partially cytotoxic to normal cells. It is concluded that I-AGG-B cell defect is due to failure of B cell development in the bone marrow compartment whereas the peripheral exclusion of IgM cells by an anti-IgM with the subsequent failure of differentiation of both IgG and IgA cells could be an important mechanism in A-AGG-B cell defect. PMID:4580388

  6. New understanding of the role of coincidence site lattice boundaries in abnormal grain growth of aluminium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Soo; Park, Hyung-Ki; Shim, Hyung-Seok; Na, Tae-Wook; Han, Chan-Hee; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2015-04-01

    The sequential microstructure evolution of abnormal grain growth (AGG) in the aluminium alloy (AA5052) was investigated to analyse the migration behaviour of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries, which are known to play an important role in inducing AGG. The sequential evolution showed that CSL boundaries tend to disappear more slowly than general boundaries at the growth front of abnormally growing grains. Especially, the migration rate of Σ9 boundaries was noticeably low, which is contrary to the previous suggestions.

  7. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth) through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Keyhani, Leila; Heydari, Mehrangiz; Dashti-R, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. Objective: In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight) of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG) on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. Materials and Methods: AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. Results: AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE) was observed (117.4%) 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system. PMID:25878459

  8. Aggregate entropy scoring for quantifying activity across endpoints with irregular correlation structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhu; Marvel, Skylar; Truong, Lisa; Tanguay, Robert L; Reif, David M

    2016-07-01

    Robust computational approaches are needed to characterize systems-level responses to chemical perturbations in environmental and clinical toxicology applications. Appropriate characterization of response presents a methodological challenge when dealing with diverse phenotypic endpoints measured using in vivo systems. In this article, we propose an information-theoretic method named Aggregate Entropy (AggE) and apply it to scoring multiplexed, phenotypic endpoints measured in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) across a broad concentration-response profile for a diverse set of 1060 chemicals. AggE accurately identified chemicals with significant morphological effects, including single-endpoint effects and multi-endpoint responses that would have been missed by univariate methods, while avoiding putative false-positives that confound traditional methods due to irregular correlation structure. By testing AggE in a variety of high-dimensional real and simulated datasets, we have characterized its performance and suggested implementation parameters that can guide its application across a wide range of experimental scenarios. PMID:27132190

  9. Normal and shear interactions between hyaluronan-aggrecan complexes mimicking possible boundary lubricants in articular cartilage in synovial joints.

    PubMed

    Seror, Jasmine; Merkher, Yulia; Kampf, Nir; Collinson, Lisa; Day, Anthony J; Maroudas, Alice; Klein, Jacob

    2012-11-12

    Using a surface force balance, normal and shear interactions have been measured between two atomically smooth surfaces coated with hyaluronan (HA), and with HA/aggrecan (Agg) complexes stabilized by cartilage link protein (LP). Such HA/Agg/LP complexes are the most abundant mobile macromolecular species permeating articular cartilage in synovial joints and have been conjectured to be present as boundary lubricants at its surface. The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the extremely efficient lubrication when two cartilage surfaces slide past each other in healthy joints, and in particular to elucidate the possible role in this of the HA/Agg/LP complexes. Within the range of our parameters, our results reveal that the HA/Agg/LP macromolecular surface complexes are much better boundary lubricants than HA alone, likely because of the higher level of hydration, due to the higher charge density, of the HA/Agg/LP layers with respect to the HA alone. However, the friction coefficients (μ) associated with the mutual interactions and sliding of opposing HA/Agg/LP layers (μ ≈ 0.01 up to pressure P of ca. 12 atm, increasing sharply at higher P) suggest that such complexes by themselves cannot account for the remarkable boundary lubrication observed in mammalian joints (up to P > 50 atm). PMID:23074968

  10. Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness-IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, Rainer; Messer, Mario; Fischer, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self-concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness-IAT (Agg-IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self-report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self-report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg-IAT accounted for 9-15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg-IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg-IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self-control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg-IAT scores. The one-week stability of the Agg-IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 41:65-83 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539875

  11. Investigating the effect of ballasting by CaCO 3 in Emiliania huxleyi: I. Formation, settling velocities and physical properties of aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Anja; Szlosek, Jennifer; Abramson, Lynn; Liu, Zhanfei; Lee, Cindy

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the role of ballasting by biogenic minerals in the export of organic matter in the ocean, a laboratory experiment was conducted comparing aggregate formation and settling velocity of non-calcifying and calcifying strains of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Experiments were conducted by making aggregates using a roller table and following aggregate properties during incubation for a period of 40 days. Size, shape, and settling velocities of aggregates were described by image analysis of video pictures recorded during the roller tank incubation. Our results show that biogenic calcite has a strong effect on the formation rate and abundance of aggregates and on aggregate properties such as size, excess density, porosity, and settling velocity. Aggregates of calcifying cells (AGG CAL) formed faster, were smaller and had higher settling velocities, excess densities, and mass than those of non-calcifying cells (AGG NCAL). AGG CAL showed no loss during the duration of the experiment, whereas AGG NCAL decreased in size after 1 month of incubation. Potential mechanisms that can explain the different patterns in aggregate formation are discussed. Comparison of settling velocities of AGG CAL and AGG NCAL with aggregates formed by diatoms furthermore indicated that the ballast effect of calcite is greater than that of opal. Together these results help to better understand why calcite is of major importance for organic matter fluxes to the deep ocean.

  12. A new iridoid glycoside from the roots of Dipsacus asper.

    PubMed

    Ji, De; Zhang, Chunfeng; Li, Jingzhi; Yang, Haowei; Shen, Jingyang; Yang, Zhonglin

    2012-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, named loganic acid ethyl ester (1), together with five known compounds: chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), loganin (4), cantleyoside (5) and syringaresinol-4',4''-O-bis-β-D-glucoside (6) were isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses. Lignan is isolated from Dipsacaceae species for the first time. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 had moderate neuroprotective effects against the Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ induced cell death in PC12 cells. PMID:22306831

  13. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines – Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘, Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species). PMID

  14. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    PubMed

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species). PMID:26629690

  15. AFLP marking and polymorphism among progenies of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant of India.

    PubMed

    Osman, Magda Abbaker; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Bahl, Janak Raj; Darokar, Mahendra P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2011-11-01

    The level of polymorphism among twelve selected progenies of Gymnema sylvestre was investigated through AFLP markers by multiplexing PCR reactions using 64 (8x8) primer combinations. Fourteen primer combinations were selected as the most suitable combination for G. sylvestre. Analysis of the 12 progenies with these 14 primer pairs produced 1689 fragments of which 972 (57.5%) were polymorphic and 485 (28.7%) were unique to a particular genotype. The number of fragments produced by individual primer pairs was in the range of 55 to 225. Out of these, polymorphic fragments were in the range of 34 (E-ACC/M-CAC) to 157 (E-AGG/M-CAG) and unique bands observed were 8 (E-ACC / M-CAC) to 69 (E-AGG/M-CAC). Different primer combinations detected different levels of polymorphism, ranging from 33% (E-AGG/ M-CAC) to 69.8% (E-AGG/ M-CAC). From the observations, it appears that the primer combinations E-AGG/M-CAC, E-AGG/CTG, E-AGG/CAG and E-ACA/CAT were the most informative for the detection of polymorphism among the progenies compared with others, since they produced a high number of unique fragments. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.212 to 0.731. High similarity was observed between progeny S8 and S9 (73%) and high divergence between progenies S3 and S11. Among the selected progeny, S9 was found to be the most similar to the parent (63%), while genotype S11 was the most distant (36.9%). PMID:22224288

  16. Adjusting particle-size distributions to account for aggregation in tephra-deposit model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, Larry G.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Durant, Adam J.

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are used to forecast tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. Model accuracy is limited by the fact that fine-ash aggregates (clumps into clusters), thus altering patterns of deposition. In most models this is accounted for by ad hoc changes to model input, representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg, and a log-normal size distribution with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Optimal values may vary between eruptions. To test the variance, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens; 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr); 17 June 1996 Ruapehu; and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt. In 192 simulations, we systematically varied μagg and σagg, holding ρagg constant at 600 kg m-3. We evaluated the fit using three indices that compare modeled versus measured (1) mass load at sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, under these inputs, the best-fit value of μagg ranged narrowly between ˜ 2.3 and 2.7φ (0.20-0.15 mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine ( < 0.063 mm) ash (3-59 %), atmospheric temperature, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that aggregation may be treated as a discrete process that is insensitive to eruptive style or magnitude. This result offers the potential for a simple, computationally efficient parameterization scheme for use in operational model forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  17. A large family of anti-activators accompanying XylS/AraC family regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Yan, Michael B; Tran, Minh; Wright, Nathan; Luzader, Deborah H; Kendall, Melissa M; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P

    2016-07-01

    AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) suppress virulence genes by directly down-regulating AraC/XylS members in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we sought to investigate the distribution and molecular mechanisms of regulatory function for ANRs among different bacterial pathogens. We identified more than 200 ANRs distributed in diverse clinically important gram negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and members of the Pasteurellaceae. By employing a bacterial two hybrid system, pull down assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, we demonstrate that Aar (AggR-activated regulator), a prototype member of the ANR family in EAEC, binds with high affinity to the central linker domain of AraC-like member AggR. ANR-AggR binding disrupted AggR dimerization and prevented AggR-DNA binding. ANR homologs of Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella enterica and ETEC were capable of complementing Aar activity by repressing aggR expression in EAEC strain 042. ANR homologs of ETEC and Vibrio cholerae bound to AggR as well as to other members of the AraC family, including Rns and ToxT. The predicted proteins of all ANR members exhibit three highly conserved predicted α-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that at least predicted α-helices 2 and 3 are required for Aar activity. In sum, our data strongly suggest that members of the novel ANR family act by directly binding to their cognate AraC partners. PMID:27038276

  18. Best Practicable Aggregation of Species: a step forward for species surrogacy in environmental assessment and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Claudet, Joachim; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The available taxonomic expertise and knowledge of species is still inadequate to cope with the urgent need for cost-effective methods to quantifying community response to natural and anthropogenic drivers of change. So far, the mainstream approach to overcome these impediments has focused on using higher taxa as surrogates for species. However, the use of such taxonomic surrogates often limits inferences about the causality of community patterns, which in turn is essential for effective environmental management strategies. Here, we propose an alternative approach to species surrogacy, the "Best Practicable Aggregation of Species" (BestAgg), in which surrogates exulate from fixed taxonomic schemes. The approach uses null models from random aggregations of species to minimizing the number of surrogates without causing significant losses of information on community patterns. Surrogate types are then selected in order to maximize ecological information. We applied the approach to real case studies on natural and human-driven gradients from marine benthic communities. Outcomes from BestAgg were also compared with those obtained using classic taxonomic surrogates. Results showed that BestAgg surrogates are effective in detecting community changes. In contrast to classic taxonomic surrogates, BestAgg surrogates allow retaining significantly higher information on species-level community patterns than what is expected to occur by chance and a potential time saving during sample processing up to 25% higher. Our findings showed that BestAgg surrogates from a pilot study could be used successfully in similar environmental investigations in the same area, or for subsequent long-term monitoring programs. BestAgg is virtually applicable to any environmental context, allowing exploiting multiple surrogacy schemes beyond stagnant perspectives strictly relying on taxonomic relatedness among species. This prerogative is crucial to extend the concept of species surrogacy to

  19. The etiological moderation of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior by age.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2009-08-01

    A recent study has suggested that aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive, rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior evidence differential and subtype-specific patterns of genetic expression during development. Namely, although genetic influences on RB increase dramatically during early- to mid-adolescence, genetic influences on AGG appear to remain stable. As no other study has examined age-related change in AGG versus RB, more research is clearly needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn. The current study thus examined whether and how age impacted genetic and environmental influences on AGG and RB in a sample of 252 10- to 15-year-old twin pairs assessed as part of the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Results constructively replicated and extended prior findings, indicating that while the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on AGG remained stable across adolescence, genetic influences on RB increased dramatically with age. Such findings provide additional support for etiological distinctions within the broader construct of antisocial behavior based on the presence or absence of aggression, and offer insights into the expression of genetic influences during development. PMID:19653834

  20. Investigation of Abnormal Grain Growth in a Friction Stir Welded and Spin-Formed Al-Li Alloy 2195 Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayon, Wesley A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve manufacturing efficiency and reduce structural mass and costs in the production of launch vehicle structures, NASA is pursuing a wide-range of innovative, near-net shape manufacturing technologies. A technology that combines friction stir welding (FSW) and spin-forming has been applied to manufacture a single-piece crew module using Aluminum-Lithium (AL-Li) Alloy 2195. Plate size limitations for Al-Li alloy 2195 require that two plates be FSW together to produce a spin-forming blank of sufficient size to form the crew module. Subsequent forming of the FSW results in abnormal grain growth (AGG) within the weld region upon solution heat treatment (SHT), which detrimentally impacts strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The current study seeks to identify microstructural factors that contribute to the development of AGG. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to correlate driving forces for AGG, such as stored energy, texture, and grain size distributions, with the propensity for AGG. Additionally, developmental annealing treatments prior to SHT are examined to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of AGG by promoting continuous, or uniform, grain growth

  1. Mitigating Abnormal Grain Growth for Friction Stir Welded Al-Li 2195 Spun Formed Domes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Russell, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Formability and abnormal grain growth (AGG) are the two major issues that have been encountered for Al alloy spun formed dome development using friction stir welded blanks. Material properties that have significant influence on the formability include forming range and strain hardening exponent. In this study, tensile tests were performed for two 2195 friction stir weld parameter sets at 400 F to study the effects of post weld anneal on the forming range and strain hardening exponent. It was found that the formability can be enhanced by applying a newly developed post weld anneal to heat treat the friction stir welded panels. This new post weld anneal leads to a higher forming range and much improved strain hardening exponent. AGG in the weld nugget is known to cause a significant reduction of ductility and fracture toughness. This study also investigated how AGG may be influenced by the heating rate to the solution heat treatment temperature. After post-weld annealing, friction stir welds were strained to 15% and 39% by compression at 400 F before they were subjected to SHT at 950 F for 1 hour. Salt bath SHT is very effective in reducing the grain size as it helps arrest the onset of AGG and promote normal recrystallization and grain growth. However, heat treating a 18 ft dome using a salt bath is not practical. Efforts are continuing at Marshall Space Flight Center to identify the welding parameters and heat treating parameters that can help mitigate the AGG in the friction stir welds.

  2. Are there meaningful etiological differences within antisocial behavior? Results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2009-03-01

    There is mounting evidence of etiologically driven distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) forms of antisocial behavior. To date, however, these differences remain somewhat speculative. The current meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies sought to clarify these distinctions by comparing meta-analytic estimates of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences across AGG and RB to more clearly ascertain whether they evidence differential patterns of genetic and environmental influence. A comprehensive literature search resulted in the collection of 103 twin and adoption studies, of which 15 RB samples and 19 AGG samples were ultimately included in the analyses. Results reveal clear evidence of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB. Namely, AGG appears to be a highly heritable condition (genetic factors account for 65% of the variance), with little role for the shared or common environment, particularly after childhood. By contrast, while genetic influences also contribute to RB (48% of the variance), there is an important role for shared environmental effects as well (18% of the variance). Such findings are indicative of meaningful etiologic distinctions between aggressive and rule-breaking forms of antisocial behavior, and underscore the advantage of differentiating between these behavioral subtypes when studying the causal processes that underlie antisocial behavior. PMID:19193479

  3. Friction-Stir-Welded and Spin-Formed End Domes for Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, S. J.; Tayon, W. A.; Domack, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of single-piece end domes for cryogenic tanks employing spin forming of tailored, friction-stir-welded blanks of Al-Li alloy 2195 plate offers cost and reliability benefits. The introduction of plastic deformation into a friction stir weld is a unique feature of the proposed manufacturing route. This investigation addressed abnormal grain growth [AGG] within the friction stir weldments during postfabrication processing of a prototype dome. The phenomenon of AGG was observed during the solution heat treatment [SHT] phase of T8 tempering and is a major concern for meeting specifications. Such abrupt microstructural transitions can be detrimental to notch-sensitive mechanical properties, such as ductility and/or fracture toughness. If the issue of AGG cannot be resolved, then the acceptance of this approach as a viable manufacturing route may be in jeopardy. The innovative approach adopted in this investigation was the insertion of a stand-alone, Intermediate Annealing Treatment [IAT] between the spin forming and T8 processing operations. A simple, recovery annealing step was deemed to be the most readily-scalable solution when fabricating thin-walled, ellipsoidal domes. The research effort culminated in the development of an effective IAT, which resulted in a significant decrease in AGG following SHT. The processing philosophy adopted in designing the IAT is outlined and the microstructural reasons for success are discussed. The analytical results presented are consistent with promoting continuous grain growth during the IAT, thereby suppressing AGG during the SHT.

  4. Global Goss grain growth and grain boundary characteristics in magnetostrictive Galfenol sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, S. M.; Flatau, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Single Goss grains were globally grown in magnetostrictive Galfenol thin sheets via an abnormal grain growth (AGG) process. The sample behaves like single crystal Galfenol, exhibiting large magnetostriction along the <100> axes. Small variations in surface energy conditions, which were governed by different flow rates of 0.5% H2S gas in argon during annealing, had a significant impact of the development of AGG. AGG with a fully developed Goss (011) grain over 95% of the sample surface is very reproducible and feasible for a broad range of annealing conditions. In addition, the <100> orientation of the single-crystal-like Galfenol sheet aligns exactly with the rolling direction, and produces magnetostriction values of ˜300 ppm. AGG often produces isolated grains inside Goss grains due to anisotropic properties of grain boundaries. To better understand island formation mechanisms, grain orientation and grain boundary characteristics of island grains in Goss-oriented Galfenol thin sheets were also investigated. We examined samples annealed either under an argon atmosphere or under a sulfur atmosphere, and characterized the observed island grain boundaries in terms of grain misorientation angles. Trends in measured and simulated data on misorientation angles indicate that the presence of (001) island grain boundaries with angles higher than 45° can be explained by the high energy grain boundary (HEGB) model, whereas (111) boundaries with intermediate angles (20°-45°) cannot. The role of low energy coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries on AGG in both annealing cases was found to be negligible.

  5. Aggressive versus nonaggressive antisocial behavior: distinctive etiological moderation by age.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2009-07-01

    Research has supported the existence of distinct behavioral patterns, demographic correlates, and etiologic mechanisms for aggressive (AGG) versus nonaggressive but delinquent (DEL) antisocial behavior. Though behavioral genetic studies have the potential to further crystallize these dimensions, inconsistent results have limited their contribution. These inconsistencies may stem in part from the limited attention paid to the impact of age. In the current study, the authors thus examined age-related etiological moderation of AGG and DEL antisocial behavior in a sample of 720 sibling pairs (ranging in age from 10 to 18 years) with varying degrees of genetic relatedness. Results reveal that the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on AGG remained stable across adolescence. By contrast, genetic influences on DEL increased dramatically with age, whereas shared environmental influences decreased. Subsequent longitudinal analyses fully replicated these results. Such findings highlight etiological distinctions between aggression and delinquency, and offer insights into the expression of genetic influences during development. PMID:19586186

  6. Parallel three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations for effects of precipitates and sub-boundaries on abnormal grain growth of Goss grains in Fe-3%Si steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang-Soo; Na, Tae-Wook; Kang, Jul-Ki; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Han, Chan-Hee; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2013-12-01

    Using parallel three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, we investigated the effects of precipitates and sub-boundaries on abnormal grain growth (AGG) of Goss grains based on real orientation data of primary recrystallized Fe-3%Si steel. The simulations showed that AGG occurred in the presence of precipitates which inhibited the grain growth of matrix grains, whereas it did not in the absence of precipitates. The role of precipitates in enhancing AGG is to maintain a relatively high fraction of high energy boundaries between matrix grains, which increases the probability of sub-boundary-enhanced solid-state wetting of an abnormally growing grain. The microstructure evolved by the simulation could reproduce many realistic features of abnormally growing grains, such as the formation of island and peninsular grains and merging of abnormally growing grains which appeared to be separated initially on the cross-section.

  7. Use of a Continuous-Flow Anaerobic Culture To Characterize Enteric Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Sheikh, Jalaluddin; Davis, Suzanne; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Nataro, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We developed an in vitro culture method to characterize the expression of bacterial genes under conditions mimicking the colonic environment. Our culture system (the intestinal simulator) comprised a continuous-flow anaerobic culture which was inoculated with fecal samples from healthy volunteers. As a test organism, we employed enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an emerging diarrheal pathogen that is thought to cause infection in both the small and large intestines. After the simulator culture achieved equilibrium conditions, we inoculated the system with prototype EAEC strain 042 and assessed the expression of three EAEC virulence-related genes. We focused particularly on expression of aggR, which encodes a global transcriptional regulator of EAEC virulence factors, and two AggR-regulated genes. By using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we showed that aggR expression in the simulator is increased 3- to 10-fold when 042 is grown under low-pH (5.5 to 6.0) conditions, compared with results with neutral pH (7.0). Interestingly, however, this effect was seen only when the strain was grown in the presence of commensal bacteria. We also found that expression of aggR is 10- to 20-fold higher at low NaCl concentrations, and this effect was also observed only in the presence of commensal bacteria. Using coculture and conditioned-media experiments, we identified specific strains of Enterococcus and Clostridium that upregulated aggR expression; in contrast, strains of Lactobacillus and Veillonella downregulated aggR expression. Our data provide new insights into regulation of virulence genes in EAEC and suggest the utility of intestinal simulation cultures in characterizing enteric gene regulation. PMID:15213120

  8. Determination of the aggregation number and charge of ionic surfactant micelles from the stepwise thinning of foam films.

    PubMed

    Anachkov, Svetoslav E; Danov, Krassimir D; Basheva, Elka S; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2012-11-15

    The stepwise thinning (stratification) of liquid films, which contain micelles of an ionic surfactant, depends on the micelle aggregation number, N(agg), and charge, Z. Vice versa, from the height of the step and the final film thickness one can determine N(agg), Z, and the degree of micelle ionization. The determination of N(agg) is based on the experimental fact that the step height is equal to the inverse cubic root of the micelle concentration. In addition, Z is determined from the final thickness of the film, which depends on the concentration of counterions dissociated from the micelles in the bulk. The method is applied to micellar solutions of six surfactants, both anionic and cationic: sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium laurylethersulfates with 1 and 3 ethylene oxide groups (SLES-1EO and SLES-3EO), and potassium myristate. The method has the following advantages: (i) N(agg) and Z are determined simultaneously, from the same set of experimental data; (ii) N(agg) and Z are determined for each given surfactant concentration (i.e. their concentration dependence is obtained), and (iii) N(agg) and Z can be determined even for turbid solutions, like those of carboxylates, where the micelles coexist with acid-soap crystallites, so that the application of other methods is difficult. The results indicate that the micelles of greater aggregation number have a lower degree of ionization, which can be explained with the effect of counterion binding. The proposed method is applicable to the concentration range, in which the films stratify and the micelles are spherical. This is satisfied for numerous systems representing scientific and practical interest. PMID:22935484

  9. Furlough Mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  10. First report of leaf anthracnose caused by Phomopsis convolvuli on field bindweed in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L., Convolvulaceae) is a troublesome perennial weed in many important crops in the world. In May of 2007, dying field bindweed plants were found along the edge of a wheat field between Bafra and Taflan, Turkey. Disease lesions on leaves were irregular and varia...

  11. Diurnal effects on Mentha canadensis oil yields and composition at two different harvests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese cornmint, also known as menthol mint, (Mentha canadensis L. syn M. arvensis var canadensis L.), is an essential oil crop cultivated in several countries in Asia and South America. The plant is currently the only commercially viable source for natural menthol due to the high concentration of...

  12. First report of leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum linicola on field bindweed in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L., family Convolvulaceae), is one of the most problematic weeds in the world and a target of biological control efforts. In the summer of 2006, dying field bindweed plants were found around Bafra, Samsun, Turkey. A fungal isolate, 06-01, was isolated from disea...

  13. Apoptosis-inducing effect of akebia saponin D from the roots of Dipsacus asper Wall in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Il; Zhou, Beng; Bae, Jin-Beom; Kim, Nam-Seok; Kim, Sun-Geun; Kwon, Jin; Kim, Dae-Keun; Shin, Tae-Yong; Jeon, Hoon; Lim, Jong-Phil; Kim, Hongjun; Kim, Ho Kyoung; Oh, Chan-Ho

    2008-11-01

    Methanol extracts of the root of Dipsacus asper Wall (Dipsacaceae) were found to exhibit apoptosis-inducing activities in U937 (human monocyte-like histiocytic) cells. Investigation of the active n-BuOH fraction led to the isolation of akebia saponin D (ASD). Structure was established by spectroscopic methods. Treatment of U937 cells with ASD induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. ASD exerted strong cytotoxicity against human and murine leukemia cells. It is significantly increased the subG1 cell population and expression of p53 and Bax gene. And also ASD enhanced NO production from RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ASD may exert apoptosis-inducing activity via induction of apoptosis through activation chiefly via the nitric oxide and apoptosis-related p53 and Bax gene expression. These data provide scientific evidence that Dipsacus asper Wall can be useful as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:19023535

  14. Biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: goal-based assessment of success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Success means different things to different people. Unfortunately, successes in weed biological control projects are often determined after the fact by non-participants lacking knowledge of the original goals set out by project architects. The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia, which is an agg...

  15. A large family of antivirulence regulators modulates the effects of transcriptional activators in Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Jo, Noah Y; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei Q; Nataro, James P

    2014-05-01

    We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60) in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44-100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa) hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator) for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators) for this family. PMID:24875828

  16. Stress-strain relationship of Ca(OH)2-activated Hwangtoh concrete.

    PubMed

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Mun, Ju-Hyun; Hwang, Hey-Zoo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the stress-strain behavior of 10 calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)-activated Hwangtoh concrete mixes. The volumetric ratio of the coarse aggregate (V agg) and the water-to-binder (W/B) ratio were selected as the main test variables. Two W/B ratios (25% and 40%) were used and the value of V agg varied between 0% and 40.0%, and 0% and 46.5% for W/B ratios of 25% and 40%, respectively. The test results demonstrated that the slope of the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve of Ca(OH)2-activated Hwangtoh concrete was smaller, and it displayed a steeper drop in stress in the descending branch, compared with those of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete with the same compressive strength. This trend was more pronounced with the increase in the W/B ratio and decrease in V agg. Based on the experimental observations, a simple and rational stress-strain model was established mathematically. Furthermore, the modulus of elasticity and strain at peak stress of the Ca(OH)2-activated Hwangtoh concrete were formulated as a function of its compressive strength and V agg. The proposed stress-strain model predicted the actual behavior accurately, whereas the previous models formulated using OPC concrete data were limited in their applicability to Ca(OH)2-activated Hwangtoh concrete. PMID:25147869

  17. A Large Family of Antivirulence Regulators Modulates the Effects of Transcriptional Activators in Gram-negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Jo, Noah Y.; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei Q.; Nataro, James P.

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that transcription of a hypothetical small open reading frame (orf60) in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain 042 is impaired after mutation of aggR, which encodes a global virulence activator. We have also reported that the cryptic orf60 locus was linked to protection against EAEC diarrhea in two epidemiologic studies. Here, we report that the orf60 product acts as a negative regulator of aggR itself. The orf60 protein product lacks homology to known repressors, but displays 44–100% similarity to at least fifty previously undescribed small (<10 kDa) hypothetical proteins found in many gram negative pathogen genomes. Expression of orf60 homologs from enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) repressed the expression of the AraC-transcriptional ETEC regulator CfaD/Rns and its regulon in ETEC strain H10407. Complementation in trans of EAEC 042orf60 by orf60 homologs from ETEC and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium resulted in dramatic suppression of aggR. A C. rodentium orf60 homolog mutant showed increased levels of activator RegA and increased colonization of the adult mouse. We propose the name Aar (AggR-activated regulator) for the clinically and epidemiologically important orf60 product in EAEC, and postulate the existence of a large family of homologs among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. We propose the name ANR (AraC Negative Regulators) for this family. PMID:24875828

  18. Predicting Recidivism with the Personality Assessment Inventory in a Sample of Sex Offenders Screened for Civil Commitment as Sexually Violent Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Simpler, Amber; Johnson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of scores from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to predict postrelease (M = 4.90 years follow-up) arrests in a sample of 1,412 sex offenders. We focused on scores from 4 PAI measures conceptually relevant to offending, including the Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Dominance (DOM)…

  19. Neighborhood as a predictor of non-aggressive, but not aggressive, antisocial behaviors in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior meta-analytic work has highlighted important etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior. Among these is the finding that RB is influenced by the environment more than is AGG. Relatively little research, however, has sought to identify the specific environmental experiences that contribute to this effect. Method The current study examined whether adults residing in the same neighborhood (N = 1,915 participants in 501 neighborhoods) were more similar in their AGG and RB than would be expected by chance. Analyses focused on simple multi-level models, with the participant as the lower-level unit and the neighborhood as the upper-level unit. Results Results revealed little-to-no evidence of neighborhood-level variance in AGG. By contrast, 11+% of the variance in RB could be predicted from participant neighborhood, results that persisted even when considering the possibility of genetic relatedness across participants and neighborhood selection effects. Moreover, 17% of this neighborhood-level variance in RB was accounted for by neighborhood structural characteristics and social processes. Discussion Findings bolster prior suggestions that broader contextual experiences, like the structural and social characteristics of one's neighborhood, contribute in a meaningful way to RB in particular. Our results also tentatively imply that this association may be environmental in origin. Future work should seek to develop additional, stronger designs capable of more clearly leveraging genetic un-relatedness to improve causal inferences regarding the environment. PMID:26040779

  20. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 03:HOUSE/BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS OBSERVATION SURVEY FOR THE DAY CARE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the physical characteristics of the day care center and identified possible sources of pollutants for CTEPP-OH.

    The Children’s Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Pollutant (CTEPP) study was one of the largest agg...

  1. Dormancy and germination of Chenopodium album seeds from different latitudes in Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve seed lots of Chenopodium album agg. from Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and the USA were characterized for responses to chilling, light, potassium nitrate and temperature. The research is part of a multi-location experiment per...

  2. Effects of selective serotonin antagonism on central neurotransmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonergic and dopaminergic mediation of aggression has been evidenced in numerous studies. However, these studies have met with varying and sometimes conflicting results. Here we test the hypothesis that hens with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness exhibit distinctly different agg...

  3. What phylogeny and gene genealogy analyses reveal about homoplasy in citrus microsatellite alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-five microsatellite alleles from three Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci (cAGG9, CCT01 and GT03) of various Citrus, Fortunella or Poncirus accessions were cloned and sequenced to determine their mode of evolution. This data was used to assess sequence variation by calculating the average numb...

  4. Implications of molecular characters for the phylogeny of the Microbotryaceae (Basidiomycota: Urediniomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Kemler, Martin; Göker, Markus; Oberwinkler, Franz; Begerow, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    Background Anther smuts of the basidiomycetous genus Microbotryum on Caryophyllaceae are important model organisms for many biological disciplines. Members of Microbotryum are most commonly found parasitizing the anthers of host plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, however they can also be found on the anthers of members of the Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Lentibulariaceae, and Portulacaceae. Additionally, some members of Microbotryum can be found infecting other organs of mainly Polygonaceae hosts. Based on ITS nrDNA sequences of members of almost all genera in Microbotryaceae, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of the anther smuts and their relationship to the other members of the family of plant parasites. A multiple analysis strategy was used to correct for the effects of different equally possible ITS sequence alignments on the phylogenetic outcome, which appears to have been neglected in previous studies. Results The genera of Microbotryaceae were not clearly resolved, but alignment-independent moderate bootstrap support was achieved for a clade containing the majority of the Microbotryum species. The anther parasites appeared in two different well-supported lineages whose interrelationship remained unresolved. Whereas bootstrap support values for some clades were highly vulnerable to alignment conditions, other clades were more robustly supported. The differences in support between the different alignments were much larger than between the phylogenetic optimality criteria applied (maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood). Conclusion The study confirmed, based on a larger dataset than previous work, that the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae are monophyletic and that there exists a native North American group that diverged from the European clade before the radiation of the European species. Also a second group of anther smuts was revealed, containing parasites on Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, and Lentibulariaceae. At least the majority of the parasites of

  5. Best Practicable Aggregation of Species: a step forward for species surrogacy in environmental assessment and monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Claudet, Joachim; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The available taxonomic expertise and knowledge of species is still inadequate to cope with the urgent need for cost-effective methods to quantifying community response to natural and anthropogenic drivers of change. So far, the mainstream approach to overcome these impediments has focused on using higher taxa as surrogates for species. However, the use of such taxonomic surrogates often limits inferences about the causality of community patterns, which in turn is essential for effective environmental management strategies. Here, we propose an alternative approach to species surrogacy, the “Best Practicable Aggregation of Species” (BestAgg), in which surrogates exulate from fixed taxonomic schemes. The approach uses null models from random aggregations of species to minimizing the number of surrogates without causing significant losses of information on community patterns. Surrogate types are then selected in order to maximize ecological information. We applied the approach to real case studies on natural and human-driven gradients from marine benthic communities. Outcomes from BestAgg were also compared with those obtained using classic taxonomic surrogates. Results showed that BestAgg surrogates are effective in detecting community changes. In contrast to classic taxonomic surrogates, BestAgg surrogates allow retaining significantly higher information on species-level community patterns than what is expected to occur by chance and a potential time saving during sample processing up to 25% higher. Our findings showed that BestAgg surrogates from a pilot study could be used successfully in similar environmental investigations in the same area, or for subsequent long-term monitoring programs. BestAgg is virtually applicable to any environmental context, allowing exploiting multiple surrogacy schemes beyond stagnant perspectives strictly relying on taxonomic relatedness among species. This prerogative is crucial to extend the concept of species surrogacy to

  6. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients with age of the dairy calf.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C E; Erickson, P S; Quigley, J D; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less-aggressive programs; however, postweaning growth may be reduced. Limited research suggests that less than optimal digestion of the postweaned diet due to large amounts of MR with reduced dry feed intake preweaning may contribute to growth impairment postweaning. Current research was conducted to compare growth and postweaning digestion in 3-d-old male Holstein calves fed various MR programs. The MR programs were a conventional [CON; 0.44kg of dry matter (DM) 21% crude protein (CP), 21% fat powder fed for 42d], moderate (MOD; 0.66kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 42d), and aggressive program (AGG; up to 0.87kg of DM 27% CP, 17% fat powder fed for 49d). All calves were fed a 20% CP textured starter and water ad libitum for 56d. The trial used 96 calves (initially 41±1.9kg of body weight) received 5 wk apart in 2 groups of 48 calves. During d 51 to 56, fecal samples were collected from 5 calves per treatment randomly selected from calves in the first group. Selected nutrients and acid-insoluble ash (used as an internal flow marker) were analyzed in the starter and feces to estimate digestibility. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with starting time of each group of calves as a block. Repeated measure analysis was performed on overall (0 to 56d) data. Means were separated with a protected least significant difference test. Pen was the experimental unit. Calves fed CON had the least average daily gain [CON=0.35, MOD=0.51, and AGG=0.55kg/d; standard error of the mean (SEM)=0.018], feed efficiency (CON=0.35, MOD=0.49, and AGG=0.48 gain/feed, SEM=0.016), and change in hip width (CON=3.3, MOD=4.1, and AGG=4.1cm, SEM=0.20) compared with calves fed other programs. Calves fed AGG had the greatest change in BCS and least starter intake compared with calves fed the other programs. Digestibility of organic matter was 79, 78, and 68% and neutral

  7. Etiological distinctions between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior: results from a nuclear twin family model.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2012-10-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 103 studies Burt (Clinical Psychology Review, 29:163-178, 2009a) highlighted the presence of etiological distinctions between aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior, such that AGG was more heritable than was RB, whereas RB was more influenced by the shared environment. Unfortunately, behavioral genetic research on antisocial behavior to date (and thus, the research upon which the meta-analysis was based) has relied almost exclusively on the classical twin model. This reliance is problematic, as the strict assumptions that undergird this model (e.g., shared environmental and dominant genetic influences are not present simultaneously; there is no assortative mating) can have significant consequences on heritability estimates when they are violated. The nuclear twin family model, by contrast, allows researchers to relax and statistically evaluate many of the assumptions of the classical twin design by incorporating parental self-report data along with the more standard twin data. The goal of the current study was thus to evaluate whether prior findings of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB persisted when using the nuclear twin family model. We examined a sample of 312 child twin families from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Results strongly supported prior findings of etiological distinctions between AGG and RB, such that broad genetic influences were observed to be particularly important to AGG whereas shared environmental influences contributed only to RB. Nevertheless, the current findings also implied that additive genetic influences on antisocial behavior may be overestimated when using the classical twin design. PMID:22466619

  8. Simulation of aggregating particles in complex flows by the lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamm, Matthew H.; Sinno, Talid; Diamond, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    We develop and validate an efficient lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (LKMC) method for simulating particle aggregation in laminar flows with spatially varying shear rate, such as parabolic flow or flows with standing vortices. A contact time model was developed to describe the particle-particle collision efficiency as a function of the local shear rate, G, and approach angle, θ. This model effectively accounts for the hydrodynamic interactions between approaching particles, which is not explicitly considered in the LKMC framework. For imperfect collisions, the derived collision efficiency [\\varepsilon = 1 - int_0^{{π {π /2} {sin θ exp ( { - 2\\cot θ {{Γ _{agg} }/ { Γ _{agg} } G} )} dθ] was found to depend only on Γagg/G, where Γagg is the specified aggregation rate. For aggregating platelets in tube flow, Γ _{agg} = 0.683 s-1 predicts the experimentally measured ɛ across a physiological range (G = 40-1000 s-1) and is consistent with α2bβ3-fibrinogen bond dynamics. Aggregation in parabolic flow resulted in the largest aggregates forming near the wall where shear rate and residence time were maximal, however intermediate regions between the wall and the center exhibited the highest aggregation rate due to depletion of reactants nearest the wall. Then, motivated by stenotic or valvular flows, we employed the LKMC simulation developed here for baffled geometries that exhibit regions of squeezing flow and standing recirculation zones. In these calculations, the largest aggregates were formed within the vortices (maximal residence time), while squeezing flow regions corresponded to zones of highest aggregation rate.

  9. Sequence analysis of the fragile X trinucleotide repeat: Correlations with stability and haplotype and implications for the origin of fragile X alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, K.; Tester, D.J.; Kruckeberg, K.E.; Thibodeau, S.N.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X (FX) syndrome is associated with amplification of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the gene FMR-1. To address mechanism of instability and concern related to overlap between sizes of normal stable alleles and FX unstable alleles, we have sequenced 165 alleles to analyze patterns of AGG interruptions within the CGG repeat, and have typed the (CA)n at DXS548 for 204 chromosomes. Overall, our data is consistent with the idea that the length of uninterrupted CGG repeats determines instability. For 17 stably transmitted alleles with total repeat lengths between 33 and 51, the longest stretch of uninterrupted CGGs was 41. In contrast, for 13 premutation alleles, the shortest stretch of uninterrupted CGGs was 48, suggesting a threshold for expansion between 41 and 48 pure CGGs. For expansion from a premutation to a full mutation, the threshold appears to be {ge}70 uninterrupted repeats. Interestingly, an AGG was detected in some carriers of a full mutation. Comparison of the number of {open_quote}shadow bands{close_quote} in PCR products from similar size alleles with different AGG interruption patterns supports replication slippage as a potential mechanism, i.e. replication slippage occurs more readily as the length of pure repeat increases. Alleles with high total repeat lengths but up to 3 AGGs may be relatively protected against expansion, whereas smaller alleles with pure CGG sequence could be at higher risk for instability. Comparison of sequence data and DXS548 (CA)n data revealed specific sequence trends for each of the DXS548 alleles, explaining the previously reported haplotype association with FX. Incorporating these observations into models for the origin of FX alleles, we consider replication slippage, unequal crossover within the CGG repeat region, recombination between FMR-1 and DXS548, and loss of AGGs by A to C transversion.

  10. Aggregated Particle-size distributions for tephra-deposit model forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Durant, A. J.; Van Eaton, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of models that forecast atmospheric transport and deposition of tephra to anticipate hazards during volcanic eruptions is limited by the fact that fine ash tends to aggregate and fall out more rapidly than the individual constituent particles. Aggregation is generally accounted for by representing fine ash as aggregates with density ρagg and a log-normal size range with median μagg and standard deviation σagg. Values of these parameters likely vary with eruption type, grain size, and atmospheric conditions. To date, no studies have examined how the values vary from one eruption or deposit to another. In this study, we used the Ash3d tephra model to simulate four deposits: 18 May 1980 Mount St. Helens, 16-17 September 1992 Crater Peak (Mount Spurr), Alaska, 17 June 1996 Ruapehu, and 23 March 2009 Mount Redoubt volcano. In 158 simulations, we systematically varied μagg (1-2.3Φ) and σagg (0.1-0.3Φ), using ellipsoidal aggregates with =600 kg m-3 and a shape factor F≡((b+c)/2a)=0.44 . We evaluated the goodness of fit using three statistical comparisons: modeled versus measured (1) mass load at individual sample locations; (2) mass load versus distance along the dispersal axis; and (3) isomass area. For all deposits, the best-fit μagg ranged narrowly between ~1.6-2.0Φ (0.33-0.25mm), despite large variations in erupted mass (0.25-50 Tg), plume height (8.5-25 km), mass fraction of fine (<0.063mm) ash (3-59%), atmospheric temperature, aggregation mechanism, and water content between these eruptions. This close agreement suggests that the aggregation process may be modeled as a discrete process that is agnostic to the eruptive style or magnitude of eruption. This result paves the way to a simple, computationally-efficient parameterization of aggregation that is suitable for use in operational deposit forecasts. Further research may indicate whether this narrow range also reflects physical constraints on processes in the evolving cloud.

  11. The Ratio of ADP- to TRAP-Induced Platelet Aggregation Quantifies P2Y12-Dependent Platelet Inhibition Independently of the Platelet Count

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Christoph B.; Meyer, Melanie; Bauer, Hans; Schnabel, Katharina; Weik, Patrick; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association of clinical factors with P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition as monitored by the ratio of ADP- to TRAP-induced platelet aggregation and conventional ADP-induced aggregation, respectively. Background Controversial findings to identify and overcome high platelet reactivity (HPR) after coronary stent-implantation and to improve clinical outcome by tailored anti-platelet therapy exist. Monitoring anti-platelet therapy ex vivo underlies several confounding parameters causing that ex vivo platelet aggregation might not reflect in vivo platelet inhibition. Methods In a single centre observational study, multiple electrode aggregometry was performed in whole blood of patients after recent coronary stent-implantation. Relative ADP-induced aggregation (r-ADP-agg) was defined as the ratio of ADP- to TRAP- induced aggregation reflecting the individual degree of P2Y12-mediated platelet reactivity. Results Platelet aggregation was assessed in 359 patients. Means (± SD) of TRAP-, ADP-induced aggregation and r-ADP-agg were 794 ± 239 AU*min, 297 ± 153 AU*min and 37 ± 14%, respectively. While ADP- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation correlated significantly with platelet count (ADP: r = 0.302; p<0.001; TRAP: r = 0.509 p<0.001), r-ADP-agg values did not (r = -0.003; p = 0.960). These findings were unaltered in multivariate analyses adjusting for a range of factors potentially influencing platelet aggregation. The presence of an acute coronary syndrome and body weight were found to correlate with both ADP-induced platelet aggregation and r-ADP-agg. Conclusion The ratio of ADP- to TRAP-induced platelet aggregation quantifies P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition independently of the platelet count in contrast to conventional ADP-induced aggregation. Furthermore, r-ADP-agg was associated with the presence of an acute coronary syndrome and body weight as well as ADP-induced aggregation. Thus, the r-ADP-agg is a more valid

  12. Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Renna, Massimiliano; Cocozza, Claudio; Gonnella, Maria; Abdelrahman, Hamada; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-06-15

    Thirteen elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 11 different wild edible plants (WEP) (Amaranthus retroflexus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus, Glebionis coronaria, Sonchus spp., Borago officinalis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Sinapis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lagopus and Portulaca oleracea) collected from countryside and urban areas of Bari (Italy) were determined. B.officinalis and P.rhoeas could represent good nutritional sources of Mn and Fe, respectively, as well as A.retroflexus and S.arvensis for Ca. High intake of Pb and Cd could come from P.lagopus and A.retroflexus (1.40 and 0.13 mg kg(-1) FW, respectively). WEP may give a substantial contribution to the elements intake for consumers, but in some cases they may supply high level of elements potentially toxic for human health. Anyway, both ANOVA and PCA analyses have highlighted the low influence of the harvesting site on the elements content. PMID:25660854

  13. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fátima; de Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230514

  14. Does hybridization with a widespread congener threaten the long-term persistence of the Eastern Alpine rare local endemic Knautia carinthiaca?

    PubMed

    Čertner, Martin; Kolář, Filip; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2015-10-01

    Interspecific hybridization, especially when regularly followed by backcrossing (i.e., introgressive hybridization), conveys a substantial risk for many endangered organisms. This is particularly true for narrow endemics occurring within distributional ranges of widespread congeners. An excellent example is provided by the plant genus Knautia (Caprifoliaceae): Locally endemic K. carinthiaca is reported from two isolated populations in southern Austria situated within an area predominantly occupied by widespread K. arvensis. While K. carinthiaca usually inhabits low-competition communities on rocky outcrops, K. arvensis occurs mainly in dry to mesic managed grasslands, yet both species can coexist in marginal environments and were suspected to hybridize. Flow cytometry revealed that diploid K. carinthiaca only occurs at its locus classicus, whereas the second locality is inhabited by the morphologically similar but tetraploid K. norica. In the, therefore, single population of K. carinthiaca, flow cytometry and AFLP fingerprinting showed signs of introgressive hybridization with diploid K. arvensis. Hybridization patterns were also reflected in intermediate habitat preferences and morphology of the hybrids. Environmental barriers to gene flow seem to prevent genetic erosion of K. carinthiaca individuals from the core ecological niches, restricting most introgressed individuals to peripheral habitats. Efficient conservation of K. carinthiaca will require strict protection of its habitat and ban on forest clear cuts in a buffer zone to prevent invasion of K. arvensis. We demonstrate the large potential of multidisciplinary approaches combining molecular, cytometric, and ecological tools for a reliable inventory and threat assessment of rare species. PMID:26664677

  15. Antibacterial properties of essential oils from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wannissorn, Bhusita; Jarikasem, Siripen; Siriwangchai, Thammathad; Thubthimthed, Sirinun

    2005-03-01

    By using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in Thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including Salmonella spp., Escherichai coli O157, Campylobacter jejunii and Clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. Out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of Zingiber cassumuna, Cinnamomum bejolghota, Mentha arvensis var. piperacens, Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum var. citratum showed promising antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested. PMID:15752638

  16. The efficiency of adjuvants combined with flupyrsulfuron-methyl plus metsulfuron-methyl (Lexus XPE) on weed control.

    PubMed

    Heremans, B; Isebaert, S; Verhoeven, R; Haesaert, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory tests on a selection of weeds (Viola arvensis, Polygonum persicaria, Chamomilla recutita, Chenopodium album, Veronica persicaria, Alopecurus myosusroides) to investigate the efficiency of flupyrsulfuron-methyl plus metsutfuronmethyl (Lexus XPE) in combination with different adjuvants. The efficiency of the herbicide improved in combination of adjuvants. The level of phytotoxicity of the adjuvants-herbicide treatments appllied varied among the different weed species. PMID:18399424

  17. Sinapis phylogeny and evolution of glucosinolates and specific nitrile degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Warwick, Suzanne I; Hansen, Paul R; Olsen, Carl E

    2008-12-01

    Levels of sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate) and 28 other glucosinolates were determined in leaves and roots of 20 species that were either phylogenetically close to Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, or Sinapis pubescens (tribe Brassiceae, Brassicaceae), or were expected to contain arylalkyl nitrilase activity. Comparison with a molecular phylogenetic tree based on ITS DNA sequences identified two separate occurrences of sinalbin. The first in a group of species related to S. alba (including members of the genera Coincya and Kremeriella); and the second in S. arvensis, nested among sinalbin deficient species. Significant 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile degrading enzyme activity was found in both S. alba and S. arvensis, but in S. alba the major product was the corresponding carboxylic acid, while in S. arvensis the major product was the amide. Both investigated enzyme activities, nitrilase and nitrile hydratase, were specific, accepting only certain arylacetonitriles such as 4-hydroxy and 4-methoxyphenylacetonitrile. Only the S. alba enzyme required an oxygen in para position of the substrate, as found in sinalbin. Indole-3-acetonitrile, arylcyanides, and arylpropionitriles were poor substrates. The nitrilase activity of S. alba was quantitatively comparable to that reported in the monocot Sorghum bicolor (believed to be involved in cyanogenic glycoside metabolism). Glucosinolates derived from methionine were found in all Sinapis clades. Glucosinolate patterns suggested a complex evolution of glucosinolates in the investigated species, with several apparent examples of abrupt changes in glucosinolate profiles including chain length variation and appearance of glucosinolates derived from branched-chain amino acids. NMR data for desulfated homosinalbin, 9-methylsulphonylnonylglucosinolate, 3-methylpentylglucosinolate and related glucosinolates are reported, and a facultative connection between sinalbin and specific nitrilases is suggested. PMID:18995873

  18. A new genus of water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Wettinidae) from bromeliad phytotelmata in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Piccoli, Gustavo Cauê de Oliveira; de Araújo, Marcel Santos; Rezende, José Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adults of Bromeliacarus cardoso gen. n., sp. n. are described from phytotelmata of Quesnelia arvensis (Vellozo) Mez. (Bromeliaceae) in the subtropical area of the Atlantic rainforest, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new genus Bromeliacarus is proposed and diagnosed, based primarily on the autapomorphic presence of 7–9 pairs of acetabula flanking the gonopore. A possible relationship between Bromeliacarus and other Wettinidae are discussed. PMID:26312017

  19. Techniques for increasing the update rate of real-time dynamic computer graphic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahlbaum, W. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes several techniques which may be used to increase the animation update rate of real-time computer raster graphic displays. The techniques were developed on the ADAGE RDS 3000 graphic system in support of the Advanced Concepts Simulator at the NASA Langley Research Center. The first technique involves pre-processing of the next animation frame while the previous one is being erased from the screen memory. The second technique involves the use of a parallel processor, the AGG4, for high speed character generation. The description of the AGG4 includes the Barrel Shifter which is a part of the hardware and is the key to the high speed character rendition. The final result of this total effort was a four fold increase in the update rate of an existing primary flight display from 4 to 16 frames per second.

  20. Effect of milk replacer feeding rate and functional fatty acids on dairy calf performance and digestion of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Suarez-Mena, F X; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-08-01

    Calves fed large amounts of milk replacer (MR) gain more body weight preweaning than calves fed less MR; however, postweaning growth may be reduced because of impaired digestion of nutrients. This was explored in the current research, as was the inclusion of functional fatty acids (NT) that could ameliorate some poor growth and digestion issues in calves fed large amounts of MR. Two MR rates [moderate (MOD) or aggressive (AGG)] with and without NT were compared using 48 male Holstein calves initially 3d old (43±1.5kg of body weight) randomly assigned to treatments. The MOD rate was fed at 0.66kg of dry matter (DM) for 49d. The AGG rate was fed for 4d at 0.66kg of DM, 4d at 0.96kg of DM, then 34d at 1.31kg of DM, followed by 0.66kg of DM for the last 7d. Calves were completely weaned at 49d. The MR contained 27% crude protein and 17% fat. The textured starter was 20% crude protein. Starter and water were fed free-choice for the first 56d when calves were housed in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped (4 calves/pen), maintaining the same MR rate and NT treatments, and fed starter blended with 5% chopped grass hay free-choice with free-choice water. Digestibility was estimated from fecal collections made on d 19 to 23, 40 to 44, and 52 to 56. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of MR rate and NT using repeated measures with a mixed procedure. Fiber and starch digestion increased with age and was lower for AGG versus MOD. Calf average daily gain and hip width change were greater before approximately 6wk of age for AGG versus MOD, but this was reversed from approximately 6 to 16wk. Calves fed AGG had lower average daily gain per unit intake of DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy from 8 to 16wk than calves fed MOD. Preweaning starter intake was less for calves fed AGG versus MOD. Calves fed AGG had greater body weight gain than MOD over 112d, but hip width change did not differ. Feeding NT improved

  1. Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and calcium signaling of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Sawada, C; Higuchi, H; Teraoka, H; Yamaguchi, M

    1997-01-01

    Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G-mediated phagocytosis, superoxide production and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling of complement receptor type 3 (CR3)-deficient neutrophils from a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were compared to those of control heifers. The mean phagocytic activity of IgG-coated yeasts and aggregated bovine IgG (Agg-IgG)-induced superoxide production of CR3-deficient neutrophils were 10% and 77.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i signals in CR3-deficient neutrophils stimulated with Agg-IgG or concanavalin A were different with mean peak [Ca2+]i concentrations of 78% and 41.9%, respectively, of those of control neutrophils. These findings suggest that Fc receptor-mediated neutrophil functions are closely dependent on the presence of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) on the neutrophil cell surfaces. PMID:9343828

  2. TGF{beta}1 polymorphisms and late clinical radiosensitivity in patients treated for gynecologic tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyck, Kim de . E-mail: kim.deruyck@UGent.be; Van Eijkeren, Marc; Claes, Kathleen; Bacher, Klaus; Vral, Anne; Neve, Wilfried de; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the association between six transforming growth factor {beta}1 gene (TGF{beta}1) polymorphisms (-1.552delAGG, -800G>A, -509C>T, Leu10Pro, Arg25Pro, Thr263Ile) and the occurrence of late normal tissue reactions after gynecologic radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight women with cervical or endometrial cancer and 140 control individuals were included in the study. According to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAEv3.0) scale, 25 patients showed late adverse RT reactions (CTC2+), of whom 11 had severe complications (CTC3+). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single base extension and genotyping assays were performed to examine the polymorphic sites in TGF{beta}1. Results: Homozygous variant -1.552delAGG, -509TT, and 10Pro genotypes were associated with the risk of developing late severe RT reactions. Triple (variant) homozygous patients had a 3.6 times increased risk to develop severe RT reactions (p = 0.26). Neither the -800A allele, nor the 25Pro allele or the 263Ile allele were associated with clinical radiosensitivity. There was perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the -1.552delAGG and the -509C>T polymorphisms, and tight LD between the -1.552/-509 and the Leu10Pro polymorphisms. Haplotype analysis revealed two major haplotypes but could not distinguish radiosensitive from nonradiosensitive patients. Conclusions: The present study shows that homozygous variant TGF{beta}1 -1.552delAGG, -509TT, and 10Pro genotypes may be associated with severe clinical radiosensitivity after gynecologic RT.

  3. Co-Detection of Virulent Escherichia coli Genes in Surface Water Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ndlovu, Thando; Le Roux, Marcellous; Khan, Wesaal; Khan, Sehaam

    2015-01-01

    McNemar’s test and the Pearson Chi-square were used to assess the co-detection and observed frequency, respectively, for potentially virulent E. coli genes in river water. Conventional multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays confirmed the presence of the aggR gene (69%), ipaH gene (23%) and the stx gene (15%) carried by Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Enterohermorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), respectively, in river water samples collected from the Berg River (Paarl, South Africa). Only the aggR gene was present in 23% of samples collected from the Plankenburg River system (Stellenbosch, South Africa). In a comparative study, real-time multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of aggR (EAEC) in 69%, stx (EHEC) in 15%, ipaH (EIEC) in 31% and eae (EPEC) in 8% of the river water samples collected from the Berg River. In the Plankenburg River, aggR (EAEC) was detected in 46% of the samples, while eae (EPEC) was present in 15% of the water samples analyzed using real-time multiplex PCR in the Plankenburg River. Pearson Chi-square showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the conventional and real-time multiplex PCRs for the detection of virulent E. coli genes in water samples. However, the McNemar’s test showed some variation in the co-detection of virulent E. coli genes, for example, there was no statistical difference in the misclassification of the discordant results for stx versus ipaH, which implies that the ipaH gene was frequently detected with the stx gene. This study thus highlights the presence of virulent E. coli genes in river water and while early detection is crucial, quantitative microbial risk analysis has to be performed to identify and estimate the risk to human health. PMID:25659126

  4. Functional characteristics of enhanced Fc receptor expression of beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Goji, N; Noda, H; Kuwabara, M

    1996-01-01

    Fc receptor expression, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling, chemiluminescent (CL) response, and electron spin resonance (ESR) combined with spin trapping of blood mononuclear phagocytes from control heifers and a heifer with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) were evaluated to elucidate the relationships between complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and Fc receptor expression and their functional responses. The mean fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-bovine IgG bound to mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was 1.8-fold higher than that of control heifers. The mean increments of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD stimulated with OPZ, Agg-IgG, and PMA were 39.4 (P < 0.05), 118, and 71.6% compared with those of control heifers. A 1.27-fold increase in the CL response relative to control heifers was detected when mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD were stimulated with Agg-IgG. The OPZ-induced CL response of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the PMA-induced CL response was similar to that of control heifers. The ESR spectrum of mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD was increased when stimulated with Agg-IgG, and was impaired when stimulated by OPZ compared with that of control heifers. The ESR spectrum of mononuclear phagocytes stimulated with PMA was similar in control heifers and the heifer with LAD. Fc receptors on mononuclear phagocytes from the heifer with LAD were enhanced, and their cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling, CL response, and ESR-spin trapping when stimulated with Agg-IgG and OPZ appeared to be associated with enhanced Fc receptors. PMID:8805104

  5. Intraarterial 9-beta-methyl carbacyclin improves canine polytetrafluoroethylene graft patency

    SciTech Connect

    Dacey, L.J.; Hees, P.S.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1988-07-01

    This study examined the effect of 9-beta-methyl carbacyclin, a synthetic, stable prostacyclin analog, on canine polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft patency. Twenty-five dogs had 4 mm x 7 cm PTFE grafts implanted bilaterally into the femoral arteries. A subcutaneous infusion pump was used to deliver either saline solution (control) or 9-beta-methyl carbacyclin (Ciprostine) at 100 (CARB-100) or 200 ng/kg/min (CARB-200) through a femoral artery branch just proximal to one of the femoral grafts, with the contralateral graft serving as a noninfused control. Graft-platelet deposition (with /sup 111/In-labeled platelets) was measured between the fifth and seventh days, with patency determined on the seventh day. Dogs were classified as aggregators (AGG (+)) if the preoperative epinephrine-enhanced sodium arachidonate platelet aggregation was greater than 20%. CARB-200 infusion significantly improved ipsilateral graft patency (80%) compared with noninfused grafts (50%, p less than 0.05), or grafts in control and CARB-100 dogs (43%, p less than 0.05). Anastomotic platelet deposition was decreased bilaterally in CARB-200 dogs by 45% to 59% compared with CARB-100 and control dogs (p less than 0.05). With the exception of grafts infused with CARB-200, AGG (+) dogs had significantly lower graft patency (26%) than nonaggregator AGG (-) dogs (71%, p less than 0.01). CARB-200 infusion significantly improved graft patency in AGG (+) dogs (71%), compared with control and CARB-100-infused grafts (19%, p less than 0.025). Intra-arterial 9-beta-methyl carbacyclin improved early PTFE graft patency and inhibited platelet deposition in a severe canine model, independent of baseline platelet aggregation status, which also had an important effect on graft patency.

  6. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Attila; Xu, Yunfeng; Bauchan, Gary R; Shelton, Daniel R; Nou, Xiangwu

    2016-07-16

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolated during the 2011 European outbreak expresses Shiga toxin 2a and possess virulence genes associated with the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) pathotype. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga-toxin adsorption, but it is not clear whether the AAF/I fimbriae are involved in the colonization and biofilm formation on food and environmental matrices such as the surface of fresh produce. We deleted the gene encoding for the AAF/I fimbriae main subunit (AggA) from an outbreak associated E. coli O104:H4 strain, and evaluated the role of AAF/I fimbriae in the adherence and colonization of E. coli O104:H4 to spinach and abiotic surfaces. The deletion of aggA did not affect the adherence of E. coli O104:H4 to these surfaces. However, it severely diminished the colonization and biofilm formation of E. coli O104:H4 on these surfaces. Strong aggregation and biofilm formation on spinach and abiotic surfaces were observed with the wild type strain but not the isogenic aggA deletion mutant, suggesting that AAF/I fimbriae play a crucial role in persistence of O104:H4 cells outside of the intestines of host species, such as on the surface of fresh produce. PMID:27099984

  7. Heterotrimeric G protein subunits differentially respond to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yueh; Yu, Chao-Yuan; Iwasa, Tatsuo; Kanehara, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Canonical heterotrimeric G proteins in eukaryotes are major components that localize at plasma membrane and transmit extracellular stimuli into the cell. Genome of a seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes at least one Gα (GPA1), one Gβ (AGB1), and 3 Gγ (AGG1, AGG2 and AGG3) subunits. The loss-of-function mutations of G protein subunit(s) cause multiple defects in development as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, it remains elusive how these subunits differentially express these defects. Here, we report that Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein subunits differentially respond to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An isolated homozygous mutant of AGB1, agb1-3, was more sensitive to the tunicamycin-induced ER stress compared to the wild type and the other loss-of-function mutants of G protein subunits. Moreover, ER stress responsive genes were highly expressed in the agb1-3 plant. Our results indicate that AGB1 positively contributes to ER stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:26237103

  8. Surface display of malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyan; Hou, Xiaoyan; Liang, Fang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    In order to display malolactic enzyme (MLE) on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast cell surface display plasmid pADH1-AGG was constructed by fusing the α-factor signal encoding sequence (267 bp) and the C-terminal half of α-agglutinin encoding sequence (1,645 bp) into the plasmid pADH1. The pADH1-AGG could successfully express and anchor the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) onto the yeast cell surface when the EGFP was used to verify its function. Then the pADH1-MLE was constructed by inserting the MLE encoding sequence (1,600 bp) into the pADH1-AGG and introduced into S. cerevisiae cells. The positive strain carrying pADH1-MLE was confirmed by use of the 6× His monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. All results indicated that the MLE was displayed successfully on the cell surface of positive transformant. The MLE activity of genetically engineered yeast strain could turn 21.11 % L-malate into lactic acid after 12 h reaction with L-malate. The constructed yeast strain might be used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine to solve the important issues of sluggish MLF, microbial spoilage, and adverse metabolic substances produced by the lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23446978

  9. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  10. Personality Assessment Inventory scores as predictors of misconduct, recidivism, and violence: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Brett O; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Bitting, Brian S; Edens, John F

    2015-06-01

    More than 30 studies have examined the ability of scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) to predict violence or misconduct. The Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Violence Potential Index (VPI) Scales of the PAI, in particular, have received substantial attention as predictors of institutional infractions and criminal recidivism. The current study used meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive review of the ability of scores on these and other PAI scales to predict misbehavior. Scores on the ANT (d = .26 to .39) and AGG (d = .23 to .40) scales consistently emerged as small to moderate predictors of misbehavior. Effects tended to be larger in correctional than treatment settings (e.g., ANT d = .44 vs. .20), for institutional misconduct than recidivism (e.g., AGG d = .37 vs. .23), and for institutional misconduct studies with follow up periods of at least 1.5 years (e.g., ANT d = .46). Overall, findings provide support for the predictive validity of multiple PAI scales. PMID:25528162

  11. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ding, Pingtao; Lian, Kehui; Wang, Jinlong; Ma, Miaomiao; Li, Lin; Li, Lei; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, She; Zhang, Yuelin; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate defenses through the central cytoplasmic kinase BIK1. The heterotrimeric G proteins composed of the non-canonical Gα protein XLG2, the Gβ protein AGB1, and the Gγ proteins AGG1 and AGG2 are required for FLS2-mediated immune responses through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that in the pre-activation state, XLG2 directly interacts with FLS2 and BIK1, and it functions together with AGB1 and AGG1/2 to attenuate proteasome-mediated degradation of BIK1, allowing optimum immune activation. Following the activation by flg22, XLG2 dissociates from AGB1 and is phosphorylated by BIK1 in the N terminus. The phosphorylated XLG2 enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely by modulating the NADPH oxidase RbohD. The study demonstrates that the G proteins are directly coupled to the FLS2 receptor complex and regulate immune signaling through both pre-activation and post-activation mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13568.001 PMID:27043937

  12. Antioxidant activity of caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives from the roots of Dipsacus asper Wall.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tran Manh; Na, MinKyun; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Su, Nguyen Duy; Sok, DaiEun; Song, Kyung Sik; Seong, Yeon Hee; Bae, KiHwan

    2006-11-24

    The methanol extract from Dipsacus asper Wall (Dipsacaceae) was found to show antioxidant activity against free radical and Cu(2+)-mediated LDL oxidation. In further study, to identify active constituents from the plant, six caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives: 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1), methyl 3,4-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), methyl 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (4), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5) and methyl 4,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (6) were isolated. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR. The isolated compounds, 1-6, were found to be potent scavengers of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and are more potent than butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) used as a positive control. The compounds 1-6 also inhibited Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. They increased the lag time of conjugated dienes formation and inhibited the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that Dipsacus asper due to its antioxidant constituents, 1-6, may have a role to play in preventing the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:16809011

  13. Phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of 10 endemic Cephalaria species from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarıkahya, N Böke; Kayce, P; Halay, E; Göktürk, R S; Sümbül, H; Kırmızıgül, S

    2013-01-01

    The volatile composition of 10 endemic Cephalaria (Dipsacaceae) species (Cephalaria gazipashensis, Cephalaria lycica, Cephalaria paphlagonica, Cephalaria elmaliensis, Cephalaria stellipilis, Cephalaria scoparia, Cephalaria isaurica, Cephalaria cilicica, Cephalaria elazigensis var. purpurea and Cephalaria davisiana) was investigated. The essential oil mixtures were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. Twenty-eight components were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. While total volatile percentages ranged from 68.99% to 84.57%, the total essential oil yields ranged between 38.15% and 64.05%. Geraniol, α-cedrene and p-cymene were determined as the main components. Geraniol was detected as a major component in C. cilicica (14.64%), and α-cedrene was detected as a major component with 26.03% for C. lycica, 16.93% for C. scoparia, 13.01% for C. davisiana and 10.94% for C. paphlagonica. Cephalaria scoparia, C. davisiana and C. gazipashensis have considerable amount of p-cymene as 12.86%, 12.70% and 11.16%, respectively. This was the first essential oil report concerning the Cephalaria genus. PMID:22757667

  14. Analysis of the essential oil of Dipsacus japonicus flowering aerial parts and its insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Jiang, Guo Hua; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Qi Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Dipsacus japonicus Miq. (Dipsacaceae) at the flowering stage was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-six compounds, accounting for 96.76% of the total oil, were identified and the main compounds of the essential oil were linalool (11.78%), trans-geraniol (8.58%), 1,8-cineole (7.91%), beta-caryophyllene (5.58%), alpha-terpineol (5.32%), beta-selinene (5.15%), and spathulenol (5.04%). The essential oil of D. japonicus possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 18.32 microg/ adult and 13.45 microg/adult, respectively. The essential oil of D. japonicus also exhibited pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 10.11 mg/l air) and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 5.26 mg/l air). Of the three major compounds, 1,8-cineole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the crude essential oil against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 2.96 mg/l air and 4.86 mg/l air, respectively. PMID:23659168

  15. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  16. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  17. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  18. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. PMID:7682254

  19. Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Kishore, N; Mishra, A K; Chansouria, J P

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen essential oils were screened in vitro for their fungitoxicity against the two dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. Five oils (from Artemisia nelagrica, Caesulia axillaris, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha arvensis) showed strong activity and were assessed for their fungitoxicity against eight other dermatophytes as well as against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium trichoides. These five essential oils by formulation of ointments were able to cure experimental ringworm in guinea pigs within 7 to 12 days. Artemisia oil was found to be the most effective essential oil. PMID:8264720

  20. Induced Changes in the Amino Acid Profile of Biomphalaria alexandrina Molluscan Host to Schistosoma mansoni Using Sublethal Concentrations of Selected Plant Molluscicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad Soliman, Mahmoud; El-Ansary, Afaf

    Amino acid profiles of control and Solanum nigrum, Ambrosia maritima, Thymelaea hirsute, Sinapis arvensis, Peganum haramala and Callistemon lanceolatus-treated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were investigated in a trial to correlate the amino acid profile of treated snails to their previously reported molluscicidal and biological effects. Amino acid profiles of the snails were greatly manipulated with the treatment of dry powdered sublethal concentrations of the six studied plant molluscicides. The disturbed amino acid profiles of treated snails were discussed in relation to the decrease in snail's egg laying capacity, reduction of their compatibility for the development of the schistosome larvae and cercarial penetration of mammalian skin.

  1. Study on beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of herbal yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Banani Ray; Chakraborty, Runu; Raychaudhuri, Utpal

    2008-03-01

    Different types of herbal yogurts were developed by mixing standardized milk with pretreated herbs, namely tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum), pudina leaf (Mentha arvensis) and coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum), with leaves separately and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the strains of lactic starter cultures---Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIM 2903) and Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIM 2083)-followed by incubation at 40 degrees C for 6 h. The beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of the abovementioned herbal yogurts was determined and interestingly noted to exhibit higher enzymatic activity compared with the control yogurt (without any herbs). Among all herbal yogurts, tulsi yogurt had the maximum beta-galactosidase activity. PMID:17852503

  2. Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three

  3. Extra-Large G Proteins Expand the Repertoire of Subunits in Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G Protein Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, David; Gookin, Timothy E.; Milner, Matthew J.; Yu, Yunqing; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are a conserved signal transduction mechanism in eukaryotes. However, G protein subunit numbers in diploid plant genomes are greatly reduced as compared with animals and do not correlate with the diversity of functions and phenotypes in which heterotrimeric G proteins have been implicated. In addition to GPA1, the sole canonical Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Gα subunit, Arabidopsis has three related proteins: the extra-large GTP-binding proteins XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3. We demonstrate that the XLGs can bind Gβγ dimers (AGB1 plus a Gγ subunit: AGG1, AGG2, or AGG3) with differing specificity in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) three-hybrid assays. Our in silico structural analysis shows that XLG3 aligns closely to the crystal structure of GPA1, and XLG3 also competes with GPA1 for Gβγ binding in yeast. We observed interaction of the XLGs with all three Gβγ dimers at the plasma membrane in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Bioinformatic and localization studies identified and confirmed nuclear localization signals in XLG2 and XLG3 and a nuclear export signal in XLG3, which may facilitate intracellular shuttling. We found that tunicamycin, salt, and glucose hypersensitivity and increased stomatal density are agb1-specific phenotypes that are not observed in gpa1 mutants but are recapitulated in xlg mutants. Thus, XLG-Gβγ heterotrimers provide additional signaling modalities for tuning plant G protein responses and increase the repertoire of G protein heterotrimer combinations from three to 12. The potential for signal partitioning and competition between the XLGs and GPA1 is a new paradigm for plant-specific cell signaling. PMID:26157115

  4. Extra-Large G Proteins Expand the Repertoire of Subunits in Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G Protein Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, David; Gookin, Timothy E; Milner, Matthew J; Yu, Yunqing; Assmann, Sarah M

    2015-09-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are a conserved signal transduction mechanism in eukaryotes. However, G protein subunit numbers in diploid plant genomes are greatly reduced as compared with animals and do not correlate with the diversity of functions and phenotypes in which heterotrimeric G proteins have been implicated. In addition to GPA1, the sole canonical Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Gα subunit, Arabidopsis has three related proteins: the extra-large GTP-binding proteins XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3. We demonstrate that the XLGs can bind Gβγ dimers (AGB1 plus a Gγ subunit: AGG1, AGG2, or AGG3) with differing specificity in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) three-hybrid assays. Our in silico structural analysis shows that XLG3 aligns closely to the crystal structure of GPA1, and XLG3 also competes with GPA1 for Gβγ binding in yeast. We observed interaction of the XLGs with all three Gβγ dimers at the plasma membrane in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Bioinformatic and localization studies identified and confirmed nuclear localization signals in XLG2 and XLG3 and a nuclear export signal in XLG3, which may facilitate intracellular shuttling. We found that tunicamycin, salt, and glucose hypersensitivity and increased stomatal density are agb1-specific phenotypes that are not observed in gpa1 mutants but are recapitulated in xlg mutants. Thus, XLG-Gβγ heterotrimers provide additional signaling modalities for tuning plant G protein responses and increase the repertoire of G protein heterotrimer combinations from three to 12. The potential for signal partitioning and competition between the XLGs and GPA1 is a new paradigm for plant-specific cell signaling. PMID:26157115

  5. Effects of low molecular weight hyaluronan combined with carprofen on canine osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes and cartilage explants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Euppayo, Thippaporn; Siengdee, Puntita; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Pradit, Waranee; Viriyakhasem, Nawarat; Chomdej, Siriwadee; Ongchai, Siriwan; Harada, Yasuji; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2015-09-01

    Intra-articular injection with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used to treat inflammatory joint disease, but the side effects of NSAIDs include chondrotoxicity. Hyaluronan has shown positive effects on chondrocytes by reducing apoptosis and increasing proteoglycan synthesis. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of low molecular weight hyaluronan (low MW HA), carprofen 25 mg/ml, carprofen 12.5 mg/ml, and a combination of HA and carprofen on canine osteoarthritis (OA) articular chondrocytes and a cartilage explant model in terms of cell viability, extracellular matrix remaining, and gene expression after exposure. In chondrocyte culture, MTT assay was used to evaluate the chondrotoxicity of IC50 and IC80 of carprofen with HA. In cartilage explant culture, two kinds of extracellular matrix (uronic acid and collagen) remaining in cartilage were used to evaluate cartilage damage for 14 d after treatment. Expression of COL2A1, AGG, and MMP3 was used to evaluate the synthesis and degradation of the matrix for 7 d after treatment. In chondrocyte culture, low MW HA could preserve OA chondrocyte viability but could not reduce the chondrotoxicity level of carprofen (P < 0.05). In explant culture, low MW HA combined with 12.5 mg/ml carprofen caused less destruction of uronic acid and collagen structure when compared with the control (P < 0.05). Low MW HA caused high expression levels of COL2A1 and AGG in OA cartilage (P < 0.05); HA combined with carprofen resulted in higher COL2A1 and AGG expression levels than carprofen alone. PMID:25982358

  6. Intrinsic parameters for the structure control of nonionic reverse micelles in styrene: SAXS and rheometry studies.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Aramaki, Kenji

    2011-05-17

    Shape, size, and internal structure of nonionic reverse micelle in styrene depending on surfactant chain length, concentration, temperature, and water addition have been investigated using a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) method has been employed to deduce real-space structural information. The consistency of the GIFT method has been tested by the geometrical model fittings, and the micellar aggregation number (N(agg)) has been determined. It was found that diglycerol monocaprate (C(10)G(2)), diglycerol monolaurate (C(12)G(2)), and diglycerol monomyristate (C(14)G(2)), spontaneously self-assemble into reverse micelles in organic solvent styrene under ambient conditions. The micellar size and the N(agg) decrease with an increase in surfactant chain length, a scenario that could be understood from the modification of the critical packing parameter (cpp). A clear picture of one-dimensional (1-D) micellar growth was observed with an increase in surfactant weight fraction (W(s)) in the C(10)G(2) system, which eventually formed rodlike micelles at W(s) ≥ 15%. On the other hand, micelles shrunk favoring a rod-to-sphere type transition upon heating. Reverse micelles swelled with water, forming a water pool at the micellar core; the size of water-incorporated reverse micelles was much bigger than that of the empty micelles. Model fittings showed that water addition not only increase the micellar size but also increase the N(agg). Zero-shear viscosity was found to decrease with surfactant chain but increase with W(s), supporting the results derived from SAXS. PMID:21488609

  7. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Laurence; Pellerin, Isabelle; Delamarche, Christian; Deschamps, Stephane; Lagree, Valerie; Froger, Alexandrine; Bonnec, Georgette; Thomas, Daniel; Hubert, Jean-Francois

    2002-06-01

    We previously observed that aquaporins and glycerol facilitators exhibit different oligomeric states when studied by sedimentation on density gradients following nondenaturing detergent solubilization. To determine the domains of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family proteins involved in oligomerization, we constructed protein chimeras corresponding to the aquaporin AQPcic substituted in the loop E (including the proximal part of transmembrane domain (TM) 5) and/or the C-terminal part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG). The analogous chimeras of GlpF were also constructed (chimeras GAG, GGA, and GAA). cRNA corresponding to all constructs were injected into Xenopus oocytes. AQPcic, GlpF, AAG, AGG, and GAG were targeted to plasma membranes. Water or glycerol membrane permeability measurements demonstrated that only the AAG chimera exhibited a channel function corresponding to water transport. Analysis of all proteins expressed either in oocytes or in yeast by velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients following solubilization by 2% n-octyl glucoside indicated that only AQPcic and AAG exist in tetrameric forms. GlpF, GAG, and GAA sediment in a monomeric form, whereas GGA and AGG were found mono/dimeric. These data bring new evidence that, within the MIP family, aquaporins and GlpFs behave differently toward nondenaturing detergents. We demonstrate that the C-terminal part of AQPcic, including the distal half of TM 6, can be substituted by the equivalent domain of GlpF (AAG chimera) without modifying the transport specificity. Our results also suggest that interactions of TM 5 of one monomer with TM 1 of the adjacent monomer are crucial for aquaporin tetramer stability. PMID:11927589

  8. Gravity gradiometry and seismic interpretation integration using spatially guided fuzzy c-means clustering inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapstine, Thomas D.

    Gravity gradiometry has been used as a geophysical tool to image salt structure in hydrocarbon exploration. The knowledge of the location, orientation, and spatial extent of salt bodies helps characterize possible petroleum prospects. Imaging around and underneath salt bodies can be challenging given the petrophysical properties and complicated geometry of salt. Methods for imaging beneath salt using seismic data exist but are often iterative and expensive, requiring a refinement of a velocity model at each iteration. Fortunately, the relatively strong density contrast between salt and background density structure pro- vides the opportunity for gravity gradiometry to be useful in exploration, especially when integrated with other geophysical data such as seismic. Quantitatively integrating multiple geophysical data is not trivial, but can improve the recovery of salt body geometry and petrophysical composition using inversion. This thesis provides two options for quantitatively integrating seismic, AGG, and petrophysical data that may aid the imaging of salt bodies. Both methods leverage and expand upon previously developed deterministic inversion methods. The inversion methods leverage seismically derived information, such as horizon slope and salt body interpretation, to constrain the inversion of airborne gravity gradiometry data (AGG) to arrive at a density contrast model. The first method involves constraining a top of salt inversion using slope in a seismic image. The second method expands fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering inversion to include spatial control on clustering based on a seismically derived salt body interpretation. The effective- ness of the methods are illustrated on a 2D synthetic earth model derived from the SEAM Phase 1 salt model. Both methods show that constraining the inversion of AGG data using information derived from seismic images can improve the recovery of salt.

  9. HIV-1 subtype influences susceptibility and response to monotherapy with the protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, K. A.; Ghosn, J.; Gregson, J.; Mbisa, J. L.; Chaix, M. L.; Cohen Codar, I.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Delaugerre, C.; Gupta, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective PI susceptibility results from a complex interplay between protease and Gag proteins, with Gag showing wide variation across HIV-1 subtypes. We explored the impact of pre-treatment susceptibility on the outcome of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Methods Treatment-naive individuals who experienced lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy failure from the MONARK study were matched (by subtype, viral load and baseline CD4 count) with those who achieved virological response (‘successes’). Successes were defined by viral load <400 copies/mL after week 24 and <50 copies/mL from week 48 to week 96. Full-length Gag–protease was amplified from patient samples for in vitro phenotypic susceptibility testing, with susceptibility expressed as fold change (FC) relative to a subtype B reference strain. Results Baseline lopinavir susceptibility was lower in viral failures compared with viral successes, but the differences were not statistically significant (median lopinavir susceptibility: 4.4 versus 8.5, respectively, P = 0.17). Among CRF02_AG/G patients, there was a significant difference in lopinavir susceptibility between the two groups (7.1 versus 10.4, P = 0.047), while in subtype B the difference was not significant (2.7 versus 3.4, P = 0.13). Subtype CRF02_AG/G viruses had a median lopinavir FC of 8.7 compared with 3.1 for subtype B (P = 0.001). Conclusions We report an association between reduced PI susceptibility (using full-length Gag–protease sequences) at baseline and subsequent virological failure on lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in antiretroviral-naive patients harbouring subtype CRF02_AG/G viruses. We speculate that this may be important in the context of suboptimal adherence in determining viral failure. PMID:25228587

  10. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, Carson A.; McClellan, James H.; Arepalli, Chesnal D.; Auffermann, William F.; Henry, Travis S.; Khosa, Faisal; Coy, Adam M.; Tridandapani, Srini

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (P{sub AGG}) and IVS (P{sub IV} {sub S}) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (P{sub CT}). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for P{sub AGG} for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to P

  11. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Kumar, G. Ramesh; Yathavan, S.; Mohan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr0.6B0.4Nb2O6) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce+ ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  12. Discovery of a cosmological, relativistic outburst via its rapidly fading optical emission

    SciTech Connect

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Nugent, Peter E.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, Assaf; Carpenter, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Groot, Paul J.; Hallinan, G.; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Frail, Dale A.; Gruber, D.; Rau, Arne; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright (R {sub peak} = 18.3 mag), rapidly fading (ΔR = 4 mag in Δt = 2 days) optical transient emission; (2) a faint (R = 26.2 ± 0.2 mag), blue (g' – R = 0.17 ± 0.29 mag) quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients (flare stars, X-ray binaries, dwarf novae), and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for a GRB-like afterglow without a high-energy counterpart: an 'untriggered' GRB (lack of satellite coverage), an 'orphan' afterglow (viewing-angle effects), and a 'dirty fireball' (suppressed high-energy emission). The observed optical and radio light curves appear inconsistent with even the most basic predictions for off-axis afterglow models. The simplest explanation, then, is that PTF11agg is a normal, on-axis long-duration GRB for which the associated high-energy emission was simply missed. However, we have calculated the likelihood of such a serendipitous discovery by PTF and find that it is quite small (≈2.6%). While not definitive, we nonetheless speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new, more common (>4 times the on-axis GRB rate at 90% confidence) class of relativistic outbursts lacking associated high

  13. HOBAN project: towards the development of radiation-tolerant fiber-based temperature sensors for nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morana, A.; Girard, S.; Marin, E.; Rizzolo, S.; Marcandella, C.; Paillet, P.; Périsse, J.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Grelin, J.; Melin, G.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Macé, J.-R.

    2015-09-01

    HOBAN (Development of Hard Optical Fiber BrAgg GratiNgs Sensors) is an European H2020 project granted by Kic InnoEnergy and aiming the development of fiber-based temperature and strain monitoring systems that can withstand harsh nuclear environment (350°C temperature and MGy dose levels). The objective will be achieved by employing `ad hoc' fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and their associated instrumentation system which will bring to the market new tools for optimizing the running and the services in current and future nuclear power plants. We'll present the challenges associated with this project and recent advances at the OFS conference.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Palawan peacock-pheasant Polyplectron napoleonis (Galliformes, Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Quach, Tommy; Brooks, Daniel M; Miranda, Hector C

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Palawan peacock-pheasant Polyplectron napoleonis is 16,710 bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control-region. All protein-coding genes use the standard ATG start codon, except for cox1 which has GTG start codon. Seven out of 13 PCGs have TAA stop codons, two have AGG (cox1 and nd6), and three PCGs (nd2, cox2 and nd4) have incomplete stop codon of just T- - nucleotide. PMID:24971623

  15. Electron microscopy observations on the role of twinning in the evolution of microstructures.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, U; Hetherington, C J D; Radmilovic, V; Johnson, E; Xiao, S Q; Luo, C P

    2002-08-01

    Twinning plays an important role in phase transformations and can have significant effects on microstructural evolution. Different roles of twinning in the development of microstructures during precipitation and phase transformations are reviewed and illustrated with examples from investigations by high-resolution electron microscopy, including the effect of multiple twinning on the development of Ge precipitates in Al-Ge and Ag-Ge alloys, the twin dissociation of grain boundaries in Au, the formation of hexagonal Si at twin intersections and the effect of twin boundaries on the equilibrium shape of Pb inclusions in Al. PMID:12533222

  16. Contrasting root associated fungi of three common oak-woodland plant species based on molecular identification: host specificity or non-specific amplification?

    PubMed

    Douhan, Greg W; Petersen, Carolyn; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Rizzo, David M

    2005-07-01

    An increasingly popular approach used to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in planta is to amplify a portion of AM fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA) from whole root DNA extractions using the primer pair AM1-NS31, followed by cloning and sequencing. We used this approach to study the AM fungal community composition of three common oak-woodland plant species: a grass (Cynosurus echinatus), blue oak (Quercus douglasii), and a forb (Torilis arvensis). Significant diversity of AM fungi were found in the roots of C. echinatus, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating a high degree of AM fungal diversity from the roots of various hosts. In contrast, clones from Q. douglasii and T. arvensis were primarily from non-AM fungi of diverse origins within the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This work demonstrates that caution must be taken when using this molecular approach to determine in planta AM fungal diversity if non-sequence based methods such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis are used. PMID:15772816

  17. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 μl of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 μg/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  18. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Glenda L.; Cooper, W. Rodney; Horton, David R.; Swisher, Kylie D.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Munyaneza, Joseph E.; Barcenas, Nina M.

    2015-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention. PMID:26555359

  19. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Torres, Glenda L; Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Swisher, Kylie D; Garczynski, Stephen F; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Barcenas, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention. PMID:26555359

  20. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:21542473

  1. Host plant-dependent metabolism of 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae: substrate specificity and effects of genetic modification and plant nitrile hydratase.

    PubMed

    Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik; Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2007-11-01

    After ingestion of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana CYP79A1 containing sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate) due to genetic modification, only one major sinalbin-derived sulphate ester (the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile) was excreted by Pieris rapae caterpillars (corresponding to 69mol% of ingested sinalbin). An additional sulphate ester (the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxyphenylacetamide) was excreted when the caterpillars were reared on two plant species (Sinapis alba and Sinapis arvensis) that contained sinalbin naturally. Artificial addition of sinalbin to S. arvensis leaves resulted in increased levels of the sulphated amide, and an enzymatic activity (nitrile hydratase) explaining the formation of the sulphated amide from sinalbin was detected in both Sinapis species, but not in A. thaliana. In agreement with the suggested minor metabolic pathway, the caterpillars were able to sulphate 4-hydroxyphenylacetamide offered as part of an artificial diet. In fact, phenol and seven para-substituted phenol derivatives with substituents of moderate size were sulphated and excreted, but all tested phenols devoid of a nitrile functional group were less efficiently sulphated than the primary sinalbin detoxification product, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. This suggests that the specificity of the sulphation step involved in sinalbin metabolism may be adapted to nitriles formed as metabolites of phenolic glucosinolates. On the contrary, there was no specificity for products (4-hydroxybenzylascorbigen and 4-hydroxybenzylalcohol) derived from the semistable isothiocyanate produced from sinalbin in the absence of nitrile specifier protein. PMID:17916498

  2. The choice of bromeliads as a microhabitat by Scinax argyreornatus (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, J; Lima, M S C S; Peixoto, O L; Souza, C A S

    2012-05-01

    The association of anurans to bromeliads presents different degrees of interaction such as: eventual, obligatory and bromeligen. The frog species Scinax argyreornatus shows a regular association with these plants. The goal of this study is to characterise the degree of association between the frog S. argyreornatus to different species of bromeliads. We identified which species of bromeliad is regularly associated with S. argyreornatus and recognised which factors interfere with this association preference. We analysed the Concentration of Relative Dominance of frogs per bromeliad species. As possible criteria for frog association preference to different bromeliads species we established the analysis of leaves number, length and width, number of leaf axils, stored water in the axils, pH and relative humidity, among other organographic components. Our observations were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. We also evaluated the preference for association by the constancy of Bodenheimer. The correlation matrix indicated that the relative humidity is the factor responsible for the frog-bromeliads association, except for Aechmea sp.. However Aechmea sp. was the species with greater constancy of occupation followed by Quesnelia arvensis and Neoregelia johannis. According to our statistical results, Aechmea sp. and Q. arvensis are not different regarding organographic parameters, but differ from N. johannis. Our observations suggest that the bromeliads organographic structure and the relative humidity are key conditions which influence the preferences of S. argyreornatus to bromeliad species, while the other features showed no correlation. PMID:22735128

  3. Provisioning floral resources to attract aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) useful for pest management in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Uña, A; Martín, J M; Fernández-Quintanilla, C; Dorado, J

    2013-12-01

    Noncrop plant communities present on the boundaries or within crop fields are essential for the maintenance of functional biodiversity, affecting beneficial insect numbers and ecological fitness. Habitat manipulation is an increasingly studied strategy aimed at enhancing natural enemies of agricultural pests by providing feeding and shelter resources. In this study, six plant species selected from preliminary work were tested for their potential attractiveness to four common aphidophagous hoverflies species. Potential attractiveness was evaluated through observation of hoverfly feeding visits to replicated flower plots distributed in a randomized design. The combination of the selected species covered a 2-mo full-bloom period. Sphaerophoria scripta L. and Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedeman) were the dominant hoverflies present throughout the sampling period, whereas Eupeodes corollae (F.) and Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) visits were less abundant and appeared only in the early season. Potential attractiveness varied among plant species. Calendula arvensis L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were the most visited species. C. arvensis received a high number of visits throughout a long period, whereas the visits to Co. sativum were concentrated in a short blooming period. These results suggest that habitat management by using these plant species may increase the abundance of hoverflies and could improve the biological control of aphid pests typical of spring-summer crops in open Mediterranean environments. PMID:24498730

  4. Overview of currently available Japanese acellular pertussis vaccines and future problems.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Nii, R

    1988-01-01

    Acellular pertussis diphtheria, tetanus vaccine (APDT) was licensed in 1981 in Japan. This vaccine contains pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and agglutinogen (AGG) as the main protective antigens. The new APDT vaccine produced by each company differs slightly in composition. There are two representative types of vaccine. One vaccine (B type) contains PT and FHA in a ratio of 1 to 1 and the other one (T type) contains PT and FHA in a ratio of 4 to 1 or 9 to 1 and also contains different amounts of AGG. We have been comparing the effectiveness of these two types of vaccine. The adverse reactions of APDT were local reactions such as redness and swelling, with a few febrile cases. No central nervous system adverse reactions were observed. The antibody protective level of this vaccine is also being investigated. After we changed from conventional vaccine to APDT, the frequency of serious adverse reactions was reduced and the number of pertussis infections also gradually decreased. This vaccine should be used for the children world-wide. PMID:3273618

  5. Microcalorimetric and SAXS determination of PEO-SDS interactions: the effect of cosolutes formed by ions.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Aparecida Mageste; Santos, Igor José Boggione; Ferreira, Guilherme Max Dias; da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol; Teixeira, Alvaro Vianna Novaes de Carvalho; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2010-09-23

    The effect of different ionic cosolutes (NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), Li(2)SO(4), NaSCN, Na(2)[Fe(CN)(5)NO], and Na(3)[Co(NO)(6)]) on the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and isothermal titration calorimetric techniques. The critical aggregation concentration values (cac), the saturation concentration (C(2)), the integral enthalpy change for aggregate formation (ΔH(agg)(int)) and the standard free energy change of micelle adsorption on the macromolecule chain (ΔΔG(agg)) were derived from the calorimetric titration curves. In the presence of 1.00 mmol L(-1) cosolute, no changes in the parameters were observed when compared with those obtained for SDS-PEO interactions in pure water. For NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), Li(2)SO(4), and NaSCN at 10.0 and 100 mmol L(-1), the cosolute presence lowered cac, increased C(2), and the PEO-SDS aggregate became more stable. In the presence of Na(2)[Fe(CN)(5)NO], the calorimetric titration curves changed drastically, showing a possible reduction in the PEO-SDS degree of interaction, possibility disrupting the formed nanostructure; however, the SAXS data confirmed, independent of the small energy observed, the presence of aggregates adsorbed on the polymer chain. PMID:20806942

  6. Microstructural Evolution During Normal/Abnormal Grain Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirdel, Mohammad; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Habibi Parsa, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    The grain growth behavior of 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times with emphasis on the distinction between normal and abnormal grain growth (AGG) modes. The dependence of AGG (secondary recrystallization) at homologous temperatures of around 0.7 upon microstructural features such as dispersed carbides, which were rich in Ti but were almost free of V, was investigated by optical micrographs, X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy images, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra. The bimodality in grain-size distribution histograms signified that a transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal was occurred at homologous temperatures of around 0.7 due to the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. Continued annealing to a long time led to completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another noticeable abnormality in grain growth was observed at very high annealing temperatures, which may be related to grain boundary faceting/defaceting. Finally, a versatile grain growth map was proposed, which can be used as a practical guide for estimation of the resulting grain size after exposure to high temperatures.

  7. Testing the predictive validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in relation to inmate misconduct and violence.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Davidson, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has been widely employed in correctional settings as a screening tool to assess inmates' risk for committing various types of institutional misconduct. Evaluations have generally found the PAI scales Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI) to be modestly related to institutional misbehavior, thus supporting its construct validity. The current study provides the most comprehensive examination of the predictive and incremental validity of the PAI and its subscales among a large sample of imprisoned offenders to date. In particular, the size of the sample (n = 15,546) and follow-up period (mean time at risk of 2.2 years) allowed for the disaggregation of institutional misconduct by levels of seriousness and separate examinations by conviction offense and criminal history variables. The 3 scales most strongly related to general rule infractions were ANT, AGG, and the VPI. After controlling for age at intake, violent conviction history, prior violent arrests, and time at risk, the PAI scales were shown to add incremental validity to the classification of 4 types of disciplinary infractions ranging from 2 to 4 percentage points. The study also explored the relationship of the PAI's response bias scales to institutional misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460899

  8. tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Yokobori, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria), AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria), AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria), AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria), and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case). We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNATrp for UGA, tRNAMet for AUA, tRNAAsn for AAA, and tRNASer and tRNAGly for AGA/AGG) are all modified; tRNATrp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNAMet has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNASer has 7-methylguanosine and tRNAGly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNAAsn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution. PMID:22007289

  9. Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Proteins and Age Reset in Yeast Are Regulated by Vac17-Dependent Vacuolar Functions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sandra Malmgren; Hao, Xinxin; Grönvall, Johan; Spikings-Nordby, Stephanie; Widlund, Per O; Amen, Triana; Jörhov, Anna; Josefson, Rebecca; Kaganovich, Daniel; Liu, Beidong; Nyström, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs) that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan. The link between damage asymmetry and vesicle trafficking can be explained by a direct interaction between aggregates and vesicles. We also show that the protein disaggregase Hsp104 interacts physically with endocytic vesicle-associated proteins, such as the dynamin-like protein, Vps1, which was also shown to be required for Vac17-dependent sequestration of protein aggregates. These data demonstrate that two physiognomies of aging-reduced endocytosis and protein aggregation-are interconnected and regulated by Vac17. PMID:27373154

  10. [Detection of virulence genes of the enteroaggregative pathotype in Escherichia coli strains isolated from groundwater sources in the province of Chaco, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Lösch, Liliana S; Gariboglio Vázquez, María L; Rivas, Marta; Merino, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for many communities in Northern Argentina; particularly, in the province of Chaco, where about 14% of households use this natural resource. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is an emerging pathogen whose global importance in public health has increased in recent years. Despite the significant risk of disease linked to contaminated water exposure, the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes in aquatic environments is still not so well defined. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of typical enteroaggregative E. coli through the recognition of its virulence factors aap, AA probe and aggR by molecular techniques. A total of 93 water samples from different small communities of Chaco were analyzed. E. coli was identified in 36 (38.7%) of the tested samples. Six strains isolated from different samples harbored the studied genes. Of these 6 isolates, 3 carried the aap gene, 2 the AA probe and the last one the combination of aap/aggR genes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates harboring enteroaggregative virulence genes in groundwater sources was 6.4%. This work represents the first contribution to the study of the presence and distribution of virulence genes of EAEC in groundwater sources in this region of Argentina. PMID:26026228

  11. Winery wastewater treatment by combination of Cryptococcus laurentii and Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia; Lucas, Marco S; Dias, Albino A; Bezerra, Rui M F; Peres, José A; Sampaio, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Winery wastewaters (WW) have high levels of organic matter, resulting in high COD and BOD and suspended solids. This paper studies the combination of biological and chemical processes in WW treatment. Among 10 yeast isolates, Filobasidium sp. (AGG 577) and Cryptococcus laurentii (AGG 726) were selected due to their superior performance in COD removal. During WW degradation, COD and total polyphenols (TPP) content removal of 89-90% for Filobasidium sp. and 90-93% for C. laurentii were obtained. However, despite similar degradation efficiency for both yeasts, COD kinetics and pH evolution during treatment reveals that C. laurentii presents a faster response than Filobasidium sp. The toxicity (inhibition of Vibrio fischeri luminescence) of C. laurentii treated WW decreases to an inhibition value below 2.5%. However, treated WW exceeds the legal limits, making necessary an additional treatment. In this case, the selection of Fenton's reagent as a chemical final polish step process is a good compromise between efficiency and lower practical complexity. The best results for both COD and TPP removal were obtained with H2O2 initial concentration of 39.2mM and a H2O2:Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. The combined C. laurentii - Fenton's reagent treatment of WW achieved a total reduction of 98% and 96%, for COD and TPP, respectively. PMID:24968162

  12. Defining the Performance Parameters of a Rapid Screening Tool for FMR1 CGG-Repeat Expansions Based on Direct Triplet-Primed PCR and Melt Curve Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajan-Babu, Indhu-Shree; Lian, Mulias; Tran, Anh H; Dang, Truong T; Le, Huong T-M; Thanh, Minh N; Lee, Caroline G; Chong, Samuel S

    2016-09-01

    Population-based screening for CGG-repeat expansions in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene that cause fragile X syndrome can now be performed more cost-effectively and simply by combining direct triplet-primed PCR (dTP-PCR) with melting curve analysis (MCA). We have now performed a detailed technical validation to define the operational parameters for achieving robust and reliable performance of the FMR1 dTP-PCR MCA assay. We compared the assay's performance on 2 real-time PCR platforms and determined its analytic sensitivity and specificity. We also assessed the assay's performance on DNA isolated from different sources, the effect of differences in CGG-repeat length and AGG-interruption pattern on melt peak temperature (Tm), and the effect of common substances found in DNA solutions on Tms. The assay performed well in distinguishing normal from expansion-carrying samples. The assay had detection sensitivity down to 1 ng and an analytical specificity beyond 150 ng. In addition to peripheral blood DNA, analysis could also be performed on DNA from saliva, buccal swabs, and dried blood spots. Salt increased Tms, glycogen contamination had minimal effect, whereas AGG interruptions lowered Tms. The FMR1 dTP-PCR MCA screening assay is highly sensitive and specific, performs well using DNA from different sources, and is robust and reproducible when reagent concentrations are maintained across all tested samples. PMID:27375073

  13. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  14. Antibacterial activity and inhibition of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli by antisense DNA analogs.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M A; Summerton, J; Foster, E; Cunningham, K; Stirchak, E; Weller, D; Schaup, H W

    1991-01-01

    Protein synthesis, which takes place within ribosomes, is essential for the survival of any living organism. Ribosomes are composed of both proteins and RNA. Specific interaction between the 3' end CCUCC sequence of prokaryotic 16S rRNA and a partially complementary sequence preceding the initiating codon of mRNA is believed to be a prerequisite for initiation of protein synthesis. Here we report the use of short (three to six nucleotides) synthetic DNA analogs complementary to this sequence to block protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo in Escherichia coli. In the DNA analogs the normal phosphodiester bond in the antisense DNA was replaced by methylcarbamate internucleoside linkages to enhance transport across plasma membranes. Of the analogs tested, those with the sequence AGG and GGA inhibit protein synthesis and colony formation by E. coli strains lacking an outer cell wall. Polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) was attached to the 5' end of some of the test methylcarbamate DNAs to enhance solubility. Analogs of AGG and GGAG with PEG 1000 attached inhibited colony formation in normal E. coli. These analogs may be useful food additives to control bacterial spoilage and biomedically as antibiotics. PMID:1821653

  15. Direct electrospinning of 3D auricle-shaped scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Walser, Jochen; Stok, Kathryn S; Caversaccio, Marco D; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-two poly(ε)caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been produced by electrospinning directly into an auricle-shaped mould and seeded with articular chondrocytes harvested from bovine ankle joints. After seeding, the auricle shaped constructs were cultured in vitro and analysed at days 1, 7, 14 and 21 for regional differences in total DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen (COL) content as well as the expression of aggrecan (AGG), collagen type I and type II (COL1/2) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and 13 (MMP3/13). Stress-relaxation indentation testing was performed to investigate regional mechanical properties of the electrospun constructs. Electrospinning into a conductive mould yielded stable 3D constructs both initially and for the whole in vitro culture period, with an equilibrium modulus in the MPa range. Rapid cell proliferation and COL accumulation was observed until week 3. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed an initial increase in AGG, no change in COL2, a persistent increase in COL1, and only a slight decrease initially for MMP3. Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds directly into an auricle-shape represents a promising option for auricular tissue engineering, as it can reduce the steps needed to achieve an implantable structure. PMID:27171651

  16. Three years of practical use of airborne gravity gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, E.

    2003-04-01

    BHP Billiton has successfully built and deployed three airborne gravity gradiometer (AGG) systems, (Newton, Einstein and Galileo) based upon the Bell Airspace (now Lockheed Martin) Gravity Gradient Instruments developed for the United States Department of Defense. A second-generation gradiometer (Feynman) is presently nearing completion. The GGI technology is based on groups of four (4) accelerometers where the accelerometers are equi-spaced on a circle. The configuration successfully rejects both common mode accelerations and rotations about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the complement. The GGI is mounted within an aircraft in a specially designed, inertially stabilized platform, which significantly reduces sensitivity to noise and turbulence. The BHP Billiton AGG Technology provides high quality gravity maps with a resolution and sensitivity to map gravity anomalies associated with both minerals and hydrocarbon deposits. To date the purpose built and designed hardware and data processing algorithms, in conjunction with several other geophysical survey instruments, have been deployed against a broad range of mineral and hydrocarbon targets, a total of over 300,000km of operational flights having been made. Data will also be presented on the in-flight sensitivity of a gravity gradiometer to the airborne environment. It will also outline some of the many unexpected problems that were encountered in the 18-month flight trials required to achieve satisfactory airborne operation.

  17. Adhesiveness for extracellular matrices and lysosomal enzyme release from normal and beta 2 integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Noda, H; Tamoto, K; Kuwabara, M

    1996-01-01

    The adhesiveness of control and CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils on culture plates precoated with collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin was measured to evaluate the possible factors for adherence to extracellular matrices. The release of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) from control and CD18-deficient neutrophils stimulated with complement receptor type 3 (CR3) or Fc receptor dependent stimuli was also evaluated. The adhesive activities of CD18-deficient neutrophils to collagen I, collagen IV and fibronectin were significantly diminished (P < 0.05); however, similar adhesion to laminin was observed in CD18-deficient neutrophils and control neutrophils. The adhesive activity of control neutrophils on uncoated plates increased 2.5 times (P < 0.05) with the presence of PMA. The mean activities for NAGase release from CD18-deficient neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan and aggregated bovine immunoglobulin G (Agg-IgG) were 46.7 and 82.7% that of the control neutrophils, respectively. The Agg-IgG-induced NAGase release from control and CD18-deficient neutrophils was eliminated by H7, a protein kinase C inhibitor. These results support that an association between CR3 and Fc receptors on neutrophils appears to play an essential role in neutrophil functions. PMID:8981354

  18. Al-Ti Particulate Composite: Processing and Studies on Particle Twinning, Microstructure, and Thermal Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Devinder; Bauri, Ranjit; Kauffmann, Alexander; Freudenberger, Jens

    2016-08-01

    The present investigation shows that alternate to the ceramic particles, hard metallic particles can be used as reinforcement in an aluminum matrix to achieve a good strength-ductility combination in a composite. Titanium particles were incorporated into aluminum by friction stir processing (FSP) to process an Al-Ti particulate composite. FSP led to uniform distribution of the particles in the stir zone without any particle-matrix reaction, thereby retaining the particles in their elemental state. Fracture and twinning of the Ti particles with different frequency of occurrence on the advancing and retreating sides of the stir zone was observed. Twinning of the particles was studied by focused ion beam-assisted transmission electron microscopy. The processed Al-Ti composite exhibited a significant improvement in strength and also retained appreciable amount of ductility. The thermal stability of the fine-grained structure against abnormal grain growth (AGG) was improved by the Ti particles. The AGG in the Al-Ti composite occurred at 713 K (440 °C) compared to 673 K (400 °C) in the unreinforced aluminum processed under the same conditions. On the other hand, the particle-matrix reaction occurred only at 823 K (550 °C), and hence the Ti particles were thermally more stable compared to the matrix grain structure.

  19. Fatigue stress concentration and notch sensitivity in nanocrystalline metals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Furnish, Timothy A.; Boyce, Brad L.; Sharon, John A.; O’Brien, Christopher J.; Clark, Blythe G.; Arrington, Christian L.; Pillars, Jamin R.

    2016-03-11

    Recent studies have shown the potential for nanocrystalline metals to possess excellent fatigue resistance compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. Although the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals are believed to be particularly susceptible to material defects, a systematic study of the effects of geometric discontinuities on their fatigue performance has not yet been performed. In the present work, nanocrystalline Ni–40 wt%Fe containing both intrinsic and extrinsic defects were tested in tension–tension fatigue. The defects were found to dramatically reduce the fatigue resistance, which was attributed to the relatively high notch sensitivity in the nanocrystalline material. Microstructural analysis within the crack-initiation zonesmore » underneath the defects revealed cyclically-induced abnormal grain growth (AGG) as a predominant deformation and crack initiation mechanism during high-cycle fatigue. Furthermore, the onset of AGG and the ensuing fracture is likely accelerated by the stress concentrations, resulting in the reduced fatigue resistance compared to the relatively defect-free counterparts.« less

  20. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko ); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. pic gene of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    Durand, David; Contreras, Carmen A; Mosquito, Susan; Ruíz, Joaquim; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea among children, HIV-infected patients, and travelers to developing countries. We have searched for 18 genes-encoding virulence factors associated with aggregative adherence, dispersion, biofilm, toxins, serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) and siderophores, analyzed in 172 well-characterized EAEC strains (aggR(+)) isolated from stool samples of 97 children with diarrhea and 75 healthy controls from a passive surveillance diarrhea cohort study in Peru. Eighty-one different genetic profiles were identified, 37 were found only associated with diarrhea and 25 with control samples. The most frequent genetic profile was aggC(+)aatA(+)aap(+)shf(+)fyuA(+), present in 19 strains, including diarrhea and controls. The profile set1A(+)set1B(+)pic(+) was associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05). Of all genes evaluated, the most frequent were aatA (CVD 342) present in 159 strains (92.4%) and fyuA in 157 (91.3%). When EAEC strains were analyzed as a single pathogen (excluding co-infections), only pic was associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and with prolonged diarrhea (diarrhea ≥ 7 days) (P < 0.05). In summary, this is the first report on the prevalence of a large set of EAEC virulence genes and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children. More studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of each virulence factor. PMID:27307104

  2. Orientation of glycine on silver nanoparticles: SERS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were prepared and characterized. The molecular structure of the Gly and Gly adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The calculated and observed vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The perpendicular orientation of Gly on the silver surface was predicted from the enhanced Raman signal correspond to the C=O and C-H stretching vibrational modes. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculation were carried out. The reduced band gap value was obtained for Gly adsorbed on silver nanoparticles, which paves the way for designing the bio molecular devices. The first order hyperpolarizability value for Ag-Gly is 461 times greater than the urea. Thus, Ag-Gly is a promising candidate for NLO materials.

  3. Improved bipolar resistive switching memory characteristics in Ge0.5Se0.5 solid electrolyte by using dispersed silver nanocrystals on bottom electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang-Han; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Hwang, Inchan; Cho, Won-Ju; Park, Byoungchoo; Chung, Hong-Bay

    2014-12-01

    Resistive switching random-access memory (ReRAM) devices based on chalcogenide solid electrolytes have recently become a promising candidate for future low-power nanoscale nonvolatile memory application. The resistive switching mechanism of ReRAM is based on the formation and rupture of conductive filament (CF) in the chalcogenide solid electrolyte layers. However, the random diffusion of metal ions makes it hard to control the CF formation, which is one of the major obstacles to improving device performance of ReRAM devices. We demonstrate the spin-coated metal nanocrystals (NCs) enhance the bipolar resistive switching (BRS) memory characteristics. Compared to the Ag/Ge0.5Se0.5/Pt structure, excellent resistive switching memory characteristics were obtained from the Ag/Ge0.5Se0.5/Ag NCs/Pt structure. Ag NCs improve the uniformity of resistance values and reduce the reset voltage and current. A stable DC endurance (> 100 cycles) and a high data retention (> 10(4) sec) were achieved by spin coating the Ag NCs on the Pt bottom electrode for ReRAMs. PMID:25971090

  4. Al-Ti Particulate Composite: Processing and Studies on Particle Twinning, Microstructure, and Thermal Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Devinder; Bauri, Ranjit; Kauffmann, Alexander; Freudenberger, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation shows that alternate to the ceramic particles, hard metallic particles can be used as reinforcement in an aluminum matrix to achieve a good strength-ductility combination in a composite. Titanium particles were incorporated into aluminum by friction stir processing (FSP) to process an Al-Ti particulate composite. FSP led to uniform distribution of the particles in the stir zone without any particle-matrix reaction, thereby retaining the particles in their elemental state. Fracture and twinning of the Ti particles with different frequency of occurrence on the advancing and retreating sides of the stir zone was observed. Twinning of the particles was studied by focused ion beam-assisted transmission electron microscopy. The processed Al-Ti composite exhibited a significant improvement in strength and also retained appreciable amount of ductility. The thermal stability of the fine-grained structure against abnormal grain growth (AGG) was improved by the Ti particles. The AGG in the Al-Ti composite occurred at 713 K (440 °C) compared to 673 K (400 °C) in the unreinforced aluminum processed under the same conditions. On the other hand, the particle-matrix reaction occurred only at 823 K (550 °C), and hence the Ti particles were thermally more stable compared to the matrix grain structure.

  5. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  6. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 μg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 μg/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced

  7. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    Calcite and aragonite speleothems (stalactites and stalagmites) deposited in caves often display fluorescence. It may take the form of couplets of greater and lesser intensity that have been shown to be annual pairs in some carefully controlled instances such as deposits in 20th Century canal tunnels. The variations of intensity are related to seasonal variations in concentrations of fluorophores (chiefly fulvic acids) in the feed water to the speleothem. To test for the possibility and replicability of couplet formation two small stalagmites likely to be of historic age were collected in Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary, in 1992. This is a large cave in Triassic limestones and dolomites that have been intensely deformed by Carpathian tectonism to allow ready ground water penetration. As a consequence, it is profusely decorated with speleothems and has been a tourist attraction since the 18th Century. The samples were taken ten metres apart in an abandoned river passage at a depth of 40-60 m beneath the surface, which is mantled with terra rossas, rendzinas and luvisols mostly less than 50 cm in thickness. The vegetation cover is deciduous forest with small patches of grassland, spruce and pine. At a nearby meteorological station 30-year mean January and July temperatures are -3.5o C and 18.5o C respectively. Annual mean precipitation is 560 mm, with a summer maximum and actual evapotranspiration less than 400 mm. Samples AGG-1 and -2 were bright white calcite stalagmites 90 and 70 mm in length respectively and 40-50 mm in width. They were growing on the blackened stumps of larger stalagmites that had been taken as souvenirs. Blackening was caused by smoky torches used in the earliest days of tourism, and replaced by lanterns around 1820 CE. 2 mm thick slices were cut perpendicular to the growth axes of the samples, polished, excited by electronic flash gun and photographed at 1/60th second with Kodak TMAX ISO 3200 film, using multiple exposures to

  8. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  9. The Structure and Electrical Properties of the Ag2Se + Ga2Se3 + GeSe2 Glass System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marple, Maxwell Adam Thomas

    Silver containing homogeneous chalcogenide glasses in the ternary system Ag2Se-Ga2Se3-GeSe2 (AGGS) are synthesized and their atomic structure-property relationships are investigated. Structural studies are carried out using Raman, 77Se, 71Ga, 69Ga, and 109Ag nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure of these glasses consists primarily of a network of corner sharing (Ga/Ge)Se4/2 tetrahedra with a small fraction of homopolar Se-Se bonds. Compositional modification of the atomic structure follows the charge compensated network model developed in the literature for aluminosilicate glasses. Ag2Se acts as a network modifier, forming non-bridging Se in glasses with Ag/Ga >1, while Ga 2Se3 plays the role of a network intermediate similar to Al2O3 in oxide glasses. The network favors the formation of homopolar Ge-Ge bonding in glasses with Ag/Ga <1, to accommodate the Se deficiency brought by the incorporation of Ga2Se3 with Ga being tetrahedrally coordinated to Se. This structural model is consistent with the variation in the glass transition temperatures and molar volume. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) reveals the ionic conductivity of the AGGS glasses to be quite high at ambient temperature, reaching up to 10 --4 S/cm for glasses with the highest Ag content. Increasing Se deficiency with respect to stoichiometry can enhance the conductivity further to ˜3x10--4 S/cm . Transference number measurements using the electromotive force (EMF) method as well as variable temperature 109Ag NMR line shape studies indicate that the conductivity is predominantly ionic in nature and results from fast hopping dynamics of Ag ions. The high ionic conductivity can be related to a heavily modified structural network that results in a potential energy landscape with many suitable hopping sites for the Ag ions. These structural characteristics and electrical properties of the glasses in the AGGS system may guide in the development of next generation fast ion

  10. Enhanced expression of Fc receptors on neutrophils from calves with leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Nochi, H; Tamoto, K; Noda, H; Kociba, G J

    1995-01-01

    The expression of Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G(IgG) and concanavalin A (con A)-binding receptors, luminol-dependent chemiluminescent (LDCL) responses, and the effect of anti-bovine IgG on LDCL responses were evaluated in neutrophils from Holstein calves with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD). Neutrophils from affected calves showed a 2.1- to 2.5-fold increase in Fc receptor expression compared with those of control calves by flow cytometric analysis. Con A-binding activities of neutrophils from affected calves were similar to those of control calves. Neutrophils from a calf with BLAD, when stimulated with zymosan opsonized with bovine serum (OPZ), heat-aggregated bovine IgG (Agg-bovine IgG), sheep red blood cells (SRBC) sensitized with anti-SRBC antibody (SRBC-anti-SRBC Ab), or con A had LDCL responses of 36 (P < 0.05), 77, 126 and 119% of peak LDCL values of controls, respectively. The NBT-reducing value of neutrophils from a calf with BLAD when stimulated with Agg-bovine IgG after pretreatment with anti-bovine IgG was 116.5% of the values of neutrophils from control calves, but the difference was not significant. The LDCL responses of neutrophils from a control calf and a calf with BLAD stimulated with OPZ were inhibited markedly by pre-incubation with anti-bovine IgG antiserum at concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 20 or 40 micrograms/ml. Although an increase in Fc receptor expression on neutrophils from calves with BLAD was observed, the LDCL responses stimulated with SRBC-anti-SRBC Ab and NBT-reducing activity stimulated with Agg-bovine IgG after pretreatment with anti-bovine IgG did not correlate significantly with the increased Fc receptor expression. These results support that neutrophil functions mediated by the Fc receptors are associated synergistically with the presence of the complement receptor type 3 (CR3)(CD11b/CD18). PMID:8577284

  11. Comparison of glucose derivatives effects on cartilage degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucosamine (GlcN) is a well-recognized candidate for treatment of osteoarthritis. However, it is currently used in derivative forms, such as glucosamine-hydrochloride (GlcN-HCl) or glucosamine sulfate (GlcN-S). However, the molecular mode of action remains unclear. In this study, we compared the effects of Glucose (Glc), Glucuronic acid (GlcA), Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN-HCl) and Glucosamine sulfate (GlcN-S) on cartilage degradation. Methods Porcine cartilage explants were co-cultured with recombinant human IL-1β and each tested substance for 3 days. HA, s-GAG and MMP-2 releases to media were measured using ELISA, dye-binding assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. Similar studies were performed in a human articular chondrocytes (HAC) monolayer culture, where cells were co-treated with IL-1β and each reagent for 24 hours. Subsequently, cells were harvested and gene expression measured using RT-PCR. All experiments were carried out in triplicate. Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results In cartilage explants treated with IL-1β, GlcN-S had the highest chondroprotective activity of all four chemicals as shown by the inhibition of HA, s-GAG and MMP-2 released from cartilage. The anabolic (aggrecan core protein; AGG, SOX9) and catabolic (MMP-3, -13) genes in HACs treated with IL-1β and with/without chemicals were studied using RT-PCR. It was found that, GlcN-HCl and GlcN-S could reduce the expression of both MMP-3 and -13 genes. The IL-1β induced-MMP-13 gene expression was decreased maximally by GlcN-S, while the reduction of induced-MMP-3 gene expression was greatest with GlcN-HCl. Glc and GlcA reversed the effect of IL-1β on the expression of AGG and SOX9, but other substances had no effect. Conclusion This study shows that glucosamine derivatives can alter anabolic and catabolic processes in HACs induced by IL-1β. GlcN-S and GluN-HCl decreased induced MMP-3 and -13 expressions, while Glc and GlcA increased reduced-AGG

  12. Scavenger properties of cultivated pig liver endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Elvevold, Kjetil H; Nedredal, Geir I; Revhaug, Arthur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2004-01-01

    Background The liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Kupffer cells constitute the most powerful scavenger system in the body. Various waste macromolecules, continuously released from tissues in large quantities as a consequence of normal catabolic processes are cleared by the LSEC. In spite of the fact that pig livers are used in a wide range of experimental settings, the scavenger properties of pig LSEC has not been investigated until now. Therefore, we studied the endocytosis and intracellular transport of ligands for the five categories of endocytic receptors in LSEC. Results Endocytosis of five 125I-labelled molecules: collagen α-chains, FITC-biotin-hyaluronan, mannan, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin (FSA), and aggregated gamma globulin (AGG) was substantial in cultured LSEC. The endocytosis was mediated via the collagen-, hyaluronan-, mannose-, scavenger-, or IgG Fc-receptors, respectively, as judged by the ability of unlabelled ligands to compete with labelled ligands for uptake. Intracellular transport was studied employing a morphological pulse-chase technique. Ninety minutes following administration of red TRITC-FSA via the jugular vein of pigs to tag LSEC lysosomes, cultures of the cells were established, and pulsed with green FITC-labelled collagen, -mannan, and -FSA. By 10 min, the FITC-ligands was located in small vesicles scattered throughout the cytoplasm, with no co-localization with the red lysosomes. By 2 h, the FITC-ligands co-localized with red lysosomes. When LSEC were pulsed with FITC-AGG and TRITC-FSA together, co-localization of the two ligands was observed following a 10 min chase. By 2 h, only partial co-localization was observed; TRITC-FSA was transported to lysosomes, whereas FITC-AGG only slowly left the endosomes. Enzyme assays showed that LSEC and Kupffer cells contained equal specific activities of hexosaminidase, aryl sulphates, acid phosphatase and acid lipase, whereas the specific activities of α-mannosidase, and

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  14. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  15. Fluoride accumulation in soil and vegetation in the vicinity of brick fields.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K

    2008-04-01

    Fluoride in the soil and vegetation in the vicinity of brick field in the suburb of Lucknow, India was estimated. The water soluble fluoride (1:1) in the surface soil ranged from 0.59 ppm to 2.74 ppm where as CaCl(2) extractable fluoride ranged from 0.69 ppm to 3.18 ppm. The mean total fluoride concentration in surface soil varied from 322 microg g(-1) to 456 microg g(-1). The local vegetations grown in the area found to accumulate air borne fluoride from the brick field. The fluoride accumulation in the vegetation followed the order Mentha arvensis > Spinacea oleracea > Luffa cylindrical. PMID:18345473

  16. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  17. Carbon Dioxide Compensation Points of Flowering Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Krenzer, Eugene G.; Moss, Dale N.; Crookston, R. Kent

    1975-01-01

    Carbon dioxide compensation points of several hundred species of monocotyledons and dicotyledons have been measured during the course of various experiments in our laboratory over a period of several years. These have been classified into two groups: high, compensation points of 40 μl/l or greater; and low, compensation points of 10 μl/l or less. They are listed alphabetically both by families and species for monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Only two species did not unequivocally fit into the above established groups. These were Moricandia arvensis (L.) DC., which had an average compensation point of 26 μl/l and Panicum milioides Nees ex Trin., which was variable, but most often equilibrated between 12 to 20 μl/l CO2. PMID:16659272

  18. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Calamintha nepeta plants from the wild in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Malova, Hanna; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, collected in the Campania Region, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 42 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by a prevalence of the sesquiterpenic fraction (80.8%). The main components were 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (18.5%), allo-aromadendrene epoxide (11.4%) and cadalene (5.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil showed no antioxidant activity. PMID:23472480

  19. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents. PMID:25630112

  20. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) potential in nine Mentha species.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2012-02-01

    Mentha species are used in every day life in various food items. These species produce valuable secondary metabolites that scavenge toxic free radicals. Toxic free radicals can cause different diseases in the human body. In the present study free radical scavenging potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity) in nine Mentha species were investigated to evaluate and explore new potential sources for natural antioxidants. The activity was performed after different time intervals with incubation period of 30 minutes. The methanolic extracts revealed that significantly higher activity (82%) was observed in Mentha suaveolens, followed by Mentha longifolia (79%), Mentha officinalis (76%) and Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana (75%), respectively. Significantly same activity was observed in Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata. Lower activity was observed in Mentha citrata (64%). The present study revealed that these species can be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21646282

  1. (E)-β-farnesene gene reduces Lipaphis erysimi colonization in transgenic Brassica juncea lines

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shiv Shankar; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Jajoo, Anajna

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are the major concern that significantly reduces the yield of crops. (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) is the principal component of the alarm pheromone of many aphids. The results of current research support the direct defense response of (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) against aphid Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach in Brassica juncea. Eβf gene was isolated from Mentha arvensis and transformed into B. juncea, showed direct repellent against aphid colonization. The seasonal mean population (SMP) recorded under field condition showed significantly higher aphid colonization in wild type in comparison to most of the transgenic lines, and shows positive correlation with the repellency of transgenic plant expressing (E)-β-farnesene. The current research investigation provides direct evidence for aphid control in B. juncea using Eβf, a non-toxic mode of action. PMID:26251882

  2. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  3. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  4. Effect of different drying methods on concentrations of several phytochemicals in herbal preparation of 8 medicinal plants leaves.

    PubMed

    Mahanom, H; Azizah, A; Dzulkifly, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of oven drying at 50ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 9 hour, 70ᵒC ± 1ᵒC for 5 hour and freeze drying on retention of chlorophyll, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and carotenoids in herbal preparation consisting of 8 medicinal plants was evaluated. The medicinal plants selected were leaves of Apium graveolens (saderi), Averrhoa bilimbi (belimbing buluh), Centella asiatica (pegaga), Mentha arvensis (pudina), Psidium guajava (jambu batu), Sauropus androgynous (cekor manis), Solanum nigrum (terung meranti) and Polygonum minus (kesum ). Results revealed that both type and conditions of the drying treatments affected retention of all phytochemicals analysed. Herbal preparation developed using oven drying was found to have inferior phytochemicals content compared to that obtained by freeze dryer. Nevertheless, the herbal preparation developed using all treatments still retain appreciable amount of phytochemicals studied, especially carotenoids, ascorbic acid, niacin and riboflavin and thus have potential for commercial purposes. PMID:22692357

  5. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25632490

  6. Changes in dicot-weeds species composition in spring barley in Latvia during the past 20 years.

    PubMed

    Vanaga, I

    2012-01-01

    Dicot weed populations were assessed in spring barley trials carried out in four three-years periods at 5-year intervals: 1990-1992, 1995-1997; 2001-2003 and 2006-2008. The overall aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in dicot-weed infestations in spring barley in fields of one region (Riga) of Latvia in sod-podzolic loamy sand soil. The results of the trials showed that Galeopsis spp, Stellaoria media, Viola orvensis and Chenopodium album were among the most frequent weed species in the periods of 1990-1992 and 1995-1997. The occurrence of C. album and V. arvensis increased during the periods of 2001-2003 and 2006-2008. PMID:23878992

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter suis strains.

    PubMed

    Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Van Deun, Kim; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2011-12-15

    Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious porcine gastric pathogen, which is also considered to be of zoonotic importance. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility cannot be determined using standard assays, as this agent only grows in a biphasic medium with an acidic pH. Therefore, a combined agar and broth dilution method was used to analyse the activity of nine antimicrobial agents against nine H. suis isolates. After 48 h microaerobic incubation, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by software-assisted calculation of bacterial growth. Only for enrofloxacin a bimodal distribution of MICs was demonstrated, indicating acquired resistance in one strain, which showed an AGT→AGG (Ser→Arg) substitution at codon 99 of gyrA. In conclusion, the assay developed here is suitable for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. suis isolates, although activity of acid sensitive antimicrobial agents may be higher than predicted from MIC endpoints. PMID:21733643

  8. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) by using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H David; Welch, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), >80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear stain propidium iodine (PI). This flow cytometric method is described in detail here. When in contact with membranes possessing a high Deltapsi(m), JC-1 forms aggregates (J(agg)) that are fluorescent at 590 nm in response to 488 nm excitation. We found that the reactive oxygen species generator, menadione reduced sperm motility and reduced Deltapsi(m) in a dose responsive fashion that was closely correlated with the loss of motility. PMID:19082941

  9. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bojarski, Stephanie A.; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  10. Cloaked Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  11. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents. PMID:24409857

  12. Theoretical models for the stability of a liquid ring on a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Javier A.; González, Alejandro G.; Kondic, Lou

    2013-11-01

    A viscous incompressible fluid ring on a partially wetting substrate is studied within the framework of long-wave theory. We found that static equilibria are posible in the presence of contact angle hysteresis. Their linear stability is carried out by using a slip model. A quasi-static approximation is also implemented to analyze longer times. This latter approach takes into account the concomitant variation of the instantaneous growth rates of the modes responsible for either collapse of the ring into a single central drop or breakup into a number of droplets along the ring circumforence. We compare the results of these models with those obtained from nonlinear numerical simulations based on a complementary disjoining pressure model. We find remarkably good agreement regarding the expected number of drops forming during the breakup process. Supported by CONICET-Argentina grant PIP 844/2011 (AGG, JAD), and by NSF grant CBET-1235710 (LK).

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Saker falcon, Falco cherrug (Falco, Falconidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Lu, Jiang; Li, Xiang-Feng; Jiang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    The Falco cherrug (Saker falcon) is a large bird of prey. In this article, the complete mitochondrial genome of F. cherrug has been determined for the first time. The mitogenome (18,059 bp) comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Most protein-coding genes started with an ATG or ATA codon except for COI, which initiated with nontypical start codon of GTG instead, and terminated with the typical stop codon (TAA/TAG/AGA/AGG) or a single T. Two tandem repeats were identified in the control region, which was almost identical to Falco peregrinus, and the length of these two repeats are 204 bp and 291 bp, respectively. PMID:25714141

  14. Study of temperature and pressure dependences of electric properties of amorphous Ag-Ge-As-S chalcogenides containing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurochka, K. V.; Melnikova, N. V.; Zaikova, V. E.; Volkova, Ya Yu

    2015-01-01

    Frequency and temperature dependences of impedance of AgGe1+xAs1-x(S+CNT)3, x = 0.4; 0.5; 0.6 were measured. There are maxima on frequency dependences of tangent of loss, which can be connected with relaxation processes inside the sample (the maximum at high frequencies) and the second maximum can be connected with processes occurring on the sample-electrode border. Activation energy of all synthesized materials was estimated to be near 0.5 eV. The relaxation of electric resistance at fixed pressures within the pressure range of 30 to 50 GPa was observed. It is established that the resistance decreases exponentially with time within this range of pressures.

  15. Slaughterhouse effluent discharges into rivers not responsible for environmental occurrence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bibbal, Delphine; Kérourédan, Monique; Loukiadis, Estelle; Scheutz, Flemming; Oswald, Eric; Brugère, Hubert

    2014-01-31

    Enteroaggregative Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains were responsible for a massive outbreak in Europe in 2011, and had been previously isolated from French patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) in slaughterhouse effluents (wastewater, slurry, sludge and effluents), and in river waters near these slaughterhouses. A total of 10,618 E. coli isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of EAEC-associated genetic markers (aggR, aap and aatA). None of these markers was detected in E. coli isolated from slaughterhouse samples. A unique enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) O126:H8 was detected in river water sampled upstream from slaughterhouse effluent discharge. These results confirmed that animals might not be reservoirs of EAEC, and that further studies are required to evaluate the role of the environment in the transmission of EAEC to humans. PMID:24388632

  16. Shiga toxin 2a and Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli – a deadly combination

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Nadia; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Scheutz, Flemming; O'Brien, Alison D; Nataro, James P

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a Shiga toxin (Stx) type 2a-producing enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strain of serotype O104:H4 caused a large lethal outbreak in Northern Europe. Until recently, the pathogenic mechanisms explaining the high virulence of the strain have remained unclear. Our laboratories have shown that EAEC genes encoded on the pAA virulence plasmid, particularly the AggR-regulated AAF/I fimbriae, enhance inflammation and enable the outbreak strain to both adhere to epithelial cells and translocate Stx2a across the intestinal epithelium, possibly explaining the high incidence of the life threatening post-diarrheal sequelae of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Epidemiologic evidence supports a model of EAEC pathogenesis comprising the concerted action of multiple virulence factors along with induction of inflammation. Here, we suggest a model for the pathogenesis of the O104:H4 outbreak strain that includes contributions from EAEC alone, but incorporating additional injury induced by Stx2a. PMID:26039753

  17. CLOAKED GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, David

    2014-06-01

    It is suggested that many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are cloaked by an ultrarelativistic baryonic shell that has high optical depth when the photons are manufactured. Such a shell would not fully block photons reflected or emitted from its inner surface, because the radial velocity of the photons can be less than that of the shell. This avoids the standard problem associated with GRBs that the thermal component should be produced where the flow is still obscured by high optical depth. The radiation that escapes high optical depth obeys the Amati relation. Observational implications may include (1) anomalously high ratios of afterglow to prompt emission, such as may have been the case in the recently discovered PTF 11agg, and (2) ultrahigh-energy neutrino pulses that are non-coincident with detectable GRB. It is suggested that GRB 090510, a short, very hard GRB with very little afterglow, was an exposed GRB, in contrast to those cloaked by baryonic shells.

  18. Structure of the human glucokinase gene and identification of a missense mutation in a Japanese patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Sakura, Hiroshi; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Hirohisa; Yazaki, Yoshio; Kadowaki, Takashi ); Kadowaki, Hiroko; Simokawa, Kotaro; Akanuma, Yasuo ); Koda, Naoya; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu )

    1992-12-01

    Glucokinase is thought to play a glucose-sensor role in the pancreas, and abnormalities in its structure, function, and regulation can induce diabetes. The authors isolated the human glucokinase gene, and determined its genomic structure including exon-intron boundaries. Structure of the glucokinase gene in human was very similar to that in rat. Then, by screening Japanese diabetic patients using polymerase chain reaction - single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct-sequencing strategies, they identified a missense mutation substituting ariginine (AGG) for glycine (GGG) at position 261 in exon 7 of the glucokinase gene in a patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Brandão-Dias, Pedro Ferreira Pinto; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Alves, Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of the fish Salminus brasiliensis, popularly known as dourado. It is a circular, 17,721 bp long DNA molecule, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding Control Region of 2128 bp, a relatively large molecule when compared to other closely related fishes. All protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand, except for Nd6, and all have ATG as the start codon, except for Cox1 gene which has a GTG start codon. Seven protein-coding genes have incomplete stop codons (Nd2, Cox2, Atp6, Nd4, and Cytb have T- -, and Cox3 and Nd3 have TA-). TAG is the stop codon for Nd6 and AGG is the stop codon for Cox1. PMID:25208163

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887).

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Juliana da Silva Martins; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Maciel, Danielle de Cássia Lima; Siqueira, Flávia de Faria; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-05-01

    The migratory species Piaractus Mesopotamicus, popularly known as the pacu, was determined to have a complete mitochondrial genome of 16,722 bp with 45% GC content. The genome contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a 1048 bp Control Region (D-loop). Almost all the PCGs used the standard ATG start codon, except for Cox1 that used a GTG start codon. Five of the 13 PCGs had a TAA stop codon, two had the incomplete stop codon TA- (Atp6 and Cox3), and five had the incomplete stop codon T-- (Nd2, Cox2, Nd3, Nd4, and Cytb). AGG was the stop codon of Cox1. PMID:25319283

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic position of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma.

    PubMed

    Mai, Quanfa; Li, Weidong; Chen, Hao; Ai, Weiming; Chen, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Sicklefin weasel shark Hemigaleus microstoma was first presented in this study. It was 16 701 bp in length with the typical gene arrangement in vertebrates. A total of 25 bp short intergenic spaces and 33 bp overlaps located in 12 and 9 gene junctions, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition was 31.0% A, 26.4% C, 13.5% G and 29.1% T. Two start (ATG and GTG) and three stop (TAG, AGG and TAA/T) codons were found in the protein-coding genes. The size of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. In the phylogenetic tree, H. microstoma (Hemigaleidae) was placed as sister to Galeocerdo cuvier (Carcharhinidae). PMID:26300379

  2. A role of fractions of mobile grain boundaries in secondary recrystallization of Fe-Si steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rajmohan, N.; Szpunar, J.A.; Hayakawa, Y.

    1999-08-10

    Grain growth during annealing of polycrystalline materials is influenced by the type of grain boundaries a grain encounters as it grows. Simple computer experiments have been performed to ascertain which type of boundaries are responsible for the abnormal grain growth (AGG) in Fe-3% Si steels. In modeling abnormal grain growth, two different assumptions are used, the first one is that the coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries have high mobility and the second is that high energy boundaries are more mobile than other boundaries. The results of the computer experiments support the latter model for abnormal grain growth in Fe-3% Si steels. Finally, the importance of fractions of mobile grain boundaries on the development of Goss texture is discussed.

  3. Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of an Investment Cast Al-7Si-0.6Mg Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Baumann, John B.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2010-10-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) is emerging as a promising tool for microstructural modification. The present study assesses the effects of FSP on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an investment cast Al-7Si-Mg alloy. FSP eliminates porosity and significantly refines eutectic Si particles. The extent of particle refinement varied with changes in processing conditions. High tool rotation rate and low to intermediate tool traverse speed generated a higher volume fraction of finer particles. Tensile ductility changed significantly as a result of FSP, whereas UTS improved only marginally. Yield strength was similar in both cast and FSPed samples under various heat treated conditions, with the highest value obtained after a T6 heat treatment. Further, FSP caused significant grain refinement in the stir zone, subsequently transforming into very coarse grains as abnormal grain growth (AGG) occurred during solution treatment at high temperature.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Relict Gull, Larus relictus (Charadriiformes: Laridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Qing-Xiong; Huang, Yuan; Xiao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Larus relictus was 16,586-bp long, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. Most PCGs begin with the typical ATN start codon with the exception of COI and ND5 genes, which use GTG as the initiation codon. Stop codons AGG, TAG, TAA and AGA are present in the PCGs; exceptions are COIII and ND4, which possess incomplete termination codons (T), and ND3, in which one extra C nucleotide is found. Secondary structure prediction of the 22 tRNA genes revealed the absence of the DHU arm in tRNA(Ser)((AGN)). Seven conserved sequence box elements, as well as the origin of H-strand replication (OH) and bidirectional light- and heavy-strand transcription promoters (LSP/HSP), are found in control region. PMID:24621217

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Brycon orbignyanus (Characiformes, Bryconidae).

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Flávia de Faria; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Pimentel, Juliana da Silva Martins; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-05-01

    We report the whole mitochondrial genome of the Brycon orbignyanus, commonly known as the piracanjuba. The mitogenome was determined to be a circular, 16,800 bp DNA molecule, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one 1160 bp noncoding control region. Twelve of the PCGs were located on the heavy strand, and one PCG (Nd6) was located on the light strand. The most common start codon was ATG; however, the Cox1 gene displayed the GTG start codon. Seven PCGs had incomplete stop codons: specifically, Cox2, Cox3, Nd3, Nd4, and Cytb contained the T- - codon, and Nd2 and Atp6 contained the TA- codon. The Cox1 gene contained the AGG stop codon. PMID:25329263

  6. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Será, Bozena; Stranák, Vitezslav; Serý, Michal; Tichý, Milan; Spatenka, Petr

    2008-08-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  7. Evaluation of the MeltPro TB/STR assay for rapid detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and comprehensive detection of drug-resistance is essential for the control of tuberculosis, which has facilitated the development of molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hereby assessed the analytical and clinical performance of an assay for streptomycin-resistant mutations. MeltPro TB/STR is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test designed to detect 15 streptomycin-resistant mutations in rpsL 43, rpsL 88, rrs 513, rrs 514, rrs 517, and rrs 905-908 of M. tuberculosis. Analytical studies showed that the accuracy was 100%, the limit of detection was 50-500 bacilli per reaction, the reproducibility in the form of Tm variation was within 1.0 °C, and we could detect 20% STR resistance in mixed bacterial samples. The cross-platform study demonstrated that the assay could be performed on six models of real-time PCR instruments. A multicenter clinical study was conducted using 1056 clinical isolates, which were collected from three geographically different healthcare units, including 709 STR-susceptible and 347 STR-resistant isolates characterized on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium by traditional drug susceptibility testing. The results showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/STR was 88.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of the mutation types. Among all the 8 mutation types detected, rpsL K43R (AAG → AGG), rpsL K88R (AAG → AGG) and rrs 514 A → C accounted for more than 90%. We concluded that MeltPro TB/STR represents a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of STR resistance in clinical isolates. PMID:25553930

  8. The extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and virulence genes of intestinal enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in healthy elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to analyze the detection rate of intestinal enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) in healthy elderly (≥60 years) individuals in the Hangzhou area of China, and to investigate the extended spectrum β-lactamases and virulence genes of EAEC. Methods: Stool specimens provided by healthy elderly individuals were cultured on blood agar, SS, and MAC plates. The bacterial strains were identified using Vitek-2 Compact automatic microorganism identification system and mass spectrometry. The resistance phenotypes of the bacteria were determined using the double-disk synergy method. The resistance genes and the EAEC virulence gene, astA and aggR, were amplified by PCR and compared to the sequences available in Gen Bank. Results: Among the 1050 healthy volunteers, the majority of bacteria were E. coli, accounting for 960 strains, with an ESBL-positive rate of 36.3% (348/960). The EAEC detection rate was 10% (96/960); among them, 84 strains were astA, the detection rate of which was 8.75%; 12 strains were aggR, the detection rate of which was 1.25%. The ESBL-positive rate of EAEC strains were 56.25% (54/96), all of which carried the CTX-M type, with the CTX-M-14 predominating at 66.7% (36/54). Conclusions: The ESBL-positive rate of intestinal E. coli in healthy elderly individuals in the Hangzhou area of China was higher than the rate detected in other regions of china; and there was a high rate of antibiotic resistance among the intestinal EAEC in healthy elderly individuals. The results of this study suggest that EAEC is not only a pathogenic bacteria detected in diarrhea patients, but can also be present in healthy individuals, and high-resistance clinical strains have spread to the healthy population in the Hangzhou area. So vigilance is critical. PMID:26885024

  9. Nucleotide Sequence and Gene Organization of the Starfish Asterina Pectinifera Mitochondrial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, S.; Himeno, H.; Miura, K. I.; Watanabe, K.

    1995-01-01

    The 16,260-bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the starfish Asterina pectinifera has been sequenced. The genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs and 22 tRNAs are organized in an extremely economical fashion, similar to those of other animal mtDNAs, with some of the genes overlapping each other. The gene organization is the same as that for another echinoderm, sea urchin, except for the inversion of a 4.6-kb segment that contains genes for two proteins, 13 tRNAs and the 16S rRNA. Judging from the organization of the protein coding genes, mammalian mtDNAs resemble the sea urchin mtDNA more than that of the starfish. The region around the 3' end of the 12S rRNA gene of the starfish shows a high similarity with those for vertebrates. This region encodes a possible stem and loop structure; similar potential structures occur in this region of vertebrate mtDNAs and also in nonmitochondrial small subunit rRNA. A similar stem and loop structure is also found at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA genes in A. pectinifera, in another starfish Pisaster ochraceus, in vertebrates and in Drosophila, but not in sea urchins. The full sequence data confirm the presumption that AGA/AGG, AUA and AAA codons, respectively, code for serine, isoleucine, and asparagine in the starfish mitochondria, and that AGA/AGG codons are read by tRNA(GCU)(Ser), which possesses a truncated dihydrouridine arm, that was previously suggested from a partial mtDNA sequence. The structural characteristics of tRNAs and possible mechanisms for the change in the mitochondrial genetic code are also discussed. PMID:7672576

  10. The Dysregulation Profile in middle childhood and adolescence across reporters: factor structure, measurement invariance, and links with self-harm and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Marike H F; Geeraerts, Sanne B; van Baar, Anneloes L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a phenotype of severe dysregulation, the Dysregulation Profile (DP), has been identified. DP consists of elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed (AD), Aggressive Behavior (AGG) and Attention Problems (AP) scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Report Form (TRF), or Youth Self Report (YSR). A drawback in current research is that DP has been conceptualized and operationalized in different manners and research on the factor structure of DP is lacking. Therefore, we examined the factor structure of DP across multiple reporters, measurement invariance across gender, parents, and time, as well as links between DP and self-harm and suicidal ideation. Data from a large community sample were used (N = 697), covering middle childhood (Mage = 7.90, (SD = 1.16) and adolescence (Mage = 13.93, SD = 1.14). Mothers, fathers, teachers, and youth themselves reported on children's emotional and behavioral problems using the CBCL, TRF, and YSR. Results indicated that in middle childhood and in adolescence, a bifactor model with a general factor of Dysregulation alongside three specific factors of AD, AGG, and AP fitted best, compared to a second-order or one-factor model. The model showed good fit for mother, father, teacher, and youth reports and showed invariance across gender, parents and time. Youth, mother, and father reported Dysregulation was uniquely and positively related to adolescent-reported self-harm and suicidal ideation. The DP is best conceptualized as a broad dysregulation syndrome, which exists over and above anxiety/depression, aggression, and attention problems as specific problems. The bifactor model of DP explains the uniqueness and interrelatedness of these behavioral problems and can help explaining shared and non-shared etiology factors. The exclusive link between the general dysregulation factor and adolescents' self-harm and suicidal ideation further established the clinical relevance of the bifactor model. PMID:26226917

  11. Aggregate structure, morphology and the effect of aggregation mechanisms on viscosity at elevated protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gregory V; Qi, Wei; Amin, Samiul; Neil Lewis, E; Roberts, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Non-native aggregation is a common issue in a number of degenerative diseases and during manufacturing of protein-based therapeutics. There is a growing interest to monitor protein stability at intermediate to high protein concentrations, which are required for therapeutic dosing of subcutaneous injections. An understanding of the impact of protein structural changes and interactions on the protein aggregation mechanisms and resulting aggregate size and morphology may lead to improved strategies to reduce aggregation and solution viscosity. This report investigates non-native aggregation of a model protein, α-chymotrypsinogen, under accelerated conditions at elevated protein concentrations. Far-UV circular dichroism and Raman scattering show structural changes during aggregation. Size exclusion chromatography and laser light scattering are used to monitor the progression of aggregate growth and monomer loss. Monomer loss is concomitant with increased β-sheet structures as monomers are added to aggregates, which illustrate a transition from a native monomeric state to an aggregate state. Aggregates grow predominantly through monomer-addition, resulting in a semi-flexible polymer morphology. Analysis of aggregation growth kinetics shows that pH strongly affects the characteristic timescales for nucleation (τn) and growth (τg), while the initial protein concentration has only minor effects on τn or τg. Low-shear viscosity measurements follow a common scaling relationship between average aggregate molecular weight (Mw(agg)) and concentration (σ), which is consistent with semi-dilute polymer-solution theory. The results establish a link between aggregate growth mechanisms, which couple Mw(agg) and σ, to increases in solution viscosity even at these intermediate protein concentrations (less than 3w/v %). PMID:26284891

  12. Specificity of the ModA11, ModA12 and ModD1 epigenetic regulator N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases of Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Seib, Kate L.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; Tan, Aimee; Scott, Adeana L.; Kumar, Ritesh; Power, Peter M.; Chen, Li-Tzu; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Hill, Dorothea M. C.; Luyten, Yvette A.; Morgan, Richard D.; Roberts, Richard J.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Rao, Desirazu N.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Phase variation (random ON/OFF switching) of gene expression is a common feature of host-adapted pathogenic bacteria. Phase variably expressed N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases (Mod) alter global methylation patterns resulting in changes in gene expression. These systems constitute phase variable regulons called phasevarions. Neisseria meningitidis phasevarions regulate genes including virulence factors and vaccine candidates, and alter phenotypes including antibiotic resistance. The target site recognized by these Type III N6-adenine DNA methyltransferases is not known. Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis was used to identify the recognition site for three key N. meningitidis methyltransferases: ModA11 (exemplified by M.NmeMC58I) (5′-CGYm6AG-3′), ModA12 (exemplified by M.Nme77I, M.Nme18I and M.Nme579II) (5′-ACm6ACC-3′) and ModD1 (exemplified by M.Nme579I) (5′-CCm6AGC-3′). Restriction inhibition assays and mutagenesis confirmed the SMRT methylome analysis. The ModA11 site is complex and atypical and is dependent on the type of pyrimidine at the central position, in combination with the bases flanking the core recognition sequence 5′-CGYm6AG-3′. The observed efficiency of methylation in the modA11 strain (MC58) genome ranged from 4.6% at 5′-GCGCm6AGG-3′ sites, to 100% at 5′-ACGTm6AGG-3′ sites. Analysis of the distribution of modified sites in the respective genomes shows many cases of association with intergenic regions of genes with altered expression due to phasevarion switching. PMID:25845594

  13. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR. PMID:23405226

  14. Wide Variation in Virulence and Genetic Diversity of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Strawberry in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M.; Barbetti, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR. PMID:23405226

  15. Codon 972 polymorphism in the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene, obesity, and risk of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, R.J.; Doria, A.; Warram, J.H.; Krolewski, A.S.

    1996-04-01

    Because of the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 in insulin action, the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene is a candidate gene for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Modest associations between NIDDM and a GGG-AGG single base substitution (corresponding to a glycine-arginine amino acid substitution) in codon 972 of the gene have been found, but none reached statistical significance. To examine further how large a proportion of NIDDM cases could be caused by the mutation, we performed a stratified analysis combining the results from the 6 earlier studies and those from our panel of 192 unrelated NIDDM subjects and 104 healthy controls. In addition, we looked for a possibility that the codon 972 mutation plays a role only in the presence of certain conditions. Genomic DNA samples obtained from NIDDM cases and healthy controls were genotyped using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol modified for genomic DNA. The GGG{r_arrow}AGG substitution was found in 5.7% of the diabetic subjects (11 of 192) and 6.9% of the controls (7 of 104). The difference between groups was not statistically significant, and it was not different from the results of other studies. The Mantel-Haenszel summary odds ratio across all studies was 1.49 (P < 0.05; 95% confidence intervals, 1.01-2.2). This summary odds ratio is consistent with a small proportion of NIDDM cases ({approximately}3%) being caused by the mutation. Exploratory subgroup analyses on our panel suggested a clustering of NIDDM, the codon 972 mutation, and overweight, raising the hypothesis that the mutation may predispose to NIDDM only in the presence of excess body weight. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Trulove, Paul C.; Foley, Matthew P.

    2012-09-30

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  17. Variants of MicroRNA Genes: Gender-Specific Associations with Multiple Sclerosis Risk and Severity

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, Ivan; Bashinskaya, Vitalina; Kulakova, Olga; Baulina, Natalia; Popova, Ekaterina; Boyko, Alexey; Favorova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neuro-inflammatory disease arising from complex interactions of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Variations in genes of some microRNAs—key post-transcriptional regulators of many genes—can influence microRNAs expression/function and contribute to MS via expression changes of protein-coding target mRNA genes. We performed an association study of polymorphous variants of MIR146A rs2910164, MIR196A2 rs11614913, MIR499A rs3746444 MIR223 rs1044165 and their combinations with MS risk and severity. 561 unrelated patients with bout-onset MS and 441 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. We observed associations of MS risk with allele MIR223*T and combination (MIR223*T + MIR146A*G/G) carriage in the entire groups and in women at Bonferroni-corrected significance level (pcorr < 0.05). Besides, MIR146A*G/G association with MS was observed in women with nominal significance (pf = 0.025). No MS associations were found in men. A more severe MS course (MSSS value > 3.5) was associated with the carriage of MIR499A*C/T and, less reliably, of MIR499A*C (pcorr = 0.006 and pcorr = 0.024, respectively) and with the carriage of combinations (MIR499A*C/T + MIR196A2*C) and (MIR499A*C + MIR196A2*C) (pcorr = 0.00078 and pcorr = 0.0059, respectively). These associations also showed gender specificity, as they were not significant in men and substantially reinforced in women. The strongest association with MS severity was observed in women for combination (MIR499A*C/T + MIR196A2*C): pcorr = 4.43 × 10−6 and OR = 3.23 (CI: 1.99–5.26). PMID:26305248

  18. Biosynthesis of B2-integrin, intracellular calcium signalling and functional responses of normal and CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Higuchi, H; Nochi, H; Tamoto, K; Araiso, T; Noda, H; Kociba, G J

    1996-09-01

    1Biosynthesis of CD11/CD18 in bovine leucocytes, intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling, chemiluminescent responses and membrane fluidity of neutrophils and the effects of D-mannose on neutrophils from control heifers and a heifer with bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were measured. The synthesis of CD11/CD18 complex was clearly detected in leucocytes from a normal heifer, but not in a BLAD-affected heifer. The transient phase of increased [Ca2+]i was clearly detected in neutrophils from a heifer with BLAD stimulated with opsonised zymosan, aggregated bovine immunoglobulin G or concanavalin A, whereas the sustained phase was deficient or significantly decreased compared with control heifers. [Ca2+]i signalling of neutrophils from control heifers and a heifer with BLAD stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate via an 11b/CD18-independent pathway showed no transient phase, and the subsequent increase in [Ca2+]i was almost identical in neutrophils from affected and control heifers. [Ca2+]i concentration and chemiluminescent responses of neutrophils from a control heifer were clearly decreased by treatment with anti-CD18 and anti-IgG antibodies. No differences in membrane fluidity were detected between neutrophils derived from control and CD18-deficient cattle. D-mannose binds mainly to Fc rather than CD18 receptors, and decreased Agg-IgG induced [Ca2+]i and the chemiluminescent response of neutrophils. The [Ca2+]i responses and Agg-IgG induced chemiluminescent responses of neutrophils from control heifers and a BLAD-affected heifer were inhibited by D-mannose. The characteristic changes of [Ca2+]i signalling and functional responses of B2-integrin-deficient neutrophils were demonstrated. PMID:8880976

  19. Variants of MicroRNA Genes: Gender-Specific Associations with Multiple Sclerosis Risk and Severity.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Ivan; Bashinskaya, Vitalina; Kulakova, Olga; Baulina, Natalia; Popova, Ekaterina; Boyko, Alexey; Favorova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neuro-inflammatory disease arising from complex interactions of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Variations in genes of some microRNAs--key post-transcriptional regulators of many genes--can influence microRNAs expression/function and contribute to MS via expression changes of protein-coding target mRNA genes. We performed an association study of polymorphous variants of MIR146A rs2910164, MIR196A2 rs11614913, MIR499A rs3746444 MIR223 rs1044165 and their combinations with MS risk and severity. 561 unrelated patients with bout-onset MS and 441 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. We observed associations of MS risk with allele MIR223*T and combination (MIR223*T + MIR146A*G/G) carriage in the entire groups and in women at Bonferroni-corrected significance level (pcorr < 0.05). Besides, MIR146A*G/G association with MS was observed in women with nominal significance (pf = 0.025). No MS associations were found in men. A more severe MS course (MSSS value > 3.5) was associated with the carriage of MIR499A*C/T and, less reliably, of MIR499A*C (pcorr = 0.006 and pcorr = 0.024, respectively) and with the carriage of combinations (MIR499A*C/T + MIR196A2*C) and (MIR499A*C + MIR196A2*C) (pcorr = 0.00078 and pcorr = 0.0059, respectively). These associations also showed gender specificity, as they were not significant in men and substantially reinforced in women. The strongest association with MS severity was observed in women for combination (MIR499A*C/T + MIR196A2*C): pcorr = 4.43 × 10(-6) and OR = 3.23 (CI: 1.99-5.26). PMID:26305248

  20. Characterizing New Fast Optical Transients with HST: Astrometry, Geometry, and Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenko, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a wide-field, high-cadence optical survey designed with two primary objectives: (1) to perform a systematic study of known classes of transient and/or variable sources (e.g., Type Ia supernovae, RR Lyrae stars, etc.); and (2) to enable the discovery of new classes of transient phenomena by exploring new regimes of sensitivity and variability. PTF recently transitioned to a new observing strategy (dubbed "iPTF"), in large part due to a desire to investigate even shorter time scales (tau < 1 day). The systematic exploration of this new phase should enable the discovery of new astrophysical phenomenon, including both those predicted but not yet observationally confirmed (e.g., orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows) and those entirely unknown.Here we request HST ToO observations of a newly discovered "fast" optical transient, typified by our previous discovery of PTF11agg. We argue that PTF11agg may represent a new class of distant, relativistic outbursts lacking in high-energy emission altogether (i.e., "dirty" fireballs), and that these sources may be at least as common as normal, on-axis gamma-ray bursts. Our transient detection pipeline now enables us to identify and confirm these sources in real-time, as demonstrated by our recent discovery of iPTF14yb (the first gamma-ray burst identified via its long-wavelength afterglow emission). HST can provide three vital diagnostics that cannot be achieved with any other facility: (1) resolved host imaging; (2) sub-galactic localizations; and (3) sensitive late-time photometry when the transient emission is comparable to or fainter than the underlying host.

  1. Characterization and colonization of endomycorrhizal Rhizoctonia fungi in the medicinal herb Anoectochilus formosanus (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jr-Hau; Lee, Yung-I; Cubeta, Marc A; Chen, Lung-Chung

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal effects and techniques for cultivating Anoectochilus formosanus are well-documented, but little is known about the mycorrhizal fungi associated with A. formosanus. Rhizoctonia (Thanatephorus) anastomosis group 6 (AG-6) was the most common species isolated from fungal pelotons in native A. formosanus and represented 67% of the sample. Rhizoctonia (Ceratobasidium) AG-G, P, and R were also isolated and represent the first occurrence in the Orchidaceae. Isolates of AG-6, AG-R, and AG-P in clade I increased seed germination 44-91% and promoted protocorm growth from phases III to VI compared to asymbiotic treatments and isolates of AG-G in clade II and Tulasnella species in clade III. All isolates in clades I to III formed fungal pelotons in tissue-cultured seedlings of A. formosanus, which exhibited significantly greater growth than nonmycorrhizal seedlings. An analysis of the relative effect of treatment ([Formula: see text]) showed that the low level of colonization ([Formula: see text]) by isolates in clade I resulted in a significant increase in seedling growth compared to isolates in clades II (0.63-0.82) and III (0.63-0.75). There was also a negative correlation (r = -0.8801) with fresh plant weight and fungal colonization. Our results suggest that isolates in clade I may represent an important group associated with native populations of A. formosanus and can vary in their ability to establish a symbiotic association with A. formosanus. The results presented here are potentially useful for advancing research on the medicinal properties, production, and conservation of A. formosanus in diverse ecosystems. PMID:25575732

  2. Assignment of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) to 15q26 using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Korenberg, J.R.; Chen, X.N.; Doege, K.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    The large aggregating proteoglycan aggrecan is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage. Recent cDNA cloning of the human aggrecan gene (AGC1) reveals a core protein of at least 2316 amino acids characterized by several distinct structural domains. Two globular domains, termed G1 and G2, are present at the amino terminus of the molecule and a third, termed G3, is present at the carboxy terminus. The G1 domain is homologous in structure to the cartilage link protein and accounts for the aggregating potential of aggrecan through its ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. The aggrecan gene is known to consist of 15 exons, with each exon encoding a distinct functional region of the mature protein. However, while the link protein gene is known to reside on chromosome 5 in the human, the location of the aggrecan gene is currently undetermined in any species. The probe (pAGG2) for the aggrecan gene was mapped on chromosome band 15q26, most likely in the subregion of 15q26.1, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clear signals were noted on both chromatids of chromosome band 15q26 in over 80% of the 300 metaphase cells examined in three independent experiments using pAGG2. No other sites of hybridization were noted on both chromatids of any other chromosome band. The precise band location was identified by using chromsomes of about 650 bands and employing fluorescence reverse banding with chromomycin A3 and distamycin. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O78:H10, the Cause of an Outbreak of Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Scheutz, Flemming; Andersen, Rebecca L.; Menard, Megan; Boisen, Nadia; Johnston, Brian; Hansen, Dennis S.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Nataro, James P.; Johnson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, multiresistant Escherichia coli O78:H10 strains caused an outbreak of urinary tract infections in Copenhagen, Denmark. The phylogenetic origin, clonal background, and virulence characteristics of the outbreak isolates, and their relationship to nonoutbreak O78:H10 strains according to these traits and resistance profiles, are unknown. Accordingly, we extensively characterized 51 archived E. coli O78:H10 isolates (48 human isolates from seven countries, including 19 Copenhagen outbreak isolates, and 1 each of calf, avian, and unknown-source isolates), collected from 1956 through 2000. E. coli O78:H10 was clonally heterogeneous, comprising one dominant clonal group (61% of isolates, including all 19 outbreak isolates) from ST10 (phylogenetic group A) plus several minor clonal groups (phylogenetic groups A and D). All ST10 isolates, versus 25% of non-ST10 isolates, were identified by molecular methods as enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (P < 0.001). Genes present in >90% of outbreak isolates included fimH (type 1 fimbriae; ubiquitous in E. coli); fyuA, traT, and iutA (associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli [ExPEC]); and sat, pic, aatA, aggR, aggA, ORF61, aaiC, aap, and ORF3 (associated with EAEC). An outbreak isolate was lethal in a murine subcutaneous sepsis model and exhibited characteristic EAEC “stacked brick” adherence to cultured epithelial cells. Thus, the 1991 Copenhagen outbreak was caused by a tight, non-animal-associated subset within a broadly disseminated O78:H10 clonal group (ST10; phylogenetic group A), members of which exhibit both ExPEC and EAEC characteristics, whereas O78:H10 isolates overall are phylogenetically diverse. Whether ST10 O78:H10 EAEC strains are both uropathogenic and diarrheagenic warrants further investigation. PMID:22972830

  4. Complement fixation by rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, K; Cooper, N R; Johnson, J S; Vaughan, J H

    1975-01-01

    The capacity for fixation and activation of hemolytic complement by polyclonal IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) isolated from sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and monoclonal IgM-RF isolated from the cryoprecipitates of patients with IgM-IgG mixed cryoglobulinemia was examined. RF mixed with aggregated, reduced, and alkylated human IgG (Agg-R/A-IgG) in the fluid phase failed to significantly reduce the level of total hemolytic complement, CH50, or of individual complement components, C1, C2, C3, and C5. However, sheep erythrocytes (SRC) coated with Agg-R/A-IgG or with reduced and alkylated rabbit IgG anti-SRC antibody were hemolyzed by complement in the presence of polyclonal IgM-RF. Human and guinea pig complement worked equally well. The degree of hemolysis was in direct proportion to the hemagglutination titer of the RF against the same coated cells. Monoclonal IgM-RF, normal human IgM, and purified Waldenström macroglobulins without antiglobulin activity were all inert. Hemolysis of coated SRC by RF and complement was inhibited by prior treatment of the complement source with chelating agents, hydrazine, cobra venom factor, specific antisera to C1q, CR, C5, C6, or C8, or by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Purified radiolabeled C4, C3, and C8 included in the complement source were bound to hemolysed SRC in direct proportion to the degree of hemolysis. These data indicate that polyclonal IgM-RF fix and activate complement via the classic pathway. The system described for assessing complement fixation by isolated RF is readily adaptable to use with whole human serum. PMID:1078825

  5. Sex Pheromone Response, Clumping, and Slime Production in Enterococcal Strains Isolated from Occluded Biliary Stents

    PubMed Central

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Paoletti, Claudia; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Guaglianone, Emilio; Di Rosa, Roberta; Magi, Gloria; Spinaci, Cinzia; Facinelli, Bruna

    2004-01-01

    Bile-resistant bacteria, particularly gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, play an important role in biliary stent occlusion, because their sessile mode of growth protects them against host defenses and antimicrobial agents. Twelve E. faecalis and seven E. faecium strains isolated from occluded biliary stents have been investigated for slime production, presence of aggregation substance genes, and ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Ten isolates were strong producers of slime, and seven isolates produced clumps when exposed to pheromones of E. faecalis JH2-2 and/or OG1RF. The small E. faecium clumps differed from the large clumps of E. faecalis and were similar to those of E. faecium LS10(pBRG1) carrying a pheromone response plasmid. After induction with pheromones, the adhesion to Caco-2 cells of clumping-positive strains was found to increase from two- to fourfold. Amplicons of the expected size were detected in three clumping-positive and three clumping-negative E. faecalis isolates by using primers (agg) internal to a highly conserved region of the E. faecalis pheromone response plasmids pAD1, pPD1, and pCF10 and primers internal to prgB of the E. faecalis plasmid pCF10. The agg/prgB-positive E. faecalis strains were also positive in Southern hybridization experiments with a prgB-specific probe. No PCR products were obtained with the same primers from four clumping-positive isolates (one E. faecalis and three E. faecium strains), which were also Southern hybridization negative. Our results demonstrate that slime production and pheromone response are both present in isolated enterococci, suggesting that clinical strains with these features might have a selective advantage in colonizing biliary stents. PMID:15297477

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) Isolates from Japan Reveals Emergence of CTX-M-14-Producing EAEC O25:H4 Clones Related to Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Naoko; Ooka, Tadasuke; Seto, Kazuko; Kawahara, Ryuji; Koriyama, Toyoyasu; Kojyo, Tsuyoshi; Iguchi, Atsushi; Tokuda, Koichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Yoshiie, Kiyotaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Nishi, Junichiro

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute or persistent diarrhea. The aggR gene is widely used as a marker for typical EAEC. The heterogeneity of EAEC is well known; however, there are few reports on the phylogenetic relationships of EAEC. Recently, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing EAEC strains have been reported worldwide. To characterize EAEC strains in Japan, we investigated the population structure of EAEC. A total of 167 aggR-positive strains isolated from stool specimens from diarrheal patients in Kagoshima (139 strains) and Osaka (28 strains), Japan, between 1992 and 2010 were examined for the prevalence of EAEC virulence markers, the blaCTX-M gene, and the capacity to form biofilms. Multilocus sequence typing was also conducted. EAEC strains were widely distributed across four major E. coli phylogroups. Strains of O111:H21/clonal group 40 (CG40) (30 strains), O126:H27/CG200 (13 strains), and O86a:H27/CG3570 (11 strains) in phylogroup B1 are the historical EAEC clones in Japan, and they exhibited strong biofilm formation. Twenty-nine strains of EAEC O25:H4/CG131 were identified in phylogroup B2, 79% of which produced CTX-M-14. This clone has emerged since 2003. The clone harbored plasmid-encoded EAEC virulence genes but not chromosomal virulence genes and had lower biofilm-forming capacity than historical EAEC strains. This clone most likely emerged from a pandemic uropathogenic O25:H4/sequence type 131 clone by acquiring an EAEC virulence plasmid from canonical EAEC. Surveillance of the horizontal transfer of both virulence and ESBL genes among E. coli strains is important for preventing a worldwide increase in antimicrobial drug resistance. PMID:27252465

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Farneti, Silvana; Zicavo, Alessia; Mencaroni, Guerriero; Blasi, Giuliana; Striano, Gianluca; Scuota, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media. The isolates were assigned to stx subtypes and tested for the presence of aaiC and aggR genes. Out of 420 swine samples, 38.6% faecal samples and 13.8% carcass sponge swabs were stx-positive. In total, 33 E. coli STEC isolates were obtained from 30 samples (4 carcasses and 26 colon contents) indicating a culture-positive rate of 7.1%. A higher culture-positive rate was observed in faecal samples (12.4%) than in carcass sponge swabs (1.9%). Out of 675 pork samples, 19 (2.8%) were stx-positive. No STEC strains were isolated from stx-positive pork products. We concluded that STEC isolation from foodstuffs remains difficult, despite the application of ISO/TS 13136:2012. Furthermore, in accordance with the results of studies conducted in other countries, we observed that most of swine STEC strains carried stx2e gene and lacked of virulence genes, such as eae, aaiC and aggR, indicative of potential pathogenic characteristics for humans. Although the majority of STEC isolates did not express virulence factors correlating with severe human diseases, the association between swine STEC strains and human illness requires further investigations. PMID:27236076

  8. Intron retention and 3'-UTR analysis of Arabidopsis Dicer-like 2 transcripts.

    PubMed

    He, Qiongji; Peng, Jiejun; Yan, Fei; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Hairu; Chen, Jianping

    2012-03-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana Dicer-like protein 2 (AtDCL2) plays an essential role in the RNA interference pathway. The function of AtDCL2 and other DCLs has been much studied but little has been done to characterize the DCLs transcripts before they are translated into proteins. Here, we investigated AtDCL2 transcripts and showed that all 21 introns of AtDCL2 except intron 9, 18, 20 and 21 could be retained although spliced sequences usually predominated. Intron 10 was more frequently retained and transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that when AG/C at the 3' splicing site of the intron was changed to AG/G, the intron was more frequently spliced out. Conversely, a high retention of intron 18 was obtained if the AG/G at the 3' splicing site was changed to AG/C. These results suggest that the sequence at the 3' splicing site affects the efficiency of intron splicing. The 3'-UTRs of AtDCL2 had lengths between 54 and 154 nts, and the different 3'-UTRs differentially affected the transcriptional levels of fused GFP expressed transiently in N. benthamiana. Further comparisons and mutation experiments suggested that a putative SBF-1 binding site and an AU-rich element in the 3'-UTR both down-regulated expression of the upstream GFP fused to the 3'-UTR. Conversely, a second poly(A) consensus signal sequence in one 3'-UTR up-regulated gene expression. Our results provide insight into the character of AtDCL2 transcripts and demonstrate the potential complexity of factors that affect the frequency and patterns of alternative splicing. PMID:21698366

  9. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  10. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    . Accumulations of the Chenopodiaceae in the interfluve areas probably indicate local saline swampy environments during sea level fall. The increasing amounts of herbs indicate the existence of wet prairie areas (Thalictrum, Rumex, Valeriana, Dipsacaceae, Lamiaceae, Galium) or steppes (Artemisia - up to 17%, Asteraceae, Campanula, Fabaceae, Daucaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Plantago). This is the contribution to the projects ESF -EC-009-07, APVT 51-011305, APVV-0280-07 (Slovakia) and MSM0021622427 (Czech republic).

  11. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste) and 253,507 (Fer) distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE) data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in Nsa line, fertility

  12. Binding of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to 32- to 33-kilodalton human intestinal brush border proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez-Hernandez, A; Gavilanes-Parra, S; Chavez-Berrocal, M E; Molina-Lopez, J; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    We have detected human intestinal brush border proteins to which Escherichia coli strains adhere by means of a blotting-nitrocellulose method in which the binding of radiolabeled bacteria to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated intestinal cell membranes was evaluated. The brush border fraction contained several polypeptides that bound only adherent E. coli strains. The most prominent and consistent of these proteins had apparent molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa. Additional polypeptides ranging from 50 to 70, from 105 to 130, and from 180 to 200 kDa were also recognized by adherent E. coli strains, although with less intensity (in accordance with the number of bound bacteria to these polypeptides). Independently of the pattern of adherence (localized [LA], diffuse [DA], or aggregative [AggA]) all HEp-2-adhering strains recognized, with different intensities, the 32- to 33-kDa brush border proteins, whereas nonadhesive strains did not. The relative avidity of an LA strain to bind to the 32- to 33-kDa proteins was approximately seven- and sixfold higher than the binding of strains with aggregative and diffuse adherence, respectively. Thus, it is reasonable to think that LA, DA, and AggA strains have a common adhesin that mediates binding to the 32- to 33-kDa bands. Inhibition experiments using HEp-2 cells demonstrated that isolated 32- to 33-kDa proteins or specific antiserum blocked preferentially bacterial adherence of the LA pattern. Delipidization and protein digestion of the human brush borders confirmed that E. coli bound to structures of a proteinaceous nature. Deglycosylation studies and sodium meta-periodate oxidation of the intestinal cell membranes decreased bacterial binding activity significantly, indicating that E. coli bound to carbohydrate moieties in the glycoproteins. These results suggest that binding of E. coli strains, mainly of the LA phenotype, to the 32- to 33-kDa proteins could play a role in colonization through

  13. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 and fliCH4, rfbO157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfbO157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzxO104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p = 0.014) more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC) and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels. PMID:27199966

  14. The conserved Phe GH5 of importance for hemoglobin intersubunit contact is mutated in gadoid fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functionality of the tetrameric hemoglobin molecule seems to be determined by a few amino acids located in key positions. Oxygen binding encompasses structural changes at the interfaces between the α1β2 and α2β1 dimers, but also subunit interactions are important for the oxygen binding affinity and stability. The latter packing contacts include the conserved Arg B12 interacting with Phe GH5, which is replaced by Leu and Tyr in the αA and αD chains, respectively, of birds and reptiles. Results Searching all known hemoglobins from a variety of gnathostome species (jawed vertebrates) revealed the almost invariant Arg B12 coded by the AGG triplet positioned at an exon-intron boundary. Rare substitutions of Arg B12 in the gnathostome β globins were found in pig, tree shrew and scaled reptiles. Phe GH5 is also highly conserved in the β globins, except for the Leu replacement in the β1 globin of five marine gadoid species, gilthead seabream and the Comoran coelacanth, while Cys and Ile were found in burbot and yellow croaker, respectively. Atlantic cod β1 globin showed a Leu/Met polymorphism at position GH5 dominated by the Met variant in northwest-Atlantic populations that was rarely found in northeast-Atlantic cod. Site-specific analyses identified six consensus codons under positive selection, including 122β(GH5), indicating that the amino acid changes identified at this position may offer an adaptive advantage. In fact, computational mutation analysis showed that the replacement of Phe GH5 with Leu or Cys decreased the number of van der Waals contacts essentially in the deoxy form that probably causes a slight increase in the oxygen binding affinity. Conclusions The almost invariant Arg B12 and the AGG codon seem to be important for the packing contacts and pre-mRNA processing, respectively, but the rare mutations identified might be beneficial. The Leu122β1(GH5)Met and Met55β1(D6)Val polymorphisms in Atlantic cod hemoglobin modify the

  15. Platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12-antagonists does not depend on body weight in contrast to clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Christoph B; Schnabel, Katharina; Weber, Susanne; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    The current standard of antiplatelet therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI) includes the P2Y12-receptor antagonist clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor. While it has been shown that platelet reactivity after clopidogrel administration depends on factors such as body weight, it is not known if these factors have an effect on the activity of prasugrel or ticagrelor. Thus, this study aimed to analyse factors associated with high residual platelet reactivity after administration of third generation P2Y12-antagonists compared to clopidogrel. In a single centre registry the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor was investigated by aggregometry in patients after MI. To assess the overall capacity of platelet aggregation whole blood was induced with thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP; 32 µM). To specifically quantify the effect of P2Y12-antagonists, blood was stimulated with 6.4 µM adenosine diphophosphate (ADP). Relative ADP induced aggregation (r-ADP-agg) was defined as the ADP-TRAP-ratio to reflect an individual degree of P2Y12-dependent platelet inhibition. Platelet function of 238 patients was analysed [clopidogrel (n = 58), prasugrel (n = 65), ticagrelor (n = 115)]. It was found that the r-ADP-agg correlated significantly with body weight in patients after clopidogrel administration (r = 0.423; p < 0.001). In contrast, this association was not present in patients after prasugrel (r = -0.117; p = 0.354) or ticagrelor (r = -0.082; p = 0.382) administration. Comparison of the correlation coefficients showed a significant difference (p = 0.003). In contrast to clopidogrel, platelet reactivity after administration of prasugrel or ticagrelor does not depend on body weight in patients after MI. Hence, our mechanistic data support the results of large clinical trials indicating that patients with high body weight do not need to be treated with increased doses of third generation P2Y12-antagonists to achieve

  16. The Rhone-Aggregation Land Surface Scheme Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, A. A.; Habets, F.; Noilhan and Working Group, J.

    2002-05-01

    The Rhone-AGGregation (Rhone-AGG) Land Surface Scheme intercomparison project is an initiative within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Global Land-Atmosphere System Study (GLASS)/Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP) panel of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). This project makes use of the Rhone modeling system, which was developed in recent years by the French research community in order to study the continental water cycle on a regional scale. Three distinct components comprise this system: an analysis system to determine the near-surface atmospheric forcing, a Land Surface Scheme (LSS) interface and a distributed hydrological model. The coupling between the three components of the system is 1-way. It was created in an attempt to ensure a consistent dialogue between the atmosphere (precipitation, radiative fluxes, state variables) and the hydrological variables (evaporation, soil moisture, runoff, ground water and river flow). The atmospheric data, which have been mapped to an 8 km grid, consist of standard screen level observations at approximately 60 Météo-France weather network sites within the domain, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis, climatological data and total daily precipitation data from over 1500 gauges. The system utilizes high spatial resolution European soil and vegetation databases, but it has been designed such that it is transferable to other regions. The size of the entire Rhone basin (86,996 km 2) is comparable to the area of a typical coarse-resolution Global atmospheric Climate Model (GCM) grid element, so that it is of interest to examine how the simulations from a wide range of LSSs, which are used in GCMs, numerical weather prediction models, mesoscale atmospheric models or hydrological models, are impacted by changing the spatial resolution over the domain from 8 km to approximately 69 km (1 degree). The main issues addressed by the Rhone-AGG project are how various state of

  17. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzx O104 and fliCH4, rfb O157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfb O157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzx O104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p = 0.014) more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC) and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels. PMID:27199966

  18. Pathotypic and Phylogenetic Study of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Uropathogenic E. coli Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Salmani, Hamzeh; Azarnezhad, Asaad; Fayazi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrheal disease and urinary tract infection are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) has been identified as a major etiologic agent of diarrhea worldwide, and urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is one of the most common bacterial infections among human beings. Quick and precise detection of these bacteria help provide more effective intervention and management of infection. Objectives: In this study we present a precise and sensitive typing and phylogenetic study of UPEC and DEC using multiplex PCR in order to simplify and improve the intervention and management of diarrheal and UT infections. Materials and Methods: In total, 100 urinary tract infection samples (UTI) and 200 specimens from children with diarrhea, which had been diagnosed with E. coli as the underlying agent by differential diagnosis using MacConkey’s agar and biochemical study, were submitted for molecular detection. Pathotyping of E. coli pathotypes causing urinary tract infection and diarrhea were examined using a two set multiplex PCR, targeting six specific genes. Phylogenetic typing was done by targeting three genes, including ChuA, YjaA and TspE4C2. Results: Overall, 88% of DEC and 54% of UTI isolates were positive for one or more of the six genes encoding virulence factors. Prevalence of the genes encoding virulence factors for DEC were 62%, 25%, 24%, 13%, 7% and 5% for ST (ETEC), LT (ETEC), aggR (EAggEC), daaD (DAEC), invE (EIEC) and eae (EPEC), respectively; whereas, the prevalence rates for the UTI samples were 23%, 14%, 6%, 6% and 4% for aggR (EAggEC), LT (ETEC), daaD (DAEC), invE (EIEC) and ST (ETEC), respectively. No coding virulence factors were detected for eae (EPEC). Group B2 was the most prevalent phylogroup and ST was the most frequently detected pathotype in all phylogroups. Conclusions: ETEC and EAggEC were the most detected E. coli among

  19. Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates in Cuba by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Nagashima, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    We carried out the first study of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates in Cuba by multilocus sequence typing linking the molecular typing data with the presence of virulence determinants and the antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 23 E. faecalis isolates recovered from several clinic sources and geographic areas of Cuba during a period between 2000 and 2005 were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Thirteen sequence types (STs) including five novel STs were identified, and the ST 64 (clonal complex [CC] 8), ST 6 (CC2), ST 21(CC21), and ST 16 (CC58) were found in more than one strain. Sixty-seven percent of STs corresponded to STs reported previously in Spain, Poland, and The Netherlands, and other STs (ST115, ST64, ST6, and ST40) were genetically close to those detected in the United States. Prevalence of both antimicrobial resistance genes [aac(6′)-aph(2″), aph(3′), ant(6), ant(3″)(9), aph(2″)-Id, aph(2″)-Ic, erm(B), erm(A), erm(C), mef(A), tet(M), and tet(L)] and virulence genes (agg, gelE, cylA, esp, ccf, and efaAfs) were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aph(3′), ant(6), ant(3″)(9) were more frequently detected in ST6, ST16, ST23, ST64, and ST115. The multidrug resistance was distributed to all STs detected, except for ST117 and singleton ST225. The presence of cyl gene was specifically linked to the ST64 and ST16. Presence of the esp, gel, and agg genes was not specific to any particular ST. This research provided the first insight into the population structure of E. faecalis in Cuba, that is, most Cuban strains were related to European strains, whereas others to U.S. strains. The CC2, CC21, and CC8, three of the biggest CCs in the world, were evidently circulating in Cuba, associated with multidrug resistance and virulence traits. PMID:19857135

  20. Genome wide instability scanning in chewing-tobacco associated oral cancer using inter simple sequence repeat PCR.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rekha; Kulkarni, Viraj; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2004-11-01

    Genomic instability plays a major role in cancer, facilitating tumour progression and tumour heterogeneity. Inter simple sequence repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR) is a sensitive tool for detection of whole genome scanning. In fifteen oral cancer patients, using tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue DNA, we investigated genomic instability regions using ISSR-PCR assay. The genomic fragments were cloned, sequenced and identified. Two-anchored dinucleotide repeat primers, (CA)(8)A/GG and (CA)(8)A/GC/T, were used in the study. About 40-50 fragments were observed on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with 25 distinct fragments of less than 2 kb. The electrophoretic pattern highlighted several distinct fragments in tumor adjacent normal tissues. The distinct fragments of 258, 325, 430, 440, 600 and 900 bp sizes using (CA)(8)A/GG primer, and 300, 475, 675 and 800 bp using (CA)(8)A/GC/T primers, in the normal tissues showed partial (>50%) or complete loss in multiple tumor tissues. These fragments were eluted from the gel, cloned in pMos Blue vector and subjected to nucleotide sequencing. Insilico analysis defined the specific genomic sequences, given as follows: RP11-399D2 () on chromosome (chr)4; RP1-39J2 (), NKp44RG () and RP11-518I13 () on chr6; NC-T-2 () on chr7; RP11-586K2 () and RP11-495O10 () on chr8; RP11-101K10 () on chr9; R-794A8 () on chr14; and RP11-679B19 () on chr16. The sequences of our clones have been submitted to NCBI gene bank, accession numbers to , and . The Genomic Instability Index was calculated and ranged from 6% to 28.5% (median 12%) in the oral cancer samples, excluding one case where genomic instability was not observed. Thus, our results indicate presence of widespread genomic alterations in chewing-tobacco associated oral cancers. PMID:15509495

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and risk of arsenic-induced urothelial carcinoma in residents of southwestern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure is an important public health issue worldwide. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC) is consistently observed. Inorganic arsenic is methylated to form the metabolites monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid while ingested. Variations in capacity of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation might explain individual variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced cancers. Methods To estimate individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced UC, 764 DNA specimens from our long-term follow-up cohort in Southwestern Taiwan were used and the genetic polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and arsenic methylation enzymes including GSTO1 and GSTO2 were genotyped. Results The GSTT1 null was marginally associated with increased urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk (HR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.00-3.65), while the association was not observed for other GSTs. Among the subjects with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE) ≥ 20 mg/L*year, the GSTT1 null genotype conferred a significantly increased cancer risk (RR, 3.25, 95% CI, 1.20-8.80). The gene-environment interaction between the GSTT1 and high arsenic exposure with respect to cancer risk was statistically significant (multiplicative model, p = 0.0151) and etiologic fraction was as high as 0.86 (95% CI, 0.51-1.22). The genetic effects of GSTO1/GSTO2 were largely confined to high arsenic level (CAE ≥ 20). Diplotype analysis showed that among subjects exposed to high levels of arsenic, the AGG/AGG variant of GSTO1 Ala140Asp, GSTO2 5'UTR (-183)A/G, and GSTO2 Asn142Asp was associated with an increased cancer risk (HRs, 4.91, 95% CI, 1.02-23.74) when compared to the all-wildtype reference, respectively. Conclusions The GSTs do not play a critical role in arsenic-induced urothelial carcinogenesis. The genetic effects of GSTT1 and GSTO1 on arsenic-induced urothelial carcinogenesis are largely confined to very high exposure level. PMID:21798077

  2. Assessment of the food habits of the Moroccan dorcas gazelle in M'Sabih Talaa, west central Morocco, using the trnL approach.

    PubMed

    Ait Baamrane, Moulay Abdeljalil; Shehzad, Wasim; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Naimi, Mohamed; Coissac, Eric; Taberlet, Pierre; Znari, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Food habits of the Moroccan dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas massaesyla, previously investigated in the 1980s using microhistological fecal analysis, in the M'Sabih Talaa Reserve, west central Morocco, were re-evaluated over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn 2009) using the trnL approach to determine the diet composition and its seasonal variation from fecal samples. Taxonomic identification was carried out using the identification originating from the database built from EMBL and the list of plant species within the reserve. The total taxonomic richness in the reserve was 130 instead of 171 species in the 1980s. The diet composition revealed to be much more diversified (71 plant taxa belonging to 57 genus and 29 families) than it was 22 years ago (29 identified taxa). Thirty-four taxa were newly identified in the diet while 13 reported in 1986-87 were not found. Moroccan dorcas gazelle showed a high preference to Acacia gummifera, Anagallis arvensis, Glebionis coronaria, Cladanthus arabicus, Diplotaxis tenuisiliqua, Erodium salzmannii, Limonium thouini, Lotus arenarius and Zizyphus lotus. Seasonal variations occurred in both number (40-41 taxa in spring-summer and 49 taxa in autumn vs. respectively 23-22 and 26 in 1986-1987) and taxonomic type of eaten plant taxa. This dietary diversification could be attributed either to the difference in methods of analysis, trnL approach having a higher taxonomic resolution, or a potential change in nutritional quality of plants over time. PMID:22558187

  3. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP) is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra), Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale), Podina (Mentha arvensis), and Sirka (Vinegar) were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics. PMID:27403377

  4. Assessment of the Food Habits of the Moroccan Dorcas Gazelle in M’Sabih Talaa, West Central Morocco, Using the trnL Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ait Baamrane, Moulay Abdeljalil; Shehzad, Wasim; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Naimi, Mohamed; Coissac, Eric; Taberlet, Pierre; Znari, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Food habits of the Moroccan dorcas gazelle, Gazella dorcas massaesyla, previously investigated in the 1980s using microhistological fecal analysis, in the M’Sabih Talaa Reserve, west central Morocco, were re-evaluated over three seasons (spring, summer and autumn 2009) using the trnL approach to determine the diet composition and its seasonal variation from fecal samples. Taxonomic identification was carried out using the identification originating from the database built from EMBL and the list of plant species within the reserve. The total taxonomic richness in the reserve was 130 instead of 171 species in the 1980s. The diet composition revealed to be much more diversified (71 plant taxa belonging to 57 genus and 29 families) than it was 22 years ago (29 identified taxa). Thirty-four taxa were newly identified in the diet while 13 reported in 1986–87 were not found. Moroccan dorcas gazelle showed a high preference to Acacia gummifera, Anagallis arvensis, Glebionis coronaria, Cladanthus arabicus, Diplotaxis tenuisiliqua, Erodium salzmannii, Limonium thouini, Lotus arenarius and Zizyphus lotus. Seasonal variations occurred in both number (40–41 taxa in spring-summer and 49 taxa in autumn vs. respectively 23–22 and 26 in 1986–1987) and taxonomic type of eaten plant taxa. This dietary diversification could be attributed either to the difference in methods of analysis, trnL approach having a higher taxonomic resolution, or a potential change in nutritional quality of plants over time. PMID:22558187

  5. Rapid nitrogen transfer from ectomycorrhizal pines to adjacent ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in a California oak woodland.

    PubMed

    He, Xinhua; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Zasoski, Robert J; Southworth, Darlene; Horwath, William R

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen transfer among plants in a California oak woodland was examined in a pulse-labeling study using 15N. The study was designed to examine N movement among plants that were mycorrhizal with ectomycorrhizas (EM), arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), or both. Isotopically enriched N (K15NO3-) was applied to gray pine (Pinus sabiniana) foliage (donor) and traced to neighboring gray pine, blue oak (Quercus douglasii), buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus) and herbaceous annuals (Cynosurus echinatus, Torilis arvensis and Trifolium hirtum). After 2 wk, needles of 15N-treated pines and foliage from nearby annuals were similarly enriched, but little 15N had appeared in nontreated (receiver) pine needles, oak leaves or buckbrush foliage. After 4 wk foliar and root samples from pine, oak, buckbrush and annuals were significantly 15N-enriched, regardless of the type of mycorrhizal association. The rate of transfer during the first and second 2-wk periods was similar, and suggests that 15N could continue to be mobilized over longer times. PMID:16539611

  6. Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.

    PubMed

    Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

    2001-01-01

    In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Brăila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares. PMID:12425098

  7. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    PubMed

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  8. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    PubMed Central

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  9. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, G.; Dauphinais, N.; Benoit, D. L.; Fournier, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi ≥ rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum from different areas in the Southern Apennines (Italy).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Camele, Ippolito; Elshafie, Hazem S; De Martino, Laura; Pellegrino, Carlo; Grulova, Daniela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, growing wild in three different localities in the Southern Apennines, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 103 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and all oils belonged to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. The three essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity by determining their influence on the germination and initial radicle elongation of Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris canariensis L., Lepidium sativum L., and Raphanus sativus L. The seed germination and radicle growth were affected in various degrees. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the three essential oils was assayed against three species causing pre- and postharvest fruit decay (Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola). At 1000 ppm, the three oils completely inhibited fungal growth. The hemolytic activity of the oils was assayed and showed no effect on the cell membranes of bovine erythrocytes. PMID:24706631

  11. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  12. Formulation Design and Development of a Unani Transdermal Patch for Antiemetic Therapy and Its Pharmaceutical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mohd Nauman; Idris, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS) is one of the novel routes for systemic delivery of drugs through intact skin. A transdermal patch (TP) is a medicated patch that is placed on skin for delivery of medication through skin into the blood stream. The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate a Unani transdermal patch that could be used for antiemetic therapy. The incorporation of Unani ingredients, namely, Khardal (Brassica nigra), Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale), Podina (Mentha arvensis), and Sirka (Vinegar) were envisaged. The TP was prepared by solvent evaporation technique and was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics and other physicochemical properties, such as thickness, weight uniformity, folding endurance, moisture content, drug content, and tolerability and acceptability of patch. The in vitro permeation study of the patch was carried out through Franz diffusion cell using egg shell membrane as barrier membrane. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was used as dissolution medium and the temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. The in vitro permeation study of the prepared TP indicated a time dependent increase in drug release throughout the study. The percentage of cumulative drug release was found to be 77.38% in 24 hours. The study shows a new approach to work in Unani pharmaceutics. PMID:27403377

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  14. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

  15. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Z; Oliveira, Rafael S; Oliveira, Paulo S; Romero, Gustavo Q

    2016-01-01

    Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N) and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites) on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri) improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth). On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments. PMID:27002980

  16. Chemopreventive effect of a mixture of Chinese Herbs (antitumor B) on chemically induced oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yian; Yao, Ruisheng; Gao, Song; Wen, Weidong; Du, Yinqiu; Szabo, Eva; Hu, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated chemopreventive efficacy of Antitumor B, a Chinese herbal mixture of six plants (Sophora tonkinensis, Polygonum bistorta, Prunella vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis L., Dictamnus dasycarpus, and Dioscorea bulbifera) on the development of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced oral squamous cell carcinomas in A/J mice. Antitumor B, delivered through diet, inhibited 4NQO-induced oral cancer development by 59.19%. The reduction of cell proliferation appears to be associated with efficacy of Antitumor B against 4NQO-induced oral cancer in A/J mice. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphorylated EGFR (Tyr1173) were down-regulated by Antitumor B. Tissue distribution of Antitumor B was determined using obacunone, matrine, and maackiain as marker chemicals. We found significant amounts of obacunone, matrine, and maackiain in the blood after 1-wk treatment. The concentrations of these three compounds did not increase further at 18  wk, suggesting that plasma concentrations had reached a steady-state level at 1  wk. There was no significant body weight loss and there was no other obvious sign of toxicity in Antitumor B-treated mice. These results suggest that Antitumor B is a promising agent for human oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22086836

  17. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of some Acinos Miller species.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Tatjana; Palić, Radosav; Kitić, Dusanka; Stojanović, Gordana; Zlatković, Bojan; Ristić, Mihailo; Pavlović, Dragana

    2014-05-01

    GC and GC/MS analyses of the methanol extracts obtained from the aerial parts of six Acinos Miller species from Serbia and Montenegro were performed. Seventy-four constituents, accounting for 84.9-99.0% of the total composition of the extracts, were identified. The common feature of the A. suaveolens, A. majoranifolius and A. alpinus methanol extracts was the high content of monoterpenes, while the common feature of the A. graveolens, A. arvensis and A. hungaricus methanol extracts was the prevalence of sesquiterpenes. The total flavonoids, polyphenols and tannins content, as well as antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH assay) of the methanolic extracts were investigated. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extract of A. alpinus which had high levels of all polyphenol classes examined. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium pyogenes, Enterococcus sp., Micrococcus flavus, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli; fungi: Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The preliminary bioassay results indicated that the methanol extract of A. alpinus could be a possible source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. PMID:25026735

  18. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption. PMID:21883071

  19. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism. PMID:18469930

  20. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    PubMed

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota. PMID:23776610

  1. Time-invariant differences between plant individuals in interactions with arthropods correlate with intraspecific variation in plant phenology, morphology and floral scent.

    PubMed

    Kuppler, Jonas; Höfers, Maren K; Wiesmann, Lisa; Junker, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    The basic units of ecological and evolutionary processes are individuals. Network studies aiming to infer mechanisms from complex systems, however, usually focus on interactions between species, not individuals. Accordingly, the structure and underlying mechanisms of individual-based interaction networks remain largely unknown. In a common garden, we recorded all interactions on flowers and leaves of 97 Sinapis arvensis individuals from seedling stage to fruit set and related interindividual differences in interactions to the plant individuals' phenotypes. The plant individuals significantly differed in their quantitative and qualitative interactions with arthropods on flowers and leaves. These differences remained stable over the entire season and thus were time-invariant. Variation in interacting arthropod communities could be explained by a pronounced intraspecific variability in flowering phenology, morphology and flower scent, and translated into variation in reproductive success. Interestingly, plant individuals with a similar composition of flower visitors were also visited by a similar assemblage of interaction partners at leaves. Our results show that the nonuniformity of plant species has pronounced effects in community ecology, potentially with implications for the persistence of communities and populations, and their ability to withstand environmental fluctuations. PMID:26840542

  2. Species-Specific Effects of Ant Inhabitants on Bromeliad Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Ana Z.; Oliveira, Rafael S.; Oliveira, Paulo S.; Romero, Gustavo Q.

    2016-01-01

    Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (15N) and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites) on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri) improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth). On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments. PMID:27002980

  3. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature. PMID:27527153

  4. Phytochrome Intermediates and Action Spectra for Light Perception by Dry Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Michael R.; Frankland, Barry

    1984-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that far-red irradiation of dry Lactuca sativa L. seeds results in inhibition of subsequent germination. Although red has no effect on dry seeds, a red irradiation following a farred irradiation reverses the effect of far-red. This phenomenon is most noticeable in seeds with artificially raised levels of phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. Qualitatively similar results have been found for the seeds of Plantago major L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Bromus sterilis L. Action spectra studies on Plantago seeds show that the action peaks for promotion and inhibition of germination of hydrated seeds are at 660 and 730 nanometers, respectively. The action spectrum for inhibition of subsequent germination following irradiation of dry seeds is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that for hydrated seeds, with an action peak at 730 nanometers, indicating absorption by phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. However, the action spectrum for the reversal of this far-red effect on dry seeds has a broad peak at 680 nanometers and subsidiary peaks at 650 and 600 nanometers. It is proposed that this effect is due to light absorption by the phytochrome intermediate complex meta-Fa, and that the action spectrum reflects the in vivo absorption properties of this intermediate. PMID:16663467

  5. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  6. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  7. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman's colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4'-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26330885

  8. Linarin Inhibits the Acetylcholinesterase Activity In-vitro and Ex-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinchi; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Linarin is a flavone glycoside in the plants Flos chrysanthemi indici, Buddleja officinalis, Cirsium setosum, Mentha arvensis and Buddleja davidii, and has been reported to possess analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. In this paper, linarin was investigated for its AChE inhibitory potential both in-vitro and ex-vivo. Ellman’s colorimetric method was used for the determination of AChE inhibitory activity in mouse brain. In-vitro assays revealed that linarin inhibited AChE activity with an IC50 of 3.801 ± 1.149 μM. Ex-vivo study showed that the AChE activity was significantly reduced in both the cortex and hippocampus of mice treated intraperitoneally with various doses of linarin (35, 70 and 140 mg/Kg). The inhibition effects produced by high dose of linarin were the same as that obtained after huperzine A treatment (0.5 mg/Kg). Molecular docking study revealed that both 4’-methoxyl group and 7-O-sugar moiety of linarin played important roles in ligand-receptor binding and thus they are mainly responsible for AChE inhibitory activity. In view of its potent AChE inhibitory activity, linarin may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of some diseases associated with AChE, such as glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, gastric motility and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26330885

  9. Plants known as té in Spain: an ethno-pharmaco-botanical review.

    PubMed

    Pardo de Santayana, Manuel; Blanco, Emilio; Morales, Ramón

    2005-04-01

    Although the word té (tea) in Spanish is derived from the Chinese tscha and refers to the oriental plant Camellia sinensis, it is popularly used throughout Spain to refer to at least 70 different plant species. These are usually collected in the countryside, boiled dry or fresh, and drunk after meals. The drinking of té is a social habit that encourages conversation in a relaxed atmosphere. Tés are also commonly used as digestifs and stomachics, and in some cases as laxatives, antidiarrhoeics, and to reduce the blood pressure. They are not used as stimulants. It appears that the habit of drinking Camellia sinensis afforded the cognitive context for drinking other infusions with no specific medicinal purpose. Some té species are very common in Spain (and their use is quite extended), others are endemic, and others still are allochthonous that now live in the wild. The majority of these species belong to the families Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. The most important and widely distributed are Jasonia glutinosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Lithospermum officinale, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Bidens aurea. Other remarkable but more locally used tés include Cruciata glabra (only in the Pyrenees), Inula salicina and Mentha arvensis (in the Central Mountain Range of Madrid), and Potentilla caulescens (in Tarragona). PMID:15763359

  10. Host Preferences of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Annual Herbaceous Plant Species in Semiarid Mediterranean Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed and compared the diversities of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of five annual herbaceous species (Hieracium vulgare, Stipa capensis, Anagallis arvensis, Carduus tenuiflorus, and Avena barbata) and a perennial herbaceous species (Brachypodium retusum). Our goal was to determine the differences in the communities of the AMF among these six plant species belonging to different families, using B. retusum as a reference. The AMF small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU) were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six AMF phylotypes, belonging to Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversispora, Paraglomus, and Ambispora, were identified. Five sequence groups identified in this study clustered to known glomalean species or isolates: group Glomus G27 to Glomus intraradices, group Glomus G19 to Glomus iranicum, group Glomus G10 to Glomus mosseae, group Glomus G1 to Glomus lamellosum/etunicatum/luteum, and group Ambispora 1 to Ambispora fennica. The six plant species studied hosted different AMF communities. A certain trend of AMF specificity was observed when grouping plant species by taxonomic families, highlighting the importance of protecting and even promoting the native annual vegetation in order to maintain the biodiversity and productivity of these extreme ecosystems. PMID:22752164

  11. The park-view effect: Residential development is higher at the boundaries of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Mattia; Ronchi, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Land-use changes in the surrounding of protected areas might compromise their conservation efficacy, and thus the potential attractive effect that protected areas may exert on urban development is particularly concerning. We investigated whether the proximity to protected areas in a region (Lombardy, Italy) with a high density of urban areas and parks may increase the likelihood of residential development. The main change around protected areas was the loss of open areas (mostly due to development processes at the expense of arable land), which was higher in proximity of parks. Changes in residential discontinuous development were significantly and negatively related to proximity to parks, whereas changes in productive developments were unrelated to park proximity. The higher likelihood of residential development in proximity to parks is likely due to the attraction exerted by parks. The severe loss of open areas and increase of residential development around parks heavily impacted on habitat availability for a declining bird species (Alauda arvensis). Conservation policies considering also what happens around protected areas are urgently needed. PMID:27381460

  12. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon–D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon–Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca–Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  13. Molecular investigations of the soil, rhizosphere and transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape and maize plants in combination with herbicide (Basta) application under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Dieter; Rosenbrock-Krestel, Hilkea; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Bieber, Evi; Giunaschwili, Nathela; Müller, Rüdiger; Fischbeck, Gerhard; Wagner, Tobias; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted during 1994 to 1998 on the Experimental Farm Roggenstein, near Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria, Germany to determine the effect of transgenic glufosinate-resistant rape in combination with the herbicide Basta [glufosinate-ammonium, phosphinothricin, ammonium (2RS)-2-amino-4-(methylphosphinato) butyric acid] application on soil microorganisms and the behaviour of the synthetic transgenic DNA in response to normal agricultural practice. No influence of Basta on microbial biomass could be detected. The phospholipid fatty acid analysis of soil extracts showed no difference between Basta application and mechanical weed control, whereas conventional herbicide application revealed a different pattern. Basta application resulted in a changed population of weeds with a selective effect for Viola arvensis. During senescence, transgenic rape DNA was degraded similar to endogenous control DNA. After ploughing the chopped plant material in the soil, transgenic as well as endogenous control DNA sequences could be detected for up to 4 weeks for rape and up to 7 months for maize, whereas PCR analysis of composted transgenic maize revealed the presence of the transgene over a period of 22 months. PMID:19227836

  14. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.

    PubMed

    Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  15. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

  16. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from three Melaleuca species grown in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Bassem, Jamoussi; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Reverchon, Ernesto; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Melaleuca armillaris Sm., Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. and Melaleuca acuminata F. Muell., collected in Tunisia, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 38 for M. armillaris, 20 for M. acuminata and eight for M. styphelioides, respectively. The presence of a sesquiterpenic fraction (52.2%) characterized the oil from M. armillaris; M. sthypheliodes oil was rich in methyl eugenol, a phenolic compound (91.1%), while M. acuminata oil is mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenoids (95.6%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potentially phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of five seeds was inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of all seeds was not affected. Moreover, the essential oils showed low antimicrobial activity against eight selected microorganisms. PMID:23443119

  17. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  18. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price’s world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host. PMID:26902646

  19. Sexuality and Genetic Identity in the Agaricus Section Arvenses

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo; Noble, Ralph; Challen, Mike; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Elliott, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Twelve wild collections and one commercial strain were used to characterize breeding systems and to develop molecular identities in the Arvenses section of the genus Agaricus, which includes the “horse mushroom” A. arvensis. Two morphotypes were identified based on macro- and micromorphological features. However, not all collections could be delimited by conventional taxonomic characters. Sequencing of the small subunit intergenic spacer (ITS) region (368 to 370 bp) of the rRNA genes clearly resolved the 13 collections into two clusters consistent with the identified morphotypes. Single-spore progenies and mating type testers were established and used to test intra- and interstock compatibility. The two compatibility groups identified were consistent with ITS clusters. Compatibility group I stocks readily interbred within the constraints of a unifactorial heterothallic system with a multiallelic mating type factor. Compatibility group II had a more restricted breeding pattern, and interactions were difficult to predict on the basis of mating type. Morphological data, ITS sequences, and the ability to interbreed suggest that these collections are part of a complex of interrelated species. Single-spore, homokaryotic isolates from both compatibility groups were able to fruit in compost culture, and two of the collections may represent natural homokaryotic fruiting. We conclude that species from the section Arvenses have versatile unifactorial heterothallic life cycles that permit both interbreeding and homokaryotic fruiting. PMID:10653743

  20. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  1. Dietary omega-3 PUFA and health: stearidonic acid-containing seed oils as effective and sustainable alternatives to traditional marine oils.

    PubMed

    Surette, Marc E

    2013-05-01

    The daily consumption of dietary omega-3 PUFA is recommended by governmental agencies in several countries and by a number of health organizations. The molecular mechanisms by which these dietary PUFA affect health involve the enrichment of cellular membranes with long-chain 20- and 22-carbon omega-3 PUFA that impacts tissues by altering membrane protein functions, cell signaling, and gene expression profiles. These changes are recognized to have health benefits in humans, especially relating to cardiovascular outcomes. Cellular membrane enrichment and health benefits are associated with the consumption of long-chain omega-3 PUFA found in marine oils, but are not generally linked with the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA found in plant seed oils. However, the supply of omega-3 PUFA from marine sources is limited and may not be sustainable. New plant-derived sources of omega-3 PUFA like stearidonic acid-soy oil from genetically modified soybeans and Ahiflower oil from Buglossoides arvensis seeds that are enriched in the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA stearidonic acid are being developed and show promise to become effective as well as sustainable sources of omega-3 PUFA. An example of changes in tissue lipid profiles associated with the consumption of Ahiflower oil is presented in a mouse feeding study. PMID:23417895

  2. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M.; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature. PMID:27527153

  3. Habitat complexity reduces parasitoid foraging efficiency, but does not prevent orientation towards learned host plant odours.

    PubMed

    Kruidhof, H M; Roberts, A L; Magdaraog, P; Muñoz, D; Gols, R; Vet, L E M; Hoffmeister, T S; Harvey, J A

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that many parasitic wasps use herbivore-induced plant odours (HIPVs) to locate their inconspicuous host insects, and are often able to distinguish between slight differences in plant odour composition. However, few studies have examined parasitoid foraging behaviour under (semi-)field conditions. In nature, food plants of parasitoid hosts are often embedded in non-host-plant assemblages that confer both structural and chemical complexity. By releasing both naïve and experienced Cotesia glomerata females in outdoor tents, we studied how natural vegetation surrounding Pieris brassicae-infested Sinapis arvensis and Barbarea vulgaris plants influences their foraging efficiency as well as their ability to specifically orient towards the HIPVs of the host plant species on which they previously had a positive oviposition experience. Natural background vegetation reduced the host-encounter rate of naïve C. glomerata females by 47 %. While associative learning of host plant HIPVs 1 day prior to foraging caused a 28 % increase in the overall foraging efficiency of C. glomerata, it did not reduce the negative influence of natural background vegetation. At the same time, however, females foraging in natural vegetation attacked more host patches on host-plant species on which they previously had a positive oviposition experience. We conclude that, even though the presence of natural vegetation reduces the foraging efficiency of C. glomerata, it does not prevent experienced female wasps from specifically orienting towards the host-plant species from which they had learned the HIPVs. PMID:26001606

  4. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. )

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  5. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium.

    PubMed Central

    Tepfer, D; Goldmann, A; Pamboukdjian, N; Maille, M; Lepingle, A; Chevalier, D; Dénarié, J; Rosenberg, C

    1988-01-01

    Our objectives were to identify substances produced by plant roots that might act as nutritional mediators of specific plant-bacterium relationships and to delineate the bacterial genes responsible for catabolizing these substances. We discovered new compounds, which we call calystegins, that have the characteristics of nutritional mediators. They were detected in only 3 of 105 species of higher plants examined: Calystegia sepium, Convolvulus arvensis (both of the Convolvulaceae family), and Atropa belladonna. Calystegins are abundant in organs in contact with the rhizosphere and are not found, or are observed only in small quantities, in aerial plant parts. Just as the synthesis of calystegins is infrequent in the plant kingdom, their catabolism is rare among rhizosphere bacteria that associate with plants and influence their growth. Of 42 such bacteria tested, only one (Rhizobium meliloti 41) was able to catabolize calystegins and use them as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The calystegin catabolism gene(s) (cac) in this strain is located on a self-transmissible plasmid (pRme41a), which is not essential to nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legumes. We suggest that under natural conditions calystegins provide an exclusive carbon and nitrogen source to rhizosphere bacteria which are able to catabolize these compounds. Calystegins (and the corresponding microbial catabolic genes) might be used to analyze and possibly modify rhizosphere ecology. Images PMID:2981046

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Poecilia formosa (Amazon molly).

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao; Xia, Yan; Xu, Qiwu; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, a member of the Poeciliidae family, is a freshwater fish reproducing through gynogenesis. The complete mitochondrial genome of the P. formosa is determined for the first time in this study. It is a circular molecule of 16 542 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. The overall base composition of the genome is A (29.59%), T (27.57%), C (28.27%), and G (14.57%) with 42.84% GC content, which is lower than the content of AT. Most protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon except for COX2, ND5 and ND6, which initiated with ATA, GTG and TTA, respectively. The stop codon was a single T- - base in most of the protein-coding genes, but COX2 and ATP8 both employed TAA and ND2 terminated with AGG codon. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the complete mitogenome of P. formosa and closely related 11 chondrichthian species to assess their phylogenic relationship and evolution. The complete mitochondrial genome of the amazon molly would help to study the evolution of Poeciliidae family. PMID:26260185

  7. The Involvement of Protease Nexin-1 (PN1) in the Pathogenesis of Intervertebral Disc (IVD) Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinghuo; Liu, Wei; Duan, Zhenfeng; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuai; Wang, Kun; Song, Yu; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Yang, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a serine protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin superfamily. This study was undertaken to investigate the regulatory role of PN-1 in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration. Expression of PN-1 was detected in human IVD tissue of varying grades. Expression of both PN-1 mRNA and protein was significantly decreased in degenerated IVD, and the expression levels of PN-1 were correlated with the grade of disc degeneration. Moreover, a decrease in PN-1 expression in primary NP cells was confirmed. On induction by IL-1β, the expression of PN-1 in NP cells was decreased at day 7, 14, and 21, as shown by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. PN-1 administration decreased IL-1β-induced MMPs and ADAMTS production and the loss of Agg and Col II in NP cell cultures through the ERK1/2/NF-kB signaling pathway. The changes in PN-1 expression are involved in the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration. Our findings indicate that PN-1 administration could antagonize IL-1β-induced MMPs and ADAMTS, potentially preventing degeneration of IVD tissue. This study also revealed new insights into the regulation of PN-1 expression via the ERK1/2/NF-kB signaling pathway and the role of PN-1 in the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration. PMID:27460424

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii (Chrysemys, Emydidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Jun; Xia, En-Hua; Gao, Cheng-Wen; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii. The genome is found to be 16,875 bp in length and has a base composition of A (34.4%), G (13.0%), C (26.0%), and T (26.6%). Similar to other turtles, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon except for COX1 and ND4, which initiate with GTG instead, and terminate with the typical stop codon (TAA/TAG) or a single T (T-) or an unexpected codon of AGG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetic studies in C. p. bellii. PMID:24438258

  9. Virulence determinants in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from North India and their interaction in in vitro organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepika; Sharma, Monica; Sarkar, Subendu; Thapa, B R; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrhoeal pathogen causing diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. In developing countries like India, diarrhoeal diseases are one of the major killers among paediatric population and oddly, few studies are available from Indian paediatric population on the variability of EAEC virulence genes. In this study, we examined the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal-encoded virulence determinants in EAEC isolates, and analysed cytokines response generated against EAEC with specific aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) type in duodenal biopsies using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) mimicking in vivo conditions. Different virulence marker combinations among strains were reflected as a function of specific adhesins signifying EAEC heterogeneity. fis gene emerged as an important genetic marker apart from aggA and aap Further, EAEC infection in IVOC showed upregulation of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and TLR-5 expression. EAEC with AAFII induced significant TLR-5 and IL-8 response, conceivably owing to more pathogenicity markers. This study sheds light on the pattern of EAEC pathotypes prevalent in North Indian paediatric population and highlights the presence of unique virulence combinations in pathogenic strains. Thus, evident diversity in EAEC virulence and multifaceted bacteria-host crosstalk can provide useful insights for the strategic management of diarrhoeal diseases in India, where diarrhoeal outbreaks are more frequent. PMID:27493010

  10. Genetic structure of Pilosocereus gounellei (Cactaceae) as revealed by AFLP marker to guide proposals for improvement and restoration of degraded areas in Caatinga biome.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, E R; Strioto, D K; Meirelles, A C S; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F P S

    2015-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to evaluate DNA polymorphism in Pilosocereus gounellei with the aim of differentiating samples grown in different Brazilian semiarid regions. Seven primer pairs were used to amplify 703 AFLP markers, of which 700 (99.21%) markers were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic markers ranged from 95.3% for the primer combination E-AAG/M-CTT to 100% for E-ACC/M-CAT, E-ACC/M-CAA, E-AGC/M-CAG, E-ACT/M-CTA, and E-AGG/M-CTG. The largest number of informative markers (126) was detected using the primer combination E-AAC/M-CTA. Polymorphism of the amplified DNA fragments ranged from 72.55% (in sample from Piauí State) to 82.79% (in samples from Rio Grande Norte State), with an average of 75.39%. Despite the high genetic diversity of AFLP markers in xiquexique, analysis using the STRUCTURE software identified relatively homogeneous clusters of xiquexique from the same location, indicating a differentiation at the molecular level, among the plant samples from different regions of the Caatinga biome. The AFLP methodology identified genetically homogeneous and contrasting plants, as well as plants from different regions with common DNA markers. Seeds from such plants can be used for further propagation of plants for establishment of biodiversity conservation units and restoration of degraded areas of the Caatinga biome. PMID:26681043

  11. A Set of Assays for the Comprehensive Analysis of FMR1 Alleles in the Fragile X-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Bruce E; Zhou, Yifan; Kumari, Daman; Usdin, Karen

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis and study of the fragile X-related disorders is complicated by the difficulty of amplifying the long CGG/CCG-repeat tracts that are responsible for disease pathology, the potential presence of AGG interruptions within the repeat tract that can ameliorate expansion risk, the occurrence of variable DNA methylation that modulates disease severity, and the high frequency of mosaicism for both repeat number and methylation status. These factors complicate patient risk assessment. In addition, the variability in these parameters that is seen when patient cells are grown in culture requires their frequent monitoring to ensure reproducible results in a research setting. Many existing assays have the limited ability to amplify long alleles, particularly in a mixture of different allele sizes. Others are better at this, but are too expensive for routine use in most laboratories or for newborn screening programs and use reagents that are proprietary. We describe herein a set of assays to routinely evaluate all of these important parameters in a time- and cost-effective way. PMID:27528259

  12. Eutectic combinations as a pathway to the formation of substrate-based Au-Ge heterodimers and hollowed au nanocrescents with tunable optical properties.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Aarthi; Farzinpour, Pouyan; Gilroy, Kyle D; Tan, Teng; Hughes, Robert A; Neretina, Svetlana

    2014-08-27

    Pairs of immiscible elements with deep eutectics are used to synthesize periodic arrays of heterodimers and hollowed metal nanocrescents. In the devised route, substrate-immobilized Au or Ag nanostructures act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for Ge adatoms. At elevated temperatures the adatoms collect in sufficient quantities to transform each site into a AuGe liquid alloy which, upon cooling, phase separates into elemental components sharing a common interface. The so-formed Au-Ge and Ag-Ge heterodimers exhibit a complex morphology characterized by a noble metal nanocrescent which partially encapsulates one end of the Ge domain. Through the use of a selective etch the Ge component is removed, leaving behind a periodic array of hollow noble metal nanocrescents on the surface of the substrate. Optical characterization of both the heterodimers and nanocrescents indicates that the presence of Ge gives rise to a relative blue-shift in the localized surface plasmon peak, a result that is in stark contrast to the red-shifts typically observed when plasmonic nanostructures are in contact with a dielectric medium. Simulations are used to both rationalize the observed shift and show the potential for deriving unexpected behaviors when semishell-like noble metal structures are in contact with high permittivity dielectric mediums. PMID:24729512

  13. Safety assessment and probiotic evaluation of Enterococcus faecium YF5 isolated from sourdough.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qianglai; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Peng, Shanshan; Dong, Suqin; Wang, Baogui; Li, Ping; Chen, Tingtao; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2013-04-01

    Enterococcus faecium YF5, a strain previously isolated from sourdough, was assessed for safety and probiotic potential. Its virulence and antibiotic resistant phenotypes (cytolysin and gelatinase production, antibiotic susceptibility) and genes (cylA, gelE, ace, agg, esp, and vanA) were surveyed. Results indicated that the tested virulence determinants were nontoxic. In addition, E. faecium YF5 was sensitive to 3 antibiotics such as amoxicillin, vancomycin, and chloramphenicol. Furthermore, results of in vivo animal acute oral toxicity of E. faecium YF5 studies were similar to the control group that indicated no abnormalities. In addition, E. faecium YF5 stably survived in low pH, bile salts, gastric, and intestinal fluids in vitro. Moreover, E. faecium YF5 was found to adhere to human colon cancer cell line HT-29 at 3.39 (±0.67) × 10(5) CFU/mL. When cocultured with pathogenic organisms (Enterobacter sakazakii CMCC45402, Escherichia coli CMCC44102, enterohemorrhage Escherichia coli O157: H7 CMCC44828, Salmonella Typhimurium CMCC50071, Shigella flexneri 301, and Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930) and 2 gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54001 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003), it inhibited these foodborne pathogens with exception of S. aureus. Therefore, E. faecium YF5 can be regarded as a safe strain and it may be used as a probiotic preparation or for microecologics. PMID:23488799

  14. Carriage of One or Two FMR1 Premutation Alleles Seems to Have No Effect on Illness Severity in a FXTAS Female with an Autozygous FMR1 Premutation Allele.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Gómez-Anson, Beatriz; López-Mourelo, Olga; Izquierdo, Silvia; Alvarez-Mora, Maria Isabel; Granell, Esther; Madrigal, Irene; Milà, Montserrat

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that occurs in FMR1 premutation carriers. The prevalence of FMR1 premutation carriers in the general population is relatively high, and although rare, a premutation in both X chromosomes may occur in females inheriting a premutation allele from each of both parent carriers. Here, we report the first female with an autozygous (homozygous by descendent) FMR1 premutation allele, who fulfills neurological and radiological FXTAS findings/criteria. Molecular characterization included CGG repeat length, AGG interruption pattern, FMR1 messenger RNA (mRNA), fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) level quantification, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. Neuroradiological assessment of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging and neurological and cognitive/neuropsychological evaluations were performed. Neurological and neuroradiological examination of the female with the same FMR1 allele in the premutation range (77 CGGs) demonstrated FXTAS features. Further familial evaluation showed a similar neuropsychiatric profile, with impairments in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial function, mainly. A unique family with an autozygous FMR1 premutation female is presented. Neurological/cognitive and neuroradiological examinations revealed FXTAS-specific findings in the female with the autozygous FMR1 premutation allele. The consistent molecular and cognitive/psychiatric phenotype in family members suggests that carrying one or two FMR1 premutation alleles has no effect on illness severity. PMID:27315125

  15. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.N.; Pirtle, I.L.; Pirtle, R.M.

    1986-05-01

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both (3'-/sup 32/P)-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these ..gamma..-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues.

  16. Identification of the Plant Compound Geraniin as a Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Antonio; Vaccaro, Maria Carmela; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Leone, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Besides its function in normal cellular growth, the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binds to a large number of client proteins required for promoting cancer cell growth and/or survival. In an effort to discover new small molecules able to inhibit the Hsp90 ATPase and chaperoning activities, we screened, by a surface plasmon resonance assay, a small library including different plant polyphenols. The ellagitannin geraniin, was identified as the most promising molecule, showing a binding affinity to Hsp90α similar to that of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AGG). Geraniin was able to inhibit in vitro the Hsp90α ATPase activity in a dose−dependent manner, with an inhibitory efficiency comparable to that measured for 17-AAG. In addition, this compound compromised the chaperone activity of Hsp90α, monitored by the citrate synthase thermal induced aggregation assay. Geraniin decreased the viability of HeLa and Jurkat cell lines and caused an arrest in G2/M phase. We also proved that following exposure to different concentrations of geraniin, the level of expression of the client proteins c-Raf, pAkt, and EGFR was strongly down−regulated in both the cell lines. These results, along with the finding that geraniin did not exert any appreciable cytotoxicity on normal cells, encourage further studies on this compound as a promising chemical scaffold for the design of new Hsp90 inhibitors. PMID:24066128

  17. Genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms with Parkinson’s disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Wu, Yuquan; Li, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene promoter region polymorphisms with Parkinson’s disease (PD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. Methods: The genotyping of COX2 gene polymorphisms was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 122 patients with PD and 120 healthy persons. The association strength of gene polymorphism with disease was measured by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) calculated using χ2 test which also evaluated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of gene polymorphism in controls. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were also analyzed as evidence in the analysis of association. Results: On condition that the genotypes distributions of COX2 -1290A>G, -1195G>A, -765G>C in the control group all conformed to HWE, however, only the homozygous genotype AA of -1195G>A polymorphism showed an association with PD (OR=0.432, 95% CI=0.196-0.950). In addition, in haplotype analysis, G-A-C haplotype frequency in cases was significantly lower than the controls, compared with the common haplotype A-G-G (P=0.031, OR=0.375, 95% CI=0.149-0.940). Conclusions: COX2 -1195G>A polymorphism might play a protective role in the onset of PD and G-A-C haplotype in this three promoter region polymorphisms also showed a negative association. PMID:26722563

  18. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5'-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3') can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA-TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the White-throated Tinamou, Tinamus guttatus (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae).

    PubMed

    An, Mei; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Xiangfeng; Yang, Shuang

    2016-07-01

    The White-throated Tinamou, Tinamus guttatus (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae) is a species of the family Tinamidae. Herein, we firstly reported the complete mitochondrial genome of White-throated Tinamou. The length of mitogenome was 16 750 bp, and composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 putative misc-feature region. Most protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon, but specially, COX1 and COX2 initiated with an infrequent start codon GTG instead, ND3 and ND5 initiated with ATA instead. Protein-coding genes terminated with the mitochondria stop codon (TAA/TAG/AGG/AGA) or a single base(A/T). The mitogenome structural organization was identical to the closely related species Tinamus major. The GC content was 42.66%. To verify the accuracy and utility of new determined mitogenome sequences, we constructed the species phylogenetic tree with the 12 protein-coding genes of Tinamus guttatus together with nine other closely species. We expected that using the full mitogenome to address taxonomic issues and study the related evolution events. PMID:26195216

  20. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  1. Cloning and sequencing of chloroperoxidase cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, G H; Kenigsberg, P; Axley, M J; Nuell, M; Hager, L P

    1986-01-01

    An oligod-d(T) 12-18 primed cDNA library has been prepared from Caldariomyces fumago mRNA. A clone containing a full-length insert was sequenced on the supercoiled plasmid, pBR322. The complete primary sequence of chloroperoxidase has been derived. We have also determined about 73% of the peptide sequence by amino acid sequencing. The DNA sequence data matches all of the available known peptide sequences. The mature polypeptide contains 300 amino acids having a combined molecular weight of 32,974 daltons. A putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids is proposed from DNA sequence data. The chloroperoxidase gene encodes three potential glycosylation sites recognized as Asn-X-Thr/Ser sequences. Three cysteine residues are found in the protein sequence. A small region around Cys87 bears a minimal homology to the active site of cytochrome P450cam. No other heme protein homologues can be detected. We propose that Cys87 serves as a thiolate ligand to the iron of heme prosthetic group. A rare arginine codon, AGG, is used three times out of twelve in contrast to the very infrequent use of this codon in E. coli or yeast. PMID:3774552

  2. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy associated with TTRSer50Arg mutation in two Iberian families presenting a novel single base change in the mutant gene.

    PubMed

    Munar-Qués, Miguel; Masjuan, Jaime; Coelho, Teresa; Moreira, Paul; Viader-Farré, Carlos; Saraiva, María J M

    2007-06-01

    We present two families, from Spain and Portugal, with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) associated with the mutation TTRSer50Arg. This mutation was first described in two Japanese patients from independent families and later in a French-Italian patient and a Vietnamese family. The two families presented here, are the first to be diagnosed with this mutation in the Iberian Peninsula. In the patients of both families, FAP was very aggressive as they rapidly developed multiple symptoms with progressive deterioration; we emphasize the presence of severe orthostatic hypotension in the Spanish proband which confined him to a wheelchair. This proband was the first patient with this mutation to have undergone liver transplantation and results were encouraging. The mutation was detected in four patients and one disease-free relative by DNA sequencing of exon 3 and induced mutation restriction analysis. The most outstanding feature was the single base transversion A to C in codon 50 (CGT instead of AGT), whereas in both Japanese patients and the French-Italian patient it was T to G (AGG instead of AGT). To our knowledge only six FAP mutations with more than one single nucleotide mutation for the same codon have been reported to date. PMID:17577688

  3. Highly differentiated populations of the freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata suggest limited dispersal and opportunities for allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Katharine M; Chepurnov, Victor A; Sluiman, Hans J; Thomas, Sindu J; Spears, Bryan M; Mann, David G

    2009-08-01

    The diversities and distributions of diatoms are much more complex than was ever imagined. To understand the underlying mechanisms, research must focus on evolutionary processes occurring at a population level and employ sufficiently informative molecular markers. Using ten microsatellites and ITS rDNA sequence data, we investigated the genetic structure of populations of the benthic freshwater diatom Sellaphora capitata (until 2004 a cryptic entity within the S. pupula agg. species complex). This is the first time that microsatellites have been used to investigate the genetic structure of any freshwater or benthic microalga. Using an integrated approach (morphology, DNA barcoding and specificity of the microsatellite primers), we verified the identity of 70 S. capitata isolates obtained from lakes in the UK, Belgium and Australia. Standardized F'(ST) values were very high (>0.4) and in Bayesian analyses, isolates clustered according to their country of origin, with limited evidence of admixture. However, selected isolates from all countries were sexually compatible, a result consistent with limited ITS divergence. Considering the apparent absence of desiccation-resistant resting stages in most diatoms, we conclude that such levels of differentiation are likely to be a consequence of limited dispersal. With restricted dispersal, previously unacknowledged opportunities for allopatric speciation exist, which may help to explain the huge extant diversity of diatoms. PMID:19345143

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hardnose shark Carcharhinus macloti (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Xiao, Jiamei; Yang, Weidi; Peng, Zaiqing

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Carcharhinus macloti was determined in this study. It is 16,701 bp in length and contains 37 genes with the typical gene order and transcriptional orientation in vertebrates. A total of 29 bp overlaps and 29 bp short intergenic spaces located in 22 gene junctions. The overall base composition is 31.6% A, 26.2% C, 13.0% G and 29.2% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were found in 13 protein-coding genes. The length of 22 tRNA genes ranged from 66 bp (tRNA-Ser2) to 75 bp (tRNA-Leu1). The tRNA-Ser2 (GCU) lacks the dihydrouridine arm by a simple loop and can not be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T content (68.2%). PMID:24983148

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Xiang, Dan; Peng, Xin; Ai, Weiming; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna) was determined in this study. It was 16,706 bp in length with the typical genomic organization and gene order as most vertebrates. Whole nucleotide base composition was 31.3% A, 25.3% C, 13.2% G and 30.1% T. Among the protein-coding genes, there are three overlapping reading-frames on the same strand, while one of it on the opposite strand. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were used in 13 protein-coding genes. The 22 tRNA ranged from 67 (tRNA-Cys and tRNA-Ser2) to 75 bp (tRNA-Leu1) in length. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into the typical clover-leaf structure, which lost the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and replaced by a simple loop. The control region was 1064 bp in length and showed a higher AT content (66.8%) than the average value of whole mitogenome (61.4%). PMID:25268999

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Diarrheic Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Abbaszadeh, Maryam; Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies performed in developed and developing countries have identified enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) as the emerging cause of pediatric diarrhea. Objectives: This study investigated the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of EAEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea between 2007 - 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: EAEC strains were examined for virulence plasmid genes (aap, aggR, and aatA), biofilm formation, and drug resistance. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of these strains were determined. Results: Significant percentage of local EAEC strains carried the virulence plasmid genes and formed biofilms. In addition, these strains showed high resistance to ampicillin (100%), tetracycline (65.7%), streptomycin (58.7%), chloramphenicol (52.6%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (51.7%) and had different PFGE patterns. Conclusions: These results indicated that EAEC strains isolated from Iranian children with diarrhea were heterogeneous and showed high resistance rates against commonly used antibiotics, which was similar to that reported in studies performed in other countries. PMID:26487919

  7. The five and seven factors personality models: differences and similitude between the TCI-R, NEO-FFI-R and ZKPQ-50-CC.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2011-11-01

    The present study tests the relationships between the three frequently used personality models evaluated by the Temperament Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five Factor Inventory - Revised (NEO-FFI-R) and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-50- Cross-Cultural (ZKPQ-50-CC). The results were obtained with a sample of 928 volunteer subjects from the general population aged between 17 and 28 years old. Frequency distributions and alpha reliabilities with the three instruments were acceptable. Correlational and factorial analyses showed that several scales in the three instruments share an appreciable amount of common variance. Five factors emerged from principal components analysis. The first factor was integrated by A (Agreeableness), Co (Cooperativeness) and Agg-Host (Aggressiveness-Hostility), with secondary loadings in C (Conscientiousness) and SD (Self-directiveness) from other factors. The second factor was composed by N (Neuroticism), N-Anx (Neuroticism-Anxiety), HA (Harm Avoidance) and SD (Self-directiveness). The third factor was integrated by Sy (Sociability), E (Extraversion), RD (Reward Dependence), ImpSS (Impulsive Sensation Seeking) and NS (novelty Seeking). The fourth factor was integrated by Ps (Persistence), Act (Activity), and C, whereas the fifth and last factor was composed by O (Openness) and ST (Self- Transcendence). Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the scales in each model are highly interrelated and define the specified latent dimension well. Similarities and differences between these three instruments are further discussed. PMID:22059312

  8. The near-complete mitogenome sequence of the Omei Horned Toad Megophrys omeimontis Liu, 1950 (Anura, Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Wang, Ye; Li, Diyan; Yan, Qigui; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-07-01

    The nearly complete mitogenome of Megophrys omeimontis is 17,013 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a D-loop region, and it shares the identical gene arrangement with Atympanophrys shapingensis. The overall base composition of this mitogenome is biased toward AT content at 60.10%. Most PCGs begin with ATG, whereas ND1 starts with ATA, ND2 initiates from ATT, ND3 starts with ATC, and COX1 begins with GTG. Four PCGs (COX1, ATP8, ND4L and ND5) use complete stop codon TAR, and ND6 ends with AGG, but the remaining eight PCGs terminate in TA or T. The putative control region of M. omeimontis mitogenome holds two tandem repeat motifs at the 5' and 3' ends, which is different from that of A. shapingensis mtDNA. Megophrys omeimontis becomes the sister lineage to the two other species, B. carinense and A. shapingensis. PMID:25856516

  9. Radon and lung carcinogenesis: mutability of p53 codons 249 and 250 to 238Pu alpha-particles in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S P; Kennedy, C H; Amstad, P; Lui, H; Lechner, J F; Harris, C C

    1997-01-01

    Radon-222, a decay product of uranium-238 and a source of high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha-particles, has been implicated in the increased risk of lung cancer in uranium miners as well as non-miners. p53 mutation spectrum studies of radon-associated lung cancer have failed to show any specific mutational hot spot with the exception of a single study in which 31% of squamous cell and large cell lung cancers from uranium miners showed a p53 codon 249 AGGarg --> ATGmet mutation. Although the results of laboratory studies indicate that double-strand breaks and deletions are the principal genetic alterations caused by alpha-particles, uncertainty still prevails in the description of DNA damage in radon-associated human lung cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the mutability of p53 codons 249 and 250 to alpha-particles in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells using a highly sensitive genotypic mutation assay. Exposure of NHBE cells to a total dose of 4 Gy (equivalent to approximately 1460 working level months in uranium mining) of high LET alpha-radiation induced codon 249 AGG --> AAG transitions and codon 250 CCC --> ACC transversions with absolute mutation frequencies of 3.6 x 10(-7) and 3.8 x 10(-7) respectively. This mutation spectrum is consistent with our previous report of radon-associated human lung cancer. PMID:9054598

  10. Evolution of +1 programmed frameshifting signals and frameshift-regulating tRNAs in the order Saccharomycetales.

    PubMed

    Farabaugh, Philip J; Kramer, Emily; Vallabhaneni, Haritha; Raman, Ana

    2006-10-01

    Programmed translational frameshifting is a ubiquitous but rare mechanism of gene expression in which mRNA sequences cause the translational machinery to shift reading frames with extreme efficiency, up to at least 50%. The mRNA sequences responsible are deceptively simple; the sequence CUU-AGG-C causes about 40% frameshifting when inserted into an mRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The high efficiency of this site depends on a set of S. cerevisiae tRNA isoacceptors that perturb the mechanism of translation to cause the programmed translational error. The simplicity of the system might suggest that it could evolve frequently and perhaps be lost as easily. We have investigated the history of programmed +1 frameshifting in fungi. We find that frameshifting has persisted in two structural genes in budding yeasts, ABP140 and EST3 for about 150 million years. Further, the tRNAs that stimulate the event are equally old. Species that diverged from the lineage earlier both do not employ frameshifting and have a different complement of tRNAs predicted to be inimical to frameshifting. The stability of the coevolution of protein coding genes and tRNAs suggests that frameshifting has been selected for during the divergence of these species. PMID:16838213

  11. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O100:H⁻: stx2e in drinking water contaminated by waste water in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Taru; Pitkänen, Tarja; Antikainen, Jenni; Mölsä, Elina; Miettinen, Ilkka; Haukka, Kaisa; Vaara, Martti; Siitonen, Anja

    2011-04-01

    In November 2007, 450 m(3) of treated wastewater leaked into the drinking water distribution system contaminating the drinking water of over 10,000 inhabitants of Nokia, Southern Finland. Nearly 1,000 people visited the health centre because of gastroenteritis during the following 5 weeks. A wide range of enteric pathogens was found in the patients. The authors used the 16-plex PCR to investigate whether the five major diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (EPEC, ETEC, STEC, EIEC or EAEC) were present in the contaminated drinking water and in the patients' stool samples. The contaminated drinking water was positive for genes characteristic of various E. coli pathotypes: pic, invE, hlyA, ent, escV, eae, aggR, stx(2) , estIa and astA. These genes, except stx(2), hlyA and invE, were also detected in the stool samples of the patients linked to this outbreak. A sorbitol positive, streptomycin resistant STEC strain was isolated from the drinking water, and belonged to the serotype O100:H(-), produced Stx2 toxin (titre 1:8 by reversed-passive latex agglutination method), and carried the genes stx(2e), estIa and irp2. PMID:21188590

  12. Switching kinetics in nanoferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, D. J.; Kim, Kinam; Scott, J. F.

    2005-08-01

    We have measured the switching in ferroelectric capacitors of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) over three orders of magnitude in lateral area, from A = 166 to 0.19 µm2 (the latter being the size of the smallest ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) cells in production), and over three orders of magnitude in ramp rate of applied voltage (d E(t)/d t = 107-1010 V cm-1 s-1). In accord with the model of Scott (1998 Ferroelectr. Rev. 1 1), the submicron cells follow a different dependence to the larger cells: for A\\gg 1~\\micmu {\\mathrm {m}}^{2} , the data fit a theory due to Landauer et al (the LYD model), which neglects nucleation; whereas the nanoscale devices satisfy the functional dependence predicted by Pulvari and Kuebler (the PK model), albeit with a modified coefficient. This crossover behaviour has implications for Gbit FRAM device performance at high speed. Fringing field effects measured agree with a simple model from Feynman.

  13. Alpha-thalassemia mutations in Gilan Province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, Valeh; Jafroodi, Maryam; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Moghadam, Sousan Dehnadi; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Tarashohi, Shahin; Pourfahim, Hamideh; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and three patients from Gilan Province, Iran, presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia parameters without iron deficiency were included in this study. Using gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR), reverse hybridization StripAssay and DNA sequencing, we detected a total of 113 alpha-globin mutations in 94 (91.3%) of these patients. Most prevalent of the 16 different alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) alleles was -alpha(3.7) (42.5%), followed by the polyadenylation signal (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (12.4%), Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln (TAA>CAA in alpha2] (10.6%), --(MED) (8.8%), IVS-I donor site [GAG GTG AGG>GAG G-----, alpha(-5 nt) (-TGAGG)] (7.1%), -alpha(4.2) (4.4%) and poly A1 (AATAAA>AATAAG) (3.5%). An additional nine mutations were observed at frequencies below 2%. We also found two novel alpha1 gene mutations: alpha(-9) (HBA1: c.-9 G>C) and alpha(IVS-I-4) (HBA1: c.95+4 A>G). Our new findings will be valuable for improving targeted thalassemia screening and prevention strategies in this area. PMID:19657838

  14. Determination of lead, cadmium, indium, thallium and silver in ancient ices from Antarctica by isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsumoto, A.; Hinkley, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of five chalcophile elements (Pb, Cd, In, Tl and Ag) and the lead isotope rarios in ancient ices from the Taylor Dome near coastal Antarctica, have been determined by the isotope dilutionthermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS), with ultra-clean laboratory techniques. The samples were selected from segments of cores, one of which included a visible ash layer. Electric conductivity measurement (ECM) or dielectric properties (DEP) gave distinctive sharp peaks for some of the samples c hosen. Exterior portions of the sample segments were trimmed away by methods described here. Samples w ere evaporated to dryness and later separated into fractions for the five elements using an HBr-HNO3 a nion exchange column method. The concentrations are in the range 2.62-36.7 pg Pb/g of ice, 0.413-2.83 pg Cd/g, 0.081-0.34 pg In/g, 0.096-2.8 pg Tl/g and 0.15-0.84 pg Ag/g. respectively. The dispersions in duplicate analyses are about ??1% for lead and cadmium, ??2% for indium. ??4% for thallium and ??6% for silver, respectively. The concentrations of lead obtained are commonly higher than those in the present-day Antarctic surface snows, but the isotope ratios are distinctively higher than those of the present-day snows and close to those of the other ancient ice collected from a different Antarctic area.

  15. Screening of catalytic oxygen reduction reaction activity of metal-doped graphene by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Chen, Shuangjing; Wang, Jinyu

    2016-08-01

    Graphene doping is a promising direction for developing effective oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts. In this paper, we computationally investigated the ORR performance of 10 kinds of metal-doped graphene (M-G) catalysts, namely, Al-, Si-, Mn-, Fe-, Co-, Ni-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Au-G. The results shown that the binding energies of the metal atoms incorporated into the graphene vacancy are higher than their bulk cohesive energies, indicating the formed M-G catalysts are even more stable than the corresponding bulk metal surfaces, and thus avoid the metals dissolution in the reaction environment. We demonstrated that the linear relation among the binding energies of the ORR intermediates that found on metal-based materials does not hold for the M-G catalysts, therefore a single binding energy of intermediate alone is not sufficient to evaluate the ORR activity of an arbitrary catalyst. By analysis of the detailed ORR processes, we predicted that the Au-, Co-, and Ag-G materials can be used as the ORR catalysts.

  16. Fragile X founder chromosomes in Italy: A few initial events and possible explanation for their heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiurazzi, P.; Genuardi, M.; Kozak, L.; Neri, G.

    1996-07-12

    A total of 137 fragile X and 235 control chromosomes from various regions of Italy were haplotyped by analyzing two neighbouring marker microsatellites, FRAXAC1 and DXS548. The number of CGG repeats at the 5{prime} end of the FMR1 gene was also assessed in 141 control chromosomes and correlated with their haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium between some {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} haplotypes and fragile X was observed, while other {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} haplotypes may have originated by subsequent mutation at the marker microsatellite loci and/or recombination between them. Recent evidence suggests that the initial mechanism leading to CGG instability might consist of rare (10{sup -6/-7}) CGG repeat slippage events and/or loss of a stabilizing AGG via A-to-C transversion. Also, the apparently high variety of fragile X chromosomes may be partly due to the relatively high mutation rate (10{sup -4/-5}) of the microsatellite markers used in haplotyping. Our fragile X sample also showed a higher than expected heterozygosity when compared to the control sample and we suggest that this might be explained by the chance occurrence of the few founding events on different chromosomes, irrespective of their actual frequency in the population. Alternatively, a local mechanism could enhance the microsatellite mutation rate only on fragile X chromosomes, or fragile X mutations might occur more frequently on certain background haplotypes. 59 refs., 4 figs.

  17. The role of Ag buffer layer in Fe islands growth on Ge (111) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tsu-Yi Wu, Jia-Yuan; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chan

    2015-05-07

    Sub-monolayer iron atoms were deposited at room temperature on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates with and without Ag buffer layers. The behavior of Fe islands growth was investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) after different annealing temperatures. STM images show that iron atoms will cause defects and holes on substrates at room temperature. As the annealing temperature rises, iron atoms pull out germanium to form various kinds of alloyed islands. However, the silver layer can protect the Ag/Ge(111)-(√3×√3) reconstruction from forming defects. The phase diagram shows that ring, dot, and triangular defects were only found on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates. The kinds of islands found in Fe/Ge system are similar to Fe/Ag/Ge system. It indicates that Ge atoms were pulled out to form islands at high annealing temperatures whether there was a Ag layer or not. But a few differences in big pyramidal or strip islands show that the silver layer affects the development of islands by changing the surface symmetry and diffusion coefficient. The structure characters of various islands are also discussed.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pundamilia nyererei (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingyun; Song, Xiaolei; Chen, Xi; Dang, Xiao; Wang, Wenjing

    2016-09-01

    Pundamilia nyererei (Perciformes, Cichlidae) is a member of Cichlid fishes that lives in the Great Lakes of East Africa. Fishes of the Cichlidae family can adapt spectacular trophic radiations and provide good potential examples of vertebrate adaptive radiations. Here, we firstly assembled the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Pundamilia nyererei. The mitgenome was 16 761 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. Most of these protein-coding genes started with a traditional ATG codon except for COX1, which initiated with an infrequent start codon GTG instead, and terminated with the mitochondrial stop codon (TAA/AGG/AGA) or a single T base. The mitogenome structural organization is identical to other Cichlid fish. The overall GC content is 45.25%, which is lower than the AT content. According to these new determined mitogenome sequences and 10 other species under the same family or order, we have constructed the species phylogenetic tree to verify the accuracy of newly assembled mitogenome sequences. We accept that by taking the advantage of full mitogenome, we can address taxonomic issue and study the related evolutionary events. Our current data are going to provide important resources for the research of Cichlid fishes mitochondrial evolution and energy metabolism. PMID:26260178

  19. Safety and potential risks of enterococci isolated from traditional fermented capers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pulido, R; Abriouel, H; Ben Omar, N; Lucas, R; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Gálvez, A

    2006-12-01

    A collection of 17 enterococci isolates obtained from fermentations of capers (the fruits of Capparis sp.) were investigated for incidence of known virulence determinants, antibiotic resistance and production of biogenic amines. Molecular identification revealed the presence of Enterococcus faecium (nine isolates), Enterococcus faecalis (4), E. avium (3) and Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens (1). Alpha-haemolytic activity was detected in two E. avium and one E. faecalis isolates, and beta-haemolytic activity was detected in E. casseliflavus/flavescens. The haemolytic component cylB was detected by PCR amplification in three non-haemolytic isolates and in E. casseliflavus/flavescens. The collagen adhesin ace gene and the endocarditis associated antigen gene efaA(fm) were detected in two isolates each. Genes encoding sex pheromone precursors (cpd, cob, ccf) were detected in E. faecalis and E. casseliflavus/flavescens. Other presumed virulence genes (agg, gelE, cylM, cylA and efaA(fs)) were not detected. All isolates were resistant to rifampicin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, and some were also resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Vancomycin resistance was not detected. Tyrosine decarboxylation was detected in all E. faecium isolates. Given the high resistance of enterococci to environmental conditions, and their implication in opportunistic infections, the incidence of potential virulent enterococci in foods (especially those of a higher risk-like home-made foods) should be carefully studied. PMID:16971033

  20. Effect of Temperature on Fimbrial Gene Expression and Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hinthong, Woranich; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Kongngoen, Thida; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2015-08-01

    The influence of temperature on bacterial virulence has been studied worldwide from the viewpoint of climate change and global warming. The bacterium enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is the causative agent of watery diarrhea and shows an increasing incidence worldwide. Its pathogenicity is associated with the virulence factors aggregative adherence fimbria type I and II (AAFI and AAFII), encoded by aggA and aafA in EAEC strains 17-2 and 042, respectively. This study focused on the effect of temperature increases from 29 °C to 40 °C on fimbrial gene expression using real-time PCR, and on its virulence using an aggregative adherence assay and biofilm formation assay. Incubation at 32 °C caused an up-regulation in both EAEC strains 17-2 and strain 042 virulence gene expression. EAEC strain 042 cultured at temperature above 32 °C showed down-regulation of aafA expression except at 38 °C. Interestingly, EAEC cultured at a high temperature showed a reduced adherence to cells and an uneven biofilm formation. These results provide evidence that increases in temperature potentially affect the virulence of pathogenic EAEC, although the response varies in each strain. PMID:26213951

  1. Defining pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) from cases of human infection in the European Union, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Messens, W; Bolton, D; Frankel, G; Liebana, E; McLAUCHLIN, J; Morabito, S; Oswald, E; Threlfall, E J

    2015-06-01

    During 2007-2010, 13 545 confirmed human verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections were reported in the European Union, including 777 haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) cases. Clinical manifestations were reported for 53% of cases, 64% of which presented with diarrhoea alone and 10% with HUS. Isolates from 85% of cases were not fully serotyped and could not be classified on the basis of the Karmali seropathotype concept. There is no single or combination of phenotypic or genetic marker(s) that fully define 'pathogenic' VTEC. Isolates which contain the vtx2 (verocytotoxin 2) gene in combination with the eae (intimin-encoding) gene or aaiC (secreted protein of enteroaggregative E. coli) and aggR (plasmid-encoded regulator) genes have been associated with a higher risk of more severe illness. A molecular approach targeting genes encoding VT and other virulence determinants is thus proposed to allow an assessment of the potential severity of disease that may be associated with a given VTEC isolate. PMID:25921781

  2. Codon-reading specificities of mitochondrial release factors and translation termination at non-standard stop codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Christoffer; Sund, Johan; Åqvist, Johan

    2013-12-01

    A key feature of mitochondrial translation is the reduced number of transfer RNAs and reassignment of codons. For human mitochondria, a major unresolved problem is how the set of stop codons are decoded by the release factors mtRF1a and mtRF1. Here we present three-dimensional structural models of human mtRF1a and mtRF1 based on their homology to bacterial RF1 in the codon recognition domain, and the strong conservation between mitochondrial and bacterial ribosomal RNA in the decoding region. Sequence changes in the less homologous mtRF1 appear to be correlated with specific features of the mitochondrial rRNA. Extensive computer simulations of the complexes with the ribosomal decoding site show that both mitochondrial factors have similar specificities and that neither reads the putative vertebrate stop codons AGA and AGG. Instead, we present a structural model for a mechanism by which the ICT1 protein causes termination by sensing the presence of these codons in the A-site of stalled ribosomes.

  3. Label-free detection of kanamycin based on a G-quadruplex DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yun-Peng; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Han-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This work was the first to report that the kanamycin-binding DNA aptamer (5′-TGG GGG TTG AGG CTA AGC CGA-3′) can form stable parallel G-quadruplex DNA (G4-DNA) structures by themselves and that this phenomenon can be verified by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Based on these findings, we developed a novel label-free strategy for kanamycin detection based on the G4-DNA aptamer-based fluorescent intercalator displacement assay with thiazole orange (TO) as the fluorescence probe. In the proposed strategy, TO became strongly fluorescent upon binding to kanamycin-binding G4-DNA. However, the addition of kanamycin caused the displacement of TO from the G4-DNA–TO conjugate, thereby resulting in decreased fluorescent signal, which was inversely related to the kanamycin concentration. The detection limit of the proposed assay decreased to 59 nM with a linear working range of 0.1 μM to 20 μM for kanamycin. The cross-reactivity against six other antibiotics was negligible compared with the response to kanamycin. A satisfactory recovery of kanamycin in milk samples ranged from 80.1% to 98.0%, confirming the potential of this bioassay in the measurement of kanamycin in various applications. Our results also served as a good reference for developing similar fluorescent G4-DNA-based bioassays in the future. PMID:25634469

  4. Decreased apoptosis of beta 2- integrin-deficient bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kenji; Takahashi, Kensi; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikwori

    2004-02-01

    Stimulant-induced viability of neutrophils, nuclear-fragmentation, increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), expression of annexin V on neutrophils and proteolysis of a fluorogenic peptide substrate Ac-DEVD-MCA (acetyl Asp-Glu-Val-Asp alpha-[4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide]) by neutrophil lysates from five normal calves and three calves with leucocyte adhesion deficiency were determined to evaluate the apoptosis of normal and CD18-deficient neutrophils. Viability was markedly decreased in control neutrophils stimulated with opsonized zymosan (OPZ), compared to CD18-deficient neutrophils at 37 degrees C after incubation periods of 6 and 24 hours. The rate of apoptosis of control neutrophils stimulated with OPZ increased significantly depending on the incubation time, whereas no apparent increase in apoptosis was found in CD18-deficient neutrophils under the same conditions. Aggregated bovine (Agg) IgG-induced apoptosis of control neutrophils was not significantly different from that of CD18-deficient neutrophils. The expression of annexin V on OPZ-stimulated control neutrophils was greater than that of unstimulated ones 6 h after stimulation. No apparent increase in annexin V expression on CD18-deficient neutrophils was found with OPZ stimulation. A delay in apoptosis was demonstrated in CD18-deficient bovine neutrophils and this appeared to be closely associated with lowered signalling via [Ca2+]i, diminished annexin V expression on the cell surface, and decreased caspase 3 activity in lysates. PMID:14984592

  5. Micellization behavior of morpholinium-based amide-functionalized ionic liquids in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Raman; Bharmoria, Pankaj; Chauhan, Vinay; Singh, Sukhprit; Kumar, Arvind; Mithu, Venus Singh; Kang, Tejwant Singh

    2014-08-26

    Morpholinium-based amide-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) [C(n)AMorph][Br], where n = 8, 12, and 16, have been synthesized and characterized for their micellization behavior in aqueous medium using a variety of state of the art techniques. The adsorption and micellization behavior of [CnAMorph][Br] ILs at the air-solution interface and in the bulk, respectively, has been found to be much better compared to that observed for nonfunctionalized homologous ILs and conventional cationic surfactants, as shown by the comparatively higher adsorption efficiency, lower surface tension at the critical micelle concentraiton (γ(cmc)), and much lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) for [C(n)AMorph][Br] ILs. Conductivity measurements have been performed to obtain the cmc, degree of counterion binding (β), and standard free energy of micellization (ΔG(m)°). Isothermal titration calorimetry has provided information specifically about the thermodynamics of micellization, whereas steady-state fluorescence has been used to obtain the cmc, micropolarity of the cybotactic region, and aggregation number (N(agg)) of the micelles. Both dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy have provided insights into the size and shape of the micelles. 2D (1)H-(1)H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy experiments have provided insights into the structure of the micelle, where [C16AMorph][Br] has shown distinct micellization behavior as compared to [C8AMorph][Br] and [C12AMorph][Br] in corroboration with observations made from other techniques. PMID:25062465

  6. The Archaeoglobus fulgidus d-Lactate Dehydrogenase Is a Zn2+ Flavoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David W.; Hartzell, Patricia L.

    1999-01-01

    Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a hyperthermophilic, archaeal sulfate reducer, is one of the few organisms that can utilize d-lactate as a sole source for both carbon and electrons. The A. fulgidus open reading frame, AF0394, which is predicted to encode a d-(−)-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld), was cloned, and its product was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with the maltose binding protein (MBP). The 90-kDa MBP-Dld fusion protein was more efficiently expressed in E. coli when coexpressed with the E. coli dnaY gene, encoding the arginyl tRNA for the codons AGA and AGG. When cleaved from the fusion protein by treatment with factor Xa, the recombinant Dld (rDld) has an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa, similar to that of the native A. fulgidus Dld enzyme. Both the purified MBP-Dld fusion protein and its rDld cleavage fragment have lactate dehydrogenase activities specific for d-lactate, are stable at 80°C, and retain activity after exposure to oxygen. The flavin cofactor FAD, which binds rDld apoprotein with a 1:1 stoichiometry, is essential for activity. PMID:10601217

  7. An Engineered Rare Codon Device for Optimization of Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Li, Chunying; Khan, Md. Rezaul Islam; Wang, Yushu; Ruan, Yunfeng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Xiaopan; Zhang, Kaisi; Zhao, Xiwen; Ye, Guanhao; Guo, Xizhi; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Rare codons generally arrest translation due to rarity of their cognate tRNAs. This property of rare codons can be utilized to regulate protein expression. In this study, a linear relationship was found between expression levels of genes and copy numbers of rare codons inserted within them. Based on this discovery, we constructed a molecular device in Escherichia coli using the rare codon AGG, its cognate tRNA (tRNAArg (CCU)), modified tRNAAsp (GUC → CCU), and truncated aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (TDRS) to switch the expression of reporter genes on or off as well as to precisely regulate their expression to various intermediate levels. To underscore the applicability of our work, we used the rare codon device to alter the expression levels of four genes of the fatty acid synthesis II (FASII) pathway (i.e. fabZ, fabG, fabI, and tesA’) in E. coli to optimize steady-state kinetics, which produced nearly two-fold increase in fatty acid yield. Thus, the proposed method has potential applications in regulating target protein expression at desired levels and optimizing metabolic pathways by precisely tuning in vivo molar ratio of relevant enzymes. PMID:26852704

  8. Near IR interband transitions and optical parameters of metal-germanium contacts.

    PubMed

    Chan, E Y; Card, H C

    1980-04-15

    A theoretical and experimental study of the zero-bias quantum efficiency eta(0) for metal (Au, Cu, Ag)-Ge Schottky barrier photodetectors in the near IR range (1.1 microm < lambda < 1.8 microm) has been performed. By an interactive computer programming technique, the optical parameters of the metal thin film electrodes (index of refraction n and extinction coefficient k) as a function of wavelength and of film thickness are determined. Starting with a two-layer calculation of the reflectance R, transmittance T, and absorptance A of the metal electrode, it is found that the eta(0) in this near IR range is dominated by the band-to-band excitation of electrons in the Ge substrate. Using the minority carrier diffusion length L(p) as an adjustable parameter, good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was found for L(p) approximately 150 microm; this value was obtained independent of choice of metal or metal thickness justifying the above procedure. PMID:20221033

  9. REVERSE SHOCK EMISSION AND IONIZATION BREAKOUT POWERED BY POST-MERGER MILLISECOND MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Dai, Zi-Gao; Yu, Yun-Wei E-mail: yuyw@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

    2015-02-20

    There is accumulating evidence that at least a fraction of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers result in rapidly spinning magnetars, with subrelativistic neutron-rich ejecta as massive as a small fraction of a solar mass. The ejecta could be heated continuously by the Poynting flux emanated from the central magnetars. Such a Poynting flux could become lepton dominated so that a reverse shock develops. It was demonstrated that such a picture is capable of accounting for the optical transient PTF11agg. In this paper we investigate the X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, as well as the optical and radio radiation studied by Wang and Dai. UV emission is particularly important because it has the right energy to ionize the hot ejecta at times t ≲ 600 s. It is thought that the ejecta of BNS mergers are a remarkably pure sample of r-process material, about which our understanding is still incomplete. In this paper we evaluate the possibility of observationally determining the bound-bound and bound-free opacities of the r-process material by timing the X-ray, UV, and optical radiation. It is found that these timings depend on the opacities weakly, and therefore only loose constraints on the opacities can be obtained.

  10. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues.

    PubMed

    Jaipaew, Jirayut; Wangkulangkul, Piyanun; Meesane, Jirut; Raungrut, Pritsana; Puttawibul, Puttisak

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis. PMID:27127042

  11. Genetic Variations in the Serotonergic System Mediate a Combined, Weakened Response to SSRI Treatment: A Proposed Model1,2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Individuals with the short (S) allele in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show a less favorable response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment than individuals with the long (L) allele. Similarly, individuals with the C(-1019)G allele for the mutation found in the promoter region of the serotonin 1A receptor gene (5-HTR1A) have shown blunted responses to SSRI treatment when compared with individuals lacking this polymorphism. While these findings have been replicated across multiple studies, only two studies to date have reported data for a gene–gene interaction associated with response to SSRI treatment. Both of these studies reported a combined effect for these genotypes, with individuals homozygous for the L allele and the C allele (5-HTTL/L−1AC/C) reporting the most favorable response to SSRI treatment, and individuals homozygous for the S allele and the G allele (5-HTTS/S–1AG/G) reporting the least favorable response to SSRI treatment. Additionally, no neural mechanisms have been proposed to explain why this gene–gene interaction has been observed. To that end, this article provides a review of the relevant literature associated with these polymorphisms and proposes a feasible model that describes a genotype-dependent modulation of postsynaptic serotonin signaling associated with the 5-HTT and 5-HTR1A genes. PMID:26464988

  12. Genetic Variations in the Serotonergic System Mediate a Combined, Weakened Response to SSRI Treatment: A Proposed Model(1,2).

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with the short (S) allele in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show a less favorable response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment than individuals with the long (L) allele. Similarly, individuals with the C(-1019)G allele for the mutation found in the promoter region of the serotonin 1A receptor gene (5-HTR1A) have shown blunted responses to SSRI treatment when compared with individuals lacking this polymorphism. While these findings have been replicated across multiple studies, only two studies to date have reported data for a gene-gene interaction associated with response to SSRI treatment. Both of these studies reported a combined effect for these genotypes, with individuals homozygous for the L allele and the C allele (5-HTT(L/L)-1A(C/C)) reporting the most favorable response to SSRI treatment, and individuals homozygous for the S allele and the G allele (5-HTT(S/S)-1A(G/G)) reporting the least favorable response to SSRI treatment. Additionally, no neural mechanisms have been proposed to explain why this gene-gene interaction has been observed. To that end, this article provides a review of the relevant literature associated with these polymorphisms and proposes a feasible model that describes a genotype-dependent modulation of postsynaptic serotonin signaling associated with the 5-HTT and 5-HTR1A genes. PMID:26464988

  13. Gender-responsiveness in corrections: Estimating female inmate misconduct risk using the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    PubMed

    Davidson, Megan; Sorensen, Jon R; Reidy, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Proper inmate assessment is critical to correctional management and institutional security. While many instruments have been developed to assist with this process, most of these tools have not been validated using samples of female inmates although distinct gender differences have been identified in the inmate population in terms of adaptation and misconduct. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale measure of psychopathology that is being increasingly utilized in the correctional setting to assist with the inmate classification process. The current study contributes to the dearth of literature surrounding gender-responsive inmate classification by utilizing a sample of 2,000 female inmates to examine the incremental and predictive validity of the PAI in association with general and assaultive disciplinary infractions. Findings from this study reveal that the PAI scales presenting the strongest relationship to general and assaultive disciplinary infractions among this female sample included Aggression (AGG), Antisocial Features (ANT), Paranoia (PAR), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI). Moreover, findings derived from this study suggest that certain PAI measures, specifically ARD-T, DRU, and more general substance abuse and mental health indicators may be useful in gender-responsive assessments during the female inmate classification process. PMID:26436333

  14. Enterobacteria identification and detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in a Port Complex

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Clarissa Frota Macatrão; Neto, Valério Monteiro; Santos, Bruno Rafael de Carvalho; Costa, Bruno Rafael Rabelo; Azevedo, Alexandre; Serra, Josilene Lima; Mendes, Hermínio Benítez Rabello; Nascimento, Adenilde Ribeiro; Mendes, Mariana Bonfim Pinto; Kuppinger, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The Port Complex of Maranhão (PCM) is the second largest port complex in Brazil, receiving ships with large volumes of ballast water. To evaluate the microbiological quality of its waters, physicochemical parameters (pH and salinity), the number of coliforms (thermotolerants and totals), and the presence of enterobacterias and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains were analyzed. In order to identify the presence of E. coli virulence genes target regions of the stx, elt, est, aggR, CVD432, ipaH and eae nucleotide sequences were studied. The presence of totals and thermotolerants coliforms were positive. Analyzing the salinity parameter, a significant increase in total coliforms was observed during the rainy season. We identified the species Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella ozaenae, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter cloacae and Edwardsiella tarda. Out of the 51 E. coli isolated, two were positive for the elt gene and one was positive for the CVD432 sequence, features of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains, respectively. This study reveals that the PCM is contaminated by enterobacteria and diarrheagenic E.coli thus providing evidence regarding the risk of these bacteria being carried by ships to other countries, and draws attention to the input of fecal bacteria brought by ships in the port waters of Maranhão. PMID:25477930

  15. The nucleotide sequence of the large ribosomal RNA gene and the adjacent tRNA genes from rat mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, C; Cantatore, P; Gadaleta, G; Gallerani, R; Lanave, C; Pepe, G; Kroon, A M

    1981-01-01

    We have sequenced the Eco R(1) fragment D from rat mitochondrial DNA. It contains one third of the tRNA (Val) gene (the remaining part has been sequenced from the 3' end of the Eco R(1) fragment A) the complete gene for the large mt 16S rRNA, the tRNA (Leu) gene and the 5' end of an unidentified reading frame. The mt gene for the large rRNA from rat has been aligned with the homologous genes from mouse and human using graphic computer programs. Hypervariable regions at the center of the molecule and highly conserved regions toward the 3' end have been detected. The mt gene for tRNA Leu is of the conventional type and its primary structure is highly conserved among mammals. The mt gene for tRNA(Val) shows characteristics similar to those of other mt tRNA genes but the degree of homology is lower. Comparative studies confirm that AGA and AGG are read as stop codons in mammalian mitochondria. PMID:6913863

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of jade perch, Scortum barcoo (Perciformes: Terapontidae: Scortum).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Li, Kaibin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Weiwei; Mai, Xiaomei; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-09-01

    This is the first documentation of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the jade perch, Scortum barcoo. The 16,843 bp mitogenome containes 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication) as do other vertebrate mitogenomes. The overall base composition of S. barcoo is 27.39% for A, 24.74% for T, 31.14% for C and 16.73% for G, with a slight A + T bias of 52.13%. All protein-coding genes are initiated with ATG except for COX1, which begin with GTG instead. Meanwhile, the termination codons of 13 protein-coding genes are varied with TAA, TAG, TA, T or AGG. The measure of complete mitogenome sequence of S. barcoo will provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Terapontidae. PMID:25799351

  17. Potential DNA slippage structures acquired during evolutionary divergence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus chromosomal benABC and Pseudomonas putida TOL pWW0 plasmid xylXYZ, genes encoding benzoate dioxygenases.

    PubMed Central

    Harayama, S; Rekik, M; Bairoch, A; Neidle, E L; Ornston, L N

    1991-01-01

    The xylXYZ DNA region is carried on the TOL pWW0 plasmid in Pseudomonas putida and encodes a benzoate dioxygenase with broad substrate specificity. The DNA sequence of the region is presented and compared with benABC, the chromosomal region encoding the benzoate dioxygenase of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Corresponding genes from the two biological sources share common ancestry: comparison of aligned XylX-BenA, XylY-BenB, and XylZ-BenC amino acid sequences revealed respective identities of 58.3, 61.3, and 53%. The aligned genes have diverged to assume G+C contents that differ by 14.0 to 14.9%. Usage of the unusual arginine codons AGA and AGG appears to have been selected in the P. putida xylX gene as it diverged from the ancestor it shared with A. calcoaceticus benA. Homologous A. calcoaceticus and P. putida genes exhibit different patterns of DNA sequence repetition, and analysis of one such pattern suggests that mutations creating different DNA slippage structures made a significant contribution to the evolutionary divergence of xylX. PMID:1938949

  18. Detection of Glucose with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy by Using Oligonucleotide Functionalized Gold Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Yan, Honglian; Ling, Liansheng

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the detection of glucose was established with atomic absorption spectroscopy by using the label of gold nanoparticle (AuNP). Silver-coated glass assembled with oligonucleotide 5'-SH-T12-AGA CAA GAG AGG-3' (Oligo 1) was acted as separation probe, oligonucleotide 5'-CAA CAG AGA ACG-T12-SH-3' modified gold nanoparticle (AuNP-Oligo 2) was acted as signal-reporting probe. Oligonucleotide 5'-CGT TCT CTG TTG CCT CTC TTG TCT-3' (Oligo 3) could hybridize with Oligo 1 on the surface of silver-coated glass and AuNP-Oligo 2, and free AuNP-Oligo 2 could be removed by rinsing with buffer. Hence the concentration of Oligo 3 was transformed into the concentration of gold element. In addition, Oligo 3 could be cleaved into DNA fragments by glucose, glucose oxidase and Fe(2+)-EDTA through Fenton reaction. Thereby the concentration of glucose could be transformed to the absorbance of gold element. Under the optimum conditions, the integrated absorbance decreased proportionally to the concentration of glucose over the range from 50.0 μM to 1.0 mM with a detection limit of 40.0 μM. Moreover, satisfactory result was obtained when the assay was used to determinate glucose in human serum. PMID:27427698

  19. Use of molecular beacons to probe for messenger RNA release from ribosomes during 5'-translational blockage by consecutive low-usage codons in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenwu; Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred R.; Goldman, Emanuel

    2000-03-01

    In `5'-translational blockage,' significantly reduced yields of proteins are synthesized in Escherichia coli when consecutive low-usage codons are inserted near translation starts of messages (with reduced or no effect when these same codons are inserted downstream). We tested the hypothesis that ribosomes encountering these low-usage codons prematurely release the mRNA. RNA from polysome gradients was fractionated into pools of polysomes, monosomes and ribosomes-free. New hybridization probes, called `molecular beacons,' and standard slot-blots, were used to detect test messages containing either consecutive low-usage AGG (arginine) or synonymous high-usage CGU insertions near the 5' end. The results show an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of free to bound mRNA when the low-usage codons were present compared to high-usage codons. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio of free to bound mRNA when consecutive low-usage CUA or high-usage CUG (leucine) codons were inserted, or when the arginine codons were inserted near the 3' end. These data indicate that at least some mRNA is released from ribosomes during 5'-translational blockage by arginine but not leucine codons, and they support proposals that premature termination of translation can occur in some conditions in vivo in the absence of a stop codon.

  20. Novel electroless copper deposition on carbon fibers with environmentally friendly processes.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-08-15

    A novel electroless deposition (ELD) of copper (Cu) on carbon fibers (CFs) with environmentally friendly processes, silver (Ag) aerosol activation and subsequent nonformaldehyde Cu ELD, was developed. Spark-generated Ag aerosol nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm in mode diameter) were deposited (48.4 microg Ag/g CF in activation intensity) onto the surfaces of CFs. After annealing (at 220 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere), the catalytically activated CFs were placed into a solution for Cu ELD (at 82 degrees C). Homogeneous Cu coating (approximately 5.1 nm/min) on CFs was achieved with 90 min of deposition and the corresponding mass deposition rate and Cu grain size for 30-90 min of deposition had ranges of 0.25-1.14 mg Cu/g CF-min and 14.8-37.2 nm, respectively. The porosity of CFs decreased by depositing the Cu for 30-90 min, and the specific surface area and pore volume of CFs decreased from 1536 to 1399 m(2)/g and from 0.65 to 0.57 cm(3)/g, respectively. PMID:20621827

  1. Comparative genetic characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains recovered from clinical and non-clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Gu, Dan-xia; Huang, Yong-lu; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Gong-Xiang; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The origin of pathogenic Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), a major causative agent of childhood diarrhea worldwide, remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of EAEC in clinical and non-clinical sources and compare their genetic characteristics in order to identify strains that rarely and commonly cause human diarrhea. The virulence gene astA was commonly detectable in both clinical and non-clinical EAEC, while clinical isolates, but not the non-clinical strains, were consistently found to harbor other virulence factors such as aap (32%), aatA (18%) and aggR (11%). MLST analysis revealed the extremely high diversity of EAEC ST types, which can be grouped into three categories including: (i) non-clinical EAEC that rarely cause human infections; (ii) virulent strains recoverable in diarrhea patients that are also commonly found in the non-clinical sources; (iii) organisms causing human infections but rarely recoverable in the non-clinical setting. In addition, the high resistance in these EAEC isolates in particular resistance to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins raised a huge concern for clinical EAEC infection control. The data from this study suggests that EAEC strains were diversely distributed in non-clinical and clinical setting and some of the clinical isolates may originate from the non-clinical setting. PMID:27062991

  2. Self-aggregation of surfactant ethane-1,2-diyl bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride: tensiometric, microscopic, and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Akram, Mohd; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2015-02-26

    We have investigated the effect of salt additives (NaCl, Na₂SO₄, Na₃PO₄, NaTos, and NaAn) on the aggregation behavior of a cleavable biodegradable ester-bonded dicationic gemini surfactant, ethane-1,2-diyl bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride (16-E2-16). A multitechnique approach employing tensiometry, fluorescence, proton magnetic resonance (¹H NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption spectrophotometry (UV), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to probe physicochemical fluctuations. Appreciable changes were observed in various physicochemical parameters, viz., critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess concentration (Γ(max)), minimum area per headgroup (A(min)), free energy of micellization (ΔG(mic)°), free energy of adsorption (ΔG(ads)°), and aggregation number (N(agg)). Counter ions were found to affect through electrostatic and hydrophobic influence obeying the overall trend as NaAn > NaTos > Na₃PO₄ > Na₂SO₄ > NaCl. ¹H NMR, TEM, UV, and FTIR results reveal microstructure evolution and phase transitions. These results thus provide deeper insights in understanding of self-aggregation and microstructure evolution of biocompatible (green) aqueous systems of the gemini surfactant and their implications in the biomedical and pharmaceutical world, which could be helpful to improve their bioavailability and other biochemical aspects like drug delivery and gene transfection. PMID:25615259

  3. Sacrificial Silver Nanoparticles: Reducing GeI2 To Form Hollow Germanium Nanoparticles by Electroless Deposition.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Bradley M; Chan, Eric K; Zhang, Xinming; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; van Benthem, Klaus; Kauzlarich, Susan M

    2016-05-24

    Herein we report the electroless deposition of Ge onto sacrificial Ag nanoparticle (NP) templates to form hollow Ge NPs. The formation of AgI is a necessary component for this reaction. Through a systematic study of surface passivating ligands, we determined that tri-n-octylphosphine is necessary to facilitate the formation of hollow Ge NPs by acting as a transport agent for GeI2 and the oxidized Ag(+) cation (i.e., AgI product). Annular dark-field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging of incomplete reactions revealed Ag/Ge core/shell NPs; in contrast, completed reactions displayed hollow Ge NPs with pinholes which is consistent with the known method for dissolution of the nanotemplate. Characterization of the hollow Ge NPs was performed by transmission electron microscopy, ADF-STEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The galvanic replacement reaction of Ag with GeI2 offers a versatile method for controlling the structure of Ge nanomaterials. PMID:27096547

  4. Using instability of nanometric liquid Cu films on SiO2 substrates to determine the underlying van der Waals potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D.; Kondic, Lou

    2013-11-01

    We study the instability of nanometric Cu thin films on a SiO2 substrate. The metal is melted by means of laser pulses for some tens of nanoseconds. The free surface destabilizes during the liquid lifetime, leading to the formation of holes at first and to metal drops on the substrate in later stages. By analyzing the Fourier transforms of the SEM images obtained during the metal film evolution, we determine the emerging length scales for both early and late stages of the instability development. The results are analyzed within the framework of a long-wave hydrodynamic model, which introduces van der Waals forces by means of disjoining and conjoining pressures. These forces are characterized by a pair of exponents for the ratio h / h * , where h is the liquid thickness and h* is a residual one. We find that the pair (3 , 2) provides a good agreement for the relationship of the wavelength with maximum growth rate, λm, while other typical pairs, such as (4 , 3) and (9 , 3) do not provide accurate description of the experimental data. Supported by CONICET-Argentina grant PIP 844/2011 (AGG, JAD), and by NSF grants CBET-1235651 (PDR) and CBET-1235710 (LK).

  5. What an Intron May Tell: Several Sexual Biospecies Coexist in Meriderma spp. (Myxomycetes).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Klahr, Anja; Janik, Paulina; Ronikier, Anna; Hoppe, Thomas; Novozhilov, Yuri K; Schnittler, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Specimens of the snowbank myxomycete Meriderma atrosporum agg. from five European mountain ranges were sequenced for parts of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU) and the protein elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF1A). A phylogeny of the EF1A gene, including a very variable spliceosomal intron, resulted in seven phylogroups, and this topology was confirmed by SSU sequences. Two thirds of all specimens were heterozygous for the EF1A gene, and the two haplotypes of these specimens occurred always in the same phylogroup. Except for two cases in closely related phylogroups all ribotypes were as well limited to one phylogroup. This pattern is consistent with the assumption of reproductively isolated sexual biospecies. Numbers of EF1A-haplotypes shared between mountain ranges correlate with geographical distance, suggesting relative isolation but occasional long-distance dispersal by spores. Most subpopulations (divided by putative biospecies and mountain ranges) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A simulation assuming panmixis within but not in between subpopulations suggested that similar numbers of shared genotypes can be created by chance through sexual reproduction alone. Our results support the biospecies concept, derived from experiments with cultivable members of the Physarales. We discuss the results on the background of possible reproductive options in myxomycetes. PMID:27128786

  6. Superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers based on a water-soluble functional monomer for the recognition of gastrodin in water media.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Huang, Luqi

    2015-12-18

    In this study, the first successfully developed superhydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gastrodin recognition have been described. MIPs were prepared via the bulk polymerization process in an aqueous solution using alkenyl glycosides glucose (AGG) as the water-soluble functional monomer. The non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were also synthesized using the same method without the use of the template. The dynamic water contact angles and photographs of the dispersion properties confirmed that the molecularly imprinted polymers displayed excellent superhydrophilicity. The results demonstrated that the MIPs exhibited high selectivity and an excellent imprinting effect. A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method was established. Optimization of various parameters affecting MISPE was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a wide linear range (0.001-100.0μgmL(-1)) and low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) (0.03 and 0.09ngmL(-1), respectively) were achieved. When compared with the NIPs, higher recoveries (90.5% to 97.6%) of gastrodin with lower relative standard deviations values (below 6.4%) using high performance liquid chromatography were obtained at three spiked levels in three blank samples. These results demonstrated one efficient, highly selective and environmentally-friendly MISPE technique with excellent reproducibility for the purification and pre-concentration of gastrodin from an aqueous extract of Gastrodia elata roots. PMID:26627582

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the American flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (Phoenicopteriformes, Phoenicopteridae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Kang, Xiongbin; Zhang, Dongya

    2016-09-01

    The American flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber (P. ruber), is a large species of flamingo closely related to the greater flamingo and Chilean flamingo. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. ruber has been assembled for the first time. It was 17 476 bp in length and consisted of 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 control regions. COI and ND3 genes used GTG and ATC as start codons respectively, but the remaining protein-coding genes were encoded beginning with orthodox ATG codon. Two triplet codons (TAA, AGG) and one single T base were employed as stop codons. The arrangement of the overall genes and noncoding regions was identical to the same genus flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus. The AT content (54.27%) was higher than the GC content. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 12 protein-coding genes, combined with other 11 species from the same Neognathae, which validated the responsibility and utility of this new mitochondrial genome. PMID:26260170

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Alopex lagopus (Caniformia: Canidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Li; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-09-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic positions of the blue fox (Alopex lagopus) have long been unclear. In this study, we determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of A. lagopus for the first time, which is 16,629 bp in length and contains 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 origin of replication on the light-strand and a putative control region. The overall base composition is A: 31.3%, T: 27.8%, C: 26.1% and G: 14.8%, with a slight AT bias (59.1%). Most of them have TAA as the stop codon, except ND2 uses TAG, ND4 uses AGG, Cytb uses AGA and COX3 and ND3 use an incomplete stop codon TA. This information could not only contribute to provide useful molecular data for the species identification, but also to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Alopex and Canidae. PMID:25630723

  9. Next-generation sequencing and comparative analysis of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax and Pyrrhocorax graculus (Passeriformes: Corvidae) mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Morinha, Francisco; Clemente, Carla; Cabral, João A; Lewicka, Magdalena M; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Dávila, José A; Santos, Mário; Blanco, Guillermo; Bastos, Estela

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) and Yellow-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. These mitogenomes contain 16,889 bp (Red-billed Chough) and 16,905 bp (Yellow-billed Chough), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene content, orientation, and structure are similar to a wide range of other vertebrate species and the nucleotide composition is very similar to other Passeriformes. All PCGs start with ATG, except for COX1 that starts with GTG, and four stop codons and one incomplete stop codon are used (TAA, TAG, AGG, AGA, and T-). The size of PCGs is the same in both mitogenomes, except for ND6 that has one codon less in the Yellow-billed Chough. All the tRNAs can fold into a typical cloverleaf secondary structure. These mitogenomic data can be of great value in complementing forthcoming approaches on molecular ecology, comparative and functional genomics. PMID:25431821

  10. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a

  11. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of

  12. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    PubMed

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  13. Promotion and computation of inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity of herbal cream by incorporating indigenous medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts. PMID:24783796

  14. Fear in grasslands: the effect of Eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Fargallo, Juan A.

    2008-05-01

    Predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. The effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). In this paper, we explored the relationship between Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus and skylarks Alauda arvensis in Mediterranean grasslands. First, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. We also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased kestrel density and a second grassland as control area to evaluate the direct or indirect effect on skylark abundance. We also considered two different habitats, grazed and ungrazed plots. If skylark abundance decreased as the kestrel breeding season progressed in high-density kestrel area compared with the control area, it would suggest a direct effect (predator hypothesis). If skylark abundance remains constant in both areas of contrasting kestrel density, it would suggest that skylarks avoid kestrels (avoidance hypothesis). We found that skylark abundance decreased in the kestrel area from the beginning of kestrel nest-box installation to recent years. The rate of skylark consumption decreased in a 9-year period as kestrel abundance increased, although the total amount skylark consumption did not show a decreasing trend. In addition, skylarks were more abundant in the kestrel-free area than in the kestrel area. Finally, we found that skylark abundance did not change through the kestrel breeding period in relation to grazing. We suggest that an increased breeding density of kestrels during their breeding period may force the skylarks to breed in other areas, which may explain the decline of their abundance.

  15. Immune response to an endotoxin challenge involves multiple immune parameters and is consistent among the annual-cycle stages of a free-living temperate zone bird.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Versteegh, Maaike A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Tieleman, B Irene

    2013-07-15

    Trade-offs between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. While variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. It also remains to be tested whether and how immune responses correlate with baseline values that vary, for example, over the course of an annual cycle. We studied immunological responses to an endotoxin challenge in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a partial migrant bird breeding in temperate zones. We compared birds injected with the endotoxin LPS with un-injected controls, characterizing immunological responses with leukocyte profiles, titres of lytic enzymes and natural antibodies, and concentrations of haptoglobin and heat shock proteins. We did this in five annual-cycle stages to test whether the response varied throughout the year. The endotoxin challenge affected six of 10 measured parameters. Lysis titres and proportions of heterophils increased; haptoglobin concentrations and proportions of lymphocytes, basophils and eosinophils decreased. The variable effects on different immune components demonstrate the complexity of an immune response. We found no evidence that the response differed between annual-cycle stages. The response was independent of baseline measures taken directly upon capture in the field, indicating that birds were facing no immunological ceiling when mounting an immune response. Values of five parameters collected under field conditions were significantly related to values taken under standardized laboratory conditions. We conclude that multiple parts of the immune system are modulated during an immunological response and that responses are not re-organized throughout the annual cycle. PMID

  16. Grassland fires may favor native over introduced plants by reducing pathogen loads.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bitty A; Hudson, Kenneth; Visser, Matt; Johnson, Bart R

    2014-07-01

    Grasslands have been lost and degraded in the United States since Euro-American settlement due to agriculture, development, introduced invasive species, and changes in fire regimes. Fire is frequently used in prairie restoration to control invasion by trees and shrubs, but may have additional consequences. For example, fire might reduce damage by herbivore and pathogen enemies by eliminating litter, which harbors eggs and spores. Less obviously, fire might influence enemy loads differently for native and introduced plant hosts. We used a controlled burn in a Willamette Valley (Oregon) prairie to examine these questions. We expected that, without fire, introduced host plants should have less damage than native host plants because the introduced species are likely to have left many of their enemies behind when they were transported to their new range (the enemy release hypothesis, or ERH). If the ERH holds, then fire, which should temporarily reduce enemies on all species, should give an advantage to the natives because they should see greater total reduction in damage by enemies. Prior to the burn, we censused herbivore and pathogen attack on eight plant species (five of nonnative origin: Bromus hordaceous, Cynosuros echinatus, Galium divaricatum, Schedonorus arundinaceus (= Festuca arundinacea), and Sherardia arvensis; and three natives: Danthonia californica, Epilobium minutum, and Lomatium nudicale). The same plots were monitored for two years post-fire. Prior to the burn, native plants had more kinds of damage and more pathogen damage than introduced plants, consistent with the ERH. Fire reduced pathogen damage relative to the controls more for the native than the introduced species, but the effects on herbivory were negligible. Pathogen attack was correlated with plant reproductive fitness, whereas herbivory was not. These results suggest that fire may be useful for promoting some native plants in prairies due to its negative effects on their pathogens. PMID

  17. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law. PMID:17135020

  18. In vitro determination of the spermicidal activity of plant saponins.

    PubMed

    Primorac, M; Sekulović, D; Antonić, S

    1985-08-01

    The plant kingdom might yield an effective antifertility drug. A Mentha arvensis L. (Labiatae) fraction with uterotonic activity was isolated, and was found to be active on the nonpregnant as well as the pregnant rat uterus. According to folklore medicine, the Mexican plant Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. (zoapatle) possesses antifertility activity in women. The effect of various isolated preparations from this plant on early pregnancy were investigated in serveral rodent species including the mouse, rat hamster, and guinea pig. It was concluded that zoapatle plant extracts possess unique antifertility activity. Lin-Hsim and coworkers isolated fractions from Aristolochia molissima Hanceith contrceptive activity in female mice. Saponins of some plants were used in contraceptive formulations either as foaming agents or as spermicidal substances. Elbary and Nour investigated the spermicidal effects of saponins isolated from the following plants: Gypsophila paniculata L., Saponaria officinalis L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Griseb., Terminalia horrida Steud., Melilotus sicula Vitm., and Ruscus hypoglossum L. All of the saponins tested possessed spermicidal activity. Jain and coworkers isolated 2 new saponins in Pittosporum nilghrense with spermicidal effects. In this paper we have determined the spermicidal activity of saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants, which in that aspect have not been investigated. The results are illustrated in the table. They show that all of the saponins tested were spermicidal in dependence on their nature. Saponins of Primula vulgaris Huds. and Cyclamen persicum Mill. immobilized human spermatozoa within a period of 20 s at a dilution 1:1000. Saponin of Gypsophila paniculata L. was spermicidal at dilution 1:20. These findings show that saponins isolated from some Yugoslav plants may be useful spermicides of natural origin. PMID:4080814

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies

  20. Allelopathic effect of new introduced biofuel crops on the soil biota: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heděnec, Petr; Frouz, Jan; Ustak, Sergej; Novotny, David

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel crops as an alternative to fossil fuels are a component of the energy mix in many countries. Many of them are introduced plants, so they pose a serious threat of biological invasions. Production of allelopathic compounds can increase invasion success by limiting co-occurring species in the invaded environment (novel weapons hypothesis). In this study, we focused on plant chemistry and production of allelopathic compounds by biofuel crops (hybrid sorrel Rumex tianschanicus x Rumex patientia and miscanthus Miscanthus sinensis) in comparison with invasive knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis) and cultural meadow species. First, we tested the impact of leachates isolated from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow species compared to deionized water, used as a control, on seed germination of mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated on sand and soil. Secondly, we studied the effect of leachates on the growth of soil fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia solani and Cochliobolus sativus. Finally, we tested the effect of litter of hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow litter mixed with soil on population growth of Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida. Miscanthus and knotweed litter had a higher C:N ratio than the control meadow and hybrid sorrel litter. Miscanthus and hybrid sorrel litter had a higher content of phenols than knotweed and cultural meadow litter. Leachates from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed biomass significantly decreased seed germination of wheat and mustard in both substrates. Soil fungal pathogens grew less vigorously on agar enriched by leachates from both biofuel crops than on agar enriched by knotweed and leachates. Litter from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed significantly altered (both ways) the population growth of the soil mesofauna.

  1. Phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Michael J; Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2003-10-01

    When vertebrates invaded land during the Carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. To maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduce water loss through the skin. In desert environments, where ambient temperatures (T(a)) can reach 50 degrees C, relative humidities are low and drinking water is scarce, integumentary modifications that reduce cutaneous water loss (CWL) could be fundamental to survival. Previous research has shown that hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) from the Arabian desert reduced CWL when acclimated to 35 degrees C compared with individuals at 15 degrees C, but skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea), from The Netherlands, and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni), also from the Arabian desert, did not. Here, we test the idea that hoopoe larks acclimated to 35 degrees C would alter the lipid composition of their stratum corneum (SC), resulting in a decrease in CWL, but that skylarks, woodlarks and Dunn's larks would not. Specifically, we hypothesized that hoopoe larks, acclimated to 35 degrees C, would increase the proportions of polar ceramide content and decrease the proportions of free fatty acids in their SC compared with individuals acclimated to 15 degrees C. Results showed that hoopoe larks at 35 degrees C had lower CWL and higher proportions of total ceramides but lower proportions of free fatty acids and sterols in their SC. We demonstrate that adjustments in ratios of lipid classes in the SC are associated with changes in CWL in hoopoe larks. PMID:12966049

  2. Lack of Host Specialization on Winter Annual Grasses in the Fungal Seed Bank Pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda.

    PubMed

    Beckstead, Julie; Meyer, Susan E; Ishizuka, Toby S; McEvoy, Kelsey M; Coleman, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Generalist plant pathogens may have wide host ranges, but many exhibit varying degrees of host specialization, with multiple pathogen races that have narrower host ranges. These races are often genetically distinct, with each race causing highest disease incidence on its host of origin. We examined host specialization in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda by reciprocally inoculating pathogen strains from Bromus tectorum and from four other winter annual grass weeds (Bromus diandrus, Bromus rubens, Bromus arvensis and Taeniatherum caput-medusae) onto dormant seeds of B. tectorum and each alternate host. We found that host species varied in resistance and pathogen strains varied in aggressiveness, but there was no evidence for host specialization. Most variation in aggressiveness was among strains within populations and was expressed similarly on both hosts, resulting in a positive correlation between strain-level disease incidence on B. tectorum and on the alternate host. In spite of this lack of host specialization, we detected weak but significant population genetic structure as a function of host species using two neutral marker systems that yielded similar results. This genetic structure is most likely due to founder effects, as the pathogen is known to be dispersed with host seeds. All host species were highly susceptible to their own pathogen races. Tolerance to infection (i.e., the ability to germinate even when infected and thereby avoid seed mortality) increased as a function of seed germination rate, which in turn increased as dormancy was lost. Pyrenophora semeniperda apparently does not require host specialization to fully exploit these winter annual grass species, which share many life history features that make them ideal hosts for this pathogen. PMID:26950931

  3. Comparative biochemical and immunological studies of the glycine betaine synthesis pathway in diverse families of dicotyledons.

    PubMed

    Weretilnyk, E A; Bednarek, S; McCue, K F; Rhodes, D; Hanson, A D

    1989-06-01

    Members of the Chenopodiaceae can accumulate high levels (>100 μmol·(g DW)(-1)) of glycine betaine (betaine) in leaves when salinized. Chenopodiaceae synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline (choline→betaine aldehyde→ betaine), with the second step catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8). High betaine levels have also been reported in leaves of species from several distantly-related families of dicotyledons, raising the question of whether the same betaine-synthesis pathway is used in all cases.Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that betaine levels of >100 μmol·(g DW)(-1) are present in Lycium ferocissimum Miers (Solanaceae), Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae), and Amaranthus caudatus L. (Amaranthaceae), that salinization promotes betaine accumulation in these plants, and that they can convert supplied choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine. Nicotiana tabacum L. and Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) Karst. ex Farw. (Solanaceae), Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae) and Ipomoea purpurea L. (Convolvulaceae) also contained betaine, but at a low level (0.1-0.5 μmol·(g DW)(-1). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity assays, immunotitration and immunoblotting demonstrated that the betaine-accumulating species have a BADH enzyme recognized by antibodies raised against BADH from Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae), and that the Mr of the BADH monomer is in all cases close to 63 000. These data indicate that the choline→betaine aldehyde→betaine pathway may have evolved by vertical descent from an early angiosperm ancestor, and might be widespread (albeit not always strongly expressed) among flowering plants. Consistent with these suggestions, Magnolia x soulangiana was found to have a low level of betaine, and to express a protein of Mr 63 000 which cross-reacted with antibodies to BADH from Spinacia oleracea. PMID:24212901

  4. The bird species of Kumasir lake (Kahramanmaras-Turkey) and a view of environmental ethics on sustainable wetland management.

    PubMed

    Inac, S; Gorucu, O; Pinar, A H

    2008-05-01

    Kumasir lake is located next to towns of Donuklu and Fatih, nine km west of Kahramanmaras city center the region of east Mediterranean, Turkey This lake is of crucial importance from the point of native and immigrant birds. We located 17 birdspecies in this area during our observations carried out in the spring and autumn of 2005-2006. These were Ciconia ciconia L., Anas platyrhynchos L., Accipiter nisus L., Accipiter brevipes L., Fulica atra L., Columba palumbus L., Merops apiaster L., Upupa epops L., Alauda arvensis L., Motacilla flava L., Turdus merula L., Acrocephalus scirpaceus L., Regulus regulus L., Garrulus glandarius L., Corvus corax L., Fringilla coelebs L., Hirundo rustica L.. Among observed 17 species; 6 of them were immigrant and remaining 11 of them were native birds. Kumasir lake is surrounded by wetland of Amik and Gavur lake. Since it was greatly dried, it was transformed to farmland. Consequently the birds lost most of theirnests and settlements. However not taken in the care of environmental ethic values, the wastewaters of the villages drain to lake reservoir; herbicides and insecticides used for agriculture are polluting the water reeds have been burned, the lake's reeds are getting dry by the irrigation for the farmland. So, the wetland ecosystem is being affected negatively by these factors. On the other hand, the birds are exposed to illegal and unlawful hunting. For this reasons, this lake must be taken into a management regime of sustainable wetland (protection profiting balance) and used techniques of participation planning via the process of sustainable natural resources and planning. PMID:18972701

  5. Cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments.

    PubMed

    Tieleman, B Irene; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    Birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (TEWL), the sum of cutaneous (CWL) and respiratory water loss (RWL), than species from mesic areas. We investigated the role of CWL and RWL as a function of air temperature (T(a)) in hoopoe larks (Alaemon alaudipes) and Dunn's larks (Eremalauda dunni) from the Arabian Desert and skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (Lullula arborea) from temperate mesic grasslands. The proportional contribution of CWL to TEWL in all larks at moderate T(a) ranged from 50% to 70%. At high T(a) (40 degrees -45 degrees C), larks enhanced CWL by only 45%-78% and relied on an increase in RWL by 676%-2,733% for evaporative cooling. Surface-specific CWL at 25 degrees C was 29% lower in the arid-zone species than in the mesic larks. When acclimated to constant T(a), 15 degrees C-acclimated hoopoe larks increased CWL by 22% compared with 35 degrees C-acclimated birds, but the other species did not change CWL. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that larks from deserts have a reduced CWL at moderate and low T(a) but provided no support for the hypothesis that at high T(a) larks from arid regions rely more on CWL than larks from mesic environments. Interspecific differences in CWL cannot be attributed to acclimation to environmental temperature and are possibly the result of genetic differences due to natural selection or of phenotypically plastic responses to divergent environments during ontogeny. PMID:12601615

  6. Lack of Host Specialization on Winter Annual Grasses in the Fungal Seed Bank Pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    PubMed Central

    Beckstead, Julie; Meyer, Susan E.; Ishizuka, Toby S.; McEvoy, Kelsey M.; Coleman, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Generalist plant pathogens may have wide host ranges, but many exhibit varying degrees of host specialization, with multiple pathogen races that have narrower host ranges. These races are often genetically distinct, with each race causing highest disease incidence on its host of origin. We examined host specialization in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda by reciprocally inoculating pathogen strains from Bromus tectorum and from four other winter annual grass weeds (Bromus diandrus, Bromus rubens, Bromus arvensis and Taeniatherum caput-medusae) onto dormant seeds of B. tectorum and each alternate host. We found that host species varied in resistance and pathogen strains varied in aggressiveness, but there was no evidence for host specialization. Most variation in aggressiveness was among strains within populations and was expressed similarly on both hosts, resulting in a positive correlation between strain-level disease incidence on B. tectorum and on the alternate host. In spite of this lack of host specialization, we detected weak but significant population genetic structure as a function of host species using two neutral marker systems that yielded similar results. This genetic structure is most likely due to founder effects, as the pathogen is known to be dispersed with host seeds. All host species were highly susceptible to their own pathogen races. Tolerance to infection (i.e., the ability to germinate even when infected and thereby avoid seed mortality) increased as a function of seed germination rate, which in turn increased as dormancy was lost. Pyrenophora semeniperda apparently does not require host specialization to fully exploit these winter annual grass species, which share many life history features that make them ideal hosts for this pathogen. PMID:26950931

  7. Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.

    PubMed

    Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

    2015-01-01

    Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H₂O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species. PMID:24804799

  8. Mercury in mushrooms and soil from the Wieluńska Upland in south-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Bielawski, Leszek; Kawano, Masabide; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Chudzyński, Krzysztof

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies of 15 species of higher mushrooms and underlying soil substrate collected from Wieluńska Upland in northern part of Sandomierska Valley in south-central Poland in 1995. A total of 197 samples of caps, 197 stalks, 30 whole fruiting bodies and 227 soil (0-10 cm layer) were analyzed. Mean mercury concentrations in soil substrate corresponding to 15 mushroom species were between 28 +/- 17 and 85 +/- 62 ng/g dry matter (total range between 3.0-190 ng/g). The average cap to stalk concentration quotients of Hg were around 2 (range between 1.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.8 +/- 1.4). However, this quotient in Larch bolete (Suillus grevillei) was 4.4 +/- 6.3. Concentrations of Hg varied depending on the mushroom species. Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) and Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) contained the greatest mean mercury concentrations both in caps (between 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry matter) and stalks (between 2800 +/- 1300 and 3000 +/- 2000 ng/g dry matter). Both the Parasol Mushroom and Horse mushroom were characterised also by a greater potential to bioconcentrate mercury from soils as evidenced by great bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which were between 170 +/- 160 and 130 +/- 120 for caps, and 110 +/- 97 and 89 +/- 92 for stalks. Mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of False death cap (Amanita citrina) increased (p < 0.05) with increasing soil mercury contents. An opposite trend was observed for Quéleta brittle gills (Russula queleti), Grat knight-cap (Tricholoma terreum), Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Common scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum) and Slippery jack (Suillus luteus). PMID:12369635

  9. Antimicrobial action of essential oil vapours and negative air ions against Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, A K; Malik, A

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of essential oil (in liquid as well as in vapour phase) and negative air ions (NAI) against Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combined effect of NAI with essential oil vapour was also investigated to determine kill time and morphological changes in bacterial cells. The MIC of Cymbopogon citratus (0.567 mg/ml), Mentha arvensis (0.567 mg/ml), Mentha piperita (1.125 mg/ml) and Eucalyptus globulus (2.25 mg/ml) was studied via the agar dilution method. To estimate the antibacterial activity of essential oils in the vapour phase, agar plates inoculated with P. fluorescens were incubated with various concentrations of each essential oil vapour and zone of inhibition was recorded. Further, in order to assess the kill time, P. fluorescens inoculated agar plates were exposed to selected bactericidal essential oil vapour and NAI, separately, in an air-tight chamber. A continuous decrease in bacterial count was observed over time. A significant enhancement in the bactericidal action was observed by exposure to the combination of essential oil vapour and NAI as compared to their individual action. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the alteration in morphology of P. fluorescens cells after exposure to C. citratus oil vapour, NAI, and combination of C. citratus oil vapour and NAI. Maximum morphological deformation was found due to the combined effect of C. citratus oil vapour and NAI. This study demonstrates that the use of essential oils in the vapour phase is more advantageous than the liquid phase. Further the antibacterial effect of the essential oil vapours can be significantly enhanced by the addition of NAI. The work described here offers a novel and efficient approach for control of bacterial contamination that could be applied for food stabilization practices. PMID:20850191

  10. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  11. Predator-prey relationships in a changing environment: the case of the sparrowhawk and its avian prey community in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Millon, Alexandre; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Møller, Anders Pape

    2009-09-01

    1. Changes in community composition are expected to entail cascading effects at different trophic levels within a food web. However, empirical evidence on the impact of changes in prey communities on the population dynamics of generalist predators, and on the extent of possible feedback processes, remains scarce. 2. We analysed the dynamics of a generalist predator, the European sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus L., in a rural area of Northern Denmark. Over a 20-year period, the diet of the predator has been thoroughly assessed (>30,000 identified prey items) and quantitative information about its avian prey community, based on standard breeding bird surveys, has revealed significant trends for several passerine species, although the overall prey biomass available remained stable. 3. The growth rate of the sparrowhawk breeding population was negatively related to the previous sparrowhawk density and to winter temperature, but was positively related to available prey biomass. Contrary to expectations for a generalist predator, sparrowhawks seemed to be predominantly sensitive to changes in the cumulative abundance of their two main prey species, the skylark Alauda arvensis L. and the blackbird Turdus merula L., but less so to changes in the wider prey community. 4. In demographic terms, the two-phase sparrowhawk dynamic recorded here (a recovery following an initial decrease) was mainly driven by recruitment of yearling females into the breeding population rather than by variation in the apparent survival of breeding females. 5. Our findings emphasize that changes in the composition of a prey community, affected by environmental changes, impacted population dynamics of a generalist predator. Finally, we found conditions that might enable apparent competition between blackbirds and song thrushes Turdus philomelos L. to occur. High blackbird abundance, maintaining sparrowhawks at a relatively high density may, in turn, push song thrushes into a predator pit. PMID:19558613

  12. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects. PMID:26154346

  13. Field evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellents and fumigants against the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Hill, Nigel; Ruiz, Carmen; Cameron, Mary M

    2007-07-01

    Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then they were tested against An. darlingi as well as Mansonia indubitans (Dyar & Shannon)/Mansonia titillans (Walker). Cymbopogon citratus (Staph), Guatemalan lemongrass, essential oil at 25% was used as a skin repellent, and it provided 74% protection for 2.5 h against predominantly An. darlingi and 95% protection for 2.5 h against Mansonia spp. Attalea princeps (name not verified) husks, burned on charcoal in the traditional way provided 35 and 51% protection against An. darlingi and Mansonia spp., respectively. Kerosene lamps, often used to light rural homes, were used as a heat source to volatilize 100% Mentha arvensis (Malinv ex. Bailey) essential oil, and they reduced biting by 41% inside traditional homes against Mansonia spp., although they were ineffective outdoors against An. darlingi. All three plant-based repellents provided significant protection compared with controls. Plant-based repellents, although less effective than synthetic alternatives, were shown by focus groups to be more culturally acceptable in this setting, in particular para-menthane-3, 8, idol derived from lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook). Plant-based repellents have the potential to be produced locally and therefore sold more cheaply than synthetic commercial repellents. Importantly, their low cost may encourage user compliance among indigenous and marginalized populations. PMID:17695017

  14. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects. PMID:26154346

  15. Wild Skylarks Seasonally Modulate Energy Budgets but Maintain Energetically Costly Inflammatory Immune Responses throughout the Annual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2012-01-01

    A central hypothesis of ecological immunology is that immune defences are traded off against competing physiological and behavioural processes. During energetically demanding periods, birds are predicted to switch from expensive inflammatory responses to less costly immune responses. Acute phase responses (APRs) are a particularly costly form of immune defence, and, hence, seasonal modulations in APRs are expected. Yet, hypotheses about APR modulation remain untested in free-living organisms throughout a complete annual cycle. We studied seasonal modulations in the APRs and in the energy budgets of skylarks Alauda arvensis, a partial migrant bird from temperate zones that experiences substantial ecological changes during its annual cycle. We characterized throughout the annual cycle changes in their energy budgets by measuring basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass. We quantified APRs by measuring the effects of a lipopolysaccharide injection on metabolic rate, body mass, body temperature, and concentrations of glucose and ketone. Body mass and BMR were lowest during breeding, highest during winter and intermediate during spring migration, moult and autumn migration. Despite this variation in energy budgets, the magnitude of the APR, as measured by all variables, was similar in all annual cycle stages. Thus, while we find evidence that some annual cycle stages are relatively more energetically constrained, we find no support for the hypothesis that during these annual cycle stages birds compromise an immune defence that is itself energetically costly. We suggest that the ability to mount an APR may be so essential to survival in every annual cycle stage that skylarks do not trade off this costly form of defence with other annual cycle demands. PMID:22570706

  16. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. PMID:23266071

  17. Uptake and distribution of minerals and heavy metals in commonly grown leafy vegetable species irrigated with sewage water.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Farrakh; Gul, Sadaf; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Kareem, Arshaad

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal uptake and accumulation behavior in dietary vegetables irrigated with sewage waters is an important issue worldwide. The main objective of this study was to examine and compare the physiological and growth responses of leafy vegetables irrigated with sewage water. A pot experiment was conducted in a wire house with three leafy vegetables, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), mint (Mentha arvensis), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum), grown under ambient conditions. Plants were irrigated with different concentrations, 0, 50 (T 1), and 100 % (T 2), of sewage water. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters of plants were measured. Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the sewage water were found much higher than safer limits. The results revealed that the highest plant biomass and lowest metal contents were observed in control treatments in all studied vegetables. The biomass of all the vegetables were negatively affected when irrigated with sewage water. In T 2, coriander accumulated maximum Cd (μg g(-1) DW) in shoots (4.97) as compared to other vegetables. The maximum Pb and Cu concentrations were accumulated in mint roots (44 and 3.9, respectively) as compared to coriander and fenugreek. Zinc was accumulated in the sequence of leaves > roots > shoots under polluted water irrigation. The concentrations of potassium increased in leaves, shoots, and roots in all vegetables, while phosphorous concentrations varied with species and plant parts with increasing sewage water concentration. It was found that the leafy vegetables grown with sewage water irrigation may cause severe human health problems. PMID:27581008

  18. Immune function in a free-living bird varies over the annual cycle, but seasonal patterns differ between years.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Arne; Matson, Kevin D; Both, Christiaan; Tieleman, B Irene

    2012-11-01

    A central hypothesis of eco-immunology proposes trade-offs between immune defences and competing physiological and behavioural processes, leading to immunological variation within and among annual-cycle stages, as has been revealed for some species. However, few studies have simultaneously investigated patterns of multiple immune indices over the entire annual cycle in free-living birds, and none has investigated the consistency of seasonal patterns across multiple years. We quantified lysis, agglutination, haptoglobin, leukocyte profiles, and body mass in free-living skylarks (Alauda arvensis) through two complete annual cycles and within and between four breeding seasons. The skylarks' annual cycle is characterised by annually repeated changes in energy and time budgets, social structure and diet. If trade-offs relating to these cyclic changes shape evolution, predictable intra-annual immune patterns may result. Alternatively, intra-annual immune patterns may vary among years if fluctuating environmental changes affect the cost-benefit balances of immune function. We found significant variation in immune indices and body mass across the annual cycle, and these patterns differed between years. Immune parameters differed between four breeding seasons, and in all years, lysis and agglutination increased as the season progressed independent of average levels. Population-level patterns (intra-annual, inter-annual, within breeding season) were consistent with within-individual patterns based on repeated measurements. We found little evidence for sex differences, and only haptoglobin was correlated (negatively) with body mass. We conclude that immune modulation is not simply a pre-programmed phenomenon that reflects predictable ecological changes. Instead, fluctuating environmental conditions that vary among years likely contribute to the immunological variation that we observed. PMID:22562421

  19. Studies on the effects of essential-oil-based feed additives on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and selected bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

    PubMed

    Maenner, K; Vahjen, W; Simon, O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 different phytogenic products on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The 2 phytogenic products contained different essential oil mixtures (EOM) characterized by either menthol (Mentha arvensis; EOM-M) or cinnamon aldehyde (Cinnamomum aromaticum; EOM-C) as main constituents. Three treatments consisted of control diet without EOM addition and diets supplemented with EOM-M or EOM-C. Reproducibility of the effects was examined in 4 trials with a total of 300 male castrated and female piglets weaned at 25 d of age. The number of pens per treatment in trials I through III were 7, 9, and 9, respectively, for research station conditions, and 10 in trial IV for simulated farm conditions. In research station conditions, the experimental unit consisted of flat deck pens with 2 piglets per pen, whereas it consisted of floor pens with straw bedding with 5 piglets per pen in farm conditions. The feed additives had no effect on feed intake or BW gain. Improvements (P < 0.05) in G:F were observed for EOM-M supplemented diets in 2 of 4 trials as well as for the combined data of all trials. These improvements were associated with greater (P<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility of CP and of most AA. The effect of EOM-C on these response criteria was intermediate between control and EOM-M. Real-time PCR analysis of the gastrointestinal contents for 7 bacterial groups (Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum cluster, Escherichia spp., and Escherichia coli toxin estII) indicated no effect of treatments on the gastrointestinal microbiota. It was concluded that EOM-M consistently improved feed efficiency in weaned piglets, and it was associated with improved ileal protein and AA digestibility. In general, however, the effectiveness of EOM as feed additives differs considerably depending on the constituents. PMID:21357448

  20. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P < 0.05), as well as higher total polyphenol and flavonoid contents than other plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations on MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings. PMID:27585260

  1. FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Involvement.

    PubMed

    Milà, Montserrat; Rodriguez-Revenga, Laia; Matilla-Dueñas, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with the FMR1 premutation affect more than two million people worldwide. The clinical implications have only been recognized recently despite this disorder constitutes a relevant health problem. The present issue of The Cerebellum is focused on the "2(nd) International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Involvement" held in Sitges, Barcelona (Spain), from September 30th to October 2nd, 2015. The conference was attended by professionals from different countries in Europe, the USA, Chile, Israel, Australia, and Indonesia and covered the latest clinical and molecular findings resulting from FMR1 premutation studies. Although the pathologies associated with the FMR1 premutation are considered as rare diseases, seventy abstracts were presented. This reflects the relevance of this topic in the medical community and the growing interest among professionals from other disciplines. The major topics discussed included why and how the mRNA toxicity due to a gain of function and non-canonical RAN are responsible for disorders associated with the premutation. Several presentations addressed the impact of these mechanisms in FXTAS and FXPOI, two clinical presentations caused by the FMR1 premutation. Interestingly, a deterioration of the DNA repair machinery was first proposed as the pathogenicity cause of premutation alleles. Communications related to FXTAS and FXPOI animal models were also presented. These models facilitate studies aimed to understand disease progression and early treatment interventions. Finally, there were presentations related to psychiatric, psychological, neurological, and radiological aspects. Interesting discussion on intermediate alleles and their involvement in clinical and reproductive aspects was generated. In this regards, genetic counselling is improved by taking into account the AGG interruptions and including information about the FMR1 premutation associated

  2. Pathological and bacteriological characterization of neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jenny; Aspán, Anna; Lindberg, Ronny; Grandon, Rodrigo; Båverud, Viveca; Fall, Nils; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology has been reported from a number of countries. This study investigated 50 diarrhoeic and 19 healthy piglets from 10 affected Swedish herds. The piglets were blood-sampled for analysis of serum γ-globulin and necropsied, and the intestines were sampled for histopathology and cultured for Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 276) were examined by PCR for virulence genes encoding LT, STa, STb, EAST1, VT2e, F4, F5, F6, F18, F41, AIDA-I, intimin, and for the genes aaiC and aggR. Selected isolates were analysed for additional virulence genes by a microarray and subjected to O-typing. Clostridium perfringens isolates (n = 152) were examined by PCR for genes encoding major toxins, enterotoxin and beta2-toxin. There was no difference in serum γ-globulin concentration between diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets, and pathological lesions in the intestines were generally mild. Porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, a common cause of piglet diarrhoea, was only found in two piglets. Further, the virulence gene profiling did not suggest involvement of other diarrhoeogenic pathotypes of Escherichia coli. Growth of Clostridium perfringens did not differ between diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets. All isolates were type A, all were negative for enterotoxin, and 151 of 152 isolates were beta2-toxin positive. In pigs ≥ 2  days old, moderate to profuse growth of Clostridium difficile was more common in the controls. In conclusion, it was not possible to relate Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens type A and C or Clostridium difficile to neonatal porcine diarrhoea in any of the investigated herds. PMID:26272503

  3. Epidemiology and microbiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than serogroup O157 in England, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Lisa; Vanstone, Gemma L; Perry, Neil T; Launders, Naomi; Adak, Goutam K; Godbole, Gauri; Grant, Kathie A; Smith, Robin; Jenkins, Claire

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of direct testing of clinical faecal specimens for gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens by PCR offers a sensitive and comprehensive approach for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The introduction of a commercial PCR assay, known as GI PCR, for the detection of GI pathogens at three frontline hospital laboratories in England between December 2012 and December 2013 led to a significant increase in detection of STEC other than serogroup O157 (non-O157 STEC). In 2013, 47 isolates were detected in England, compared with 57 in the preceding 4 years (2009-2012). The most common non-O157 STEC serogroup detected was O26 (23.2 %). A total of 47 (47.5 %) STEC isolates had stx2 only, 28 (28.3 %) carried stx1 and stx2, and the remaining 24 (24.2 %) had stx1 only. Stx2a (64.0 %) was the most frequently detected Stx2 subtype. The eae (intimin) gene was detected in 52 (52.5 %) non-O157 STEC isolates. Six strains of STEC O104 had aggR, but this gene was not detected in any other STEC serogroups in this study. Haemolytic ureamic syndrome was significantly associated with STEC strains possessing eae [odds ratio (OR) 5.845, P = 0.0235] and/or stx2a (OR 9.56, P = 0.0034) subtypes. A matched case-control analysis indicated an association between non-O157 STEC cases and contact with farm animals. Widespread implementation of the PCR approach in England will determine the true incidence of non-O157 STEC infection, highlight the burden in terms of morbidity and mortality, and facilitate the examination of risk factors to indicate whether there are niche risk exposures for particular strains. PMID:24928216

  4. Towards a Pathogenic Escherichia coli Detection Platform Using Multiplex SYBR®Green Real-Time PCR Methods and High Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Folloni, Silvia; Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a group of bacteria which has raised a lot of safety concerns in recent years. Five major intestinal pathogenic groups have been recognized amongst which the verocytotoxin or shiga-toxin (stx1 and/or stx2) producing E. coli (VTEC or STEC respectively) have received a lot of attention recently. Indeed, due to the high number of outbreaks related to VTEC strains, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has requested the monitoring of the “top-five” serogroups (O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157) most often encountered in food borne diseases and addressed the need for validated VTEC detection methods. Here we report the development of a set of intercalating dye Real-time PCR methods capable of rapidly detecting the presence of the toxin genes together with intimin (eae) in the case of VTEC, or aggregative protein (aggR), in the case of the O104:H4 strain responsible for the outbreak in Germany in 2011. All reactions were optimized to perform at the same annealing temperature permitting the multiplex application in order to minimize the need of material and to allow for high-throughput analysis. In addition, High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis allowing the discrimination among strains possessing similar virulence traits was established. The development, application to food samples and the flexibility in use of the methods are thoroughly discussed. Together, these Real-time PCR methods facilitate the detection of VTEC in a new highly efficient way and could represent the basis for developing a simple pathogenic E. coli platform. PMID:22761753

  5. Reduced TCR‐dependent activation through citrullination of a T‐cell epitope enhances Th17 development by disruption of the STAT3/5 balance

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Christopher; Falconer, Jane; Stoop, Jeroen; van Eden, Willem; Robinson, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Citrullination is a post‐translational modification of arginine that commonly occurs in inflammatory tissues. Because T‐cell receptor (TCR) signal quantity and quality can regulate T‐cell differentiation, citrullination within a T‐cell epitope has potential implications for T‐cell effector function. Here, we investigated how citrullination of an immunedominant T‐cell epitope affected Th17 development. Murine naïve CD4+ T cells with a transgenic TCR recognising p89‐103 of the G1 domain of aggrecan (agg) were co‐cultured with syngeneic bone marrow‐derived dendritic cells (BMDC) presenting the native or citrullinated peptides. In the presence of pro‐Th17 cytokines, the peptide citrullinated on residue 93 (R93Cit) significantly enhanced Th17 development whilst impairing the Th2 response, compared to the native peptide. T cells responding to R93Cit produced less IL‐2, expressed lower levels of the IL‐2 receptor subunit CD25, and showed reduced STAT5 phosphorylation, whilst STAT3 activation was unaltered. IL‐2 blockade in native p89‐103‐primed T cells enhanced the phosphorylated STAT3/STAT5 ratio, and concomitantly enhanced Th17 development. Our data illustrate how a post‐translational modification of a TCR contact point may promote Th17 development by altering the balance between STAT5 and STAT3 activation in responding T cells, and provide new insight into how protein citrullination may influence effector Th‐cell development in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27173727

  6. A different molecular pattern of beta-thalassemia mutations in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Aderson S; Silva, l Wilson A Júnior; Leão, Silvana A C; Bandeira, Flavia C G M; Petrou, Mary; Modell, Bernadette; Zago, Marco A

    2003-11-01

    The main hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorders of clinical significance in Brazil are sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia (thal). The sickle gene was introduced by the slave trade, whereas beta-thal was introduced later, due to a massive immigration (mostly by Italians) between 1870 and 1953, mainly to the southeast region of Brazil. Molecular studies performed in the southeast of the country showed a marked prevalence of the nonsense mutation at codon 39 (C --> T) (47-54%), leading to severe forms of beta0-thal. However, the northeast region of the country has a different demographic history, characterized by the absence of the massive Italian immigration. Owing to this and since the majority of cases of beta-thal in Pernambuco, a state located in the northeast of the country, have mild or intermediate clinical and laboratory features, we would predict a different spectrum of beta-thal mutations in this region. We examined 60 unrelated patients (86 beta-thal chromosomes) under regular clinical follow-up in Pernambuco: 6 were regularly transfused beta-thal major subjects, 20 had beta-thal intermedia, 20 had Hb S/beta-thal and 14 were beta-thal trait individuals. The following mutations were found: IVS-I-6 (T --> C) 62.8%, IVS-I-1 (G -->A) 15.1%, IVS-I-5 (G --> C) 9.3%, IVS-I-110 (G --> A) 8.2%, codon 39 (C --> T) 3.5%, and codon 30 (AGG --> AGC) 1.1%. These data show different patterns of beta-thal mutations in two regions of Brazil, demonstrating a thus far unrevealed heterogeneity of the disease in the country. PMID:14649311

  7. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567

  8. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacity verification of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) fruits at different stages of maturation

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Heverton M.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Costa, Wégila D.; Nonato, Carla de F. A.; Rodrigues, Fábio F. G.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.; Costa, José G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), a common plant in Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil, as well as in various parts of the world, contains high concentrations of bioactive compounds and in many communities its parts are used for therapeutic purposes. Studies describe antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diarrheal actions from extracts obtained from leaves, but information about the activities of the fruits and comparison of these at different maturity stages (immature, partially mature and mature) are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant properties by quantifying the levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C of P. guajava fruits at different stages of maturation. The content of phenolic compounds for the immature fruit, partially mature and mature were: 22.41; 34.61 and 32.92 mg of AG/g fraction. The flavonoid content for immature fruits, intermediate and mature were: 2.83; 5.10 and 5.65 mg RUT/g fraction, respectively. Following the same standards of maturation stages, the ascorbic acid content was determined with values of 0.48; 0.38 and 0.21 mg AA/g fraction, respectively. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, glycosylated campeferol, tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene. The antioxidant activity carried out by DPPH method showed the mature fruits bearing the best results, whereas chelation of Fe2+ ions showed higher percentage for the immature fruit. The results obtained by lipidic peroxidation were not satisfactory. PMID:26933403

  9. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  10. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  11. CD105 promotes chondrogenesis of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells through Smad2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenshuai; Li, Jinghuan; Wang, Yiming; Pan, Jianfeng; Li, Shuo; Zhu, Liang; Guo, Changan; Yan, Zuoqin

    2016-05-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to be suitable for cell-based tissue regeneration. Expressions of different cell surface markers confer distinct differentiation potential to different sub-populations of MSCs. Understanding the effect of cell surface markers on MSC differentiation is essential to their targeted application in different tissues. Although CD105 positive MSCs possess strong chondrogenic capacity, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we observed a considerable heterogeneity with respect to CD105 expression among MSCs isolated from synovium. The CD105(+) and CD105(-) synovium-derived MSCs (SMSCs) were sorted to compare their differentiation capacities and relative gene expressions. CD105(+) subpopulation had higher gene expressions of AGG, COL II and Sox9, and showed a stronger affinity for Alcian blue and immunofluorescent staining for aggrecan and collagenase II, as compared to those in CD105(-) cells. However, no significant difference was observed with respect to gene expressions of ALP, Runx2, LPL and PPARγ. CD105(+) SMSCs showed increased levels of Smad2 phosphorylation, while total Smad2 levels were similar between the two groups. There was no difference in activation of Smad1/5. These results were further confirmed by CD105-knockdown in SMSCs. Our findings suggest a stronger chondrogenic potential of CD105(+) SMSCs in comparison to that of CD105(-) SMSCs and that CD105 enhances chondrogenesis of SMSCs by regulating TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway, but not Smad1/5. Our study provides a better understanding of CD105 with respect to chondrogenic differentiation. PMID:27107692

  12. A pyrimidine motif DNA triplex with a third N3prime;rarr;P5$prime; phosphoramidate d-C,T strand studied by FTIR and UV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondragón-Sánchez, J. A.; Liquier, J.; Gryaznov, S. M.; Taillandier, E.

    2003-12-01

    Formation of a pyrimidine motif triple stranded structure containing a N3'→P5' phosphoramidate 5'-d(TTC-TCC-TTT-CTT)-3' third strand targeting the 5'-d(AAG-AGG-AAA-GAA)-3' sequence has been followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV spectroscopy. The use of a N3'→P5' phosphoramidate d-C,T third strand is aimed at increasing triplex stability at neutral pH. FTIR spectroscopy measurements at neutral pH show a biphasic melting profile ( Tm at 25 and 54 °C). The triple helix is stabilized by the formation of T *A-T base triplets, in spite of the presence of four unprotonated cytosines in the 12mer third d-C,T phosphoramidate strand and therefore of the absence of C +*G rad C base triplets. All N3'→P5' phosphoramidate nucleoside sugars in this triple helix adopt an S-type (C2' endo) conformation. No triple helix has been detected at neutral pH when a natural isosequential phosphodiester third strand was used. By decreasing the pH, the FTIR spectra show the formation of C +*G rad C base triplets in addition to the already formed T *A rad T base triplets. The melting of this stabilized triple helix is observed at a temperature higher than that of the initial Watson-Crick duplex. The existence of N-type sugars is then detected. When the concentration is decreased, at neutral pH, UV spectroscopy measurements show that the intermolecular triple helix formed by three short 12mer strands is no longer stable. In dilute solution at acidic pH the triplex is more stable than the initial Watson-Crick duplex.

  13. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  14. Cartilage-specific overexpression of ERRγ results in Chondrodysplasia and reduced chondrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cardelli, Marco; Zirngibl, Ralph A; Boetto, Jonathan F; McKenzie, Kristen P; Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad; Aubin, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    While the role of estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) in chondrogenesis has been investigated, the involvement of ERR gamma (ERRγ) has not been determined. To assess the effect of increased ERRγ activity on cartilage development in vivo, we generated two transgenic (Tg) lines overexpressing ERRγ2 via a chondrocyte-specific promoter; the two lines exhibited ∼3 and ∼5 fold increased ERRγ2 protein expression respectively in E14.5 Tg versus wild type (WT) limbs. On postnatal day seven (P7), we observed a 4-10% reduction in the size of the craniofacial, axial and appendicular skeletons in Tg versus WT mice. The reduction in bone length was already present at birth and did not appear to involve bones that are derived via intramembranous bone formation as the bones of the calvaria, clavicle, and the mandible developed normally. Histological analysis of P7 growth plates revealed a reduction in the length of the Tg versus WT growth plate, the majority of which was attributable to a reduced proliferative zone. The reduced proliferative zone paralleled a decrease in the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, with no significant change in apoptosis, and was accompanied by large cell-free swaths of cartilage matrix, which extended through multiple zones of the growth plate. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified known chondrogenesis-associated genes with at least one predicted ERR binding site in their proximal promoters, as well as cell cycle regulators known to be regulated by ERRγ. Of the genes identified, Col2al, Agg, Pth1r, and Cdkn1b (p27) were significantly upregulated, suggesting that ERRγ2 negatively regulates chondrocyte proliferation and positively regulates matrix synthesis to coordinate growth plate height and organization. PMID:24349082

  15. Cartilage-Specific Overexpression of ERRγ Results in Chondrodysplasia and Reduced Chondrocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Kristen P.; Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad; Aubin, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    While the role of estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) in chondrogenesis has been investigated, the involvement of ERR gamma (ERRγ) has not been determined. To assess the effect of increased ERRγ activity on cartilage development in vivo, we generated two transgenic (Tg) lines overexpressing ERRγ2 via a chondrocyte-specific promoter; the two lines exhibited ∼3 and ∼5 fold increased ERRγ2 protein expression respectively in E14.5 Tg versus wild type (WT) limbs. On postnatal day seven (P7), we observed a 4–10% reduction in the size of the craniofacial, axial and appendicular skeletons in Tg versus WT mice. The reduction in bone length was already present at birth and did not appear to involve bones that are derived via intramembranous bone formation as the bones of the calvaria, clavicle, and the mandible developed normally. Histological analysis of P7 growth plates revealed a reduction in the length of the Tg versus WT growth plate, the majority of which was attributable to a reduced proliferative zone. The reduced proliferative zone paralleled a decrease in the number of Ki67-positive proliferating cells, with no significant change in apoptosis, and was accompanied by large cell-free swaths of cartilage matrix, which extended through multiple zones of the growth plate. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified known chondrogenesis-associated genes with at least one predicted ERR binding site in their proximal promoters, as well as cell cycle regulators known to be regulated by ERRγ. Of the genes identified, Col2al, Agg, Pth1r, and Cdkn1b (p27) were significantly upregulated, suggesting that ERRγ2 negatively regulates chondrocyte proliferation and positively regulates matrix synthesis to coordinate growth plate height and organization. PMID:24349082

  16. Molecular detection of virulence factors among food and clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, A.W.; Pereira, R.I.; Oliveira, D.V.; Martins, P.D.; d’Azevedo, P.A.; Van der Sand, S.; Frazzon, J.; Frazzon, A.P.G

    2014-01-01

    The present report aimed to perform a molecular epidemiological survey by investigating the presence of virulence factors in E. faecalis isolated from different human clinical (n = 57) and food samples (n = 55) in Porto Alegre, Brazil, collected from 2006 to 2009. In addition, the ability to form biofilm in vitro on polystyrene and the β-haemolytic and gelatinase activities were determined. Clinical strains presented a higher prevalence of aggregation substance (agg), enterococcal surface protein (esp) and cytolysin (cylA) genes when compared with food isolates. The esp gene was found only in clinical strains. On the other hand, the gelatinase (gelE) and adherence factor (ace) genes had similar prevalence among the strains, showing the widespread occurrence of these virulence factors among food and clinical E. faecalis strains in South Brazil. More than three virulence factor genes were detected in 77.2% and 18.2% of clinical and food strains, respectively. Gelatinase and β-haemolysin activities were not associated with the presence of gelE and cylA genes. The ability to produce biofilm was detected in 100% of clinical and 94.6% of food isolates, and clinical strains were more able to form biofilm than the food isolates (Student’s t-test, p < 0.01). Results from the statistical analysis showed significant associations between strong biofilm formation and ace (p = 0.015) and gelE (p = 0.007) genes in clinical strains. In conclusion, our data indicate that E. faecalis strains isolated from clinical and food samples possess distinctive patterns of virulence factors, with a larger number of genes that encode virulence factors detected in clinical strains. PMID:24948952

  17. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genotypic Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Meat Preparations.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Molina-González, Diana; Blanco-Morán, Sonia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    A total of 160 samples of poultry (80), pork (40), and beef (40) preparations (red sausages, white sausages, hamburgers, meatballs, nuggets, minced meat, escalope, and crepes) were tested in northwestern Spain to determine the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). VRE were detected in 38 (23.8%) samples (37.5% of poultry, 15.0% of pork, and 5.0% of beef samples). One strain per food sample was further characterized. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium (14 strains), E. durans (10), E. hirae (7), E. gallinarum (5), and E. casseliflavus-E. flavescens (2). All strains showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to three or more antimicrobials of clinical significance, in addition to vancomycin. High rates of resistance or intermediate susceptibility were observed for teicoplanin (81.6% of isolates), chloramphenicol (81.6%), erythromycin (100%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (89.5%), and ciprofloxacin (81.6%). A moderate rate of resistance or intermediate susceptibility emerged for ampicillin (34.2%) and tetracycline (36.8%). Genes encoding antimicrobial resistance and virulence were studied by PCR. The vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes were identified in 27, 1, 5, and 2 isolates, respectively. Other resistance genes or transposon sequences found were tet(L), tet(M), Tn5397 (tetracycline), erm(A), erm(B) (erythromycin), vat(D), and vat(E) (quinupristin-dalfopristin). Most isolates were free of virulence determinants (agg, hyl, and efaAfm genes were detected in one, one, and five strains, respectively). Strains were classified as not biofilm producers (crystal violet assay; 4 isolates) or weak biofilm producers (34 isolates). Cluster analysis (EcoRI ribotyping) suggested a strong genetic relationship among isolates from different types of meat preparations, animal species, and retail outlets. Meat preparations might play a role in the spread through the food chain of VRE with several resistance and virulence genes. PMID:27296421

  18. The fine-tuning of thermosensitive and degradable polymer micelles for enhancing intracellular uptake and drug release in tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Jinfeng; Gao, Jie; Li, Bohua; Xia, Yu; Meng, Yanchun; Yu, Yongsheng; Chen, Huaiwen; Dai, Jianxin; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2011-05-01

    Focusing on high temperature and low pH of tumor tissue, we prepared temperature and pH responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-b-lacitde) (PID(118)-b-PLA(59)) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PID(118)-b-PCL(60)) diblock copolymers with symmetric hydrophobic blocks by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT). The corresponding dual functional polymeric micelles were fabricated by dialysis methods. Their well-defined core-shell structure was characterized by (1)H NMR in D(2)O and further confirmed by TEM. Their structural and physical chemistry properties such as diameters (D), core corona dimension (R(core), R(shell)), distribution (PDI), M(w), aggregation number (N(agg)), second virial coefficient (A(2)), critical micellization concentration (CMC) and z-potential were firstly systemically investigated by dynamic and static laser light scattering. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) was around 40 °C above which the intracellular uptake of adriamycin (ADR) was significantly enhanced. Both flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy showed that the ADR transported by these micelles was about 4 times higher than that by the commercial ADR formulation Taxotere®. In vitro cytotoxicity assay against N-87 cancer cell and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) also confirmed such promoting efficiency. In addition, it was interesting to find that cell surviving bounced back as T = 42 °C due to the inter-micellar aggregation. The well clarified mechanism strongly support that our finely tailored dual functional core-shell micelles are potent in enhancing cellular uptake and drug release. PMID:21377724

  19. Probing the Birth of Post-merger Millisecond Magnetars with X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Dai, Zi-Gao; Liu, Liang-Duan; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence that a stable magnetar could be formed from the coalescence of double neutron stars. In previous papers, we investigated the signature of formation of stable millisecond magnetars in radio and optical/ultraviolet bands by assuming that the central rapidly rotating magnetar deposits its rotational energy in the form of a relativistic leptonized wind. We found that the optical transient PTF11agg could be the first evidence for the formation of post-merger millisecond magnetars. To enhance the probability of finding more evidence for the post-merger magnetar formation, it is better to extend the observational channel to other photon energy bands. In this paper, we propose to search the signature of post-merger magnetar formation in X-ray and especially gamma-ray bands. We calculate the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission of the reverse shock powered by post-merger millisecond magnetars. We find that the SSC component peaks at 1 {GeV} in the spectral energy distribution and extends to ≳ 10 {TeV} for typical parameters. These energy bands are quite suitable for Fermi Large Area Telescope and Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), which, with their current observational sensitivities, can detect the SSC emission powered by post-merger magnetars up to 1 {Gpc}. NuSTAR, which is sensitive in X-ray bands, can detect the formation of post-merger millisecond magnetars at redshift z∼ 1. Future improvements in the sensitivity of CTA can also allow us to probe the birth of post-merger millisecond magnetars at redshift z∼ 1. However, because of the γ‑γ collisions, strong high-energy emission is clearly predicted only for ejecta masses lower than {10}-3 {M}ȯ .

  20. Effect of DNA target sequence on triplex formation by oligo-2′-deoxy- and 2′-O-methylribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Rachel A.; Puri, Nitin; Miller, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of pyrimidine deoxyribo- or 2′-O-methylribo-psoralen-conjugated, triplex-forming oligonucleotides, psTFOs, with a 17-bp env-DNA whose purine tract is 5′-AGAGAGAAAAAAGAG-3′, or an 18-bp gag-DNA whose purine tract is 5′-AGG GGGAAAGAAAAAA-3′, were studied over the pH range 6.0–7.5. The stability of the triplex formed by a deoxy-env-psTFO containing 5-methylcytosines and thymines decreased with increasing pH (Tm = 56°C at pH 6.0; 27°C at pH 7.5). Replacement of 5-methylcytosines with 8-oxo-adenines reduced the pH dependence, but lowered triplex stability. A 2′-O-methyl-env-psTFO containing uracil and cytosine did not form a triplex at pH 7.5. Surprisingly, replacement of the cytosines in this oligomer with 5-methylcytosines dramatically increased triplex stability (Tm = 25°C at pH 7.5), and even greater stability was achieved by selective replacement of uracils with thymines (Tm = 37°C at pH 7.5). Substitution of the contiguous 5-methylcytosines of the deoxy-gag-psTFO with 8-oxo-adenines significantly reduced pH dependence and increased triplex stability. In contrast to the behavior of env-specific TFOs, triplexes formed by 2′-O-methyl-gag-psTFOs did not show enhanced stability. Replacement of the 3′-terminal phosphodiester of the TFO with a methylphosphonate group significantly increased the resistance of both deoxy- and 2′-O-methyl-TFOs to degradation by 3′-exonucleases, while maintaining triplex stability. PMID:12853627

  1. Affinity purification of T7 RNA transcripts with homogeneous ends using ARiBo and CRISPR tags.

    PubMed

    Salvail-Lacoste, Alix; Di Tomasso, Geneviève; Piette, Benjamin L; Legault, Pascale

    2013-07-01

    Affinity purification of RNA using the ARiBo tag technology currently provides an ideal approach to quickly prepare RNA with 3' homogeneity. Here, we explored strategies to also ensure 5' homogeneity of affinity-purified RNAs. First, we systematically investigated the effect of starting nucleotides on the 5' heterogeneity of a small SLI RNA substrate from the Neurospora VS ribozyme purified from an SLI-ARiBo precursor. A series of 32 SLI RNA sequences with variations in the +1 to +3 region was produced from two T7 promoters (class III consensus and class II 2.5) using either the wild-type T7 RNA polymerase or the P266L mutant. Although the P266L mutant helps decrease the levels of 5'-sequence heterogeneity in several cases, significant levels of 5' heterogeneity (≥1.5%) remain for transcripts starting with GGG, GAG, GCG, GGC, AGG, AGA, AAA, ACA, AUA, AAC, ACC, AUC, and AAU. To provide a more general approach to purifying RNA with 5' homogeneity, we tested the suitability of using a small CRISPR RNA stem-loop at the 5' end of the SLI-ARiBo RNA. Interestingly, we found that complete cleavage of the 5'-CRISPR tag with the Cse3 endoribonuclease can be achieved quickly from CRISPR-SLI-ARiBo transcripts. With this procedure, it is possible to generate SLI-ARiBo RNAs starting with any of the four standard nucleotides (G, C, A, or U) involved in either a single- or a double-stranded structure. Moreover, the 5'-CRISPR-based strategy can be combined with affinity purification using the 3'-ARiBo tag for quick purification of RNA with both 5' and 3' homogeneity. PMID:23657939

  2. Decrease in the CGGn trinucleotide repeat mutation of the fragile X syndrome to normal size range during paternal transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Väisänen, M. L.; Haataja, R.; Leisti, J.

    1996-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by the expansion of a CGGn trinucleotide repeat in the FMR-1 gene. Although the repeat number usually increases during transmission, few cases with reduction of an expanded CGGn repeat back to the normal size range have been reported. We describe for the first time a family in which such reduction has occurred in the paternal transmission. The paternal premutation (delta = 300 bp) was not detected in one of the five daughters or in the son of this daughter, although he had the grandpaternal RFLP haplotype. Instead, fragments indicating the normal CGGn repeat size were seen on a Southern blot probed with StB12.3. PCR analysis of the CGGn repeat confirmed this; in addition to a maternal allele of 30 repeats, an allele of 34 repeats was detected in the daughter and, further, in her son. Sequencing of this new allele revealed a pure CGGn repeat configuration without AGG interruptions. No evidence for a somatic mosaicism of a premutation allele in the daughter or a normal allele in her father was detected when investigating DNA derived from blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. Another unusual finding in this family was lack of the PCR product of the microsatellite marker RS46 (DXS548) in one of the grandmaternal X chromosomes, detected as incompatible inheritance of RS46 alleles. The results suggest an intergenerational reduction in the CGGn repeat from premutation size to the normal size range and stable transmission of the contracted repeat to the next generation. However, paternal germ-line mosaicism could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for the reverse mutation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8751854

  3. Use of genome sequence data in the design and testing of SSR markers for Phytophthora species

    PubMed Central

    Schena, Leonardo; Cardle, Linda; Cooke, David EL

    2008-01-01

    Background Microsatellites or single sequence repeats (SSRs) are a powerful choice of marker in the study of Phytophthora population biology, epidemiology, ecology, genetics and evolution. A strategy was tested in which the publicly available unigene datasets extracted from genome sequences of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum were mined for candidate SSR markers that could be applied to a wide range of Phytophthora species. Results A first approach, aimed at the identification of polymorphic SSR loci common to many Phytophthora species, yielded 171 reliable sequences containing 211 SSRs. Microsatellites were identified from 16 target species representing the breadth of diversity across the genus. Repeat number ranged from 3 to 16 with most having seven repeats or less and four being the most commonly found. Trinucleotide repeats such as (AAG)n, (AGG)n and (AGC)n were the most common followed by pentanucleotide, tetranucleotide and dinucleotide repeats. A second approach was aimed at the identification of useful loci common to a restricted number of species more closely related to P. sojae (P. alni, P. cambivora, P. europaea and P. fragariae). This analysis yielded 10 trinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide SSRs which were repeated 4, 5 or 6 times. Conclusion Key studies on inter- and intra-specific variation of selected microsatellites remain. Despite the screening of conserved gene coding regions, the sequence diversity between species was high and the identification of useful SSR loci applicable to anything other than the most closely related pairs of Phytophthora species was challenging. That said, many novel SSR loci for species other than the three 'source species' (P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum) are reported, offering great potential for the investigation of Phytophthora populations. In addition to the presence of microsatellites, many of the amplified regions may represent useful molecular marker regions for other studies as they are highly variable

  4. Association between Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Self-Rated ‘Empathic Concern’ in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Christiane; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Lehmann, Anja; Müller, Daniel J.; Rujescu, Dan; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The nonapeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in social cognition, empathy, emotion and stress regulation in humans. Previous studies reported associations between OXT and OXTR genetic polymorphisms and risk for disorders characterized by impaired socio-emotional functioning, such as schizophrenia and autism. Here we investigate the influence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the OXTR gene on a measure of socio-emotional functioning in schizophrenic patients. OXTR SNPs that were previously investigated in other studies were genotyped in 145 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and 145 healthy controls matched for age and gender. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used to assess cognitive (‘perspective taking’), affective (‘empathic concern’) and self-related (‘personal distress’) dimensions of empathy. No group differences in genotype frequencies were observed. MANCOVA revealed a significant main (F [1,282] = 10.464; p<0.01) and interaction effect (genotype by diagnosis: F [1,282] = 4.329; p<0.05) of OXTR SNP rs2254298(A>GG) with ‘empathic concern’. Within the schizophrenia group, linear regression analysis determined OXTR rs2254298 genotype, PANSS negative and general symptom score, and age of disease onset as being significantly associated with ‘empathic concern’. OXTR rs2254298 significantly impacted PANSS general psychopathology scores. No associations were found for OXTR rs53576, IRI ‘perspective taking’ or ‘personal distress’ ratings. Our preliminary findings support hypotheses about an involvement of OXTR rs2254298 in emotional empathy in schizophrenic and healthy individuals, warranting independent replication. PMID:23284802

  5. Genetic structure in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) on the southern high plains of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, L.A.; Mathews, N.E.; Hansen, R.W.; Vander Lee, B. A.; Scott, Lutz R.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic variation within populations reflects population-level social and demographic processes and influences how a population behaves as an evolutionary unit. We examined partitioning of genetic variation in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from the Southern High Plains of Texas during 1994-1995. Sixty-nine male and 35 female skunks were sampled on four 12.8-km2 study plots. Plot centers ranged from 17.6 to 61.6 km apart. We used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting with 2 probes, pV47 and CTTxAGG, to test 3 hypotheses: (1) females are more genetically similar to other females than males are to other males on the same plot (indicating greater female philopatry than male philopatry), (2) genetic similarity is greater within plots than among plots (indicating partitioning of genetic variation in space), and (3) genetic similarity of males decreases as the distance separating males increases (indicating geographic distance affects rates of gene flow). In general, males on a plot had lower average genetic similarity than females. Genetic similarity within plots was not different from genetic similarity among plots for males or for females. Genetic similarity of males did not decrease with increasing distance among plots. The lack of geographical genetic structure in striped skunks suggests at the scale of this study (<60 km) that gene flow of biparentally inherited genes is not distance-mediated. However, the higher similarity values for females than for males on the same plot supports an effect of male-biased dispersal and female philopatry on partitioning of genetic variation between sexes.

  6. Effects of the TP53 p.R249S mutant on proliferation and clonogenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: interaction with hepatitis B virus X protein.

    PubMed

    Gouas, Doriane A; Shi, Hong; Hautefeuille, Agnès H; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra L; Legros, Pénélope C; Szymanska, Katarzyna J; Galy, Olivier; Egevad, Lars A; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Wiman, Klas G; Hantz, Olivier; Caron de Fromentel, Claude; Chemin, Isabelle A; Hainaut, Pierre L

    2010-08-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in many low-resource countries. Although its metabolites bind at several positions in TP53, a mutation at codon 249 (AGG to AGT, arginine to serine, p.R249S) accounts for 90% of TP53 mutations in AFB(1)-related HCC. This specificity suggests that p.R249S confers a selective advantage during hepatocarcinogenesis. Using HCC cell lines, we show that p.R249S has lost the capacity to bind to p53 response elements and to transactivate p53 target genes. In p53-null Hep3B cells, stable transfection of p.R249S or of another mutant, p.R248Q, did not induce significant changes in cell proliferation and survival after cytotoxic stress. In contrast, in a cell line that constitutively expresses both p.R249S and the hepatitis B virus antigen HBx (PLC/PRF/5), silencing of either p.R249S or HBx by RNA interference slowed down proliferation, with no additive effects when both factors were silenced. Furthermore, the two proteins appear to form a complex. In human HCC samples, mutation at codon 249 did not correlate with p.R249S protein accumulation or HBx truncation status. We suggest that p.R249S may contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis through interaction with HBx, conferring a subtle growth advantage at early steps of the transformation process, but that this interaction is not required for progression to advanced HCC. PMID:20538734

  7. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxic effects of PRIMA-1 on hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing mutant p53ser249.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Lambert, Jeremy M R; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Bykov, Vladimir J N; Wiman, Klas G; Hainaut, Pierre; Caron de Fromentel, Claude

    2008-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly lethal due to limited curative options. In high-incidence regions, such as parts of Africa and Southeastern Asia, >50% of cases carry an AGG to AGT mutation at codon 249 of the TP53 gene, considered as a 'signature' of mutagenesis by aflatoxins. The protein product, p53ser249, may represent a therapeutic target for HCC. The small molecule p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis (PRIMA)-1 has been shown to induce apoptosis in tumour cells by reactivating the transactivation capacity of some p53 mutants. In this study, we have investigated the cytotoxic effects of PRIMA-1 on HCC cells expressing p53ser249. In p53-null Hep3B cells, over-expression of p53ser249 or p53gln248 by stable transfection increased the cytotoxicity of PRIMA-1 at 50 muM. Furthermore, PRIMA-1 treatment delayed the growth of p53ser249-expressing Hep3B cells xenografted in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. However, PRIMA-1 did not restore wild-type DNA binding and transactivation activities to p53ser249 or to p53gln248 in Hep3B cells. Moreover, in PLC/PRF/5, a HCC cell line constitutively expressing p53ser249, small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of the mutant increased the cytotoxic effect of PRIMA-1. These apparently contradictory effects can be reconciled by proposing that p53ser249 exerts a gain-of-function effect, which favours the survival of HCC cells. Thus, both inhibition of this effect by PRIMA-1 and removal of the mutant by siRNA can lead to the decrease of survival capacity of HCC cells. PMID:18048389

  8. Bacterial diversity in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Heike; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2008-05-01

    The structure and diversity of bacterial communities associated with the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern tropical South Pacific was studied through phylogenetic analysis. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene fragments were constructed using environmental DNA collected from the OMZ (60 m and 200 m), the sea surface (10 m), and the deep oxycline (450 m). At the class level, the majority of sequences affiliated to the gamma- (53.7%) and alpha-Proteobacteria (19.7%), and to the Bacteroidetes (11.2%). A vertical partitioning of the bacterial communities was observed, with main differences between the suboxic OMZ and the more oxygenated surface and deep oxycline waters. At the surface, the microbial community was predominantly characterized by SAR86, Loktanella and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae, whereas the deeper layer was dominated by Sulfitobacter and unclassified Alteromonadaceae. In the OMZ, major constituents affiliated to the marine SAR11 clade and to thiotrophic gamma-symbionts (25% of all sequences), a group not commonly found in pelagic waters. Sequences affiliating to the phylum Chloroflexi, to the AGG47 and SAR202 clades, to the delta-Proteobacteria, to the Acidobacteria, and to the 'anammox group' of the Planctomycetes were found exclusively in the OMZ. The bacterial richness in the OMZ was higher than in the oxic surface and deeper oxycline, as revealed by rarefaction analysis and the Chao1 richness estimator (surface: 45 +/- 8, deeper oxycline: 76 +/- 26; OMZ (60 m): 97 +/- 33, OMZ (200 m): 109 +/- 31). OMZ bacterial diversity indices (Fisher's: approximately 30 +/- 5, Shannon's: approximately 3.31, inverse Simpson's: approximately 20) were similar to those found in other pelagic marine environments. Thus, our results indicate a distinct and diverse bacterial community within the OMZ, with presumably novel and yet uncultivated bacterial lineages. PMID:18294206

  9. Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from dogs with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Tavares, Marta; Gomes, Diana; Touret, Tiago; São Braz, Berta; Tavares, Luís; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease - PD - is one of the most widespread diseases in dogs, but the role of this odontogenic infection in the dissemination of pathogenic bacteria present in the oral mucosa to other animals or pet owners is understudied. Trying to unveil the putative pathogenicity of enterococci present in the gums of dogs diagnosed with PD, thirty-two animals were investigated during routine visits to a private veterinary clinic. Seventy-one enterococci were recovered and characterized regarding species, genomic variability, virulence traits, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm-forming ability. Isolates were mainly identified as Enterococcus faecalis, with the large majority (95%) being able to produce biofilm. Regarding antibiotic resistance, all dog-enterococci were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, gentamicin-120, imipenem and vancomycin; while distinct levels of resistance were observed for chloramphenicol (10%), erythromycin (20%), streptomycin-300 (35%) and tetracycline (95%). For virulence traits incidence levels of 35% were observed for β-hemolysis and 25% for cylA, 25% for gelatinase and 35% for gelE; 85% harbor efaAfs and ebpABC; while ace, agg and esp are present respectively in 50, 30 and 10% of the dog-enterococci; efaAfm and acm were detected in all the Enterococcus faecium. Overall, the widespread prevalence of PD in dogs, associated with the close contact between companion animals, other animals and humans, may act as source for the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Hence, aforementioned data on virulence and resistance features, emphasizes the need for active surveillance measures, such as the diagnose of PD in companion animals during routine visits to the veterinary clinic. PMID:27260807

  10. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacity verification of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) fruits at different stages of maturation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Heverton M; Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, Wégila D; Nonato, Carla de F A; Rodrigues, Fábio F G; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Costa, José G M

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), a common plant in Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil, as well as in various parts of the world, contains high concentrations of bioactive compounds and in many communities its parts are used for therapeutic purposes. Studies describe antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diarrheal actions from extracts obtained from leaves, but information about the activities of the fruits and comparison of these at different maturity stages (immature, partially mature and mature) are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant properties by quantifying the levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C of P. guajava fruits at different stages of maturation. The content of phenolic compounds for the immature fruit, partially mature and mature were: 22.41; 34.61 and 32.92 mg of AG/g fraction. The flavonoid content for immature fruits, intermediate and mature were: 2.83; 5.10 and 5.65 mg RUT/g fraction, respectively. Following the same standards of maturation stages, the ascorbic acid content was determined with values of 0.48; 0.38 and 0.21 mg AA/g fraction, respectively. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, glycosylated campeferol, tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene. The antioxidant activity carried out by DPPH method showed the mature fruits bearing the best results, whereas chelation of Fe2+ ions showed higher percentage for the immature fruit. The results obtained by lipidic peroxidation were not satisfactory. PMID:26933403

  11. Virulence Gene Regulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Jay L; Barron, Alex M S

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia colicauses three types of illnesses in humans: diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and meningitis in newborns. The acquisition of virulence-associated genes and the ability to properly regulate these, often horizontally transferred, loci distinguishes pathogens from the normally harmless commensal E. coli found within the human intestine. This review addresses our current understanding of virulence gene regulation in several important diarrhea-causing pathotypes, including enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic,enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregativeE. coli-EPEC, EHEC, ETEC and EAEC, respectively. The intensely studied regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of uropathogenicE. coli, or UPEC, is also reviewed, as is that of MNEC, a common cause of meningitis in neonates. Specific topics covered include the regulation of initial attachment events necessary for infection, environmental cues affecting virulence gene expression, control of attaching and effacing lesionformation, and control of effector molecule expression and secretion via the type III secretion systems by EPEC and EHEC. How phage control virulence and the expression of the Stx toxins of EHEC, phase variation, quorum sensing, and posttranscriptional regulation of virulence determinants are also addressed. A number of important virulence regulators are described, including the AraC-like molecules PerA of EPEC, CfaR and Rns of ETEC, and AggR of EAEC;the Ler protein of EPEC and EHEC;RfaH of UPEC;and the H-NS molecule that acts to silence gene expression. The regulatory circuitry controlling virulence of these greatly varied E. colipathotypes is complex, but common themes offerinsight into the signals and regulators necessary forE. coli disease progression. PMID:26443571

  12. The effect of postprocessing on tensile property and microstructure evolution of friction stir welding aluminum alloy joint

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Z.L.; Wang, X.S.; Pang, Q.; Huang, F.; Qin, X.P.; Hua, L.

    2015-01-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining aluminum alloy and can dramatically reduce grain size conferring excellent plastic deformation properties. Consequently, friction stir welding is used to manufacture tailor welded blanks to optimize weight or performance in the final component. In the study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welding joint during plastic forming and subsequent heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural characteristics of the friction stir welding joints were studied by Electron Backscattered Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and microhardness tests. It is found that the tensile and yield strengths of friction stir welding joints are significantly improved after severe plastic deformation due to the grain refinement. Following heat treatment, the strength of the friction stir welding joints significantly decrease due to the obvious abnormal grain growth. Careful attention must be given to the processing route of any friction stir welding joint intended for plastic forming, especially the annealing between forming passes. Severe plastic deforming of the friction stir welding joint leads to a high level of stored energy/dislocation density, which causes the abnormal grain growth during subsequent heat treatment, and consequently reduce the mechanical properties of the friction stir welding joint. - Highlights: • Great changes are observed in the microstructure of FSW joint after postprocessing. • Postprocessing shows great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • The weld shows more significant decrease in strength than the BM due to the AGG. • Attention must be given to the processing route of FSW joint for plastic forming.

  13. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G.; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground. PMID:26731567

  14. Affinity purification of T7 RNA transcripts with homogeneous ends using ARiBo and CRISPR tags

    PubMed Central

    Salvail-Lacoste, Alix; Di Tomasso, Geneviève; Piette, Benjamin L.; Legault, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Affinity purification of RNA using the ARiBo tag technology currently provides an ideal approach to quickly prepare RNA with 3′ homogeneity. Here, we explored strategies to also ensure 5′ homogeneity of affinity-purified RNAs. First, we systematically investigated the effect of starting nucleotides on the 5′ heterogeneity of a small SLI RNA substrate from the Neurospora VS ribozyme purified from an SLI-ARiBo precursor. A series of 32 SLI RNA sequences with variations in the +1 to +3 region was produced from two T7 promoters (class III consensus and class II ϕ2.5) using either the wild-type T7 RNA polymerase or the P266L mutant. Although the P266L mutant helps decrease the levels of 5′-sequence heterogeneity in several cases, significant levels of 5′ heterogeneity (≥1.5%) remain for transcripts starting with GGG, GAG, GCG, GGC, AGG, AGA, AAA, ACA, AUA, AAC, ACC, AUC, and AAU. To provide a more general approach to purifying RNA with 5′ homogeneity, we tested the suitability of using a small CRISPR RNA stem–loop at the 5′ end of the SLI-ARiBo RNA. Interestingly, we found that complete cleavage of the 5′-CRISPR tag with the Cse3 endoribonuclease can be achieved quickly from CRISPR–SLI-ARiBo transcripts. With this procedure, it is possible to generate SLI-ARiBo RNAs starting with any of the four standard nucleotides (G, C, A, or U) involved in either a single- or a double-stranded structure. Moreover, the 5′-CRISPR-based strategy can be combined with affinity purification using the 3′-ARiBo tag for quick purification of RNA with both 5′ and 3′ homogeneity. PMID:23657939

  15. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative m