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Sample records for arvensis bromus japonicus

  1. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  2. Plant community resistance to invasion by Bromus species – the roles of community attributes, Bromus Interactions with plant communities, and Bromus traits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne; Germino, Matthew; Belnap, Jayne; Brown, Cynthia; Schupp, Eugene W.; St. Clair, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    The factors that determine plant community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species (Bromushereafter) are diverse and context specific. They are influenced by the environmental characteristics and attributes of the community, the traits of Bromus species, and the direct and indirect interactions of Bromus with the plant community. Environmental factors, in particular ambient and soil temperatures, have significant effects on the ability of Bromus to establish and spread. Seasonality of precipitation relative to temperature influences plant community resistance toBromus through effects on soil water storage, timing of water and nutrient availability, and dominant plant life forms. Differences among plant communities in how well soil resource use by the plant community matches resource supply rates can influence the magnitude of resource fluctuations due to either climate or disturbance and thus the opportunities for invasion. The spatial and temporal patterns of resource availability and acquisition of growth resources by Bromus versus native species strongly influence resistance to invasion. Traits of Bromus that confer a “priority advantage” for resource use in many communities include early-season germination and high growth and reproductive rates. Resistance to Bromus can be overwhelmed by high propagule supply, low innate seed dormancy, and large, if short-lived, seed banks. Biological crusts can inhibit germination and establishment of invasive annual plants, including several annual Bromus species, but are effective only in the absence of disturbance. Herbivores can have negative direct effects on Bromus, but positive indirect effects through decreases in competitors. Management strategies can be improved through increased understanding of community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species.

  3. Ecosystem impacts of exotic annual invaders in the Genus Bromus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.; Belnap, Jayne; Stark, John M.; Allen, Edith B.; Rau, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the impacts of exotic plant species on ecosystems is necessary to justify and guide efforts to limit their spread, restore natives, and plan for conservation. Invasive annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum, B. rubens, B. hordeaceus, and B. diandrus (hereafter collectively referred to as Bromus) transform the structure and function of ecosystems they dominate. Experiments that prove cause-and-effect impacts of Bromus are rare, yet inferences can be gleaned from the combination of Bromus-ecosystem associations, ecosystem condition before/after invasion, and an understanding of underlying mechanisms. Bromus typically establishes in bare soil patches and can eventually replace perennials such as woody species or bunchgrasses, creating a homogeneous annual cover. Plant productivity and cover are less stable across seasons and years when Bromus dominates, due to a greater response to annual climate variability. Bromus’ “flash” of growth followed by senescence early in the growing season, combined with shallow rooting and annual habit, may lead to incomplete use of deep soil water, reduced C sequestration, and accelerated nutrient cycling. Litter produced by Bromus alters nearly all aspects of ecosystems and notably increases wildfire occurrence. Where Bromus has become dominant, it can decrease soil stability by rendering soils bare for months following fire or episodic, pathogen-induced stand failure. Bromus-invaded communities have lower species diversity, and associated species tend to be generalists adapted to unstable and variable habitats. Changes in litter, fire, and soil properties appear to feedback to reinforce Bromus’ dominance in a pattern that portends desertification.

  4. Evaluation of flavonoids and diverse antioxidant activities of Sonchus arvensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sonchus arvensis is used in the treatment of various human aliments as a traditional medicine in Pakistan. In the study its various fractions are characterized for scavenging of diverse free radicals. Results Results of the present study revealed that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radicals (DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide), however its methanolic fraction is more potent than other fractions. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical and total antioxidant activity with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. Phytochmical analysis revealed the presence kaempferol, quercetin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion From the present data it is concluded that various fractions of Sonchus arvensis significantly scavenged the free radical, which might be due the presence of polyphenolic constituent. PMID:23107458

  5. Hydrothermal emergence model for ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model that describes the emergence of ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus) was developed using a two-season data set from a no-tilled field in northeastern Spain. The relationship between cumulative emergence and hydrothermal time (HTT) was described by a sigmoid growth function (Chapman equation). HTT ...

  6. Bromus tectorum: Variation in Seed Dormancy Among Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is an exotic invasive annual grass that has invaded millions of hectares of rangelands throughout the west. The introduction and invasion of cheatgrass has increased the chance, rate and spread of wildfires. Cheatgrass truncates secondary succession as it outcompetes nat...

  7. Biological control studies on Convolvulus arvensis L. with fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is a perennial, noxious weed in Europe and in many agricultural areas of the world, including Turkey. Some pathogenic fungi were identified with potential to control bindweed and some of them could be used as mycoherbicide components. In the summers of 2008, 200...

  8. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  9. Soil sterilization alters interactions between the native grass Bouteloua gracilis and invasive Bromus tectorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The invasive grass Bromus tectorum negatively impacts grassland communities throughout the western U.S. We asked whether soil biota growing in association with a native grass (Bouteloua gracilis) increase growth and competitive ability of Bromus, and whether responses vary between soils collec...

  10. First report of leaf spot of Convolvulus arvensis caused by Phoma macrostoma var. macrostoma in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is an exotic perennial vine that is invasive in the USA and problematic in Turkey. In May 2012, diseased Convolvulus arvensis plants were found near Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey. Symptoms were irregular tan-colored necrotic lesions on leaves. Leav...

  11. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisner, Michael D.; Grace, James B.; Pyke, David A.; Doescher, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    4. Synthesis and applications. Grazing exacerbates Bromus tectorum dominance in one of North America's most endangered ecosystems by adversely impacting key mechanisms mediating resistance to invasion. If the goal is to conserve and restore resistance of these systems, managers should consider maintaining or restoring: (i) high bunchgrass cover and structure characterized by spatially dispersed bunchgrasses and small gaps between them; (ii) a diverse assemblage of bunchgrass species to maximize competitive interactions with B. tectorum in time and space; and (iii) biological soil crusts to limit B. tectorum establishment. Passive restoration by reducing cumulative cattle grazing may be one of the most effective means of achieving these three goals.

  12. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species. PMID:26452522

  13. Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bock, Friederike; Kuch, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Markus; Müller, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus, Theobald 1901) is an invasive culicid species which originates in Asia but is nowadays present in northern America and Europe. It is a competent vector for several human disease pathogens. In addition to the public health threat, this invasive species may also be an ecological threat for native container-breeding mosquitoes which share a similar larval habitat. Therefore, it is of importance to gain knowledge on ecological and eco-toxicological features of the Asian bush mosquito. However, optimal laboratory feeding conditions have not yet been established. Standardized feeding methods will be needed in assessing the impact of insecticides or competitional strength of this species. To fill this gap, we performed experiments on food quality and quantity for Ae. j. japonicus larvae. We found out that the commercial fish food TetraMin (Tetra, Melle, Germany) in a dose of 10 mg per larva is the most suitable food tested. We also suggest a protocol with a feeding sequence of seven portions for all larval stages of this species. PMID:26452522

  14. Multitemporal spectral analysis for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Nagendra; Glenn, Nancy F

    2009-07-01

    Operational satellite remote sensing data can provide the temporal repeatability necessary to capture phenological differences among species. This study develops a multitemporal stacking method coupled with spectral analysis for extracting information from Landsat imagery to provide species-level information. Temporal stacking can, in an approximate mathematical sense, effectively increase the 'spectral' resolution of the system by adding spectral bands of several multitemporal images. As a demonstration, multitemporal linear spectral unmixing is used to successfully delineate cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) from soil and surrounding vegetation (77% overall accuracy). This invasive plant is an ideal target for exploring multitemporal methods because of its phenological differences with other vegetation in early spring and, to a lesser degree, in late summer. The techniques developed in this work are directly applicable for other targets with temporally unique spectral differences.

  15. Aminocyclopyrachlor absorption, translocation and metabolism in field 1 bindweed (convolulus arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is extremely susceptible to aminocyclopyrachlor compared to other weed species. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine if absorption, translocation, and metabolism of aminocyclopyrachlor in field bindweed differs from other, less susceptible species....

  16. Dormancy in Seeds of Charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Miriam

    1976-01-01

    Charlock (Sinapis arvensis L.) seeds were imbibed with 10 mm GA3 for 24 hours at 0 C. After equilibration at 25 C, a 5-fold increase in radioactivity in the amino acids labeled from 2-14C-acetate was observed within 2 hours. The total amount of amino acids was reduced to half, and the specific radioactivity increased approximately 10-fold, indicating a diversion of metabolites for amino acid and protein synthesis in GA3-treated seeds. The rate of incorporation of l-14 C-leucine into protein was doubled. Autoradiographs showed that enhancement of protein synthesis was localized in the shoot and root meristems, the developing vascular tissues, and in the endosperm cells inside the testa. Images PMID:16659732

  17. Does Autocthonous Primary Production Influence Oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Container Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654

  18. Barriers to gene flow from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into populations of Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Moyes, C L; Lilley, J M; Casais, C A; Cole, S G; Haeger, P D; Dale, P J

    2002-01-01

    One concern over growing herbicide-tolerant crops is that herbicide-tolerance genes may be transferred into the weeds they are designed to control. Brassica napus (oilseed rape) has a number of wild relatives that cause weed problems and the most widespread of these is Sinapis arvensis (charlock). Sinapis arvensis seed was collected from 102 populations across the UK, within and outside B. napus-growing areas. These populations were tested for sexual compatibility with B. napus and it was found that none of them hybridized readily in the glasshouse. In contrast to previous studies, we have found that hybrids can be formed naturally with S. arvensis as the maternal parent. Six diverse B. napus cultivars (Capricorn, Drakkar, Falcon, Galaxy, Hobson and Regent) were tested for their compatibility with S. arvensis but no cultivar hybridized readily in the glasshouse. We were unable to detect gene transfer from B. napus to S. arvensis in the field, confirming the extremely low probability of hybridization predicted from the glasshouse work. PMID:11903908

  19. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  20. Glucaric acids from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianshuang; Li, Yixiu; Feng, Ziming; Yang, Yanan; Zhang, Peicheng

    2015-12-01

    Three new glucaric acids, namely 2-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 5-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (1), 2-syringoyl-4-feruloyl or 5-syringoyl-3-feruloyl glucaric acid (2), and 3-feruloyl-4-syringoyl or 4-feruloyl-3-syringoyl glucaric acid (3), were isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic means including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data spectra. The bioactive assays of compounds 1-3 against hepatoprotection activity were determined. The result suggested that compound 2 exhibited a moderate hepatoprotection activity and the cell survival rate was 74% (10(-5)mol/L), using bicyclol (survival rate: 66%, 10(-5)mol/L) as a positive control. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 were evaluated cytotoxic activities in vitro using HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A-549, and A2780 model and the results exhibited no obvious cytotoxicity activity. PMID:26526024

  1. Mentha arvensis exhibit better adaptive characters in contrast to Mentha piperita when subjugated to sustained waterlogging stress.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Timbre, Khilesh; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Waterlogging is becoming a critical threat to plants growing in areas prone to flooding. Some plants adapt various morphological and biochemical alterations which are regulated transcriptionally to cope with the situation. A comparative study of waterlogging response in two different varieties of Mentha namely Mentha piperita and Mentha arvensis was performed. M. arvensis showed better response towards waterlogging in comparison to M. piperita. M. arvensis maintained a healthy posture by utilizing its carbohydrate content; also, it showed a flourished vegetative growth under waterlogged condition. Soluble protein, chlorophyll content, relative water content, and nitric oxide scavenging activity were comparatively more salient in M. arvensis during this hypoxia treatment. Lipid peroxidation was less in M. arvensis. M. arvensis also showed vigorous outgrowth of adventitious roots to assist waterlogging tolerance. To further investigate the possible gene transcripts involved in this response, we did cDNA subtraction of waterlogging treated M. piperita and M. arvensis seedlings. cDNA subtraction has identified thirty seven novel putative Expressed Sequence Tags which were further classified functionally. Functional classification revealed that maximum percentage of proteins belonged to hypothetical proteins followed by proteins involved in biosynthesis. Some of the identified ESTs were further quantified for their induced expression in M. arvensis in comparison to M. piperita through quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:24154494

  2. Establishment of Aedes japonicus japonicus and Its Colonization of Container Habitats in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.; STANUSZEK, WILLIAM W.; BROUHARD, ELIZABETH A.; KNEPPER, RANDALL G.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition dynamics and colonization of container habitats by the invasive species, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) were examined through the use of ovistrips placed in buckets, and larval surveys of tree holes and tires at sites in central Michigan. In general, oviposition and colonization increased during the study periods, with several sites showing large increases from <10% Ae. j. japonicus initially to over 60% in the following years. Seasonally, higher proportions of Ae. j. japonicus were found in spring and fall collection periods. Ae. j. japonicus larvae co-occurred in the artificial containers with Ae. triseriatus, Ae. hendersoni, several Culex spp., and Anopheles spp. Recent surveys of tire and tree hole habitats at our study areas in mid-Michigan revealed that Ae. j. japonicus had colonized most of these habitats, but maintained relatively low populations in tree holes occupied by Ae. triseriatus. Trends seen in tires from 2008 to 2011, and from gravid trap and New Jersey light traps in 2005–2011, suggest that Ae. j. japonicus populations are stabilizing as they integrate into native Michigan mosquito communities. PMID:23270158

  3. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6,40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123-324 seeds??m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  4. Soil nitrogen enhances the competitive ability of Bromus tectorum relative to native grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion by Bromus tectorum and the associated high fire frequency can displace native plant communities. Previous native plant restoration projects have met with limited success. Manipulating soil resources may be one way of influencing the success of restoration efforts. We conducted two greenh...

  5. Suppression of Bromus tectorum L. by established perennial grasses: mechanisms-Part One

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) is an Eurasian annual grass that has invaded ecosystems throughout the Intermountain west of the United States. Our purpose was to examine mechanisms by which established perennial grasses suppress the growth of B. tectorum. Using rhizotrons, the experiment was conduc...

  6. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF PLANT INVASION: A CASE STUDY WITH BROMUS TECTORUM L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) is problematic in the intermountain region of the western United States, often replacing native shrub/perennial grass communities with near monocultures. Limited data exists on the affect of B. tectorum invasion on biogeochemical cycli...

  7. Karyotype and C-Banding Patterns of Mitotic Chromosomes in Meadow Bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosomes of meadow bromegrass, Bromus riparius, are mainly median and similar in morphology. C-bands were located at telomeric regions of the chromosomes. Majority of the chromosomes had telomeric bands either in one or both arms. Approximately 10 chromosomes had no C-bands. Karyotype of meadow b...

  8. Effect of Competition with Perennial Grasses on the Growth and Nutrient Concentrations of Bromus tectorum L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effect of established perennial plants on growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass, downy brome). Seeds of B. tectorum were planted between two established plants (competition) and individually (no competition) in separate (4 replicates) rhizotrons (30 c...

  9. Evidence that invasion by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) increases soil nitrogen availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain exotic plant species are known to engineer soil processes and thereby facilitate their competitive stature and invasiveness. In a well-characterized winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) community in the Honey Lake Valley of northeastern CA, we tested if cheatgrass invasion (Bromus tectorum L...

  10. Genetic variation and local adaptation at a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion edge in western Nevada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is an invasive weed in western North America primarily found growing at elevations less than 2200 m. We asked whether cheatgrass is capable of becoming adapted to high elevations at a population near a high elevation invasion edge, using a combination of methods, includi...

  11. Fire effects on the mobilization and uptake of nitrogen by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive annual grass, is displacing native species and causing increased fire frequency in the Great Basin of the southwestern United States. Growth and nitrogen uptake patterns by cheatgrass were examined in a greenhouse study using soils from sites with the sa...

  12. The effect of annual precipitation on Agropyron cristatum suppression of bromus tectorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of established crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) to suppress cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is well documented. Many studies that examine the competition between these two species usually do so at the seedling phase. We do not consider decreased performance between two seedlings as ...

  13. Bromus tectorum L. invasion: Changes in soil properties and rates of bioturbation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass, downy brome), an exotic annual grass of Eurasian origin, has replaced native Artemisia/bunchgrass communities on millions of hectares throughout the Intermountain West. Using Jenny’s (1941) framework that specific vegetation can differentially affect soil development; we...

  14. Forecasting Bromus tectorum and fire threat: site soil type versus population traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), is an exotic invasive annual grass that increases the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfires. Cheatgrass truncates secondary succession by out-competing native perennial seedlings for limited moisture and resources. Habitats that historically burned every 60-110...

  15. Assessing Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) genetic diversity and population structure using RAPD and microsatellite molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two molecular marker systems, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellites, were used to evaluate population diversity and differentiation in four northern Nevada Bromus tectorum populations. We found 16 RAPD primers that yielded 165 strong repeatable bands. Of those bands, 60 (35.8%...

  16. Positive effects of native shrubs on Bromus tectorum demography.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Alden B

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that overall interactions among plant species are often the net result of both positive and negative effects. However, the positive influence of other plants has rarely been examined using detailed demographic methods, which are useful for partitioning net effects at the population level into positive and/or negative effects on individual vital rates. This study examines the influence of microhabitats created by the native shrubs Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata on the demography of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum in the Great Basin Desert, California, USA. Shrub understory environments differed significantly from intershrub space and were characterized by higher soil fertility and less extreme microclimates. There existed a strong spatial association between B. tectorum and the shrubs across four years, with more than double the density of B. tectorum in shrub microhabitats compared to intershrub space. Periodic matrix models were used to calculate population growth (lamda) and reproductive potential (RP, expected lifetime fecundity of seedlings) of B. tectorum in different microhabitats over two years. Modeled population growth was significantly increased in shrub microhabitats in the first of two years. This was primarily due to increased seedling establishment in Artemisia microhabitats, rather than effects during the growing season. In the following year, B. tectorum individuals in shrub microhabitats had a significantly greater reproductive potential than those in intershrub microhabitats, indicating shrub facilitation during the growing season. Loop analysis revealed an interacting effect of year and microhabitat on B. tectorum life history pathway elasticity values, demonstrating a fundamental influence of spatiotemporal factors on which life history pathways are important and/or possible. Life table response experiment (LTRE) analysis showed that increased survival and growth rates positively contributed

  17. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  18. Deep RNA-Seq to unlock the gene bank of floral development in Sinapis arvensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yunchang; Huang, Shunmou; Hu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Sinapis arvensis is a weed with strong biological activity. Despite being a problematic annual weed that contaminates agricultural crop yield, it is a valuable alien germplasm resource. It can be utilized for broadening the genetic background of Brassica crops with desirable agricultural traits like resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans), stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotium) and pod shatter (caused by FRUITFULL gene). However, few genetic studies of S. arvensis were reported because of the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive dataset for S. arvensis for the first time. We used Illumina paired-end sequencing technology to sequence the S. arvensis flower transcriptome and generated 40,981,443 reads that were assembled into 131,278 transcripts. We de novo assembled 96,562 high quality unigenes with an average length of 832 bp. A total of 33,662 full-length ORF complete sequences were identified, and 41,415 unigenes were mapped onto 128 pathways using the KEGG Pathway database. The annotated unigenes were compared against Brassica rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Among these unigenes, 76,324 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, of which 1194 were associated with plant hormone signal transduction and 113 were related to gibberellin homeostasis/signaling. Unigenes that did not match any of those sequence datasets were considered to be unique to S. arvensis. Furthermore, 21,321 simple sequence repeats were found. Our study will enhance the currently available resources for Brassicaceae and will provide a platform for future genomic studies for genetic improvement of Brassica crops. PMID:25192023

  19. Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) emerges in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) is an Asian egg parasitoid of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). It has been under study in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2007 to evaluate its efficacy as a candidate classical biological control agent and its host specificity with regard to t...

  20. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    SciTech Connect

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  1. Distribution and genetic structure of Aedes japonicus japonicus populations (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katrin; Schuldt, Kathrin; Rudolf, Martin; Marklewitz, Marco; Fonseca, Dina M; Kaufmann, Christian; Tsuda, Yoshio; Junglen, Sandra; Krüger, Andreas; Becker, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie C

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the number of imported cases of arthropod-borne diseases in Europe, such as dengue fever, has increased steadily, as did the emergence and distribution of invasive insect vectors. Consequently, the risk of disease spreading into previously unaffected regions through invasive mosquitoes is also increasing. One example of an invasive mosquito is Aedes japonicus japonicus (A. j. japonicus), which spread from its original habitat in Japan to North America and Europe. This species has been shown to act as a vector for Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In Europe, A. j. japonicus has been detected in Switzerland, Belgium, Slovenia, and Germany, where it has become a resident species. Here, we describe the recent spread and genetic structure of A. j. japonicus populations in Germany. By monitoring the species in Baden-Württemberg in 2011 and 2012, we observed a considerable enlargement of the infested area from 54 municipalities in 2011 to 124 municipalities in 2012. To elucidate the colonization of Europe by A. j. japonicus, seven microsatellite loci were studied in 106 individuals sampled in Germany and Switzerland in 2012. The same markers were genotyped in 31 North American and 26 Japanese specimens. Population genetic analyses indicated that A. j. japonicus in Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia represented two genetically distinct populations with FST-values of 0.073-0.152, suggesting that they originated from two independent introduction events in the past. These results are of particular interest in light of vectorial variability for the transmission of viruses and other pathogens in Europe. PMID:25056941

  2. Bromus tectorum invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an undisturbed arid grassland ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sperry, L.J.; Belnap, J.; Evans, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    The nonnative annual grass Bromus tectorum has successfully replaced native vegetation in many arid and semiarid ecosystems. Initial introductions accompanied grazing and agriculture, making it difficult to separate the effects of invasion from physical disturbance. This study examined N dynamics in two recently invaded, undisturbed vegetation associations (C3 and C4). The response of these communities was compared to an invaded/disturbed grassland. The invaded/disturbed communities had higher surface NH4+ input in spring, whereas there were no differences for surface input of NO3-. Soil inorganic N was dominated by NH4+, but invaded sites had greater subsurface soil NO3-. Invaded sites had greater total soil N at the surface four years post-invasion in undisturbed communities, but total N was lower in the invaded/disturbed communities. Soil ??15N increased with depth in the noninvaded and recently invaded communities, whereas the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern. Enriched foliar ??15N values suggest that Bromus assimilated subsurface NO3-, whereas the native grasses were restricted to surface N. A Rayleigh distillation model accurately described decomposition patterns in the noninvaded communities where soil N loss is accompanied by increasing soil ??15N; however, the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting redistribution of N within the soil profile. This study suggests that invasion has altered the mechanisms driving nitrogen dynamics. Bromus litter decomposition and soil NO3- concentrations were greater in the invaded communities during periods of ample precipitation, and NO3- leached from the surface litter, where it was assimilated by Bromus. The primary source of N input in these communities is a biological soil crust that is removed with disturbance, and the lack of N input by the biological soil crust did not balance N loss, resulting in reduced total N in the invaded/disturbed communities

  3. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  4. Hard traits of three Bromus species in their source area explain their current invasive success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenesi, Annamária; Rédei, Tamás; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán

    2011-09-01

    We address two highly essential question using three Eurasian Bromus species with different invasion success in North America as model organisms: (1) why some species become invasive and others do not, and (2) which traits can confer pre-adaptation for species to become invasive elsewhere. While the morphology and phenology of the chosen bromes ( Bromus tectorum, Bromus sterilis and Bromus squarrosus) are highly similar, we measured complex traits often associated with invasive success: phenotypic plasticity, competitive ability and generalist-specialist character. We performed common-garden experiments, community- and landscape-level surveys in areas of co-occurrence in Central Europe (Hungary) that could have served as donor region for American introductions. According to our results, the three bromes are unequally equipped with trait that could enhance invasiveness. B. tectorum possesses several traits that may be especially relevant: it has uniquely high phenotypic plasticity, as demonstrated in a nitrogen addition experiment, and it is a habitat generalist, thriving in a wide range of habitats, from semi-natural to degraded ones, and having the widest co-occurrence based niche-breadth. The strength of B. sterilis lies in its ability to use resources unexploited by other species. It can become dominant, but only in one non-natural habitat type, namely the understorey of the highly allelopathic stands of the invasive Robinia pseudoacacia. B. squarrosus is a habitat specialist with low competitive ability, always occurring with low coverage. This ranking of the species' abilities can explain the current spreading success of the three bromes on the North American continent, and highlight the high potential of prehistoric invaders (European archaeophytes) to become invasive elsewhere.

  5. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol tolerance in Mentha arvensis L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shasany, A K; Khanuja, S P; Dhawan, S; Kumar, S

    2000-09-01

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in Mentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of large scale in vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders' material for selection of elite genotypes. PMID:11022228

  6. A rare chemical burn due to Ranunculus arvensis: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Abdullah O; Saritemur, Murat; Atac, Kenan; Guclu, Sibel; Ozlu, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis, a plant that is a member of Ranunculaceae family, generally used for local treatment of joint pain, muscle pain, burns, lacerations, edema, abscess drainage, hemorrhoids, and warts among the population. In this case report, we presented three patients who developed chemical skin burns after using R. arvensis plant locally for knee pain. The destructive effect of the plant has been reported previously to be more in fresh plants and less in dried plants. Although protoanemonin, which is considered as the main toxic substance, was reported to be absent in dried or boiled plants, the plant was boiled, cooled, and wrapped over the region with pain in our cases. Therefore, we thought that protoanemonin may be considered to be heat resistant. Also, the burn management proceeded up to surgery by using the flap technique in one of our patients in contrast to the cases found in published reports who were treated by antibiotics and dressings. PMID:26922695

  7. Vegetative reproduction and chemical control with post-emergent herbicides of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Gyenes, V; Béres, I; Lehoczky, E; Kazinczi, G; Nyári, A

    2005-01-01

    It is clearly seen from data that roots of Convolvulus arvensis L. have more and less intensive regenerative period during growing season. The more intensive period is in autumn, because in that time roots culminate nutrients, carbohydrate as starch and sugar. The less intensive regenerative or shoot-growing period is in spring, called "late spring bud dormancy". Experiments were conducted to get more information and further details about the regenerative capacity of roots close to and far from the collar of Convolvulus arvensis L. Root segments closer to collar have an intensive regenerative capacity than those ones further to collar. By data of Bakke et al. (1939) is well known, roots exhumed from deep soil layers are able to create shoots with low intensity. So finally we can exclaim that regenerative capacity is decreasing further to collar. Using mechanical weed control it is sufficient to till the upper layer of soil, but many times. Chemical treatments are most effective in the integrated weed control. It is clearly seen that auxin-type herbicide such as 2,4-D, fluroxipir, MCPA. dicamba give the best result. They gave 95% weed control effect used them separately or in combination with other herbicides. Combination of Banvel 480 S (dicamba) and Logran 75 WG (triasulfuron) introduced 95% weed control effect. Only one time got absolutely 100% weed control effect, in the case of Glyphosate active substance. Caused total plant destruction. Excellent result was given with the application of Pledge 50WP (flumioxazin). Herbicides mentioned above are absolutely allowed to take an important and significant part in chemical plant protection against Convolvulus arvensis L. Other herbicides like Granstar 75DF (tribenuron-methyl), Basis 75DF (rimsulfuron + tifensulfuron-methyl) and Huszár (jodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + mefenpir-diethyl) are not so effective against Convolvulus arvensis L., as compared to the previous ones. PMID:16637219

  8. Phytocontact dermatitis due to Ranunculus arvensis mimicking burn injury: report of three cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ranunculus arvensis (corn buttercup) is a plant species of the genus Ranunculus that is frequently used in the Far East to treat rheumatic diseases and several dermatological disorders. In Turkey, the plant is seen in the eastern and southeastern Anatolian highlands, which are underdeveloped areas of the country. Herein, we report three patients who used Ranunculus arvensis for the treatment of arthralgia and osteoarthritis. A distinctive phytodermatitis developed on the right thumb in one patient (48-year-old male), on the anterior aspect of both knees in another patient (70-year-old female) and all around both knees in a third (59-year-old female). The patients were treated with topical antibiotics and daily wound dressing, and none of them experienced any complications. Ranunculus arvensis was confirmed as the cause of the phytodermatitis in the three cases. Poultices of plants applied to the skin demonstrate beneficial effects on many dermatological and rheumatic diseases; however, they have several adverse effects that should not be ignored. In this study, we also present a review of 25 cases reported in the literature. PMID:21408003

  9. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production. PMID:24948681

  10. Genome Structure of the Legume, Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Asamizu, Erika; Kato, Tomohiko; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Ono, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Katoh, Midori; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Kishida, Yoshie; Minami, Chiharu; Nakayama, Shinobu; Nakazaki, Naomi; Shimizu, Yoshimi; Shinpo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Chika; Wada, Tsuyuko; Yamada, Manabu; Ohmido, Nobuko; Hayashi, Makoto; Fukui, Kiichi; Baba, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Tomoko; Mori, Hirotada; Tabata, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The legume Lotus japonicus has been widely used as a model system to investigate the genetic background of legume-specific phenomena such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Here, we report structural features of the L. japonicus genome. The 315.1-Mb sequences determined in this and previous studies correspond to 67% of the genome (472 Mb), and are likely to cover 91.3% of the gene space. Linkage mapping anchored 130-Mb sequences onto the six linkage groups. A total of 10 951 complete and 19 848 partial structures of protein-encoding genes were assigned to the genome. Comparative analysis of these genes revealed the expansion of several functional domains and gene families that are characteristic of L. japonicus. Synteny analysis detected traces of whole-genome duplication and the presence of synteny blocks with other plant genomes to various degrees. This study provides the first opportunity to look into the complex and unique genetic system of legumes. PMID:18511435

  11. Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

  12. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Camille; Dotseth, Eric J; Jackson, Bryan T; Zink, Steven D; Marek, Paul E; Kramer, Laura D; Paulson, Sally L; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  13. The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2013-10-01

    After its first detection in 2008 in the south German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, another distinct population of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was unexpectedly found in western Germany in 2012. Range expansion had already been observed for the southern German population and was anticipated for the western German one. Here, we report on a third, apparently independent and even more northerly German colonization area of Aedes j. japonicus in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia, which was discovered in spring 2013. In a snapshot study, intended to determine the presence or absence of Aedes j. japonicus in an area close to Hanover, the capital of the northern German federal state of Lower Saxony, where a specimen had been collected in late 2012, central water basins of cemeteries were checked for pre-imaginal mosquito stages at the beginning of the mosquito season 2013. Almost 20% of the inspected cemeteries were found positive (25 out of 129), with many of them being located in towns and villages close to the motorways A2 and A7. Being of Far Eastern origin, the Asian bush mosquito is well adapted to moderate climates and appears to be further expanding its distribution area in Central Europe. As it is a proven laboratory vector of several mosquito-borne disease agents, its present and future distribution areas should be carefully monitored. PMID:23974325

  14. [Cartography and geographical spread of the adventitious species of brome (Bromus spp.) among cereals in the Sais area of Morocco].

    PubMed

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Bromus spp is causing serious problems in wheat in the Sais area. However, the damage of this weed varies from one region to another according to the agro-climatic conditions and crop systems. The characterization of the infestation level in each situation is a prerequisite to develop a control strategy adapted to each environment. This study was undertaken in order to determine the infestation level and geographical spread of the weedy brome (Bromus spp) on wheat in Sais following crop systems and pedo-climatic conditions. The results obtained during two consecutive years (1998-99 and 1999-2000) revealed that ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) was the most dominant species in wheat fields in the surveyed regions, followed by B. rubens L., B. sterilis L., B. madritensis L. and B. mollus L. Among, 18 regions and 100 infested wheat fields, 16.67% of fields were slightly infested (Plant density of Bromus (Dbr < 90 plants/m2, 61.11% were moderately infested (90 < Dbr < 290 plants/m2) and 22.22% were highly infested (Dbr > 400 plants/m2). The maximum relative frequency was obtained with Bromus rigidus (47.15%) and the coverage was 40.43%. But, for B.rubens, B. madritensis and B. sterilis, the relative frequencies were respectively 31.42; 26 and 15% and their coverages were respectively 28.9, 20.4 and 12.5%. PMID:12425101

  15. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies. PMID:22314667

  16. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  17. Leaf extracts from Moricandia arvensis promote antiproliferation of human cancer cells, induce apoptosis, and enhance antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Limem, Ilef; Kilani, Soumaya; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidant activities from leaf extracts of Moricandia arvensis, which are used in traditional cooking and medicines, were investigated. The MTT assay revealed that only TOF (total oligomer flavonoids), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells. Apoptosis plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer by promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells and limiting the concurrent death of normal cells. Thus, the possible effects of M. arvensis extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells (K562 cells) were investigated. The electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation confirms that TOF, Chl, PE, and EA extracts provoke DNA fragmentation. Using the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the antioxidant capacity of M. arvensis extracts was evaluated by the ability of each extract to inhibit malondialdehyde formation. It was revealed that EA and TOF extracts are the most active in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. PMID:19995267

  18. Leonuketal, a Spiroketal Diterpenoid from Leonurus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liang; Zhou, Qin-Mei; Zou, Yike; Chen, Ming-Hua; Guo, Li; Hu, Guan-Ying; Liu, Zhao-Hua; Peng, Cheng

    2015-12-18

    An architecturally complex spiroketal diterpenoid, leonuketal (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of the plant Leonurus japonicus. This compound possessed an unprecedented tetracyclic skeleton that comprised a bridged spiroketal moiety fused with a ketal-γ-lactone unit. The structure and absolute configuration were determined by spectroscopic analyses, a modified Mosher's method, and ECD (electronic circular dichroism) calculations. Leonuketal (1) showed significant vasorelaxant activity against KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, with the EC50 value of 2.32 μM. PMID:26634796

  19. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-03-15

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [Spanish] En el presente articulo se aportan los resultados y conclusiones de un estudio, llevado a cabo en Nepal, en el que se abordaron aspectos ecologicos, comportamentales y morfologicos (tanto del ultimo estado de la fase larvaria como del adulto) de Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888. El principal objetivo del estudio radicaba en mostrar las principales diferencias que separan a esta

  20. Do soil characteristics or microhabitat determine field emergence and success of Bromus tectorum?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Vidiella, P.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    In southeastern Utah, Bromus tectorum occurs where Hilaria jamesii is dominant and rarely where Stipa hymenoides/S. comata dominate. To determine whether this distribution is due to soil characteristics or microhabitat, we transplanted H. jamesii soil to a Stipa site and vice versa during a severe drought (2001) and a wetter year (2002). Additionally, we planted B. tectorum under H. jamesii and Stipa canopies, with or without H. jamesii litter, and with or without herbivory. Bromus tectorum emergence and biomass in reciprocal transplants were similar at both sites; there were no site differences for all microhabitat treatments. Being under a plant canopy increased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Herbivory decreased emergence in 2001 and decreased survival during 2002. Litter increased emergence only under the canopy in 2001 but did not affect survival in 2002. Survival in 2001 was so low that biomass was unattainable; no microhabitat treatments affected biomass in 2002. We found that soil characteristics and microhabitat affected B. tectorum similarly in H. jamesii and Stipa patches, suggesting that these factors do not explain the association between B. tectorum and H. jamesii. However, these relationships may change during wet years when B. tectorum invasions most often occur. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications. PMID:27263016

  2. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, Jeffrey G.

    2016-06-04

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. Furthermore, this review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkablemore » ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications.« less

  3. Moricandia arvensis extracts protect against DNA damage, mutagenesis in bacteria system and scavenge the superoxide anion.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Kilani, Soumaya; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira-Chekir, Leila

    2009-02-01

    The mutagenic potential of total aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), petroleum ether (PE) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from aerial parts of Moricandia arvensis was assessed using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA100 and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9), and using plasmid pBluescript DNA assay. None of the different extracts produced a mutagenic effect, except aqueous extract when incubated with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 after metabolic activation. Likewise, the antimutagenicity of the same extracts was tested using the "Ames test". Our results showed that M. arvensis extracts possess antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA) in the two tested Salmonella assay systems, except metabolized aqueous and PE extracts when tested with S. typhimurium TA100 assay system. Different extracts were also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals, except PE and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the more effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction. PMID:19015021

  4. Mapping genetic variation and seed zones for Bromus carinatus in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genecology studies using regression models to develop plant adaptation zones are useful to ensure that germplasm selected for revegetation is environmentally adapted. In this study, genecology studies were completed on Mt. Brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn ) using 148 populations collected in the...

  5. Suppression of annual Bromus tectorum by perennial Agropyon cristatum: roles of soil N availability and biological soil space

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, exotic invasive grasses have caused numerous ecosystem perturbations. Rangelands of the western United States have experienced increases in the size and frequency of wildfires largely due to invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum. Rehabilitation of invaded rangelands is difficult; b...

  6. Interactions with soils conditioned by different vegetation: a potential explanation of bromus tectorum L. invasion into salt-deserts?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion by Bromus tectorum L. may condition the soil and increase nutrient availability. We hypothesized that nutrient poor soils of the arid Honey Lake Valley of northeastern California U.S.A., similar in physical and chemical properties, but conditioned by either B. tectorum, Krascheninniko...

  7. Plant-Soil Relationships of Bromus tectorum L.: Interactions among Labile Carbon Additions, Soil Invasion Status, and Fertilizer.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of western North America by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) has been an ecological disaster. High soil bioavailability of nitrogen is a contributing factor in the invasive potential of B. tectorum. Application of labile carbon sources to the soil can immobilize soil ...

  8. A mutualistic interaction between a fungivorous nematode and a fungus within the endophytic community of Bromus tectorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its invaded range in western North America, Bromus tectorum can host more than 100 sequence-based phylotypes of endophytic fungi of which an individual cheatgrass plant hosts a subset. In general, research suggests that recruitment of a particular subset of endophytes by an individual plant will...

  9. Interactions with soils conditioned by different vegetation: A potential explanation of Bromus tectorum L. invasion into salt-deserts?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion by Bromus tectorum L. may condition the soil and increase nutrient availability. We hypothesized that nutrient poor soils of the arid Honey Lake Valley of northeastern California U.S.A., similar in physical and chemical properties, but conditioned by either B. tectorum, Krascheninniko...

  10. Control of Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Medusahead (Teaniatherum caput-medusae) with Rangeland Herbicides in Northeastern California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead ((Teaniatherum caput-medusae) are the two most problematic invasive annual grasses in the western United States. In this study we evaluated the effect of three fall and one spring application of herbicide as well as herbicide combinations on the control ...

  11. The Effect of Herbaceous Species Removal, Fire, and Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on Soil Water Availability in Sagebrush Steppe.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on av...

  12. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  13. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  14. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (sinapis arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  15. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Jugulam, M.; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K. Y.; Chen, Shu; Hall, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  16. Allelopathic effect of Bromus spp. and Lolium spp. shoot extracts on some crops.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Nelima, M Okumu; Szabó, R; Szalai, A; Nagy, P

    2011-01-01

    Allelopathy is an untapped resource for weed control in crops that could give good possibilities for environmentally sound, integrated crop production. Allelopathy is defined as the direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant on another through the production of chemical compounds, called allelochemicals, which escape into the environment. Allelochemicals can be produced by weeds and affect crops, and the reverse is also true. Allelopathic interactions include weed-weed, weed-crop, and crop-crop. Allelopathy offers potential for selective biological weed control for instance weed-suppressing crops and the use of plant residues in cropping systems, allelopathic rotational crops, or companion plants with allelopathic potential. Bromus species occur in many habitats in temperate regions of the world, including America, Eurasia, Australia, and Africa. The genus Lolium is one of the most important forage grasses. The weed species usually grow in the same production zones as wheat and are considered weeds since they parasitize wheat fields. Some of the weed species in these two genus have been reported to have allelopathic effect. One of the methods that has been successful in studying allelopathic activity are bioassays. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine allelopathic effect of watery shoot extracts of four weed species of the Poaceae family, namely Bromus rigidus, Bromus diandrus, Lolium multiflorum and Lolium temulentum on germination and growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), bean (Phaseolus sp.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and on each other. The experiment was carried out during the period March 2010 to October 2010. Twenty five seeds were put into one Petri-dish on filter paper, adding 15ml of extract to each in four repeats. The germination took place in a Binder-type thermostat in the dark. The timing of germination was

  17. Field evaluation of baited traps for surveillance of Aedes japonicus japonicus in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, F; Schaffner, F; Forgia, D L; Paslaru, A I; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Veronesi, E

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) miniature light traps and ovitraps was tested in the outskirts of the city of Zurich in Switzerland for their use in the surveillance of Aedes (Hulecoeteomyia) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae), the invasive Asian bush mosquito. Sets of single CDC traps were run overnight (n = 18) in three different environments (forest, suburban and urban) in 3 × 3 Latin square experimental designs. Traps were baited with: (a) carbon dioxide (CO2 ); (b) CO2 plus light, or (c) CO2 plus lure blend [Combi FRC 3003 (iGu® )]. At the same locations, mosquito eggs were collected weekly using standard ovitraps baited with different infusions (oak, hay or tap water) and equipped with different oviposition substrates (a block of extruded polystyrene, a germination paper strip or a wooden stick). Data were analysed using Poisson and negative binomial general linear models. The use of light (P < 0.001) or lure (P < 0.001) significantly increased the attractiveness of CDC traps baited with CO2 . Oak and hay infusions did not increase the attractiveness of ovitraps compared with standing tap water (P > 0.05), and extruded polystyrene blocks were preferred as an oviposition substrate over wooden sticks (P < 0.05) and seed germination paper (P < 0.05). Carbon dioxide-baited CDC miniature light traps complemented with light or iGu® lure and ovitraps containing standing tap water and polystyrene oviposition blocks can be considered as efficient and simple tools for use in Ae. j. japonicus surveillance programmes. PMID:26685872

  18. Are Mojave Desert annual species equal? Resource acquisition and allocation for the invasive grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (Poaceae) and two native species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Bryla, D.R.; Smith-Longozo, V.; Nowak, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Abundance of invasive plants is often attributed to their ability ot outcompete native species. We compared resource acquisition and allocation of the invasive annual grass Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens with that of two native Mojave Desert annuals, Vulpia octoflora and Descurainia pinnata, in a glasshouse experiment. Each species was grown in monoculture at two densities and two levels of N availability to compare how these annuals capture resources and to understand their relative sensitivities to environmental change. During >4 mo of growth, Bromus used water more rapidly and had greater biomass and N content than the natives, partly because of its greater root-surface area and its exploitation of deep soils. Bromus also had greater N uptake, net assimilation and transpiration rates, and canopy area than Vulpia. Resource use by Bromus was less sensitive to changes in N availability or density than were the natives. The two native species in this study produced numerous small seeds that tended to remain dormant, thus ensuring escape of offspring from unfavorable germination conditions; Bromus produced fewer but larger seeds that readily germinated. Collectively, these traits give Bromus the potential to rapidly establish in diverse habitats of the Mojave Desert, thereby gaining an advantage over coexisting native species.

  19. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F; Kaufmann, C; Hegglin, D; Mathis, A

    2009-12-01

    Complaints about a biting pest led to the recognition of invasive Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Europe. Larval collections from cemetery vases revealed a colonized area of approximately 1400 km(2) in northern Switzerland spreading into bordering Germany, suggesting that the mosquito has been established in this region for several years. Within this range, larvae of Ae. japonicus were recovered from more containers than the most common resident culicid species Culex pipiens. Possible introduction sites (used tyre yards and international airports) revealed few or no larvae, and the mode of introduction remains unclear. Given the vector potential of this species for arboviruses, implementation of surveillance and control measures should be considered. PMID:19941611

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Euonymus japonicus (Celastraceae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of the Euonymus japonicus, the first sequenced of the genus Euonymus, was reported in this study. The total length was 157 637 bp, containing a pair of 26 678 bp inverted repeat region (IR), which were separated by small single copy (SSC) region and large single copy (LSC) region of 18 340 bp and 85 941 bp, respectively. This genome contains 107 unique genes, including 74 coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 29 tRNA genes. Seventeen genes contain intron of E. japonicus, of which three genes (clpP, ycf3, and rps12) include two introns. The maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis revealed that E. japonicus was closely related to Manihot and Populus. PMID:26407184

  1. MATURITY AND TEMPERATURE AFFECTS THE GERMINATION OF STYRAX JAPONICUS SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of seed maturity, warm (18oC) or cold (5.5oC) temperature, and gibberellic acid (GA3) on seed germination of Styrax japonicus Sieb. et. Zucc was investigated. Seed maturity and morphological changes were observed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI). Fruits harvested on July 22,...

  2. First occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington.

    PubMed

    Roppo, Monica R; Lilja, Jack L; Maloney, Francis A; Sames, William J

    2004-03-01

    This is a report on the 1st occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington. In August through November 2001, immature stages were found near the King County communities of Carnation (2 sites), Black Diamond, Kent, and Issaquah and were reared to the adult stage for identification and preservation. PMID:15088708

  3. Identification of novel Bromus- and Trifolium-associated circular DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Farkas, Kata; Bernardo, Pauline; Booker, Cameron; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Mesléard, François; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    The genomes of a large number of highly diverse novel circular DNA viruses from a wide range of sources have been characterised in recent years, including circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that share similarities with plant-infecting ssDNA viruses of the family Geminiviridae. Here, we describe six novel circular DNA viral genomes that encode replication-associated (Rep) proteins that are most closely related to those of either geminiviruses or gemycircularviruses (a new group of ssDNA viruses that are closely related to geminiviruses). Four possible viral genomes were recovered from Bromus hordeaceus sampled in New Zealand, and two were recovered from B. hordeaceus and Trifolium resupinatum sampled in France. Two of the viral genomes from New Zealand (one from the North Island and one from the South Island each) share >99 % sequence identity, and two genomes recovered from B. hordeaceus and T. resupinatum sampled in France share 74 % identity. All of the viral genomes that were recovered were found to have a major open reading frame on both their complementary and virion-sense strands, one of which likely encodes a Rep and the other a capsid protein. Although future infectivity studies are needed to identify the host range of these viruses, this is the first report of circular DNA viruses associated with grasses in New Zealand. PMID:25701210

  4. Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. madritensis) in North America: Possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salo, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Although invasions by exotic plants have increased dramatically as human travel and commerce have increased, few have been comprehensively described. Understanding the patterns of invasive species spread over space and time will help guide management activities and policy. Tracing the earliest appearances of an exotic plant reveals likely sites of introduction, paving the way for genetic studies to quantify founder events and identify potential source populations. Red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded even relatively undisturbed areas of western North America, where it threatens native plant communities. This study used herbarium records and contemporary published accounts to trace the early introductions and subsequent spread of red brome in western North America. The results challenge the most frequently cited sources describing the early history of this grass and suggest three possible modes for early introductions: the California Gold Rush and Central Valley wheat, southern California shipping, and northern California sheep. Subsequent periods of most rapid spread into new areas, from 1930 to 1942, and of greatest spread into new regions, during the past 50 years, coincide with warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation regimes, which are linked to increased winter precipitation in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Global environmental change, including increased atmospheric CO2 levels and N deposition, may be contributing to the success of red brome, relative to native species.

  5. The development of water stress in Bromus tectorum and Poa secunda in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Gee, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Field observations of the phenological development, root and shoot characteristics, and water relations with increasing water stress of Bromus tectorum and Poa secunda were compared. The phenological development of B. tectorum was 3 to 4 weeks behind that of P. secunda. The root/shoot ratio of B. tectorum was 4 to 5 times less than that of P secunda. The greatest rooting depth was 45 cm for B. tectorum and 35 cm for P. secunda. Most of the root mass was found in the top 10 cm of soil for both species. Water stress developed sooner and to a greater degree in P. secunda than in B. tectorum. Xylem water potential was lower in P. secunda than in B. tectorum and the difference increased through the season. Pre-dawn xylem water potential was highly correlated with maximal stomatal conductance in P. secunda. Hydraulic conductance was greater in B. tectorum than in P. secunda, and decreased as water stress increased through the season. Stomatal conductance and transpiration were greater for B. tectorum than for P. secunda. Midday stomatal closure occurred later in the season and to a lesser degree for B. tectorum than for P. secunda. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Capillary zone electrophoretic determination of phenolic compounds in chess (Bromus inermis L.) plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Sterbová, Dagmar; Vlcek, Jirí; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2006-02-01

    A simple CZE method for quantification of phenolic compounds (vanillin, cinnamic, sinapic, chlorogenic, syringic, ferulic, benzoic, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, rosmarinic, caffeic, gallic and protocatechuic acids) in less than 10 min using 20 mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.2) with 5% v/v methanol as a BGE and with UV detection at 254 nm is described. The LODs (3 S/N) ranged between 0.02 and 0.12 microg/ mL. Repeatabilities (RSDs) were 0.66-1.8 and 1.56-4.23% for migration times and peak areas (n = 5), respectively. The method was applied to the determination of phenolic compounds in chess (Bromus inermis L.) after Soxhlet extraction and purification of the crude extracts with SPE procedures. The results compared well with those obtained by liquid chromatographic method. B. inermis was found as a suitable model plant containing a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds in easily detectable concentrations and as a potential source of antioxidants. PMID:16524108

  7. Karyotype and nuclear DNA content of hexa-, octo-, and duodecaploid lines of Bromus subgen. Ceratochloa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The subgenus Ceratochloa of the genus Bromus includes a number of closely related allopolyploid forms or species that present a difficult taxonomic problem. The present work combines data concerning chromosome length, heterochromatin distribution and nuclear genome size of different 6x, 8x and 12x accessions in this subgenus. Special attention is paid to the karyotype structure and genomic constitution of duodecaploid plants recently found in South America. Hexaploid lineages possess six almost indistinguishable genomes and a nuclear DNA content between 12.72 pg and 15.10 pg (mean 1Cx value = 2.32 pg), whereas octoploid lineages contain the same six genomes (AABBCC) plus two that are characterized by longer chromosomes and a greater DNA content (1Cx = 4.47 pg). Two duodecaploid accessions found in South America resemble each other and apparently differ from the North American duodecaploid B. arizonicus as regards chromosome size and nuclear DNA content (40.00 and 40.50 pg vs. 27.59 pg). These observations suggest that the South American duodecaploids represent a separate evolutionary lineage of the B. subgenus Ceratochloa, unrecognized heretofore. PMID:21637516

  8. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  9. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Juliá, Luis; Fajari, Lluis; Almajano, MaríaPilar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA) ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% O2 and 20% CO2) was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant. PMID:26785344

  10. Air pollution induced alterations in assimilate partitioning in Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, F.A.; Iqbal, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Saquib, M.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) emits enormous amounts of oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon as well as particulate matters on consuming 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents induce significant alterations in carbon allocation in Anagallis arvensis populations. Monthly samples of 10 plants each were collected on random basis at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant. In oven dried samples, assimilate partitioning was noted to be more severely altered by the air pollutants in the seedling stage. In 2 and 3 months old populations, photosynthate allocation to root and shoot was not altered noticeably. Considerable changes in carbon allocation were noted in 4 mo old mature stage. The carbon allocation to fruit was 3 fold and to seed was about 4 fold greater in the population thriving 20 km away from the source than in those growing in the vicinity of the source. Assimilate partitioning was linearly related to the distance from power plant and the productivity of the populations.

  11. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  12. Participation of Photosynthesis in Floral Induction of the Long Day Plant Anagallis arvensis L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Quedado, Rosario M.; Friend, Douglas J.

    1978-01-01

    The saturating photon flux density (400 to 700 nanometers) for induction of flowering of the long day plant Anagallis arvensis L. was 1,900 micromoles per square meter per second (6,000 foot-candles) when an 8-hour daylength was extended to 24 hours by a single period of supplementary irradiation. The saturating photon flux density for photosynthetic CO2 uptake during the same single supplementary light period was lower, at about 1,000 to 650 micromoles per square meter per second (3,000 to 2,000 foot-candles). The per cent flowering and mean number of floral buds per plant were significantly reduced when the light extension treatment was given in CO2-free air, and glucose (10 kilograms per cubic meter in water) relieved this effect. Glucose solution also significantly increased flowering of plants given supplementary light treatment in atmospheric air under a photon flux density of 80 micromoles per square meter per second. Increasing the CO2 concentration to 1.27 grams per cubic meter of CO2 in air during the supplementary light period did not increase flowering. It is concluded that high photon flux densities promote flowering of Anagallis through both increased photosynthesis and the photomorphogenic action of high irradiance. PMID:16660610

  13. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention.

    PubMed

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany. PMID:24992470

  14. Unexpected Patterns of Admixture in German Populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Underscore the Importance of Human Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zielke, Dorothee E.; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes). Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany. PMID:24992470

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Squalidus japonicus coreanus (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Eon Park, Chang; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The short-barbel gudgeon Squalidus japonicus coreanus (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) is a subspecies of S. japonicus, and is endemic to Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence consisted of 16 597 base pairs (bp) encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and two non-coding regions. The overall base composition of S. japonicus coreanus was G + C: 47.4% and A + T: 52.6%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. japonicus coreanus was closely related to Pungtungia herzi. PMID:26329666

  16. Establishment of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L. ) on spent oil shale from the Paraho process

    SciTech Connect

    George, M.R.; McKell, C.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with the following obtectives: (i) to study the emergence and seedling growth of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in soil and in Paraho spent oil shale that was either leached, treated with sulfuric acid, covered with soil, or mixed with soil, and (ii) to study emergence and seedling growth of cheatgrass on spent shale that was fertilized with ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate. The Ec/sub e/ of the spent shale was 14 mmhos/cm, the pH was 9 and the shale was low in plant available N and P. The soil from Federal oil shale lease tract U-a near Bonanza, Utah was a coarse textured alluvium with low moisture retention. Cheatgrass planted on soil alone and shale covered with soil had the highest emergence rates (75 to 86%) and produced the greatest total biomass (8.55 to 13.4 g). Seedling emergence rates on leached and unleached spent shale were 44% and 36%, respectively, and total biomass was < 1 g on either treatment. Seedlings failed to emerge on sulfuric acid-treated spent shale. The addition of sulfuric acid to spent shale increased the EC/sub e/ of the shale to over 21 mmhos/cm. Leached and unleached spent shale was fertilized with N at rates of 0, 28, and 56 kg/ha and P at rates of 0, 24.4, and 48.8 kg/ha. The total biomass for any fertilizer treatment was < 1 g. We conclude that covering shale disposal piles with topsoil may improve the site for successful invasion by a colonizing species such as cheatgrass.

  17. Global change effects on Bromus tectorum L. (Poaceae) at its high-elevation range margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Concilio, Amy L.; Loik, Michael E.; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Global change is likely to affect invasive species distribution, especially at range margins. In the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA, the invasive annual grass, Bromus tectorum, is patchily distributed and its impacts have been minimal compared with other areas of the Intermountain West. We used a series of in situ field manipulations to determine how B. tectorum might respond to changing climatic conditions and increased nitrogen deposition at the high-elevation edge of its invaded range. Over 3 years, we used snow fences to simulate changes in snowpack, irrigation to simulate increased frequency and magnitude of springtime precipitation, and added nitrogen (N) at three levels (0, 5, and 10 g m-2) to natural patches of B. tectorum growing under the two dominant shrubs, Artemisia tridentata and Purshia tridentata, and in intershrub spaces (INTR). We found that B. tectorum seedling density in April was lower following deeper snowpack possibly due to delayed emergence, yet there was no change in spikelet production or biomass accumulation at the time of harvest. Additional spring rain events increased B. tectorum biomass and spikelet production in INTR plots only. Plants were primarily limited by water in 2009, but colimited by N and water in 2011, possibly due to differences in antecedent moisture conditions at the time of treatments. The threshold at which N had an effect varied with magnitude of water additions. Frequency of rain events was more influential than magnitude in driving B. tectorum growth and fecundity responses. Our results suggest that predicted shifts from snow to rain could facilitate expansion of B. tectorum at high elevation depending on timing of rain events and level of N deposition. We found evidence for P-limitation at this site and an increase in P-availability with N additions, suggesting that stoichiometric relationships may also influence B. tectorum spread.

  18. Postdispersal Infection and Disease Development of Pyrenophora semeniperda in Bromus tectorum Seeds.

    PubMed

    Finch-Boekweg, Heather; Gardner, John S; Allen, Phil S; Geary, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The Ascomycete fungus, Pyrenophora semeniperda, attacks a broad range of cool-season grasses. While leaf and predispersal infection of seeds (i.e., florets containing caryopses) have been previously characterized, little is known about the pathogenesis of mature seeds following dispersal. In this study, we examined infection and disease development of P. semeniperda on dormant seeds of Bromus tectorum. Inoculated seeds were hydrated at 20°C for up to 28 days. Disease development was characterized using scanning electron and light microscopy. P. semeniperda conidia germinated on the seed surface within 5 to 8 h. Hyphae grew on the seed surface and produced extracellular mucilage that eventually covered the seed. Appressoria formed on the ends of hyphae and penetrated through the lemma and palea, stomatal openings, and broken trichomes. The fungus then catabolized the endosperm, resulting in a visible cavity by 8 days. Pathogenesis of the embryo was associated with progressive loss of cell integrity and proliferation of mycelium. Beginning at approximately day 11, one to several stromata (approximately 150 μm in diameter and up to 4 mm in length) emerged through the lemma and palea. Degradation of embryo tissue was completed near 14 days. Conidiophores produced conidia between 21 and 28 days and often exhibited "Y-shaped" branching. This characterization of disease development corrects previous reports which concluded that P. semeniperda is only a weak seed pathogen with infection limited to the outermost seed tissues. In addition, the time required for disease development explains why infected dormant or slow-germinating seeds are most likely to experience mortality. PMID:26645644

  19. Eco-evolutionary responses of Bromus tectorum to climate change: implications for biological invasions

    PubMed Central

    Zelikova, Tamara J; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Reed, Sasha C; Wertin, Timothy; Fettig, Christa; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    How plant populations, communities, and ecosystems respond to climate change is a critical focus in ecology today. The responses of introduced species may be especially rapid. Current models that incorporate temperature and precipitation suggest that future Bromus tectorum invasion risk is low for the Colorado Plateau. With a field warming experiment at two sites in southeastern Utah, we tested this prediction over 4 years, measuring B. tectorum phenology, biomass, and reproduction. In a complimentary greenhouse study, we assessed whether changes in field B. tectorum biomass and reproductive output influence offspring performance. We found that following a wet winter and early spring, the timing of spring growth initiation, flowering, and summer senescence all advanced in warmed plots at both field sites and the shift in phenology was progressively larger with greater warming. Earlier green-up and development was associated with increases in B. tectorum biomass and reproductive output, likely due early spring growth, when soil moisture was not limiting, and a lengthened growing season. Seeds collected from plants grown in warmed plots had higher biomass and germination rates and lower mortality than seeds from ambient plots. However, in the following two dry years, we observed no differences in phenology between warmed and ambient plots. In addition, warming had a generally negative effect on B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in dry years and this negative effect was significant in the plots that received the highest warming treatment. In contrast to models that predict negative responses of B. tectorum to warmer climate on the Colorado Plateau, the effects of warming were more nuanced, relied on background climate, and differed between the two field sites. Our results highlight the importance of considering the interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, and site-specific characteristics such as soil texture, on plant demography and have direct

  20. Native Perennial Grasses Show Evolutionary Response to Bromus tectorum (Cheatgrass) Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Goergen, Erin M.; Leger, Elizabeth A.; Espeland, Erin K.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species can change selective pressures on native plants by altering biotic and abiotic conditions in invaded habitats. Although invasions can lead to native species extirpation, they may also induce rapid evolutionary changes in remnant native plants. We investigated whether adult plants of five native perennial grasses exhibited trait shifts consistent with evolution in response to invasion by the introduced annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass), and asked how much variation there was among species and populations in the ability to grow successfully with the invader. Three hundred and twenty adult plants were collected from invaded and uninvaded communities from four locations near Reno, Nevada, USA. Each plant was divided in two and transplanted into the greenhouse. One clone was grown with B. tectorum while the other was grown alone, and we measured tolerance (ability to maintain size) and the ability to reduce size of B. tectorum for each plant. Plants from invaded populations consistently had earlier phenology than those from uninvaded populations, and in two out of four sites, invaded populations were more tolerant of B. tectorum competition than uninvaded populations. Poa secunda and one population of E. multisetus had the strongest suppressive effect on B. tectorum, and these two species were the only ones that flowered in competition with B. tectorum. Our study indicates that response to B. tectorum is a function of both location and species identity, with some, but not all, populations of native grasses showing trait shifts consistent with evolution in response to B. tectorum invasion within the Great Basin. PMID:21479185

  1. Effects of precipitation change and neighboring plants on population dynamics of Bromus tectorum.

    PubMed

    Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Shifting precipitation patterns resulting from global climate change will influence the success of invasive plant species. In the Front Range of Colorado, Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) and other non-native winter annuals have invaded grassland communities and are becoming more abundant. As the global climate warms, more precipitation may fall as rain rather than snow in winter, and an increase in winter rain could benefit early-growing winter annuals, such as B. tectorum, to the detriment of native species. In this study we measured the effects of simulated changes in seasonal precipitation and presence of other plant species on population growth of B. tectorum in a grassland ecosystem near Boulder, Colorado, USA. We also performed elasticity analyses to identify life transitions that were most sensitive to precipitation differences. In both study years, population growth rates were highest for B. tectorum growing in treatments receiving supplemental winter precipitation and lowest for those receiving the summer drought treatment. Survival of seedlings to flowering and seed production contributed most to population growth in all treatments. Biomass of neighboring native plants was positively correlated with reduced population growth rates of B. tectorum. However, exotic plant biomass had no effect on population growth rates. This study demonstrates how interacting effects of climate change and presence of native plants can influence the population growth of an invasive species. Overall, our results suggest that B. tectorum will become more invasive in grasslands if the seasonality of precipitation shifts towards wetter winters and allows B. tectorum to grow when competition from native species is low. PMID:26227366

  2. Eco-evolutionary responses of Bromus tectorum to climate change: implications for biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelikova, Tamara J.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Wertin, Timothy M.; Fettig, Christa; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    How plant populations, communities, and ecosystems respond to climate change is a critical focus in ecology today. The responses of introduced species may be especially rapid. Current models that incorporate temperature and precipitation suggest that future Bromus tectorum invasion risk is low for the Colorado Plateau. With a field warming experiment at two sites in southeastern Utah, we tested this prediction over 4 years, measuring B. tectorum phenology, biomass, and reproduction. In a complimentary greenhouse study, we assessed whether changes in field B. tectorum biomass and reproductive output influence offspring performance. We found that following a wet winter and early spring, the timing of spring growth initiation, flowering, and summer senescence all advanced in warmed plots at both field sites and the shift in phenology was progressively larger with greater warming. Earlier green-up and development was associated with increases in B. tectorum biomass and reproductive output, likely due early spring growth, when soil moisture was not limiting, and a lengthened growing season. Seeds collected from plants grown in warmed plots had higher biomass and germination rates and lower mortality than seeds from ambient plots. However, in the following two dry years, we observed no differences in phenology between warmed and ambient plots. In addition, warming had a generally negative effect on B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in dry years and this negative effect was significant in the plots that received the highest warming treatment. In contrast to models that predict negative responses of B. tectorum to warmer climate on the Colorado Plateau, the effects of warming were more nuanced, relied on background climate, and differed between the two field sites. Our results highlight the importance of considering the interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, and site-specific characteristics such as soil texture, on plant demography and have direct

  3. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    PubMed Central

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2015-01-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (“R”) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the “R” S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis “R” biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4–48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (“S”) biotypes. Seeds of the “S” biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the “R” biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months' of dry storage. The “R” biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of “R” and “S” biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, “R” seeds were significantly heavier than those of the “S” seeds. Differential seed germinability between “S” and “R” biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination. PMID:26258120

  4. Bringing Together Evolution on Serpentine and Polyploidy: Spatiotemporal History of the Diploid-Tetraploid Complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Fér, Tomáš; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Dušková, Eva; Schönswetter, Peter; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary ‘dead-ends’ but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e

  5. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis).

    PubMed

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K

    2015-01-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant ("R") biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the "R" S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis "R" biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4-48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible ("S") biotypes. Seeds of the "S" biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the "R" biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months' of dry storage. The "R" biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of "R" and "S" biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, "R" seeds were significantly heavier than those of the "S" seeds. Differential seed germinability between "S" and "R" biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination. PMID:26258120

  6. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  7. Bringing together evolution on serpentine and polyploidy: spatiotemporal history of the diploid-tetraploid complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae).

    PubMed

    Kolář, Filip; Fér, Tomáš; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Dušková, Eva; Schönswetter, Peter; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e.g., via

  8. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion

  9. Efficacy of essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis against some storage pests causing biodeterioration of food commodities.

    PubMed

    Varma, J; Dubey, N K

    2001-09-01

    The essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis have been tested for their fumigant activity in the management of biodeterioration of stored wheat samples by Aspergillus flavus and the insect pests, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum, at 1300 and 600 ppm, respectively. The findings indicate the efficacy of the oils as potent fumigants for management of the biodeterioration of stored wheat samples. The oils also controlled the blue mould rot of oranges caused by Penicillium italicum and enhanced the market life of the oranges for a considerable period, showing their efficacy as postharvest fungicides of higher plant origin. PMID:11529443

  10. Petasites japonicus Stimulates the Proliferation of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Yong-An; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Dong Gu; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Byung-Gak; Oh, Myeong-Geun; Han, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sanghyun; Ryu, Buom-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oriental natural plants have been used as medical herbs for the treatment of various diseases for over 2,000 years. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several natural plants on the preservation of male fertility by assessing the ability of plant extracts to stimulate spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferation by using a serum-free culture method. In vitro assays showed that Petasites japonicus extracts, especially the butanol fraction, have a significant effect on germ cells proliferation including SSCs. The activity of SSCs cultured in the presence of the Petasites japonicus butanol fraction was confirmed by normal colony formation and spermatogenesis following germ cell transplantation of the treated SSCs. Our findings could lead to the discovery of novel factors that activate SSCs and could be useful for the development of technologies for the prevention of male infertility. PMID:26207817

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Heteromycteris japonicus (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Jiang, Jin-Xia; Miao, Xian-Guang; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2014-08-01

    The bamboo sole Heteromycteris japonicus (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) is characterized by both eyes on the right side of the body and a rostral hook. In this article, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of this sole was first determined. The total length is 17,111 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes (12 S and 16 S), as well as a putative control region and a putative L-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations and arrangements are identical to those of typical bony fishes. Overall base composition of the mitogenome is 29.2%, 27.5%, 16.3% and 27.1% for A, C, G and T, with a high A + T content (56.3%). The determination of H. japonicus mitogenome sequence could contribute to understanding the systematic evolution of the genus Heteromycteris and further phylogenetic study on Soleidae and Pleuronectiformes. PMID:23808925

  12. Petasites japonicus Stimulates the Proliferation of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Dong Gu; Kim, Bang-Jin; Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Byung-Gak; Oh, Myeong-Geun; Han, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sanghyun; Ryu, Buom-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oriental natural plants have been used as medical herbs for the treatment of various diseases for over 2,000 years. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several natural plants on the preservation of male fertility by assessing the ability of plant extracts to stimulate spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) proliferation by using a serum-free culture method. In vitro assays showed that Petasites japonicus extracts, especially the butanol fraction, have a significant effect on germ cells proliferation including SSCs. The activity of SSCs cultured in the presence of the Petasites japonicus butanol fraction was confirmed by normal colony formation and spermatogenesis following germ cell transplantation of the treated SSCs. Our findings could lead to the discovery of novel factors that activate SSCs and could be useful for the development of technologies for the prevention of male infertility. PMID:26207817

  13. Postembryonic development of the bone-eating worm Osedax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax exclusively inhabit sunken vertebrate bones on the seafloor. The unique lifestyle and morphology of Osedax spp. have received much scientific attention, but the whole process of their development has not been observed. We herein report the postembryonic development and settlement of Osedax japonicus Fujikura et al. (Zool Sci 23:733-740, 2006). Fertilised eggs were spawned into the mucus of a female, and the larvae swam out from the mucus at the trochophore stage. Larvae survived for 10 days under laboratory conditions. The larvae settled on bones, elongated their bodies and crawled around on the bones. Then they secreted mucus to create a tube and the palps started to develop. The palps of O. japonicus arose from the prostomium, whereas the anterior appendages of other siboglinids arose from the peristomium. The recruitment of dwarf males was induced by rearing larvae with adult females. Females started to spawn eggs 6 weeks after settlement.

  14. Bidirectional but asymmetrical sexual hybridization between Brassica carinata and Sinapis arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kyle W; Razeq, Fakhria M; Sauder, Connie A; James, Tracey; Martin, Sara L

    2015-05-01

    With transgenic crop development it is important to evaluate the potential for transgenes to escape into populations of wild, weedy relatives. Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata, BBCC) is easily transformed and is being investigated for uses from biodiesel fuels to biopharmaceuticals. However, little work has been done evaluating its ability to cross with relatives such as wild mustard (Sinapsis arvensis, SrSr), an abundant, cosmopolitan weedy relative. Here we conducted bidirectional crosses with Ethiopian mustard as a maternal parent in 997 crosses and paternal parent in 1,109 crosses. Hybrids were confirmed using flow cytometry and species-specific ITS molecular markers and indicate a high hybridization rate of 6.43 % between Ethiopian mustard (♀) and wild mustard (♂) and a lower, but not insignificant, hybridization rate of 0.01 % in the reverse direction. The majority of the hybrids were homoploid (BCSr) with less than 1 % of pollen production of their parents and low seed production (0.26 seeds/pollination) in crosses and backcrosses indicating a potential for advanced generation hybrids. The accession used had a significant effect on hybrid seed production with different accessions of Ethopian mustard varying in their production of hybrid offspring from 2.69 to 16.34 % and one accession of wild mustard siring almost twice as many hybrid offspring per flower as the other. One pentaploid (BBCCSr) and one hexaploid (BBCCSrSr) hybrid were produced and had higher pollen viability, though no and low seed production, respectively. As wild mustard is self-incompatible and the outcrossing rate of Ethiopian mustard has been estimated as 30 % potential for hybrid production in the wild appears to be high, though the hybridization rate found here represents a worst case scenario as it does not incorporate pre-pollination barriers. Hybridization in the wild needs to be directly evaluated as does the propensity of Ethiopian mustard to volunteer. PMID:25698113

  15. Do the effects of crops on skylark (Alauda arvensis) differ between the field and landscape scales?

    PubMed Central

    Barbottin, Aude; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of biodiversity in agricultural areas involves actions at the landscape scale, and the management of cropping patterns is considered an important means of achieving this goal. However, most of the available knowledge about the impact of crops on biodiversity has been obtained at the field scale, and is generally grouped together under the umbrella term “crop suitability.” Can field-scale knowledge be used to predict the impact on populations across landscapes? We studied the impact of maize and rapeseed on the abundance of skylark (Alauda arvensis). Field-scale studies in Western Europe have reported diverse impacts on habitat selection and demography. We assessed the consistency between field-scale knowledge and landscape-scale observations, using high-resolution databases describing crops and other habitats for the 4 km2 grid scales analyzed in the French Breeding Bird Survey. We used generalized linear models to estimate the impact of each studied crop at the landscape scale. We stratified the squares according to the local and geographical contexts, to ensure that the conclusions drawn were valid in a wide range of contexts. Our results were not consistent with field knowledge for rapeseed, and were consistent for maize only in grassland contexts. However, the effect sizes were much smaller than those of structural landscape features. These results suggest that upscaling from the field scale to the landscape scale leads to an integration of new agronomic and ecological processes, making the objects studied more complex than simple “crop ∗ species” pairs. We conclude that the carrying capacity of agricultural landscapes cannot be deduced from the suitability of their components. PMID:26213656

  16. [Reactivating factor of Luteococcus japonicus subsp. casei: isolation and characterization].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, L I; Rogozhin, E A; Khodzhaev, E Iu; Nikolaev, I V; Turova, T P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that a producer strain of reactivating factor (RF) is identical to a typical strain of Luteococcus japonicus DSM 10546 from the Propionibacteriaceae family according to the physiological and biochemical properties and the sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments. A number of phenotypical differences from the model strain allowed the producer strain to be considered a subspecies of Luteococcus japonicus, and it was named Luteococcus japonicus subsp. casei. At cultivation of the producer, RF is secreted into the medium and plays the role of a signaling molecule. RF antioxidant activities towards various organic radicals may be a possible mechanism of its protective and reactivating effects. Metabolites secreted by the L. casei producer strain into the culture medium were separated by a combination of liquid chromatographies. Four components possessing biological activities were found. The most active one was studied by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, which revealed that it is a polypeptide. Primary identification of some amino acid residues was performed. Sugar residues were found in the structure. PMID:25842902

  17. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  18. Ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance by Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus.

    PubMed

    Masuda, R

    2011-05-01

    The ontogeny of swimming speed, schooling behaviour and jellyfish avoidance was studied in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus to compare its life-history strategy with two other common pelagic fishes, jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Cruise swimming speed of E. japonicus increased allometrically from 1·4 to 3·9 standard length (L(S) ) per s (L(S) s(-1) ) from early larval to metamorphosing stage. Burst swimming speed also increased from 6·1 to 28 L(S) s(-1) in these stages. Cruise speed was inferior to that of S. japonicus, as was burst speed to that of T. japonicus. Engraulis japonicus larvae were highly vulnerable to predation by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and were readily eaten until they reached 23 mm L(S) , but not at 26 mm L(S) . Schooling behaviour (indicated by parallel swimming) started at c. 17 mm L(S) . Average distance to the nearest neighbour was shorter than values reported in other pelagic fishes. The relatively low predator avoidance capability of E. japonicus may be compensated for by their transparent and thus less conspicuous body, in addition to their early maturation and high fecundity. PMID:21539545

  19. Nickel tolerance of serpentine and non-serpentine Knautia arvensis plants as affected by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Pavla; Sudová, Radka

    2014-04-01

    Serpentine soils have naturally elevated concentrations of certain heavy metals, including nickel. This study addressed the role of plant origin (serpentine vs. non-serpentine) and symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant Ni tolerance. A semi-hydroponic experiment involving three levels of Ni and serpentine and non-serpentine AMF isolates and populations of a model plant species (Knautia arvensis) revealed considerable negative effects of elevated Ni availability on both plant and fungal performance. Plant growth response to Ni was independent of edaphic origin; however, higher Ni tolerance of serpentine plants was indicated by a smaller decline in the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments and restricted root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Serpentine plants also retained relatively more Mg in their roots, resulting in a higher shoot Ca/Mg ratio. AMF inoculation, especially with the non-serpentine isolate, further aggravated Ni toxicity to host plants. Therefore, AMF do not appear to be involved in Ni tolerance of serpentine K. arvensis plants. PMID:24136374

  20. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  1. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Sahi, S. V.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment. PMID:25654134

  2. A comparision of cumulative-germination response of cheatgrass (Bromus Tectorum L.) and five perennial bunchgrass species to simulated field-temperature regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) has come to dominate millions of hectares of rangeland in the Intermountain western United States. Previous studies have hypothesized that one mechanism conferring a competitive advantage to this species is the ability to germinate rapidly at low temperatures in the ...

  3. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  4. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Hungary: a new species on Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) and new record on Convolvulus arvensis (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ripka, Géza

    2014-01-01

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aculus castriferrei n. sp., associated with Agrimonia eupatoria (Rosaceae) is described and illustrated from Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this vagrant species from other rosaceous inhabiting congeners are discussed. Aceria malherbae Nuzzaci is a new record for the eriophyoid fauna of Hungary after it was found causing severe damage symptoms to Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae). PMID:25543737

  5. Orostachys japonicus Suppresses Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting NFATc1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Ha, Hyunil; Kim, Taesoo; Lee, Chung-Jo; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    The herb Orostachys japonicus has been traditionally used to treat chronic diseases, such as hepatitis, hemorrhoids, and cancer, in Asia. In this study, we investigated the effect of Orostachys japonicus water extract (OJWE) on the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. We found that OJWE inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bone resorption in bone marrow-derived macrophage cells. Interestingly, OJWE significantly reduced serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, markers of bone resorption and osteoclast number, respectively, in an animal model of bone loss. Furthermore, OJWE suppressed the RANKL-induced up-regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) expression, and activation of the p38 signaling pathway, but prevented the RANKL-mediated down-regulation of interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), which is known to be an anti-osteoclastogenic factor that represses NFATc1 expression. We also identified gallic acid and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside as the OJWE components that inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. These results suggest that OJWE inhibits osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression, which prevents osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. The present study elucidated a mechanism of action underlying the inhibitory effect of OJWE on osteoclast differentiation. Our findings suggest that O. japonicus has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:26205967

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Chloranthus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yimin; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Zhishu; Wu, Haifeng

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Chloranthus japonicus, an important traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was sequenced and characterized in this study. The genome size is 158,640 bp in length with 38.9% GC content. Two inverted repeats of 26,149 bp are separated by a large single-copy region (87,724 bp) and a small single-copy region (18,618 bp). The genome contains 131 individual genes, including 86 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Eighteen genes contain one or two introns. PMID:25707409

  7. Natural nitric oxide (NO) inhibitors from Chloranthus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Jing-Jun; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Tang, Gui-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Yin, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Eight new lindenane sesquiterpenoid dimers, chlojapolides A-H (1-8), along with 11 known analogues were isolated from the whole plant of Chloranthus japonicus. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods. All the compounds were examined for their inhibitory effects on the nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compounds 1, 11, 13, and 17 exhibited pronounced inhibition with IC50 values in the range of 6.91-15.75μM, being more active than the positive control, quercetin (IC50=15.90μM). PMID:27177824

  8. Characterization of phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial immune-related enzyme in invertebrates. In this study, three POs of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were detected in coelomic fluid using linear-gradient native-PAGE combined with catechol staining and then partially purified by gel excising. The results showed that the three POs had a color of mahogany (AjPO1), yellow (AjPO2) and purple (AjPO3) respectively with molecular weights smaller than 21kDa in native-PAGE after staining with catechol. Enzymatic activities analysis revealed that AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3 had optimal temperature of 45, 95 and 85°C and pH of 5.0, 8.0 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Km values of AjPO1 for catechol, l-DOPA, dopamine and hydroquinone were 3.23, 0.86, 3.98 and 1.20mmol/l, respectively, those of AjPO2 were 0.31, 0.38, 2.05 and 1.30mmol/l, respectively, and those of AjPO3 were 5.95, 1.28, 5.81 and 0.62mmol/l, respectively. These results suggest that the three POs are laccase-type phenoloxidase. The activities of all three A. japonicus POs were significantly promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and some common antioxidants. The inhibitions by EDTA and DETC suggest that the three A. japonicus POs are copper-containing metalloenzymes. Immune-responsive analysis showed that the total PO activities in coelomocytes (TPAC) increased greatly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and declined significantly after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenge, implying that A. japonicus PO immune system, which is composed of several isoenzymes with different characteristics, is closely involved in the defense against the infection of Gram-negative bacteria and double-stranded RNA viruses. PMID:24631331

  9. Comparative effects of glyphosate and atrazine in chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat and downy brome. [Triticum aestivum; Bromus tectorum

    SciTech Connect

    Auge, R.M.; Gealy, D.R.; Ogg, A.G.; Franceschi, V.R.

    1987-04-01

    Developing and mature leaves of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Daws) and the weed species downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were subjected to 10 mM (foliar application) and 1 mM (root application) herbicide solutions. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl-amino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) were prepared in a carrier composed of 5% soybean oil concentrate, 35% acetone and 60% water. Penetration experiments with /sup 3/H-labelled herbicides assessed what percentage of herbicide entered leaves, and microautoradiography was used to determine qualitatively how much herbicide was present in the sections viewed with TEM. Tissue was excised at 4, 18, 62 and 200 hours, and then either freeze-substituted or fixed chemically. Ultrastructural effects of each herbicide on chloroplasts from leaves of newly-germinated seedlings and of well-tillered plants are depicted and discussed. Temporal differences in response of chloroplasts to each herbicide are noted.

  10. Effects of thermal power plant effluents on formation and senescence of reproductive parts of Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Saquib, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon and particulates are the major air pollutants emitted in huge amounts by the Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) running on 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents significantly affect reproductive phase of Anagallis arvensis L. Samples of 10 plants each were randomly collected at monthly intervals at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant complex. Bud formation and flowering were delayed in the population thriving at 0.5 km from the pollution source. As a 2 month old stage, 60% of the population showed a decline in bud formation in the vicinity of the source compared to a heavy bud emergence in the whole population thriving 20 km away from it. Bud formation, flowering fruit set and seed set showed a correlation with multiple growth factors viz productivity, shoot length and distance from the source.

  11. Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vange, Vibekke; Heuch, Ivar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are vulnerable stages in the plant life cycle. We investigated how seed mass and family (progeny origin) affect germination and juvenile performance in the grassland herb Knautia arvensis. Seeds were produced by cross-pollination by hand. The fate of 15 individually weighed seeds from each of 15 plants was followed during a 3-month growth chamber experiment. Progeny origin affected germination, both through seed mass and as an independent factor. Two groups of progenies could be distinguished by having rapid or delayed germination. The two groups had similar mean seed masses, but a positive relationship between seed mass and germination rate could be established only among the rapidly germinating progenies. These biologically relevant patterns were revealed because timing of germination was taken into account in the analyses, not only frequencies. Time-to-event data were analysed with failure-time methods, which gave more stable estimates for the relation between germination and seed mass than the commonly applied logistic regression. Progeny origin and seed mass exerted less impact on later characters like juvenile survival, juvenile biomass, and rosette number. These characters were not affected by the timing of germination under the competition-free study conditions. The decrease in the effect of progeny origin from the seed and germination to the juvenile stages suggests that parental effects other than those contributing to the offspring genotype strongly influenced the offspring phenotype at the earliest life stages. Further, the division of progeny germination patterns into two fairly distinct groups indicates that there was a genetic basis for the variation in stratification requirements among parental plants. Field studies are needed to elucidate effects of different timing of germination in the seasonal grasslands that K. arvensis inhabits.

  12. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace

  13. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace

  14. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. PMID:25449414

  15. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing and Characterization for the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huixia; Bao, Zhenmin; Hou, Rui; Wang, Shan; Su, Hailin; Yan, Jingjing; Tian, Meilin; Li, Yan; Wei, Wen; Lu, Wei; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus. Results In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome. Conclusion Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic markers were also

  17. Germination rate of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds relative to storage methods and periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop; Son, Min Ho

    2014-03-01

    To determine the optimal storage method and longest possible storage period of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds, we examined post-storage germination rates using different storage methods and periods for P. japonicus seeds harvested in Korean coastal waters. P. japonicus seeds are classified as recalcitrant seeds with an average moisture content of 45.4%. Germination rates of P. japonicus seeds stored in seawater at 4 °C, seawater at room temperature with air supply, and an aquarium with continuous seawater circulation ranged from 35.0% to 43.5%, whereas seeds stored in seawater at 30°C, a refrigerator at -20°C, and a desiccator at room temperature did not germinate. Seeds stored at 4°C maintained germination rates of 72.5˜73.0% until 30 days of storage, but showed rapidly decreasing germination rates after 60 days and no germination after 180 days. Since few studies have investigated seed storage of P. japonicus, these results will serve as useful data for seed-based P. japonicus habitat restoration.

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-10

    In copepods, no information has been reported on the structure or molecular characterization of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we identified a NOS gene that is involved in immune responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. In silico analyses revealed that nitric oxide (NO) synthase domains, such as the oxygenase and reductase domains, are highly conserved in the T. japonicus NOS gene. The T. japonicus NOS gene was highly transcribed in the nauplii stages, implying that it plays a role in protecting the host during the early developmental stages. To examine the involvement of the T. japonicus NOS gene in the innate immune response, the copepods were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and two Vibrio sp. After exposure to different concentrations of LPS and Vibrio sp., T. japonicus NOS transcription was significantly increased over time in a dose-dependent manner, and the NO/nitrite concentration increased as well. Taken together, our findings suggest that T. japonicus NOS transcription is induced in response to an immune challenge as part of the conserved innate immunity. PMID:26611530

  19. Dietary Apostichopus japonicus enhances the respiratory and intestinal mucosal immunity in immunosuppressive mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rong; Li, Xuemin; Cao, Binbin; Zuo, Tao; Wu, Juan; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2015-01-01

    Although Apostichopus japonicus is recognized as a food and drug resource with significant immunomodulatory activity, its role in regulating the mucosal immunity remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of dietary A. japonicus on mucosal immunity with an immunosuppressive mouse model. The expression of lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A(sIgA), and immunoglobulin A(IgA) as well as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor(pIgR) in respiratory and intestine organs was investigated. The results showed that A. japonicus could improve both the systematic and mucosal immunity. The expression of lysozyme, sIgA, and IgA in the respiratory organ was increased more significantly. Consumption of A. japonicus with the dose of 512 mg kg(-1), which equals to (1)/2 sea cucumber per day for adults, showed better effects. This study elucidated positive effects of A. japonicus on mucosal immunity for the first time, suggesting that moderate consumption of A. japonicus is helpful in improving mucosal immunity and preventing exogenous infection. PMID:25186733

  20. Soil Seed Bank Responses to Postfire Herbicide and Native Seeding Treatments Designed to Control Bromus tectorum in a Pinyon–Juniper Woodland at Zion National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.; Hondo Brisbin, graduate student; Andrea Thode, Associate Professor; Karen Weber, graduate student

    2013-01-01

    The continued threat of an invasive, annual brome (Bromus) species in the western United States has created the need for integrated approaches to postfire restoration. Additionally, the high germination rate, high seed production, and seed bank carryover of annual bromes points to the need to assay soil seed banks as part of monitoring programs. We sampled the soil seed bank to help assess the effectiveness of treatments utilizing the herbicide Plateau® (imazapic) and a perennial native seed mix to control annual Bromus species and enhance perennial native plant establishment following a wildfire in Zion National Park, Utah. This study is one of few that have monitored the effects of imazapic and native seeding on a soil seed bank community and the only one that we know of that has done so in a pinyon–juniper woodland. The study made use of untreated, replicated controls, which is not common for seed bank studies. One year posttreatment, Bromus was significantly reduced in plots sprayed with herbicide. By the second year posttreatment, the effects of imazapic were less evident and convergence with the controls was evident. Emergence of seeded species was low for the duration of the study. Dry conditions and possible interactions with imazapic probably contributed to the lack of emergence of seeded native species. The perennial grass sand dropseed outperformed the other species included in the seed mix. We also examined how the treatments affected the soil seed bank community as a whole. We found evidence that the herbicide was reducing several native annual forbs and one nonnative annual forb. However, overall effects on the community were not significant. The results of our study were similar to what others have found in that imazapic is effective in providing a short-term reduction in Bromus density, although it can impact emergence of nontarget species.

  1. Comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH) analysis of the genomic relationships among Sinapis arvensis, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shufang; Han, Yonghua; Wu, Xiaoming; An, Tingting; Tang, Jiali; Shen, Junjun; Li, Zongyun

    2012-06-01

    To further understand the relationships between the SS genome of Sinapis arvensis and the AA, BB genomes in Brassica, genomic DNA of Sinapis arvensis was hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of Brassica nigra (BB genome), and the metaphase chromosomes and interphase nucleus of Brassica rapa (AA genome) by comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cGISH). As a result, every chromosome of B. nigra had signals along the whole chromosomal length. However, only half of the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus and the chromosomes showed rich signals in Brassica rapa. Interphase nucleus and the metaphase chromosomes of S. arvensis were simultaneously hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA of B. nigra and biotin-labeled genomic DNA of B. rapa. Signals of genomic DNA of B. nigra hybridized throughout the length of all chromosomes and all the condensed heterochromatic areas in the interphase nucleus, except chromosome 4, of which signals were weak in centromeric regions. Signals of the genomic DNA of B. rapa patterned the most areas of ten chromosomes and ten condensed heterochromatic areas, others had less signals. The results showed that the SS genome had homology with AA and BB genomes, but the homology between SS genome and AA genome was clearly lower than that between the SS genome and BB genome. PMID:22804340

  2. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-01-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus).These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation. PMID:25926394

  3. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-04-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus). These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation. PMID:25926394

  4. Novel episomal vectors and a highly efficient transformation procedure for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Keita; Nakajima, Reiko; Furuya, Kanji; Niki, Hironori

    2010-12-01

    Schizosaccharomyces japonicus is a fission yeast for which new genetic tools have recently been developed. Here, we report novel plasmid vectors with high transformation efficiency and an electroporation method for Sz. japonicus. We isolated 44 replicating segments from 12 166 transformants of Sz. japonicus genomic fragments and found a chromosomal fragment, RS1, as a new replicating sequence that conferred high transformation activity to Sz. japonicus cells. This sequence was cloned into a pUC19 vector with ura4(+) of Sz. pombe (pSJU11) or the kan gene on the kanMX6 module (pSJK11) as selection markers. These plasmids transformed Sz. japonicus cells in the early-log phase by electroporation at a frequency of 123 cfu/µg for pSJK11 and 301 cfu/µg for pSJU11, which were higher than previously reported autonomously replicating sequences. Although a portion of plasmids remained in host cells by integration into the chromosome via RS1 segment, the plasmids could be recovered from transformants. The plasmid copy number was estimated to be 1.88 copies per cell by Southern blot analysis using a Sz. pombe ura4(+) probe. The plasmid containing ade6(+) suppressed the auxotrophic growth of the ade6-domE mutant, indicating that the plasmid would be useful for suppressor screening and complementation assays in Sz. japonicus. Furthermore, pSJU11 transformed Sz. pombe cells with the same frequency as the pREP2 plasmid. This study is a report to demonstrate practical use of episomal plasmid vectors for genetic research in Sz. japonicus. PMID:20737410

  5. Using High-Resolution Future Climate Scenarios to Forecast Bromus tectorum Invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park

    PubMed Central

    West, Amanda M.; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum. PMID:25695255

  6. Using high-resolution future climate scenarios to forecast Bromus tectorum invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    West, Amanda M; Kumar, Sunil; Wakie, Tewodros; Brown, Cynthia S; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Laituri, Melinda; Bromberg, Jim

    2015-01-01

    National Parks are hallmarks of ecosystem preservation in the United States. The introduction of alien invasive plant species threatens protection of these areas. Bromus tectorum L. (commonly called downy brome or cheatgrass), which is found in Rocky Mountain National Park (hereafter, the Park), Colorado, USA, has been implicated in early spring competition with native grasses, decreased soil nitrogen, altered nutrient and hydrologic regimes, and increased fire intensity. We estimated the potential distribution of B. tectorum in the Park based on occurrence records (n = 211), current and future climate, and distance to roads and trails. An ensemble of six future climate scenarios indicated the habitable area of B. tectorum may increase from approximately 5.5% currently to 20.4% of the Park by the year 2050. Using ordination methods we evaluated the climatic space occupied by B. tectorum in the Park and how this space may shift given future climate change. Modeling climate change at a small extent (1,076 km2) and at a fine spatial resolution (90 m) is a novel approach in species distribution modeling, and may provide inference for microclimates not captured in coarse-scale models. Maps from our models serve as high-resolution hypotheses that can be improved over time by land managers to set priorities for surveys and removal of invasive species such as B. tectorum. PMID:25695255

  7. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  8. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  9. An effective seeding method for restoring the surfgrass Phyllospadix japonicus using an aartificial reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Im; Son, Min Ho; Kim, Jeong Bae; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2014-12-01

    Phyllospadix japonicus is an abundant surfgrass that thrives mainly along the exposed rocky shores of Northeastern Asia. On the eastern coast of Korea, surfgrass populations have been adversely affected by increasing human pressures. We developed a seeding method using an artificial reef for the restoration of P. japonicus. In January 2005, we planted P. japonicus seeds on the lower part of coarse hemp-plant brush that was embedded densely on the concave surface on the top of artificial reefs. The reefs were then installed on an exposed rocky shore. To evaluate the feasibility of this seed-based surfgrass restoration technique, we monitored the seedling/shoot density and morphological characteristics of the shoots over a 2-year period. Seedlings began to emerge within the first month after seeding, reaching densities of up to 275.0 shoots m-2 by April 2005. After an initial decline, shoot density increased through the production of lateral shoots, and densities of up to 997.1 shoots m-2 were observed by the end of the experiment. Shoot height, the number of leaves, and leaf width rapidly increased during the first year after seeding, whereas the number of rhizome internodes and rhizome length rapidly increased during the second year. The P. japonicus shoots exhibited approximately 63.4 mm of rhizome elongation during the study period. Because seeded P. japonicus on the artificial reefs were successfully established at the study site, this seeding method using an artificial reef may offer an effective approach to restoring surfgrass habitat.

  10. Interspecific Larval Competition Between Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Armistead, J. S.; Arias, J. R.; Nishimura, N.; Lounibos, L. P.

    2008-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) are two of the most recent and widespread invasive mosquito species to have become established in the United States. The two species co-occur in water-filled artificial containers, where crowding and limiting resources are likely to promote inter- or intraspecific larval competition. The performance of northern Virginia populations of Ae. japonicus and Ae. albopictus competing as larvae under field conditions was evaluated. Per capita rates of population increase for each species were estimated, and the effects of species composition and larval density were determined. In water-containing cups provided with oak leaves, Ae. albopictus larvae exhibited a competitive advantage over Ae. japonicus as a consequence of higher survivorship, shorter developmental time, and a significantly higher estimated population growth rate under conditions of interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition constrained population performance of Ae. albopictus significantly more than competition with Ae. japonicus. In the context of the Lotka-Volterra model of competition, these findings suggest competitive exclusion of Ae. japonicus in those habitats where this species co-occurs with Ae. albopictus. PMID:18714861

  11. In-Frame Deletions Allow Functional Characterization of Complex Cellulose Degradation Phenotypes in Cellvibrio japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Cassandra E.

    2015-01-01

    The depolymerization of the recalcitrant polysaccharides found in lignocellulose has become an area of intense interest due to the role of this process in global carbon cycling, human gut microbiome nutritional contributions, and bioenergy production. However, underdeveloped genetic tools have hampered study of bacterial lignocellulose degradation, especially outside model organisms. In this report, we describe an in-frame deletion strategy for the Gram-negative lignocellulose-degrading bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus. This method leverages optimized growth conditions for conjugation and sacB counterselection for the generation of markerless in-frame deletions. This method produces mutants in as few as 8 days and allows for the ability to make multiple gene deletions per strain. It is also possible to remove large sections of the genome, as shown in this report with the deletion of the nine-gene (9.4-kb) gsp operon in C. japonicus. We applied this system to study the complex phenotypes of cellulose degradation in C. japonicus. Our data indicated that a Δcel5B Δcel6A double mutant is crippled for cellulose utilization, more so than by either single mutation alone. Additionally, we deleted individual genes in the two-gene cbp2ED operon and showed that both genes contribute to cellulose degradation in C. japonicus. Overall, these described techniques substantially enhance the utility of C. japonicus as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation. PMID:26116676

  12. Phylogenetic differentiation between Atlantic Scomber colias and Pacific Scomber japonicus based on nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Blanco, Enrique; Zuasti, Eugenia; Crespo, Aniela; Manchado, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    In the classical taxonomy, three Scomber species are distinguished: S. scombrus, S. australasicus, and S. japonicus. Yet, some fish taxonomists have recently recognized Scomber colias, inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean, as a separate species from S. japonicus, distributed in the Pacific Ocean. Such proposal was based on significant mitochondrial DNA divergence as well as great phenotypic variation among individuals from these two ocean basins. However, in the absence of nuclear DNA data this issue remains still controversial. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear 5S rDNA sequences was performed. A total of 30 individuals of S. colias collected in the Atlantic and 34 specimens of S. japonicus from the Pacific were characterized. Moreover, nine individuals of Pacific S. australasicus and eight of Atlantic S. scombrus were included. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining analyses revealed the presence of two well-supported distinct clades corresponding to S. colias and S. japonicus, respectively. Altogether, morphologic and genetic data are in agreement with the recognition of two different species, S. colias in the Atlantic, and S. japonicus in the Pacific. PMID:16897460

  13. Proteomic investigation of the secretome of Cellvibrio japonicus during growth on chitin.

    PubMed

    Tuveng, Tina Rise; Arntzen, Magnus Øverlie; Bengtsson, Oskar; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the secretomes of microbes grown on insoluble substrates are important for the discovery of novel proteins involved in biomass conversion. However, data in literature and this study indicate that secretome samples tend to be contaminated with cytoplasmic proteins. We have examined the secretome of the Gram-negative soil bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus using a simple plate-based culturing technique that yields samples with high fractions (60-75%) of proteins that are predicted to be secreted. By combining this approach with label-free quantification using the MaxLFQ algorithm, we have mapped and quantified proteins secreted by C. japonicus during growth on α- and β-chitin. Hierarchical clustering of the detected protein quantities revealed groups of up-regulated proteins that include all five putative C. japonicus chitinases as well as a chitin-specific lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (CjLPMO10A). A small set of secreted proteins were co-regulated with known chitin-specific enzymes, including several with unknown catalytic functions. These proteins provide interesting targets for further studies aimed at unraveling the enzymatic machineries used by C. japonicus for recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation. Studies of chitin degradation indicated that C. japonicus indeed produces an efficient chitinolytic enzyme cocktail. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD002843 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002843). PMID:27169553

  14. Community Ecology of Container Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virginia Following Invasion by Aedes japonicus

    PubMed Central

    ARMISTEAD, JENNIFER S.; NISHIMURA, NAOYA; ARIAS, JORGE R.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

    2012-01-01

    The success of an invasive species in a new region depends on its interactions with ecologically similar resident species. Invasions by disease vector mosquitoes are important as they may have ecological and epidemiological consequences. Potential interactions of a recent invasive mosquito, Aedes japonicus Theobald, with resident species in Virginia were evaluated by sampling larvae from containers and trapping adults. Distinct species compositions were observed for artificial containers and rock pools, with Ae. albopictus most abundant in the former and Ae. japonicus in the latter. However, these two species were found to co-occur in 21.2% of containers sampled. Among the six mosquito species most common in containers from May through September, 2006, only interspecific associations of Ae.japonicus with Aedesalbopictus(Skuse) and Aedestriseriatus(Say) were significant, and both were negative. In addition to differences in habitat preference, mean crowding estimates suggest that interspecific repulsion may contribute to the significant negative associations observed between these species. High relative abundances of late instars and pupae of Ae. japonicus seem to provide this species with a mechanism of evading competition with Ae. albopictus, facilitating their coexistence in artificial containers. Although annual fluctuations were observed, trends in adult populations over a 6-yr period provide no evidence of declines. In summary, this survey of diverse container types and all life stages provided only limited evidence for competitive displacements or reductions of resident container species by Ae. japonicus, as observed elsewhere in its invasive range. PMID:23270159

  15. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  16. Expression of Apostichopus japonicus lysozyme in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Xu, Yongping; Liu, Wenjia; Sun, Yongxin; Jin, Liji

    2011-05-01

    Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) is one of the economically important farmed echinoderm species in Northern China. As a crucial enzyme in innate immunity, lysozyme plays a key role in the overall defense against pathogens in A. japonicus. In the present study, a lysozyme gene from A. japonicus was cloned by PCR and expressed in Pichia pastoris using the expression vector pPIC9K. The expressed lysozyme had a molecular mass of ∼14 kD, as shown by SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting. The expression condition was optimized, and the highest expression level was achieved by induction with 1% methanol at pH 5.0 for 120 h. The recombinant lysozyme was purified by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA column. The specific activity of the purified lysozyme was 34,000 U/mg using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as substrates. It exhibited antimicrobial activity toward M.lysodeikticus, as detected by growth inhibition on agar plate and turbidity assay, suggesting a potential application of A. japonicus lysozyme as an antimicrobial agent in A. japonicus aquaculture. PMID:21241808

  17. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  18. DNA Barcoding of genus Hexacentrus in China reveals cryptic diversity within Hexacentrus japonicus (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui-Fang; Guan, Bei; Shi, Fu-Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA barcoding has been proved successful to provide resolution beyond the boundaries of morphological information. Hence, a study was undertaken to establish DNA barcodes for all morphologically determined Hexacentrus species in China collections. In total, 83 specimens of five Hexacentrus species were barcoded using standard mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Except for Hexacentrus japonicus, barcode gaps were present in the remaining Hexacentrus species. Taxon ID tree generated seven BOLD’s barcode index numbers (BINs), four of which were in agreement with the morphological species. For Hexacentrus japonicus, the maximum intraspecific divergence (4.43%) produced a minimal overlap (0.64%), and 19 specimens were divided into three different BINs. There may be cryptic species within the current Hexacentrus japonicus. This study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for katydids, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables the identification of known Hexacentrus species with a very high resolution. PMID:27408576

  19. Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Obenauer, Peter; Hughes, Tony; Healy, Sean; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Kesavaraju, Banu; Fonseca, Dina; Schoeler, George; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. japonicus (Theobald) are important container-inhabiting mosquitoes that transmit disease agents, outcompete native species, and continue to expand their range in the United States. Both species deposit eggs in natural and artificial containers and thrive in peridomestic environments. The goal of our study was to examine the types and characteristics of containers that are most productive for these species in the northeastern United States. In total, 306 containers were sampled in urban, suburban, and rural areas of New Jersey. Multiple biotic and abiotic factors were recorded in an attempt to identify variables associated with the productivity of each species. Based on pupal abundance and density of container types, results showed that tires, trash cans, and planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. albopictus, while planter dishes were the most important containers for Ae. japonicus. Container color (black and gray), material (rubber), and type (tires) were correlated with species presence for Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus. These factors may play a role in the selection of oviposition sites by female mosquitoes or in the survival of their progeny. Differences in species composition and abundance were detected between areas classified as urban, suburban, and rural. In urban and suburban areas, Ae. albopictus was more abundant in container habitats than Ae. japonicus; however, Ae. japonicus was more abundant in rural areas, and when water temperatures were below 14 degrees C. Our results suggest many variables can influence the presence of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus in container habitats in northeastern United States. PMID:22897041

  20. A Novel Phenolic Compound, Chloroxynil, Improves Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Transformation in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Cutler, Sean; Isobe, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a commonly used method for plant genetic engineering. However, the limitations of Agrobacterium host-plant interactions and the complexity of plant tissue culture often make the production of transgenic plants difficult. Transformation efficiency in many legume species, including soybean and the common bean, has been reported to be quite low. To improve the transformation procedure in legumes, we screened for chemicals that increase the transformation efficiency of Lotus japonicus, a model legume species. A Chemical library was screened and chemicals that increase in transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus accession, Miyakojima MG-20 were identified. The transient transformation efficiency was quantified by reporter activity in which an intron-containing reporter gene produces the GUS protein only when the T-DNA is expressed in the plant nuclei. We identified a phenolic compound, chloroxynil, which increased the genetic transformation of L. japonicus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Characterization of the mode of chloroxynil action indicated that it enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the activation of the Agrobacterium vir gene expression, similar to acetosyringone, a phenolic compound known to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus with 5 μM chloroxynil was 60- and 6- fold higher than that of the control and acetosyringone treatment, respectively. In addition, transgenic L. japonicus lines were successfully generated by 5 μM chloroxynil treatment.Furthermore, we show that chloroxynil improves L. japonicus transformation by Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and rice transformation. Our results demonstrate that chloroxynil significantly improves Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency of various agriculturally important crops. PMID:26176780

  1. Soil nutritional status, not inoculum identity, primarily determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Knautia arvensis plants.

    PubMed

    Doubková, Pavla; Kohout, Petr; Sudová, Radka

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is among the factors contributing to plant survival in serpentine soils characterised by unfavourable physicochemical properties. However, AM fungi show a considerable functional diversity, which is further modified by host plant identity and edaphic conditions. To determine the variability among serpentine AM fungal isolates in their effects on plant growth and nutrition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted involving two serpentine and two non-serpentine populations of Knautia arvensis plants grown in their native substrates. The plants were inoculated with one of the four serpentine AM fungal isolates or with a complex AM fungal community native to the respective plant population. At harvest after 6-month cultivation, intraradical fungal development was assessed, AM fungal taxa established from native fungal communities were determined and plant growth and element uptake evaluated. AM symbiosis significantly improved the performance of all the K. arvensis populations. The extent of mycorrhizal growth promotion was mainly governed by nutritional status of the substrate, while the effect of AM fungal identity was negligible. Inoculation with the native AM fungal communities was not more efficient than inoculation with single AM fungal isolates in any plant population. Contrary to the growth effects, a certain variation among AM fungal isolates was revealed in terms of their effects on plant nutrient uptake, especially P, Mg and Ca, with none of the AM fungi being generally superior in this respect. Regardless of AM symbiosis, K. arvensis populations significantly differed in their relative nutrient accumulation ratios, clearly showing the plant's ability to adapt to nutrient deficiency/excess. PMID:23568184

  2. Relative Abundance of and Composition within Fungal Orders Differ between Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)-Associated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Carolyn F.; King, Gary M.; Aho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF. This shift is likely intertwined with decreased carbon (C)-sequestration in cheatgrass-invaded soils and alterations in overall soil fungal community composition and structure, but the latter remain unresolved. We examined soil fungal communities using high throughput amplicon sequencing (ribosomal large subunit gene) in the 0–4 cm and 4–8 cm depth intervals of six cores from cheatgrass- and six cores from sagebrush-dominated soils. Sagebrush core surfaces (0–4 cm) contained higher nitrogen and total C than cheatgrass core surfaces; these differences mirrored the presence of glomalin related soil proteins (GRSP), which has been associated with AMF activity and increased C-sequestration. Fungal richness was not significantly affected by vegetation type, depth or an interaction of the two factors. However, the relative abundance of seven taxonomic orders was significantly affected by vegetation type or the interaction between vegetation type and depth. Teloschistales, Spizellomycetales, Pezizales and Cantharellales were more abundant in sagebrush libraries and contain mycorrhizal, lichenized and basal lineages of fungi. Only two orders (Coniochaetales and Sordariales), which contain numerous economically important pathogens and opportunistic saprotrophs, were more abundant in cheatgrass libraries. Pleosporales, Agaricales, Helotiales and Hypocreales were most abundant across all libraries, but the number of genera detected within these orders was as much as 29 times lower in cheatgrass relative to sagebrush libraries. These compositional differences between fungal communities associated with cheatgrass- and

  3. Effects of Bromus tectorum invasion on microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling in two adjacent undisturbed arid grassland communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Sean M.; Ziegler, Susan E.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) is an important component in maintaining ecosystem stability, and the introduction of non-native plants can alter N cycling by changing litter quality and quantity, nutrient uptake patterns, and soil food webs. Our goal was to determine the effects of Bromus tectorum (C3) invasion on soil microbial N cycling in adjacent non-invaded and invaded C3 and C4 native arid grasslands. We monitored resin-extractable N, plant and soil δ13C and δ15N, gross rates of inorganic N mineralization and consumption, and the quantity and isotopic composition of microbial phospholipid biomarkers. In invaded C3 communities, labile soil organic N and gross and net rates of soil N transformations increased, indicating an increase in overall microbial N cycling. In invaded C4 communities labile soil N stayed constant, but gross N flux rates increased. The δ13C of phospholipid biomarkers in invaded C4 communities showed that some portion of the soil bacterial population preferentially decomposed invader C3-derived litter over that from the native C4 species. Invasion in C4 grasslands also significantly decreased the proportion of fungal to bacterial phospholipid biomarkers. Different processes are occurring in response to B. tectorum invasion in each of these two native grasslands that: 1) alter the size of soil N pools, and/or 2) the activity of the microbial community. Both processes provide mechanisms for altering long-term N dynamics in these ecosystems and highlight how multiple mechanisms can lead to similar effects on ecosystem function, which may be important for the construction of future biogeochemical process models.

  4. Effects of resource availability and propagule supply on native species recruitment in sagebrush ecosystems invaded by Bromus tectorum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzola, Monica B.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Blank, Robert R.; Pyke, David A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Allcock, Kimberly G.; Doescher, Paul S.; Nowak, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Resource availability and propagule supply are major factors influencing establishment and persistence of both native and invasive species. Increased soil nitrogen (N) availability and high propagule inputs contribute to the ability of annual invasive grasses to dominate disturbed ecosystems. Nitrogen reduction through carbon (C) additions can potentially immobilize soil N and reduce the competitiveness of annual invasive grasses. Native perennial species are more tolerant of resource limiting conditions and may benefit if N reduction decreases the competitive advantage of annual invaders and if sufficient propagules are available for their establishment. Bromus tectorum, an exotic annual grass in the sagebrush steppe of western North America, is rapidly displacing native plant species and causing widespread changes in ecosystem processes. We tested whether nitrogen reduction would negatively affect B. tectorum while creating an opportunity for establishment of native perennial species. A C source, sucrose, was added to the soil, and then plots were seeded with different densities of both B. tectorum (0, 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 viable seeds m-2) and native species (0, 150, 300, and 600 viable seeds m-2). Adding sucrose had short-term (1 year) negative effects on available nitrogen and B. tectorum density, biomass and seed numbers, but did not increase establishment of native species. Increasing propagule availability increased both B. tectorum and native species establishment. Effects of B. tectorum on native species were density dependent and native establishment increased as B. tectorum propagule availability decreased. Survival of native seedlings was low indicating that recruitment is governed by the seedling stage.

  5. Suppression of annual Bromus tectorum by perennial Agropyron cristatum: roles of soil nitrogen availability and biological soil space

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Robert R.; Morgan, Tye; Allen, Fay

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, exotic invasive grasses have caused numerous ecosystem perturbations. Rangelands of the western USA have experienced increases in the size and frequency of wildfires largely due to invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum. Rehabilitation of invaded rangelands is difficult; but long-term success is predicated on establishing healthy and dense perennial grass communities, which suppress B. tectorum. This paper reports on two experiments to increase our understanding of soil factors involved in suppression. Water was not limiting in this study. Growth of B. tectorum in soil conditioned by and competing with the exotic perennial Agropyron cristatum was far less relative to its growth without competition. When competing with A. cristatum, replacing a portion of conditioned soil with fresh soil before sowing of B. tectorum did not significantly increase its growth. The ability of conditioned soil to suppress B. tectorum was lost when it was separated from growing A. cristatum. Soil that suppressed B. tectorum growth was characterized by low mineral nitrogen (N) availability and a high molar ratio of NO2− in the solution-phase pool of NO2−+NO3−. Moreover, resin availability of NO2−+NO3− explained 66 % of the variability in B. tectorum above-ground mass, attesting to the importance of A. cristatum growth in reducing N availability to B. tectorum. Trials in which B. tectorum was suppressed the most were characterized by very high shoot/root mass ratios and roots that have less root hair growth relative to non-suppressed counterparts, suggesting co-opting of biological soil space by the perennial grass as another suppressive mechanism. Greater understanding of the role of biological soil space could be used to breed and select plant materials with traits that are more suppressive to invasive annual grasses. PMID:25603967

  6. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  7. Relative abundance of and composition within fungal orders differ between cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate)-associated soils.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M; Aho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF. This shift is likely intertwined with decreased carbon (C)-sequestration in cheatgrass-invaded soils and alterations in overall soil fungal community composition and structure, but the latter remain unresolved. We examined soil fungal communities using high throughput amplicon sequencing (ribosomal large subunit gene) in the 0-4 cm and 4-8 cm depth intervals of six cores from cheatgrass- and six cores from sagebrush-dominated soils. Sagebrush core surfaces (0-4 cm) contained higher nitrogen and total C than cheatgrass core surfaces; these differences mirrored the presence of glomalin related soil proteins (GRSP), which has been associated with AMF activity and increased C-sequestration. Fungal richness was not significantly affected by vegetation type, depth or an interaction of the two factors. However, the relative abundance of seven taxonomic orders was significantly affected by vegetation type or the interaction between vegetation type and depth. Teloschistales, Spizellomycetales, Pezizales and Cantharellales were more abundant in sagebrush libraries and contain mycorrhizal, lichenized and basal lineages of fungi. Only two orders (Coniochaetales and Sordariales), which contain numerous economically important pathogens and opportunistic saprotrophs, were more abundant in cheatgrass libraries. Pleosporales, Agaricales, Helotiales and Hypocreales were most abundant across all libraries, but the number of genera detected within these orders was as much as 29 times lower in cheatgrass relative to sagebrush libraries. These compositional differences between fungal communities associated with cheatgrass- and

  8. Relative abundance of and composition within fungal orders differ between cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)-associated soils.

    PubMed

    Wiber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M; Aho, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is decimating sagebrush steppe, one of the largest ecosystems in the Western United States, and is causing regional-scale shifts in the predominant plant-fungal interactions. Sagebrush, a native perennial, hosts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), whereas cheatgrass, a winter annual, is a relatively poor host of AMF. This shift is likely intertwined with decreased carbon (C)-sequestration in cheatgrass-invaded soils and alterations in overall soil fungal community composition and structure, but the latter remain unresolved. We examined soil fungal communities using high throughput amplicon sequencing (ribosomal large subunit gene) in the 0-4 cm and 4-8 cm depth intervals of six cores from cheatgrass- and six cores from sagebrush-dominated soils. Sagebrush core surfaces (0-4 cm) contained higher nitrogen and total C than cheatgrass core surfaces; these differences mirrored the presence of glomalin related soil proteins (GRSP), which has been associated with AMF activity and increased C-sequestration. Fungal richness was not significantly affected by vegetation type, depth or an interaction of the two factors. However, the relative abundance of seven taxonomic orders was significantly affected by vegetation type or the interaction between vegetation type and depth. Teloschistales, Spizellomycetales, Pezizales and Cantharellales were more abundant in sagebrush libraries and contain mycorrhizal, lichenized and basal lineages of fungi. Only two orders (Coniochaetales and Sordariales), which contain numerous economically important pathogens and opportunistic saprotrophs, were more abundant in cheatgrass libraries. Pleosporales, Agaricales, Helotiales and Hypocreales were most abundant across all libraries, but the number of genera detected within these orders was as much as 29 times lower in cheatgrass relative to sagebrush libraries. These compositional differences between fungal communities associated with cheatgrass- and

  9. A comparison of adaptive sampling designs and binary spatial models: A simulation study using a census of Bromus inermis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thornton, Jamie; Backus, Vickie M.; Hohmann, Matthew G.; Lehnhoff, Erik A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Michels, Kurt; Rew, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Commonly in environmental and ecological studies, species distribution data are recorded as presence or absence throughout a spatial domain of interest. Field based studies typically collect observations by sampling a subset of the spatial domain. We consider the effects of six different adaptive and two non-adaptive sampling designs and choice of three binary models on both predictions to unsampled locations and parameter estimation of the regression coefficients (species–environment relationships). Our simulation study is unique compared to others to date in that we virtually sample a true known spatial distribution of a nonindigenous plant species, Bromus inermis. The census of B. inermis provides a good example of a species distribution that is both sparsely (1.9 % prevalence) and patchily distributed. We find that modeling the spatial correlation using a random effect with an intrinsic Gaussian conditionally autoregressive prior distribution was equivalent or superior to Bayesian autologistic regression in terms of predicting to un-sampled areas when strip adaptive cluster sampling was used to survey B. inermis. However, inferences about the relationships between B. inermis presence and environmental predictors differed between the two spatial binary models. The strip adaptive cluster designs we investigate provided a significant advantage in terms of Markov chain Monte Carlo chain convergence when trying to model a sparsely distributed species across a large area. In general, there was little difference in the choice of neighborhood, although the adaptive king was preferred when transects were randomly placed throughout the spatial domain.

  10. Rapid microsatellite development in Gekko japonicus using sequenced restriction-site associated DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Shao, W W; Zhou, H B; Ping, J; Li, L M; Zhang, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in the Japanese gecko, Gekko japonicus. We genotyped one population from Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China (N = 36). The mean number of observed alleles per locus was 7.3 (range 4 to 13). Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.200 to 0.944 and from 0.395 to 0.797, respectively. One locus (GJ20) showed significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; no linkage disequilibrium was found between any two loci. These informative microsatellite markers will be useful for population genetic analyses of G. japonicus and other species in the genus Gekko. PMID:26535727

  11. A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) distribution in Western Germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus, a potential vector of several viruses, was first detected in Germany in 2008 on the Swiss-German border. In the following years, this invasive species apparently succeeded in establishing populations in southern Germany and in spreading northwards. In 2011, its distribution area already covered large areas of the federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg, and its northernmost German collection point was reported to be close to Stuttgart. Several independent submissions to our laboratories of Ae. j. japonicus specimens in July 2012, originating from the same area in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, western Germany, prompted us to carry out an immediate surveillance in this region in the expectation of finding a further distribution focus of Ae. j. japonicus in Germany. Methods After inspecting the places of residence of the collectors of the submitted mosquito specimens, all kinds of water containers in 123 cemeteries in surrounding towns and villages were checked for mosquito developmental stages. These were collected and kept to produce adults for morphological species identification. One specimen per collection site was identified genetically by COI sequence analysis. Results Aedes j. japonicus adults and immature stages were found in 36 towns/villages that were checked (29%) over an area of approximately 2,000 km2 in southern North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland Palatinate. The species could not be demonstrated further south when monitoring towards the northernmost previous collection sites in southern Germany. It therefore remains to be elucidated whether the species has entered western Germany from the south, from Belgium in the west where it has been demonstrated to occur locally since 2002, or through a new introduction. Conclusions Aedes j. japonicus is obviously much more widely distributed in Germany than previously thought. It appears to be well adapted, to have a strong

  12. Distribution of hydrogen-metabolizing bacteria in alfalfa field soil. [Medicago sativa L. ; Convolvulus arvensis L. ; Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, S.D.; Kapulnik, Y.; Phillips, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    H/sub 2/ evolved by alfalfa root nodules during the process of N/sub 2/ fixation may be an important factor influencing the distribution of soil bacteria. To test this hypothesis under field conditions, over 700 bacterial isolates were obtained from fallow soil or from the 3-mm layer of soil surrounding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules, alfalfa roots, or bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) roots. Bacteria were isolated under either aerobic or microaerophilic conditions and were tested for their capacity to metabolize H/sub 2/. Isolates showing net H/sub 2/ uptake and /sup 3/H/sub 2/ incorporation activity under laboratory conditions were assigned a Hup/sup +/ phenotype, whereas organisms with significant H/sub 2/ output capacity were designated as a Hout/sup +/ phenotype. Under aerobic isolation conditions two Hup/sup +/ isolates were obtained, whereas under microaerophilic conditions five Hup/sup +/ and two Hout/sup +/ isolates were found. The nine isolates differed on the basis of 24 standard bacteriological characteristics or fatty acid composition. Five of the nine organisms were isolated from soil around root nodules, whereas the other four were found distributed among the other three soil environments. On the basis of the microaerophilic isolations, 4.8% of the total procaryotic isolates from soil around root nodules were capable of oxidizing H/sub 2/, and 1.2% could produce H/sub 2/. Two of the Hup/sup +/ isolates were identified as Rhizobium meliloti by root nodulation tests, but the fact that none of the isolates reduced C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ under the assay conditions suggested that the H/sub 2/ metabolism traits were associated with various hydrogenase systems rather than with nitrogenase activity.

  13. Nonadaptive processes governing early stages of polyploid evolution: Insights from a primary contact zone of relict serpentine Knautia arvensis (Caprifoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Hanzl, Martin; Kolář, Filip; Nováková, Dora; Suda, Jan

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Contact zones between polyploids and their diploid progenitors may provide important insights into the mechanisms of sympatric speciation and local adaptation. However, most published studies investigated secondary contact zones where the effects of genome duplication can be confounded by previous independent evolution of currently sympatric cytotypes. We compared genetically close diploid and autotetraploid serpentine cytotypes of Knautia arvensis (Caprifoliaceae) in a primary contact zone and evaluated the role of adaptive and nonadaptive processes for cytotype coexistence.• Methods: DNA flow cytometry was used to determine ploidy distribution at various spatial scales (from across the entire contact zone to microgeographic). Habitat preferences of diploids and polyploids were assessed by comparing vegetation composition of nearby ploidy-uniform sites and by recording plant species immediately surrounding both cytotypes in mixed-ploidy plots.• Key results: Tetraploids considerably outnumbered their diploid progenitors in the contact zone. Both cytotypes were segregated at all investigated spatial scales. This pattern was not driven by ecological shifts, because both diploids and tetraploids inhabited sites with nearly identical vegetation cover. Certain interploidy niche differentiation was indicated only at the smallest spatial scale; ecologically nonadaptive processes were most likely responsible for this difference.• Conclusions: We conclude that a shift in ecological preferences (i.e., the adaptive scenario) is not necessary for the establishment and evolutionary success of autopolyploid derivatives in primary contact zones. Spatial segregation that would support ploidy coexistence can also be achieved by ecologically nonadaptive processes, including the founder effect, limited dispersal ability, intense clonal growth, and triploid block. PMID:24920762

  14. [Evaluation of the seed stock and dynamics of ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth) in the cultivation of wheat in the Sais area of Morocco].

    PubMed

    Hamal, A; Rzozi, S B; Benbella, M; Msatef, Y; Bouhache, M

    2001-01-01

    The study was conducted on experimental plots differing in cultivation treatment (deep or shallow) at the National School of Agricultural station for three years. The objective was to study the influence of the tillage practices on vertical distribution of the seeds of ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth) in the soil profile. Four tillage methods were tested: Zero tillage (SD), disc plough (PDL) and a disc harrow at two depths, 20 cm (CDM) and 30 cm (CDP). The results show that the type of cultivation affected the distribution of the seeds of ripgut brome. Shallow plots were highly infested by Bromus rigidus (876 plant/m2). The total number of seeds of ripgut brome was 96 and 45% in 0-4 cm of the soil, 3 and 29% in 4-15 cm and 1 and 26% in 15-30 cm, respectively of the deep (CDP) and shallow soil (SD). Deep tillage reduced the seed bank of ripgut brome by 96.6% and 66.7% for shallow. Seeds of ripgut brome survive more than three years at the deep soil. Processes of germination of this weed became functional after 98 days in the soil. The disc plough reduced significantly the brome population and seed bank compared to other tillage methods. PMID:12425100

  15. Assessment of phenolic content, free-radical-scavenging capacity genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effect of aqueous extract prepared from Moricandia arvensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, I; Limem, I; Neffati, A; Boubaker, J; Ben Sghaier, M; Bhouri, W; Bouhlel, I; Kilani, S; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2010-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data on the safety of an aqueous extract (AQE) from Moricandia arvensis. For this reason, Escherichia coli tested strains PQ35 and PQ37 were used to detect induction of DNA lesions by AQE. The SOS Chromotest showed that AQE induced a marginally genotoxic effect, as expressed by the induction factor (IF) value only with E. coli PQ37 tested strain (IF=1.77 at a dose of 250 microg/assay). The measurement of the anti-genotoxic activity of the AQE was also studied by inhibition of beta-galactosidase induction. A significant anti-genotoxic effect was observed with different tested doses of AQE, which suggests that M. arvensis extract has the potential to protect DNA from the action of nitrofurantoïn (NF) and free radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, AQE showed a free-radical-scavenging capacity towards ABTS+* and DPPH*. Total phenolic content was also evaluated following Folin-Ciocalteu method and results indicated high correlation between total phenol content and anti-genotoxic and antioxidant activities for AQE, but the highest correlation was showed with its capacity to stabilize ABTS+* (R2=0.9944). PMID:19951736

  16. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits. PMID:26304428

  17. Divergent metabolic responses of Apostichopus japonicus suffered from skin ulceration syndrome and pathogen challenge.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Ou, Changrong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Yali; Su, Xiurong; Li, Ye; Li, Taiwu

    2013-11-13

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries, in which Vibrio splendidus has been well documented as one of the major pathogens. However, the intrinsic mechanisms toward pathogen challenge and disease outbreak remain largely unknown at the metabolic level. In this work, the metabolic responses were investigated in muscles of sea cucumber among natural SUS-diseased and V. splendidus-challenged samples. The pathogen did not induce obvious biological effects in A. japonicus samples after infection for the first 24 h. An enhanced energy storage (or reduced energy demand) and immune responses were observed in V. splendidus-challenged A. japonicus samples at 48 h, as marked by increased glucose and branched chain amino acids, respectively. Afterward, infection of V. splendidus induced significant increases in energy demand in A. japonicus samples at both 72 and 96 h, confirmed by decreased glucose and glycogen, and increased ATP. Surprisingly, high levels of glycogen and glucose and low levels of threonine, alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and ATP were founded in natural SUS-diseased sea cucumber. Our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interaction for sea cucumber, and informed that the metabolic biomarkers induced by V. splendidus were not usable for the prediction of SUS disease in practice. PMID:24127639

  18. Physiological properties of Scomber japonicus meat hydrolysate prepared by subcritical water hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Moon, Hye Eun; Roh, Myong-Kyun; Ha, Yu-Mi; Lee, Bo-Bae; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2016-01-01

    The health-beneficial biological activities, including antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, of Scomber japonicus muscle protein hydrolysates prepared by subcritical water hydrolysis were investigated. After 5 min of subcritical hydrolysis at 140 degrees C, 59.76% of S. japonicus muscle protein was hydrolyzed, the highest degree of hydrolysis in all the groups were tested. According to the response surface methodology results, as the reaction temperature and reaction time became lower and shorter, the yield became higher. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity (90.63%) occurred in hydrolysates treated at 140 degrees C for 5 min, and the highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity (65.54%) was identified in hydrolysates treated at 200 degreesC for 15 min. Changes in the molecular weight distribution of S. japonicus muscle proteins after subcritical water hydrolysis were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Subcritical water hydrolysis is a suitable technique for obtaining S.japonicus muscle protein hydrolysates with useful biological activities, within a short time (5-15 min). PMID:26930861

  19. New paralytic alkaloids, asperparalines A, B and C, from Aspergillus japonicus JV-23.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Nishimoto, Y; Akiyama, K; Nozaki, H

    2000-01-01

    New paralytic alkaloids, asperparalines A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated from okara (the insoluble residue of whole soybean) that had been fermented with Aspergillus japonicus JV-23. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. These asperparalines showed paralytic activity against silk worms. PMID:10705455

  20. Multiple components are integrated to determine leaf complexity in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Jianghua; Weng, Lin; Li, Xin; Cao, Xianglin; Hu, Xiaohe; Luo, Da; Yang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Transcription factors and phytohormones have been reported to play crucial roles to regulate leaf complexity among plant species. Using the compound-leafed species Lotus japonicus, a model legume plant with five visible leaflets, we characterized four independent mutants with reduced leaf complexity, proliferating floral meristem (pfm), proliferating floral organ-2 (pfo-2), fused leaflets1 (ful1) and umbrella leaflets (uml), which were further identified as loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis orthologs LEAFY (LFY), UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 2 (CUC2) and PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), respectively. Comparing the leaf development of wild-type and mutants by a scanning electron microscopy approach, leaflet initiation and/or dissection were found to be affected in these mutants. Expression and phenotype analysis indicated that PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO determined the basipetal leaflet initiation manner in L. japonicus. Genetic analysis of ful1 and uml mutants and their double mutants revealed that the CUC2-like gene and auxin pathway also participated in leaflet dissection in L. japonicus, and their functions might influence cytokinin biogenesis directly or indirectly. Our results here suggest that multiple genes were interplayed and played conserved functions in controlling leaf complexity during compound leaf development in L. japonicus. PMID:23331609

  1. Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Shewanella marisflavi, a novel pathogen of Apostichopus japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shewanella marisflavi strain AP629 was certified as a novel pathogen of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (3C1, 3D9, 2F2, 2A8) against strain AP629 were developed by immunizing Balb/C mice. 3C1 and 3D9 recognized S. marisflavi only, showing no ...

  2. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibody to spherulocytes: A subpopulation of coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One monoclonal antibody (mAb 3F6) against coelomocytes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was developed by immunization of Balb/C mice. Analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), immunocytochemical assay (ICA),Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), mAb 3...

  3. GERMINATION OF STYRAX JAPONICUS SEEDS AS INFLUENCED BY STORAGE AND SOWING CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effect of storage and sowing conditions on seed germination of Styrax japonicus Sieb. et. Zucc, an ornamental tree with seeds that exhibit double dormancy. The germination of freshly harvested seeds was compared with seeds that had been stored dry at 20C for a year before s...

  4. The introduced Asian parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus (Harada) (Cyclopoida: Ergasilidae) from endangered cichlid teleosts in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Paredes-Trujillo, Amelia; González-Solís, David

    2010-11-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Neoergasilus japonicus ( Harada, 1930 ) is recorded from three endangered or threatened fish species from southeast Mexico: the tailbar cichlid Vieja hartwegi (Taylor and Miller, 1980); the Angostura cichlid V. breidohri (Werner and Stawikowski, 1987); and the sieve cichlid C. grammodes (Taylor and Miller, 1980). This ectoparasitic copepod is considered, together with most other members of Neoergasilus, an Eastern Asian form. N. japonicus is one of the most widespread parasitic Asian copepods, as it has rapidly invaded Europe and North America, including Mexico. We estimated the prevalence, mean abundance, and intensity of infection of N. japonicus in these cichlid teleosts; our data agree with previous works stating the high prevalence of this ectoparasite. This copepod has a wide range of hosts among freshwater fish taxa, but this is only the second published report from cichlids in the Neotropical region. The three cichlids surveyed, V. hartwegi, V. breidohri, and C. grammodes, are new hosts of this copepod. Its occurrence in Mexico is attributed to different events of introduction by human agency. This is the southernmost record of N. japonicus in continental America. It is a matter of concern that this copepod is parasitizing endangered or threatened endemic cichlids in the Neotropical region. Because its high infective efficiency and ability to shift hosts, this Asian parasite is expected to spread farther southwards into Central and South America. PMID:21039123

  5. A novel crustin from Marsupenaeus japonicus promotes hemocyte phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Sun, Jie-Jie; Jia, Wen-Ming; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-04-01

    Crustins are cationic cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that contain multiple domains (glycine-rich, cysteine-rich, or proline-rich) at the N-terminus and whey acidic protein (WAP) domains at the C-terminus. Crustins have multiple functions, including protease inhibition and antimicrobial activity. Other functions of crustins need to be clarified. In this study, a novel crustin with a cysteine-rich region, and a single WAP domain, belonging to type I crustins, was identified in Marsupenaeus japonicus and designated as MjCru I-1. MjCru I-1 was expressed in various tissues. The expression of MjCru I-1 was upregulated in the hemocytes of shrimp challenged with bacteria. MjCru I-1 could bind to bacteria by binding to the cell wall molecules of the bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The synthesized WAP domain of MjCru I-1 but not synthesized Cys-rich domain has antibacterial and agglutinative activities. Scanning electron microscope assay showed that the bacterial cells treated with sMjCru I-1 appeared to be disrupted and cracked compared with those of the control samples. The knockdown of MjCru I-1 could reduce bacterial clearance and injection of MjCru I-1 could significantly increase the survival rate of shrimp infected with Vibrio anguillarum and Staphylococcus aureus compared with those of the control samples. Further study discovered that MjCru I-1 could increase the hemocyte phagocytosis against V. anguillarum and S. aureus. These results suggest that MjCru I-1 has dual functions, bactericidal and phagocytosis promoting activities, in the antibacterial immunity of shrimp. PMID:25479014

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jihoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Cheon, Seongmin; Jin, Soyeong; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Chungoo

    2016-08-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867 represents an important resource in biomedical research, traditional medicine, and the seafood industry. Much of the commercial value of A. japonicus is determined by dorsal/ventral color variation (red, green, and black), yet the taxonomic relationships between these color variants are not clearly understood. We performed the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from three color variants of A. japonicus. Using the Illumina platform, we sequenced nearly 177,596,774 clean reads representing a total of 18.2Gbp of sea cucumber transcriptome. A comparison of over 0.3 million transcript scaffolds against the Uniprot/Swiss-Prot database yielded 8513, 8602, and 8588 positive matches for green, red, and black body color transcriptomes, respectively. Using the Panther gene classification system, we assessed an extensive and diverse set of expressed genes in three color variants and found that (1) among the three color variants of A. japonicus, genes associated with RNA binding protein, oxidoreductase, nucleic acid binding, transferase, and KRAB box transcription factor were most commonly expressed; and (2) the main protein functional classes are differently regulated in all three color variants (extracellular matrix protein and phosphatase for green color, transporter and potassium channel for red color, and G-protein modulator and enzyme modulator for black color). This work will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play significant morphological and physiological roles in color variants of A. japonicus, and these sequence data will provide a useful set of resources for the rapidly growing sea cucumber aquaculture industry. PMID:27105969

  7. Enzymatic elucidation of haemocyanin from Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus and its molecular recognition mechanism towards pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Haemocyanin is an important non-specific immune protein present in the hemolymph of invertebrates, which have the ability to recognize the microbial pathogens and trigger the innate immune system. In this study, we isolated and purified the haemocyanin using gel filtration chromatography and investigated its microbial recognition mechanism against the invading pathogens. Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus haemocyanin showed the single band with a molecular weight of 76 kDa on SDS-PAGE and its molecular mass was analysed through the MALDI. Pathogen recognition mechanism of M. japonicus haemocyanin was detected through bacterial agglutination, agglutination inhibition and prophenoloxidase activity. M. japonicus haemocyanin agglutinate all human blood RBC types and showed the bacterial agglutination against all tested Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at the concentrations ranging from 30 to 50 μg/ml. Agglutination was inhibited by 50-200 mM of N-acetylneuraminic acid, a-D-glucose, D-galactose and D-xylose. Our results suggest that, 76 kDa subunit of M. japonicus haemocyanin recognize the pathogenic surface proteins which are present on the outer membrane of the bacteria and mediates the bacterial agglutination through haemocytes. This bacterial agglutination was visualized through Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). This present study would be helpful to explore the importance of haemocyanin in innate immune response of M. japonicus and its eliciting pathogen recognition mechanism leads to the development of innate immunity in crustaceans. PMID:25204648

  8. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. PMID:27374541

  9. Morphogenesis at the inflorescence shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis: surface geometry and growth in comparison with the vegetative shoot

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geometry and surface growth based on the sequential replica method is used to compare morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis in the reproductive and vegetative phases of development. Formation of three types of lateral organs takes place at the Anagallis shoot apical meristem (SAM): vegetative leaf primordia are formed during the vegetative phase and leaf-like bracts and flower primordia during the reproductive phase. Although the shapes of all the three types of primordia are very similar during their early developmental stages, areal growth rates and anisotropy of apex surface growth accompanying formation of leaf or bract primordia are profoundly different from those during formation of flower primordia. This provides an example of different modes of de novo formation of a given shape. Moreover, growth accompanying the formation of the boundary between the SAM and flower primordium is entirely different from growth at the adaxial leaf or bract primordium boundary. In the latter, areal growth rates at the future boundary are the lowest of all the apex surface, while in the former they are relatively very high. The direction of maximal growth rate is latitudinal (along the future boundary) in the case of leaf or bract primordium but meridional (across the boundary) in the case of flower. The replica method does not enable direct analysis of growth in the direction perpendicular to the apex surface (anticlinal direction). Nevertheless, the reconstructed surfaces of consecutive replicas taken from an individual apex allow general directions of SAM surface bulging accompanying primordium formation to be recognized. Precise alignment of consecutive reconstructions shows that the direction of initial bulging during the leaf or bract formation is nearly parallel to the shoot axis (upward bulging), while in the case of flower it is perpendicular to the axis (lateral bulging). In future, such 3D reconstructions can be used to assess

  10. Genotype-specific responses of Bromus erectus to elevated CO{sub 2} at different levels of biodiversity and endophyte infection - a field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steinger, T.; Groppe, K.; Schmid, B. |

    1995-06-01

    In 1994 we initiated a long-term field experiment in a calcareous grassland to study the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on individuals, populations, and communities. Clonal replicates of 54 genotypes of the dominant grass Bromus erectus were grown in communities planted at three levels of biodiversity (5-, 12-, 31-species plots) and exposed to ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. The same genotypes were also individually grown in tubes within the field plots. Some genotypes were infected by the endophytic fungus Epichloee typhina. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no significant effects on plant growth, however, there was large variation among genotypes in all measured characters. A significant CO{sub 2}-by-genotype interaction was found for leaf length in the competition-free tubes. Infection by the endophyte led to the abortion of all inflorescences but increased vegetative growth, especially under competitive conditions.

  11. Towards resolving the Knautia arvensis agg. (Dipsacaceae) puzzle: primary and secondary contact zones and ploidy segregation at landscape and microgeographic scales

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Štech, Milan; Trávníček, Pavel; Rauchová, Jana; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Kubešová, Magdalena; Suda, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Detailed knowledge of variations in ploidy levels and their geographic distributions is one of the key tasks faced in polyploid research in natural systems. Flow cytometry has greatly facilitated the field of cytogeography by allowing characterization of ploidy levels at both the regional and population scale, and at multiple stages of the life cycle. In the present study, flow cytometry was employed to investigate the patterns and dynamics of ploidy variation in the taxonomically challenging complex Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae) and some of its allies (K. dipsacifolia, K. slovaca) in Central Europe. Methods DNA ploidy levels were estimated by DAPI flow cytometry in 5205 adult plants, 228 seedlings and 400 seeds collected from 292 Knautia populations in seven European countries. The flow cytometric data were supplemented with conventional chromosome counts. A subset of 79 accessions was subjected to estimation of the absolute genome size using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Key Results and Conclusions Five different ploidy levels (from 2x to 6x) were found, with triploids of K. arvensis being recorded for the first time. The species also exhibited variation in the monoploid genome size, corresponding to the types of habitats occupied (grassland diploid populations had larger genome sizes than relict and subalpine diploid populations). Disregarding relict populations, the distribution of 2x and 4x cytotypes was largely parapatric, with a diffuse secondary contact zone running along the north-west margin of the Pannonian basin. Spatial segregation of the cytotypes was also observed on regional and microgeographic scales. The newly detected sympatric growth of diploids and tetraploids in isolated relict habitats most likely represents the primary zone of cytotype contact. Ploidy level was found to be a major determinant of the strength of inter-cytotype reproductive barriers. While mixed 2x + 4x populations virtually lacked the intermediate

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Schlegel's Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hun; Park, Jaejin; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Lee, Heon-Joo; Kim, Ja-Kyeong; Park, Daesik

    2016-09-01

    We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Gekko japonicus, whose status as an endemic or invasive species is currently under debate in Korea. The total genome size is 16 544 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 non-coding regions. The A + T content of the genome is 55.8% (A, 31.2%; C, 29.4%; T, 24.6%; G, 14.9%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that G. japonicus has a close phylogenetic relationship with both G. swinhonis and G. chinensis. Our result will facilitate further genetic studies of this species to ascertain its species status. PMID:26366825

  13. Gekko japonicus genome reveals evolution of adhesive toe pads and tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Yongjun; Luo, Longhai; Yang, Jian; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Mei; Li, Yingrui; Qian, Tianmei; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Meiyuan; Li, Jiang; Gu, Yun; Han, Zujing; Xu, Man; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Changlai; Yu, Bin; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei; Jiang, Jianping; Yang, Huanming; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles are the most morphologically and physiologically diverse tetrapods, and have undergone 300 million years of adaptive evolution. Within the reptilian tetrapods, geckos possess several interesting features, including the ability to regenerate autotomized tails and to climb on smooth surfaces. Here we sequence the genome of Gekko japonicus (Schlegel's Japanese Gecko) and investigate genetic elements related to its physiology. We obtain a draft G. japonicus genome sequence of 2.55 Gb and annotated 22,487 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals specific gene family expansions or reductions that are associated with the formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision and tail regeneration, as well as the diversification of olfactory sensation. The obtained genomic data provide robust genetic evidence of adaptive evolution in reptiles. PMID:26598231

  14. Ontogenesis of coelomocytes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) studied with probes of monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Qi, Rui-rong; Wang, Yi-nan; Qiao, Guo; Ye, Shi-gen; Li, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically against coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus were employed to study the ontogenesis of coelomocytes by indirect immunofluorescence assay technique (IIFAT). Different developmental stages were identified by histochemical staining method. Stages including blastula, gastrula, auricularia (small-auricular larvae, mid-auricular larvae and big-auricular larvae), doliolaria, pentactula and juvenile were examined. The positive reactions with both MAb1C2 against all the types of coelomocytes and MAb3F6 specific to spherulocytes, were observed firstly at the blastula stage of the embryos. The positive reaction with MAb1E2 against lymphoid cells was observed from the big-auricular larvae, which indicated that lymphoid cells may not be progenitor cells or stem cells for A. japonicus. An increase of fluorescence intensity for each cell may imply a possible enhancement of the innate defensive mechanism as the embryogenesis progress. PMID:25218682

  15. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    PubMed

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. PMID:24375690

  16. Gekko japonicus genome reveals evolution of adhesive toe pads and tail regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Yongjun; Luo, Longhai; Yang, Jian; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Mei; Li, Yingrui; Qian, Tianmei; Zheng, Yuan; Li, Meiyuan; Li, Jiang; Gu, Yun; Han, Zujing; Xu, Man; Wang, Yingjie; Zhu, Changlai; Yu, Bin; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei; Jiang, Jianping; Yang, Huanming; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles are the most morphologically and physiologically diverse tetrapods, and have undergone 300 million years of adaptive evolution. Within the reptilian tetrapods, geckos possess several interesting features, including the ability to regenerate autotomized tails and to climb on smooth surfaces. Here we sequence the genome of Gekko japonicus (Schlegel's Japanese Gecko) and investigate genetic elements related to its physiology. We obtain a draft G. japonicus genome sequence of 2.55 Gb and annotated 22,487 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals specific gene family expansions or reductions that are associated with the formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision and tail regeneration, as well as the diversification of olfactory sensation. The obtained genomic data provide robust genetic evidence of adaptive evolution in reptiles. PMID:26598231

  17. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  18. RNA-Seq analysis of immune-relevant genes in Lateolabrax japonicus during Vibrio anguillarum infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Fu, Mingjun; Wang, Chengyang; Jiao, Zongyao; Qiu, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    Lateolabrax japonicus is one of the main marine aquatic fish species, and is popularly cultured in East Asia due to its highly commercial value. In recent years, because of large-scale and intensive farming and seawater pollution, fish diseases keep breaking out. However, systematic study on L. japonicus immunogenetics is limited due to the deficiency of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds. In this study, the widely analysis at the transcriptome level for L. japonicus that infected with Vibrio anguillarum was performed. In total, 334,388,688 high quality reads were obtained in six libraries (HK-VA, HK-PBS, LI-VA, LI-PBS, SP-VA and SP-PBS) and de novo assembled into 101,860 Unigenes with an average unigene length of 879 bp. Based on sequence similarity 30,142 unigenes (29.59%) were annotated in the public databases. Comparative analysis revealed, 1,202, 3034 and 3519 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in three comparisons (HK-PBS VS HK-VA, LI-PBS VS LI-VA and SP-PBS VS SP-VA). Enrichment and pathway analysis of the DEGs was also carried out to excavate the candidate genes related to immunity. In conclusion, this study identifies and evaluates dozen of potential immune related pathways and candidate genes, which are indispensable for padding genomic resources of L. japonicus, and would lay the foundation for further studying and illuminating the mechanism of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26945936

  19. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  20. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  1. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    PubMed Central

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; Vega, José M.; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073

  2. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  3. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073

  4. Postembryonic development of the mushroom bodies in the ant, Camponotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuri; Kubota, Kanae; Hara, Kenji

    2005-07-01

    Mushroom bodies (MB) are insect brain centers involved in learning and other complex behaviors and they are particularly large in ants. We describe the larval and pupal development of the MB in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Based on morphological cues, we characterized the stages of preimaginal development of worker ants. We then describe morphological changes and neurogenesis underlying the MB development. Kenyon cells are produced in a proliferation cluster formed by symmetrical division of MB neuroblasts. While the duration of larval instars shows great individual variation, MB neuroblasts increase in number in each successive larval instar. The number of neuroblasts increases further during prepupal stages and peaks during early pupal stages. It decreases rapidly, and then neurogenesis generally ceases during the mid pupal stage (P4). In contrast to the larval period, the MB development of individuals is highly synchronized with physical time throughout metamorphosis. We show that carpenter ants (C. japonicus) have approximately half as many MB neuroblasts than are found in the honey bee Apis mellifera. Mature MBs of carpenter ants and honey bees reportedly comprise almost the same number of neurons. We therefore suggest that the MB neuroblasts in C. japonicus divide more often in order to produce a final number of MB neurons similar to that of honey bees. PMID:16082163

  5. Differential gene expression in the respiratory tree of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yang, Hongsheng; Storey, Kenneth B; Chen, Muyan

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus, experience seasonally high water temperatures during the summer months and enter aestivation to survive. Aestivation is characterized by strong metabolic rate depression which is supported by a series of strategies including reorganizing metabolic processes, suppressing cell functions, enhancing cytoprotective mechanisms, and altered gene expression. The respiratory tree tissue of the sea cucumber is an excellent material for studying aestivation, undergoing obvious atrophy during aestivation. The present study analyzed the global gene expression profile of respiratory tree tissue of A. japonicus during aestivation by constructing and screening three libraries representing key stages of aestivation: non-aestivation (NA), deep-aestivation (DA), and arousal from aestivation (AA) using RNA-seq. A total of 1240, 1184 and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following the criteria of |log2 ratio|≥1 and FDR≤0.001 in comparisons of DA vs. NA, AA vs. NA and DA vs. AA. A set of respiratory tree specific DEGs was identified the first time and, in addition, common DEGs that were responsive to aestivation in both respiratory tree and intestine were identified. Functional analysis of DEGs was further performed by GO enrichment analysis and respiratory tree specific GO terms were screened out and provide interesting hints for further studies of the molecular regulation of aestivation in A. japonicus. PMID:25038515

  6. Does Lowering Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Nodules Modify Nitrogen Metabolism and Growth of Lotus japonicus?1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Judith; Pou de Crescenzo, Marie-Anne; Sené, Olivier; Hirel, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS) from Lotus japonicus was fused in the antisense orientation relative to the nodule-specific LBC3 promoter of soybean (Glycine max) and introduced into L. japonicus via transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Among the 12 independent transformed lines into which the construct was introduced, some of them showed diminished levels of GS1 mRNA and lower levels of GS activity. Three of these lines were selected and their T1 progeny was further analyzed both for plant biomass production and carbon and nitrogen (N) metabolites content under symbiotic N-fixing conditions. Analysis of these plants revealed an increase in fresh weight in nodules, roots and shoots. The reduction in GS activity was found to correlate with an increase in amino acid content of the nodules, which was primarily due to an increase in asparagine content. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that when GS becomes limiting, other enzymes (e.g. asparagine synthetase) that have the capacity to assimilate ammonium may be important in controlling the flux of reduced N in temperate legumes such as L. japonicus. Whether these alternative metabolic pathways are important in the control of plant biomass production still remains to be fully elucidated. PMID:12970491

  7. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  8. Reduced genetic variation in the Japanese giant salamander, Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Liu, Wan-zhao; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2008-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among 46 samples from 27 populations of the Japanese giant salamander, Andriasjaponicus and its congener, A. davidianus from China was investigated, using 3664 bp sequences of the mitochondrial genes NADH1, NADH3, cyt b and CR, partial NADH6 and intervening genes. In phylogenetic trees constructed by MP, ML, and Bayesian methods, the family Cryptobranchidae and the genus Andrias both form monophyletic groups. Japanese A. japonicus and Chinese A. davidianus are sister taxa and can be regarded as separate species despite a small degree of genetic differentiation. Andriasjaponicus is divided into central and western clades, but the phylogenetic relationships within the latter clade are unresolved. As previously reported from allozyme analyses, A. japonicus exhibits little genetic differentiation, in strong contrast to salamanders of the genus Hynobius with which their distributions overlap. This reduced genetic variability in A. japonicus is attributable to a unique mating system of polygyny, delayed sexual maturity, notable longevity, life in a stable aquatic environment, and gigantism, as well as bottleneck effects following habitat fragmentation and extinction of local populations during Quaternary glaciations. The species is thus susceptible to extinction by potential environmental fluctuations, and requires extensive conservation measures. PMID:18723097

  9. Apoptosis induction is involved in UVA-induced autolysis in sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Fu, Hui; Dong, Xiufang; Feng, Dingding; Li, Nan; Wen, Chengrong; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-05-01

    Autolysis easily happens to sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus, S. japonicus) for external stimulus like UV exposure causing heavy economic losses. Therefore, it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of S. japonicas autolysis. In the present study, to examine the involvement of apoptosis induction in UVA-induced autolysis of S. japonicas, we investigated the biochemical events including the DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and free radical formation. Substantial morphological changes such as intestine vomiting and dermatolysis were observed in S. japonicus during the incubation after 1-h UVA irradiation (10W/m(2)). The degradation of the structural proteins and enhancement of cathepsin L activity were also detected, suggesting the profound impact of proteolysis caused by the UVA irradiation even for 1h. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation and specific activity of caspase-3 was increased up to 12h after UVA irradiation. The levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated c-Jun.-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly increased by the UVA irradiation for 1h. An electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis revealed that UVA enhanced the free radical formation in S. japonicas, even through we could not identify the attributed species. These results suggest that UVA-induced autolysis in S. japonicas at least partially involves the oxidative stress-sensitive apoptosis induction pathway. These data present a novel insight into the mechanisms of sea cucumber autolysis induced by external stress. PMID:26971278

  10. [Recombinant expression and antibacterial activity of i-type lysozyme from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxia; Cong, Lina; Wang, Dan; Yang, Xijian; Zhu, Beiwei

    2009-02-01

    The cDNA of an i type lysozyme was cloned from Stichopus japonicus (named as SjLys). The DNA fragment of the mature SjLys was subcloned into expression vector of pET-32a (+) to construct the recombinant plasmid of pET32a (+)-SjLys. The recombinant plasmid was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS and induced by isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein expressed as inclusion bodies was denatured, partially purified and refolded to be an active form. The bacteriolytic activity of recombinant protein purified by the metal-chelating was 19.2 U/mg. The antibacterial activity of the purified recombinant SjLys (rSjLys) was analyzed. The rSjLys protein displayed inhibitive effect on the growth of the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In particular, rSjLys had a strong inhibitive activity on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both the most common pathogenic bacteria in the marine animals. The heat-treated rSjLys exhibited more potent activities against all tested bacteria. These results indicated that the S. japonicus lysozyme was the enzyme with combined enzymatic (glycosidase) and non-enzymatic antibacterial action, and it had a wide antibacterial spectrum. Therefore, it is suggested that the S. japonicus lysozyme should be one of the important molecules against pathogens in the innate immunity of sea cucumbers. PMID:19459322

  11. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (= Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, F; Mathis, A; Lang, S; Veronesi, E

    2016-09-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (= Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container-breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16-24-h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a TrueBeam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. PMID:27091384

  12. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P < 0.05). Five non-specific immune parameters including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in coelomic fluid were measured to evaluate the immune response of A. japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence and mortality after the Vibrio splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  13. Antioxidative-related genes expression following perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure in the intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is used as a surfactant in various industries and consumer products. The intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus, is one of the most abundant macrobenthic creatures. In this study, we have investigated the effect of PFOS on the molecular transcription of antioxidant and detoxification signaling in M. japonicus crab. The selected stress response genes were superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Significant up-regulation of SODs and CAT was observed after 24 and 96 h exposure to PFOS at different concentrations. The gene expression levels of GPx, PHGPx, and TrXR were significantly up-regulated after exposure to PFOS for 96 h. The transcript levels of CAT and PHGPx were induced in dose- and time-dependent manners after PFOS treatments. However, Prx gene expression was significantly up-regulated in M. japonicus crabs exposed to 10 and 30 μg L-1 PFOS for 96 h. Additionally, PFOS toxicity in M. japonicus induced reduced survival rates at relatively high concentrations of PFOS exposure. Our findings support the contention that exposures to PFOS induced the response of genes related to oxidative stress and detoxification in M. japonicus crabs.

  14. Understanding the Heat Shock Response in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, Using iTRAQ-Based Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is exploited as a commercial species owing to their high nutritive and medicinal value. Recent high summer temperatures have caused high mortality rates in A. japonicus. In this study, we applied the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the global protein expression profile under an acute short-term (48 h) heat stress. In total, 3432 proteins were identified, and 127 proteins showed significant heat stress responses, with 61 upregulated proteins and 66 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that heat stress influenced the expression of proteins involved in various biological processes, such as tissue protection and detoxification, lipid and amino acid metabolism, energy production and usage, transcription and translation, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation. These findings provide a better understanding about the response and thermo-tolerance mechanisms of A. japonicus under heat stress. PMID:26861288

  15. Understanding the Heat Shock Response in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, Using iTRAQ-Based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is exploited as a commercial species owing to their high nutritive and medicinal value. Recent high summer temperatures have caused high mortality rates in A. japonicus. In this study, we applied the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the global protein expression profile under an acute short-term (48 h) heat stress. In total, 3432 proteins were identified, and 127 proteins showed significant heat stress responses, with 61 upregulated proteins and 66 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that heat stress influenced the expression of proteins involved in various biological processes, such as tissue protection and detoxification, lipid and amino acid metabolism, energy production and usage, transcription and translation, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation. These findings provide a better understanding about the response and thermo-tolerance mechanisms of A. japonicus under heat stress. PMID:26861288

  16. Histological, ultrastructural and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) responses to heat stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-08-01

    The aquaculture industry for Apostichopus japonicus has suffered severe economic and resource losses due to high temperature in recent summers. There is increasing concern about the effect of high temperature on this species. Histological, ultrastructural and HSP70 responses to heat stress were investigated in the intestine of A. japonicus. Tissue degradation was observed in muscular, submucosal and mucosal layers, with significant decrease in plicae circulares of the mucosal layer. Ultrastructural damage intensified with increasing stress time, and indicators of cell apoptosis were evident after 192 h heat stress. Immunostaining showed HSP70 mainly in mucosa and serosa, with faint staining in non-stressed individuals (the control group) and denser staining under stress (the 6, 48 and 192 h groups). Western blot detection confirmed ocurrence of HSP70 in all groups and significant up-regulation under stress. The rapid and persistent response of HSP70 implies its critical role in the heat shock response of A. japonicus. PMID:25917397

  17. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3%-22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  18. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3% -22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  19. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4  · 7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p < 0.05). The best results from the CCRD experiments were obtained using (A) 0.040% KH2 PO4, (B) 0.050% MgSO4  · 7H2O, and (C) 0.040% yeast extract, enhancing in 49-53 U mg(-1) protein. The determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.92 and Fcalc was 7.48 times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). The optimized culture medium increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production. PMID:24026803

  20. Expression of the CLE-RS3 gene suppresses root nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hanna; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication, principally mediated by short- or long-range mobile signals, is involved in many plant developmental processes. In root nodule symbiosis, a mutual relationship between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, the mechanism for the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) plays a key role in preventing the production of an excess number of nodules. AON is based on long-distance cell-to-cell communication between roots and shoots. In Lotus japonicus, two CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) peptides, encoded by CLE-ROOT SIGNAL 1 (CLE-RS1) and -RS2, act as putative root-derived signals that transmit signals inhibiting further nodule development through interaction with a shoot-acting receptor-like kinase HYPERNODULATION ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION 1 (HAR1). Here, an in silico search and subsequent expression analyses enabled us to identify two new L. japonicus CLE genes that are potentially involved in nodulation, designated as CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40. Time-course expression patterns showed that CLE-RS1/2/3 and LjCLE40 expression is induced during nodulation with different activation patterns. Furthermore, constitutive expression of CLE-RS3 significantly suppressed nodule formation in a HAR1-dependent manner. TOO MUCH LOVE, a root-acting regulator of AON, is also required for the CLE-RS3 action. These results suggest that CLE-RS3 is a new component of AON in L. japonicus that may act as a potential root-derived signal through interaction with HAR1. Because CLE-RS2, CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40 are located in tandem in the genome and their expression is induced not only by rhizobial infection but also by nitrate, these genes may have duplicated from a common gene. PMID:27294965

  1. Defense Responses in Two Ecotypes of Lotus japonicus against Non-Pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Menendez, Ana B.; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Gárriz, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important processes as nitrogen fixing nodule formation and adaptation to salt stress. However, no studies on the defense responses occurring in this species against invading microorganisms have been carried out at the present. Understanding how this model plant protects itself against pathogens will certainly help to develop more tolerant cultivars in economically important Lotus species as well as in other legumes. In order to uncover the most important defense mechanisms activated upon bacterial attack, we explored in this work the main responses occurring in the phenotypically contrasting ecotypes MG-20 and Gifu B-129 of L. japonicus after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv. tomato. Our analysis demonstrated that this bacterial strain is unable to cause disease in these accessions, even though the defense mechanisms triggered in these ecotypes might differ. Thus, disease tolerance in MG-20 was characterized by bacterial multiplication, chlorosis and desiccation at the infiltrated tissues. In turn, Gifu B-129 plants did not show any symptom at all and were completely successful in restricting bacterial growth. We performed a microarray based analysis of these responses and determined the regulation of several genes that could play important roles in plant defense. Interestingly, we were also able to identify a set of defense genes with a relative high expression in Gifu B-129 plants under non-stress conditions, what could explain its higher tolerance. The participation of these genes in plant defense is discussed. Our results position the L. japonicus-P. syringae interaction as a interesting model to study defense mechanisms in legume species. PMID:24349460

  2. Effects of acute temperature or salinity stress on the immune response in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyu; Yang, Hongsheng; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guangbin

    2008-12-01

    Invertebrates are increasingly raised in mariculture, where it is important to monitor immune function and to minimize stresses that could suppress immunity. The activities of phagocytosis, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lysozyme (LSZ) were measured to evaluate the immune capacities of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, to acute temperature changes (from 12 degrees C to 0 degrees C, 8 degrees C, 16 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 32 degrees C for 72 h) and salinity changes (from 30 per thousand to 20 per thousand, 25 per thousand, and 35 per thousand for 72 h) in the laboratory. Phagocytosis was significantly affected by temperature increases in 3 h, and by salinity (25 per thousand and 35 per thousand) changes in 1 h. SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h to 6 h samples at 24 degrees C. At 32 degrees C, SOD activities decreased significantly in 0.5 h and 1 h exposures, and obviously increased for 12 h exposure. CAT activities decreased significantly at 24 degrees C for 0.5 h exposure, and increased significantly at 32 degrees C in 3 h to 12 h exposures. Activities of MPO increased significantly at 0 degrees C in 0.5 h to 6 h exposures and at 8 degrees C for 1 h. By contrast, activities of MPO decreased significantly in 24 degrees C and 32 degrees C treatments. In elevated-temperature treatments, activities of LSZ increased significantly except at 32 degrees C for 6 h to 12 h exposures. SOD activity was significantly affected by salinity change. CAT activity decreased significantly after only 1 h exposure to salinity of 20 per thousand. Activities of MPO and LSZ showed that A. japonicus tolerates limited salinity stress. High-temperature stress had a much greater effect on the immune capacities of A. japonicus than did low-temperature and salinity stresses. PMID:18640284

  3. Effect of intestinal autochthonous probiotics isolated from the gut of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) on immune response and growth of A. japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chi, Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yan; Fei, Shi-Zhou; Zhang, Chao; Chang, Ya-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-06-01

    The study isolated 224 bacteria from the intestine of Apostichopus japonicus, then selected and identified three of the bacteria (HS1, HS7, and HS10) which demonstrated amylase, lipase, and protease production capacity as candidate probiotics for sea cucumbers. The three potential probiotics showed no pathogenicity both in hemolytic assays on sheep blood agar plates and after immersing sea cucumbers in a suspension of the bacteria. To reveal the effects of these three potential probiotics on the innate immunity of sea cucumbers, total coelomocyte counts, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytic activity by coelomocytes were examined after feeding with four different diets for up to 28 days. Also the specific growth rate and survival rate were investigated after a 60-day feeding trial. Sea cucumbers were fed with 4 diets: one control, three diets supplemented with 1 × 10(9) cell g(-1) of HS1, HS7, and HS10 for 28-60 days. Results showed that sea cucumbers fed diets containing HS1, HS7, and HS10 had led to an enhanced cellular and humoral immune response, notably higher total coelomocytes counts, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytic activity, as recorded during the four weeks of probiotics administration. On the other hand, the survival rate among dietary treatments ranged from 90.71 to 97.97% with significant improvement (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control; and the growth rate observed in the sea cucumbers fed HS1 and HS7 showed sharp increases after 60 days feeding. The present study confirmed the potential beneficial effects of Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii HS1, Shewanella japonica HS7, and Vibrio tasmaniensis HS10 as dietary probiotics in A. japonicus. PMID:24727198

  4. Seasonal and spatial patterns of metals at a restored copper mine site II. Copper in riparian soils and Bromus carinatus shoots.

    PubMed

    Silk, Wendy K; Bambic, Dustin G; O'Dell, Ryan E; Green, Peter G

    2006-12-01

    Soil and plants were sampled throughout winter and spring near a perennial stream traversing a restored mine site in a winter-rainy climate. Within 1m of an acidic reach of the stream, soil had pH 3-5 and 50-100 microg/g "bioavailable" copper (extractable with 0.01 M CaCl2). Soil 2-3 m from the stream had pH 5-8 and lower (less than 3 microg/g) bioavailable copper. "Oxide-bound" copper (extractable with 2N HCl) was 50-100 microg/g at most locations. Copper concentrations in the shoots of field-collected Bromus carinatus declined from 20 microg/g in winter to 2 microg/g in spring at all sampling sites. A similar temporal pattern was found in plants grown under controlled conditions. Thus B. carinatus has a developmental program for control of shoot copper concentration, causing a seasonally-varying pattern of copper phytoaccumulation over a large range of copper availability in the soil. PMID:16631289

  5. Compost amendment of Cu-Zn minespoil reduces toxic bioavailable heavy metal concentrations and promotes establishment and biomass production of Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.).

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Ryan; Silk, Wendy; Green, Peter; Claassen, Victor

    2007-07-01

    A series of lab and greenhouse studies were undertaken to understand how Cu and Zn toxicity influences Bromus carinatus (Hook and Arn.) growth, to what degree an organic amendment (yard waste compost) may reduce Cu and Zn bioavailability in Cu-Zn minespoil and promote plant growth in combination with fertilizer, and how the vertical distribution of compost in the minespoil influences rooting depth. Root Cu and Zn toxicity thresholds were determined to be 1 mgL(-1) and 10 mgL(-1) in solution, respectively. The compost amendment had exceptionally high Cu and Zn binding capacities (0.17 and 0.08 g metal g C(-1), for Cu and Zn, respectively) that were attributed to high compost humic and fulvic acid concentrations. Maximum plant biomass was achieved when minespoil was amended with compost and fertilizer in combination. Fertilizer alone had no effect on plant growth. Mixing compost into the minespoil was essential to promote adequate rooting depth. PMID:17240016

  6. Hikiokoshins A-I, diterpenes from the leaves of Isodon japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Tsuji, Eri; Sakai, Kanae; Gonoi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-06-01

    Diterpenes, hikiokoshins A-I, and twelve known diterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonicus (Burm. f.) H. Hara (Lamiaceae). The hikiokoshins A-I possess various skeletons such as ternifonane {hikiokoshin A}, ent-6,7:8,15-diseco-6,8-cyclokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin B}, ent-6,7-secokauran-7,20-olide {hikiokoshin C}, and ent-7,20-epoxykaurane {hikiokoshins D-I}. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Antimicrobial activities of hikiokoshins A and B were evaluated. PMID:24702849

  7. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon ofElenchus japonicus and its bearing on the phylogeny of strepsiptera.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, J; Carcupino, M; Mazzini, M

    1992-01-01

    The fine structure of the mature spermatozoon of the strepsipteranElenchus japonicus Esaki and Hashimoto (Elenchidae) is described using transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon was seen to have an elongated head, a tail containing a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives and two accessory sheaths. The monolayered acrosome is conical in shape while the nucleus exhibits an internal channel of uncondensed chromatin. The tail is long, and in its final portion, the axoneme, loses its elements progressively. These results are compared with the sperm ultrastructure ofXenos moutoni De Buysson (Stylopidae) and with those of other insect orders, particularly the Coleoptera. PMID:18621216

  8. Effects of methoprene on oviposition by Aedes japonicus and Culex spp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, M.; Suom, C.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquitoes. This chemical disrupts normal mosquito development, drastically inhibiting emergence from the pupal to the adult stage. If the presence of methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes from ovipositing it could have implications for mosquito control. This study evaluates whether methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes likely to oviposit in catch basins. In a field experiment, methoprene formulated as liquid larvicide did not affect oviposition of either Culex spp. or Aedes japonicus in 19 liter plastic buckets.

  9. [Coumarins from Leonurus japonicus and their anti-platelet aggregative activity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai; Zhou, Qin-mei; Peng, Cheng; Liu, Lu-si; Xie, Xiao-fang; Xiong, Liang; Liu, Zhao-hua

    2014-11-01

    Chemical constituents of Leonurus japonicus were isolated and purified by a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI, and Rp C18. Structures of the isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis as 10 coumarins: bergapten (1), xanthotoxin (2), isopimpinellin (3), isogosferal (4), imperatorin (5), meransin hydrate(6), isomeranzin(7), murrayone(8) , auraptenol(9), and osthol(10). In addition to compound 9, the others were isolated from the genus Leonurus for the first time. In the in vitro assay, compounds 4 and 8 significantly inhibited the abnormal increase of platelet aggregation induced by ADP. PMID:25850267

  10. Dihydroagarofuranoid Sesquiterpenes as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Celastraceae Plants: Maytenus disticha and Euonymus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Julio; Cespedes, Carlos L; Muñoz, Evelyn; Balbontin, Cristian; Valdes, Francisco; Gutierrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Seigler, David S

    2015-12-01

    Natural cholinesterase inhibitors have been found in many biological sources. Nine compounds with agarofuran (epoxyeudesmane) skeletons were isolated from seeds and aerial parts of Maytenus disticha and Euonymus japonicus. The identification and structural elucidation of compounds were based on spectroscopic data analyses. All compounds had inhibitory acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. These natural compounds, which possessed mixed or uncompetitive mechanisms of inhibitory activity against AChE, may be considered as models for the design and development of new naturally occurring drugs for management strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of these chemical structures for seeds of M. disticha. PMID:26545100

  11. Medicinal and aromatic plant materials as nitrification inhibitors for augmenting yield and nitrogen uptake of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L. Var. Piperascens).

    PubMed

    Kiran, Usha; Patra, D D

    2003-02-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the relative performance of medicinal and aromatic plant materials and dicyandiamide (DCD) as nitrification inhibitors to regulate transformation of N from urea. Their effect on the efficiencies of use of N by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis cv. Hy 77) was tested. Urea was coated with these materials viz., Mentha spicata, Artemisia annua or DCD at the rate of 5% (w/w) of fertilizer urea using an appropriate coating technique. Nimin (tetranortriterpenoids, an ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) coating was done at the rate of 1% w/w of urea. Fertilizer nitrogen was applied at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) soil. These natural coating materials significantly increased the herb and essential oil yields of the crop at both rates of fertilizer nitrogen compared to urea alone and were found to be as effective as DCD in retarding NO3- formation in soil. Herb yield increased by 6-81% when compared to uncoated urea. The increase in essential oil yield ranged between 3% and 68% due to coating. The effectiveness of the nitrification-inhibitor--coated urea, however, varied with the soils used and the rate of fertilizer nitrogen applied. The results suggest that the natural products could be potential nitrification inhibitors for increasing fertilizer N use efficiency. PMID:12688470

  12. Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts as natural preservatives for shelf life extension of chill stored Indian mackerel.

    PubMed

    Viji, Pankyamma; Binsi, Puthanpurakkal Kizhakkathil; Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Bindu, Jaganath; Ravishankar, Chandragiri Nagarajarao; Srinivasa Gopal, Teralandur Krishnaswamy

    2015-10-01

    Efficacy of mint (Mentha arvensis) leaf and citrus (Citrus aurantium) peel extracts in retarding the quality changes in Indian mackerel during chilled storage was investigated. Mint leaf extract showed higher quantity of phenolics and superior in-vitro antioxidant activities than citrus peel extract. Gutted mackerel were given a dip treatment in mint extract (0.5 %, w/v) and citrus extract (1 % w/v), packed in LDPE pouches and stored at 0-2 °C. The biochemical quality indices viz. total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N), free fattyacids (FFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in mint extract (ME) treated fishes compared to citrus extract (CE) treated and control fishes (C) without any treatment. Plant extract treatment significantly inhibited lipid oxidation in mackerel as indicated by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Aerobic plate count (APC) was markedly higher in C group followed by CE group throughout the storage period. As per sensory evaluation, shelf life of Indian mackerel was determined to be 11-13 days for C group, 13-15 days for CE group and 16-17 days for ME group, during storage at 0-2 °C. PMID:26396373

  13. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Nesa, Mst Luthfun; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2015-01-01

    Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56%) of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69%) by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain. PMID:25648520

  14. Productivity and quality of volatile oil extracted from Mentha spicata and M. arvensis var. piperascens grown by a hydroponic system using the deep flow technique.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; Vannavanich, Danai; Keattikunpairoj, Sunisa; Chittasupho, Chuda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and Japanese mint (M. arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinv.) cultivated in either soil or nutrient solution using the deep flow technique (DFT). The differences were measured in terms of harvest period (full bloom period) and quantity and chemical components of volatile oils. The spearmint and Japanese mint were cultivated in four different nutrient formulas: plant standard nutrient, plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture, plant standard nutrient with a sulphur compound, and a combination of plant standard nutrient with an amino acid mixture and a sulphur compound. We observed that cultivation of spearmint and Japanese mint in nutrient solution using DFT is an effective method to provide high production of volatile oil, since it results in an earlier harvest period and higher quantity of volatile oil. We determined that for spearmint an amino acid mixture is an appropriate nutrient supplement to enhance production of volatile oil with optimum carvone content. Finally, we observed high menthol content in Japanese mint grown in all four nutrient formulas; however, supplementation with a combination of sulphur fertilisation and amino acid mixture yields the highest quantity of volatile oil. PMID:19763744

  15. Bioactive Polyphenols from the Methanol Extract of Cnicus arvensis (L.) Roth Demonstrated Antinociceptive and Central Nervous System Depressant Activities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nesa, Mst. Luthfun; Jahan, Ismet Ara

    2015-01-01

    Cnicus arvensis is used by many ethnic groups for inflammation, pain, and other ailments. In this study, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, and saponin groups were identified using standard chromogenic method. In high-performance liquid chromatography, vanillic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract. Antinociceptive test by acetic acid induced writhing inhibition resulted 43.17 and 95.08% inhibition for 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, comparing with standard diclofenac Na with 74.86% inhibition for 25 mg/kg body weight. In formalin induced paw licking test for antinociceptive activity, the extract inhibited 69.87 and 75.55% licking for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with the inhibition (68.56%) of diclofenac Na for 10 mg/kg body weight at first phase. At late phase, the extract showed 73.12 and 87.46% licking comparing with licking inhibition (71.69%) by diclofenac Na at the same dose. In open field test for CNS depressant activity, the extract showed depression of locomotor activity for 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight comparing with diazepam for 10 mg/kg body weight. All results were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The identified polyphenols are reputed for antinociceptive and CNS depressant activity. The present findings support the use of this plant in pain. PMID:25648520

  16. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analysis of nucleotide-binding site-encoding resistance genes in Lotus japonicus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Song, H; Wang, P F; Li, T T; Xia, H; Zhao, S Z; Hou, L; Zhao, C Z

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site (NBS) disease resistance genes play a crucial role in plant defense responses against pathogens and insect pests. Many NBS-encoding genes have been detected in Lotus japonicus, an important forage crop in many parts of the world. However, most NBS genes identified so far in L. japonicus were only partial sequences. We identified 45 full-length NBS-encoding genes in the L. japonicus genome, and analyzed gene duplications, motifs, and the molecular phylogeny to further understand the NBS gene family. We found that gene duplication events rarely occur in L. japonicus NBS-encoding (LjNBS) genes. In addition, LjNBS genes were subjected to selection pressure, and codon usage bias was evident. We tested for purifying selection (specifically in the CC-NBS-LRR and TIR-NBS-LRR groups), and found strong purifying selection in the TIR-domain-containing sequences, indicating that the CC-NBS-LRR group is more likely to undergo expansion than the TIR-NBS-LRR group. Moreover, our results showed that both selection and mutation contributed to LjNBS codon usage bias, but mutational bias was the major influence on codon usage. PMID:26662396

  17. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of bacteria isolated from diseased cultured sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Northeastern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the winter–spring from 2004 to 2006 in northeastern China cultured Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus suffered from a serious disease. Clinical signs included swollen mouth, skin ulceration and massive mortality. Clinical samples taken during this period were studied. Thirty-one bac...

  18. A comparative study of toxicity identification using Daphnia magna and Tigriopus japonicus: implications of establishing effluent discharge limits in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Wook; Seo, Jaehwan; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Jinho

    2011-01-01

    In Korea, the new permission criteria for industrial effluents based on Daphnia magna acute toxicity tests will be gradually implemented starting from 2011. Thus, in this study, toxicity assessment and identification using a marine species (Tigriopus japonicus) and the freshwater species (D. magna) was comparatively investigated. Effluent from an acid mine drainage treatment plant showed acute toxicity toward both organisms due to low pH, which was removed by neutralization of the effluent. Additionally, evaluation of the effluent of an electronics company revealed that Cu was attributable to the observed toxicity, and the effluent was more toxic toward T. japonicus than D. magna. Moreover, effluents from a metal plating factory were acutely toxic toward D. magna (6.50 TU), while they were not toxic against T. japonicus. Toxicity identification revealed that the high level of Cl- (12,841 mg L(-1)) was the cause of toxicity. Thus, the effluents had no effect on the marine species, T. japonicus. These findings suggest that a marine species rather than a freshwater species is more desirable for toxicity assessment of industrial effluent discharged into the saltwater, and thus should be considered in the legislation of toxicity-based discharge limits in Korea. PMID:21172718

  19. Identification of potential markers and sensitive tissues for low or high salinity stress in an intertidal mud crab (Macrophthalmus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Won-Seok; Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-12-01

    Macrophthalmus japonicus is an intertidal mud crab is an ecologically important species in Korea, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Environmental changes especially salinity cause physiological stress to the marine habitats. Differential gene transcription of M. japonicus tissues provided information about tissue specific responses against salinity. Five potential genes were identified and their transcription levels were determined quantitatively comparison to seawater (SW: 31 ± 1 psu) in M. japonicus gills and hepatopancreas after exposed them to different salinities. Ecdysteroid receptor (Mj-EcR), trypsin (Mj-Tryp), arginine kinase (Mj-AK), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (Mj-LGBP) and peroxinectin (Mj-Prx) in hepatopancreas up-regulated against different salinities. In contrast, the gills, Mj-EcR, Mj-Tryp and Mj-AK showed late up-regulated responses to 40 psu compared to SW. All genes except Mj-LGBP showed up regulation in the gills as time dependent manner. These genes can be considered as potential markers to assess responses in salinity changes. This study suggests hepatopancreas is a suitable tissue for transcriptional, biochemical and physiological responses analysis on M. japonicus in low and high salinity stress. PMID:25240977

  20. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange. PMID:25443830

  1. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Rook, Fred; Takos, Adam M

    2015-09-01

    Flowers and leaves of Lotus japonicus contain α-, β-, and γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside (HNG) defense compounds, which are bioactivated by β-glucosidase enzymes (BGDs). The α-HNGs are referred to as cyanogenic glucosides because their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption leads to release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas, which can deter herbivore feeding. BGD2 and BGD4 are HNG metabolizing BGD enzymes expressed in leaves. Only BGD2 is able to hydrolyse the α-HNGs. Loss of function mutants of BGD2 are acyanogenic in leaves but fully retain cyanogenesis in flowers pointing to the existence of an alternative cyanogenic BGD in flowers. This enzyme, named BGD3, is identified and characterized in this study. Whereas all floral tissues contain α-HNGs, only those tissues in which BGD3 is expressed, the keel and the enclosed reproductive organs, are cyanogenic. Biochemical analysis, active site architecture molecular modelling, and the observation that L. japonicus accessions lacking cyanogenic flowers contain a non-functional BGD3 gene, all support the key role of BGD3 in floral cyanogenesis. The nectar of L. japonicus flowers was also found to contain HNGs and additionally their diglycosides. The observed specialisation in HNG based defence in L. japonicus flowers is discussed in the context of balancing the attraction of pollinators with the protection of reproductive structures against herbivores. PMID:26249044

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus CECT 9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443, Acetic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Grape Must

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CECT9110 and Gluconobacter japonicus CECT8443, acetic acid bacteria isolated from grape must. Gluconobacter species are well known for their ability to oxidize sugar alcohols into the corresponding acids. Our objective was to select strains to oxidize effectively d-glucose. PMID:27365351

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Lotus japonicus Roots During Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development and Comparison with that of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Yuichi; Banba, Mari; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Chechetka, Svetlana A.; Suzuri, Ryota; Okusako, Yasuhiro; Ooki, Yasuhiro; Toyokura, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Higashi, Shiro; Abe, Mikiko; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Izui, Katsura; Hata, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To better understand the molecular responses of plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we analyzed the differential gene expression patterns of Lotus japonicus, a model legume, with the aid of a large-scale cDNA macroarray. Experiments were carried out considering the effects of contaminating microorganisms in the soil inoculants. When the colonization by AM fungi, i.e. Glomus mosseae and Gigaspora margarita, was well established, four cysteine protease genes were induced. In situ hybridization revealed that these cysteine protease genes were specifically expressed in arbuscule-containing inner cortical cells of AM roots. On the other hand, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase, etc. were repressed in the later stage, although they were moderately up-regulated on the initial association with the AM fungus. Real-time RT–PCR experiments supported the array experiments. To further confirm the characteristic expression, a PAL promoter was fused with a reporter gene and introduced into L. japonicus, and then the transformants were grown with a commercial inoculum of G. mosseae. The reporter activity was augmented throughout the roots due to the presence of contaminating microorganisms in the inoculum. Interestingly, G. mosseae only colonized where the reporter activity was low. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of AM roots and nitrogen-fixing root nodules formed with Mesorhizobium loti indicated that the PAL genes and other phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes were similarly repressed in the two organs. PMID:17634281

  4. Flower color alteration in Lotus japonicus by modification of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sakae; Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko; Ogiwara, Isao; Yamamura, Saburo

    2007-07-01

    To establish a model system for alteration of flower color by carotenoid pigments, we modified the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Lotus japonicus using overexpression of the crtW gene isolated from marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum and encoding beta-carotene ketolase (4,4'-beta-oxygenase) for the production of pink to red color ketocarotenoids. The crtW gene with the transit peptide sequence of the pea Rubisco small subunit under the regulation of the CaMV35S promoter was introduced to L. japonicus. In most of the resulting transgenic plants, the color of flower petals changed from original light yellow to deep yellow or orange while otherwise exhibiting normal phenotype. HPLC and TLC analyses revealed that leaves and flower petals of these plants accumulated novel carotenoids, believed to be ketocarotenoids consisting of including astaxanthin, adonixanthin, canthaxanthin and echinenone. Results indicated that modification of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is a means of altering flower color in ornamental crops. PMID:17265153

  5. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  6. Establishment and characterization of two cell lines derived from primary cultures of Gekko japonicus cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Gu, Yun; Liu, Yan; Li, Jing; He, Jianghong; Lin, Sheyu; Gu, Xiaosong

    2010-02-01

    Adult Gekko japonicus is one of those vertebrates that are able to regenerate their missing or amputated tail. The most interesting feature of this animal lies in the ability of its spinal cord to regrow a functional tail. A fundamental question is whether the neuroglial cells play a different role compared with high vertebrates. Since in vitro studies using primary neuroglial cells are hampered by the limited lifespan and miscellaneous genetic background of these cells, we generated neuroglial cell lines from primary cell cultures of cerebral cortex of G. japonicus. The SV40 (simian-virus-40) T antigen gene was introduced into primary cell cultures. Cell cycle analysis, cell growth and proliferation, cell colony formation and contact inhibition, as well as karyotype assays were investigated. Two cell colonies, Gsn-1 and Gsn-3, were immunochemically characterized as glial fibrillary acidic protein and galactocerebroside-positive respectively. Compared with parental primary cells, the Gsn cells displayed shorter population doubling time, decreased percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, higher cell proliferation index, and increased cell activity. In assays of colony characteristics, Gsn cells showed increased cell activity at the lower cell densities or FBS (fetal bovine serum) supplement. The karyotype of immortalized Gsn cells exhibited transformational characteristics with hyperdiploid and polyploid chromosomes. The cell lines will provide a useful in vitro model for gecko neuroglial cells and facilitate systematic studies investigating the biological functions of specific gene products related to regeneration of the central nervous system. PMID:19947933

  7. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  8. Histochemical localization and characterization of AKP, ACP, NSE, and POD from cultured Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Hushan

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of four enzymes involved in the immune response of Apostichopus japonicus. We collected samples of the tentacles, papillate podium, integument, respiratory tree, and digestive tract and stained them for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), non-specific esterase (NSE) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The distribution and content of ACP, AKP, NSE, and POD differed among the tissues. The coelomic epithelium of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer of respiratory tree were positive for ACP activity. The coelomic epithelium and cuticular layer of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive or weakly positive for AKP activity. Almost all the epithelial tissues stained positive, strongly positive, or very strongly positive for NSE activity. The cuticular layer of the tentacle and integument and the mucous layer, tunica submucosa, and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive for POD activity. We hypothesize that these enzymes play a role in the immune response in A. japonicus.

  9. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb. PMID:26318566

  10. Screen and effect analysis of immunostimulants for sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Hao, Linhua

    2009-02-01

    Immunostimulants may improve disease resistance of aquaculture animals by promoting the nonspecific immunity response of the organisms. Five types of saccharides, including chitosan, yeast polysaccharide, burdock oligosaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide and lentinus edodes polysaccharide, were screened for potential use as immunostimulants by using spectrophotometry. The saccharides were injected into Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber, and the lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the coelomic fluid and epidermal slime were monitored in six consecutive days. The results show that the lysozyme activity of the animal’s coelomic fluid was significantly stimulated on day 2, day 4 and day 6 after the injection of the saccharides ( P<0.05). The effects of chitosan and yeast polysaccharide were the most notable. The lysozyme activity of the epidermal slime was significantly increased by chitosana, yeast polysaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide, and burdock oligosaccharide on day 1 and day 2 after the injection ( P<0.05). The SOD activity of the coelomic fluid was significantly promoted by the saccharides on day 2 and day 4 post-injection ( P<0.05), while the SOD activity of the epidermal slime increased on day 2. These findings indicate that chitosan and yeast polysaccharide are the most effective immunostimulants and potential healthy anti-disease feedstuff for A. japonicus.

  11. Novel, highly expressed late nodulin gene (LjNOD16) from Lotus japonicus

    SciTech Connect

    Kapranov, P.; Bruijn, F.J. de; Szczyglowski, K.

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a Lotus japonicus cDNA corresponding to a highly abundant, late nodule-specific RNA species that encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.6 kD. The protein and its corresponding gene were designated NIj16 and LjNOD16, respectively. LjNOD16 was found to be expressed only in the infected cells of L. japonicus nodules. Related DNA sequences could be identified in the genomes of both Glycine max and Medicago sativa. In the latter, a homologous mRNA species was detected in the nodules. Unlike LiNOD16, its alfalfa homologs appear to represent low-abundance mRNA species. However, the proteins corresponding to the LjNOD16 and its alfalfa homolog could be detected at similar levels in nodules but not in roots of both legume species. The predicted amino acid sequence analysis of nodulin NIj16 revealed the presence of a long {alpha}-helical region and a positively charged C terminus. The former domain has a very high propensity to form a coiled-coil type structure, indicating that nodulin NIj16 may interact with an as-yet-unidentified protein target(s) in the nodule-infected cells. Homology searches revealed no significant similarities to any known sequences in the databases, with the exception of two related, anonymous Arabidopsis expressed sequence tags.

  12. Molecular Characterization of LjABCG1, an ATP-Binding Cassette Protein in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Fukuda, Shoju; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yoshioka, Miki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Narusaka, Mari; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    LjABCG1, a full-size ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins of a model legume, Lotus japonicus, was reported as a gene highly expressed during the early stages of nodulation, but have not been characterized in detail. In this study we showed that the induction of LjABCG1 expression was remarkable by methyl jasmonate treatment, and reporter gene experiments indicated that LjABCG1 was strongly expressed in the nodule parenchyma and cell layers adjacent to the root vascular tissue toward the nodule. LjABCG1 was suggested to be localized at the plasma membrane based on the fractionation of microsomal membranes as well as separation via aqueous two-phase partitioning. The physiological functions of LjABCG1 in symbiosis and pathogenesis were analyzed in homologous and heterologous systems. LjABCG1 knock-down L. japonicus plants did not show clear phenotypic differences in nodule formation, and not in defense against Pseudomonas syringae, either. In contrast, when LjABCG1 was expressed in the Arabidopsis pdr8-1 mutant, the penetration frequency of Phytophthora infestans, a potato late blight pathogen, was significantly reduced in LjABCG1/pdr8-1 than in pdr8-1 plants. This finding indicated that LjABCG1, at least partially, complemented the phenotype of pdr8 in Arabidopsis, suggesting the multiple roles of this protein in plant-microbe interactions. PMID:26418593

  13. Evolution of crop production under a pseudo-space environment using model plants, Lotus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Motohashi, Kyohei; Omi, Naomi; Sato, Seigo; Aoki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying space agriculture and/or spacecraft agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment. However, careful investigation should be made concerning the results of exotic environmental effects on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in indi-vidual cultivated plants in a space environment. We have already reported that the production of functional substances in cultivated plants as crops are affected by gravity. The amounts of the main physiological substances in these plants grown under terrestrial control were different from that grown in a pseudo-microgravity. These results suggested that the nutrition would be changed in the plants/crops grown in the space environment when human beings eat in space. This estimation required us to investigate each of the useful components produced by each plant grown in the space environment. These estimations involved several study fields, includ-ing nutrition, plant physiology, etc. On the other hand, the analysis of model plant genomes has recently been remarkably advanced. Lotus japonicus, a leguminous plant, is also one of the model plant. The leguminosae is a large family in the plant vegetable kingdom and almost the entire genome sequence of Lotus japonicus has been determined. Nitrogen fixation would be possible even in a space environment. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for crop production using the model plants.

  14. A complex gene locus enables xyloglucan utilization in the model saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Larsbrink, Johan; Thompson, Andrew J; Lundqvist, Magnus; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Davies, Gideon J; Brumer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of plant biomass by saprophytes is an ecologically important part of the global carbon cycle, which has also inspired a vast diversity of industrial enzyme applications. The xyloglucans (XyGs) constitute a family of ubiquitous and abundant plant cell wall polysaccharides, yet the enzymology of XyG saccharification is poorly studied. Here, we present the identification and molecular characterization of a complex genetic locus that is required for xyloglucan utilization by the model saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. In harness, transcriptomics, reverse genetics, enzyme kinetics, and structural biology indicate that the encoded cohort of an α-xylosidase, a β-galactosidase, and an α-l-fucosidase is specifically adapted for efficient, concerted saccharification of dicot (fucogalacto)xyloglucan oligosaccharides following import into the periplasm via an associated TonB-dependent receptor. The data support a biological model of xyloglucan degradation by C. japonicus with striking similarities – and notable differences – to the complex polysaccharide utilization loci of the Bacteroidetes. PMID:25171165

  15. Molecular Characterization of LjABCG1, an ATP-Binding Cassette Protein in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Fukuda, Shoju; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yoshioka, Miki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Narusaka, Mari; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    LjABCG1, a full-size ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins of a model legume, Lotus japonicus, was reported as a gene highly expressed during the early stages of nodulation, but have not been characterized in detail. In this study we showed that the induction of LjABCG1 expression was remarkable by methyl jasmonate treatment, and reporter gene experiments indicated that LjABCG1 was strongly expressed in the nodule parenchyma and cell layers adjacent to the root vascular tissue toward the nodule. LjABCG1 was suggested to be localized at the plasma membrane based on the fractionation of microsomal membranes as well as separation via aqueous two-phase partitioning. The physiological functions of LjABCG1 in symbiosis and pathogenesis were analyzed in homologous and heterologous systems. LjABCG1 knock-down L. japonicus plants did not show clear phenotypic differences in nodule formation, and not in defense against Pseudomonas syringae, either. In contrast, when LjABCG1 was expressed in the Arabidopsis pdr8-1 mutant, the penetration frequency of Phytophthora infestans, a potato late blight pathogen, was significantly reduced in LjABCG1/pdr8-1 than in pdr8-1 plants. This finding indicated that LjABCG1, at least partially, complemented the phenotype of pdr8 in Arabidopsis, suggesting the multiple roles of this protein in plant-microbe interactions. PMID:26418593

  16. Involvement of auxin distribution in root nodule development of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Kojiro; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2011-07-01

    The symbiosis between legume plants and rhizobia causes the development of new organs, nodules which function as an apparatus for nitrogen fixation. In this study, the roles of auxin in nodule development in Lotus japonicus have been demonstrated using molecular genetic tools and auxin inhibitors. The expression of an auxin-reporter GH3 fused to β-glucuronidase (GUS) was analyzed in L. japonicus roots, and showed a strong signal in the central cylinder of the root, whereas upon rhizobium infection, generation of GUS signal was observed at the dividing outer cortical cells during the first nodule cell divisions. When nodules were developed to maturity, strong GUS staining was detected in vascular tissues of nodules, suggesting distinct auxin involvement in the determinate nodule development. Numbers and the development of nodules were affected by auxin transport inhibitors (1-naphthylphthalamic acid, NPA and triindobenzoic acid, TIBA), and by a newly synthesized auxin antagonist, α-(phenyl ethyl-2-one)-indole-3-acetic acid (PEO-IAA). The common phenotypical alteration by these auxin inhibitors was the inhibition in forming lenticel which is normally developed on the nodule surface from the root outer cortex. The inhibition of lenticel formation was correlated with the inhibition of nodule vascular bundle development. These results indicate that auxin is required for the normal development of determinate nodules in a multidirectional manner. PMID:21369920

  17. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  18. Photosynthetic responses mediate the adaptation of two Lotus japonicus ecotypes to low temperature.

    PubMed

    Calzadilla, Pablo Ignacio; Signorelli, Santiago; Escaray, Francisco Jose; Menéndez, Ana Bernardina; Monza, Jorge; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo; Maiale, Santiago Javier

    2016-09-01

    Lotus species are important forage legumes due to their high nutritional value and adaptability to marginal conditions. However, the dry matter production and regrowth rate of cultivable Lotus spp. is drastically reduced during colder seasons. In this work, we evaluated the chilling response of Lotus japonicus ecotypes MG-1 and MG-20. No significant increases were observed in reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production or in lipid peroxidation, although a chilling-induced redox imbalance was suggested through NADPH/NADP(+) ratio alterations. Antioxidant enzyme catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were also measured. Superoxide dismutase, in particular the chloroplastic isoform, showed different activity for different ecotypes and treatments. Stress-induced photoinhibition also differentially influenced both ecotypes, with MG-1 more affected than MG-20. Data showed that the D2 PSII subunit was more affected than D1 after 1 d of low temperature exposure, although its protein levels recovered over the course of the experiment. Interestingly, D2 recovery was accompanied by improvements in photosynthetic parameters (Asat and Fv/Fm) and the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. Our results suggest that the D2 protein is involved in the acclimation response of L. japonicus to low temperature. This may provide a deeper insight into the chilling tolerance mechanisms of the Lotus genus. PMID:27457984

  19. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofeng; Li, Xiancui; Li, Hong; Guo, Shuju; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2013-07-01

    Apos tichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries, and it contains many bioactive substances, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer materials. To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource, extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods. Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentration of 1.4 mg/mL and 24% of the hydroxyl radical at 3.3 mg/mL. Four compounds were isolated and identified from the extract: 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-azine; 2,4-dihydroxy-1,3-diazine; 3-O-[β-D-quinovopranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium sulfate-β-D-xylopranosyl]-holosta-9(11)-ene-3β,12α,17α-triol; and 24-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7-ene-3β-O-β-D-xylopyranoside. All of these compounds are known in A. japonicus, and were found in the waste liquid for the first time.

  20. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes after Vibrio splendidus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Chenghua; Li, Ye; Zhang, Pengjuan; Shao, Yina; Jin, Chunhua; Li, Taiwu

    2014-06-01

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) was the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. To better understand how Vibrio splendidus modulates SUS outbreak, the immune response of A. japonicus coelomocytes after the pathogen challenge were investigated through comparative proteomics approach, and differentially expressed proteins were screened and characterized in the present study. A total of 40 protein spots representing 30 entries were identified at 24, 72 and 96 h post-infection. Of these proteins, 32 were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated in the V. splendidus challenged samples compared to those of control. These differentially expressed proteins were mainly classified into four categories by GO analysis, in which approximate 33% of proteins showed to be related to immunity response. The mRNA expression levels of 6 differentially expressed proteins were further validated by qRT-PCR. Similar protein-mRNA-level expression patterns were detected in genes of phospholipase (spot 4), G protein (spot 20), annexin (spot 30) and filamin (spot 31). Whilst the levels of ficolin (spot 12) and calumenin (spot 14) transcripts were not corresponded with those of their translation products. These data provide a new insight to understand the molecular immune mechanism of sea cucumber responsive towards pathogen infection. PMID:24468075

  1. Cessation of photosynthesis in Lotus japonicus leaves leads to reprogramming of nodule metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Flemetakis, Emmanouil

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) involves global changes in gene expression and metabolite accumulation in both rhizobia and the host plant. In order to study the metabolic changes mediated by leaf–root interaction, photosynthesis was limited in leaves by exposure of plants to darkness, and subsequently gene expression was profiled by real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) and metabolite levels by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. Photosynthetic carbon deficiency caused by prolonged darkness affected many metabolic processes in L. japonicus nodules. Most of the metabolic genes analysed were down-regulated during the extended dark period. In addition to that, the levels of most metabolites decreased or remained unaltered, although accumulation of amino acids was observed. Reduced glycolysis and carbon fixation resulted in lower organic acid levels, especially of malate, the primary source of carbon for bacteroid metabolism and SNF. The high amino acid concentrations together with a reduction in total protein concentration indicate possible protein degradation in nodules under these conditions. Interestingly, comparisons between amino acid and protein content in various organs indicated systemic changes in response to prolonged darkness between nodulated and non-nodulated plants, rendering the nodule a source organ for both C and N under these conditions. PMID:23404899

  2. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  3. Contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in North America

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Noden, Bruce H.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) has spread rapidly through North America since its introduction in the 1990s. The mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus are unclear. Possibilities include (A) temporal separation of A. japonicus from other Aedes, (B) oviposition avoidance by A. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific Aedes larvae, and (C) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages of multiple Aedes. Containers sampled throughout the summer in an oak-hickory forest near Eureka, MO showed peak abundance for A. japonicus occurring significantly earlier in the season than either of the other Aedes species. Despite this, A. japonicus co-occurred with one other Aedes species in 53 % of samples when present, and co-occurred with both other Aedes in 18 % of samples. In a field oviposition experiment, A. japonicus laid significantly more eggs in forest edge containers than in forest interior containers, but did not avoid containers with low or high densities of larvae of A. triseriatus, A. albopictus, or both, compared to containers without larvae. Interspecific competitive effects (measured as decrease in the index of performance, λ′) of A. triseriatus or A. albopictus alone on A. japonicus larvae were not evident at the densities used, but the effect of both Aedes combined was significantly negative and super-additive of effects of individual interspecific competitors. Thus, neither oviposition avoidance of competitors nor non-additive competitive effects contribute to the invasion success of A. japonicus in North America. Distinct seasonal phenology may reduce competitive interactions with resident Aedes. PMID:26101466

  4. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  5. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  6. Modelling Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) to Predict Impacts of Changes in Land Management and Policy: Development and Testing of an Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Topping, Christopher J.; Odderskær, Peter; Kahlert, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. However, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication of the models. We present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for Skylark (Alauda arvensis) in Danish agricultural landscapes. The model is part of the ALMaSS system, which considers not only individual skylarks, but also the detailed dynamic environment from which they obtain the information necessary to simulate their behaviour. Population responses emerge from individuals interacting with each other and the environment. Model development and testing was carried out using pattern-oriented modelling. The testing procedure was based on the model's ability to represent detailed real world patterns of distribution and density, reproductive performance and seasonal changes in territory numbers. Data to support this was collected over a 13-year period and comprised detailed field observations of breeding birds and intensive surveys. The model was able to recreate the real world data patterns accurately; it was also able to simultaneously fit a number of other secondary system properties which were not formally a part of the testing procedure. The correspondence of model output to real world data and sensitivity analysis are presented and discussed, and the model's description is provided in ODdox format (a formal description inter-linked to the program code). Detailed and stringent tests for model performance were carried out, and standardised model description and open access to the source code were provided to open development of the skylark model to others. Over and above documenting the utility of the model, this open process is essential to engender the user trust and ensure continued development of these comprehensive systems for applied purposes. PMID:23762430

  7. Effect of gibberellic acid and calliterpenone on plant growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and pathway gene expression in differential manner in Mentha arvensis L.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subir K; Yadav, Ritesh Kumar; Mishra, Smrati; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, A K; Mishra, B; Srivastava, A K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-05-01

    Extensive research is going on throughout the world to find out new molecules from natural sources to be used as plant growth promoter. Mentha arvensis L. is the main source of menthol rich essential oil used commercially in various food, pharmaceutical and other preparations. Experiments were conducted on field grown plants for understanding the effect of calliterpenone (CA), a stereo-isomer of abbeokutone, in comparison to gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth attributes, trichomes, essential oil biosynthesis and expression of some oil biosynthetic pathway genes. The exogenous application of CA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) was found to be better in improving plant biomass and stolon yield, leaf area, branching and leaf stem ratio than with counterpart GA3 at the same concentrations. CA treated plants showed higher glandular trichome number, density and diameter and also correlated with enhanced oil biogenetic capacity as revealed by feeding labeled (14)C-sucrose for 72 h to excised shoots. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of key pathway genes revealed differential up regulation under CA treatments. Transcript level of menthol dehydrogenase/menthone reductase was found highly up regulated in CA treated plants with increased content of menthone and menthol in oil. These findings demonstrate that CA positively regulated the yields by enhanced branching and higher density of trichomes resulting into higher accumulation of essential oil. The results suggest CA as a novel plant derived diterpenoid with growth promoting action and opens up new possibilities for improving the crop yields and essential oil biosynthesis in qualitative and quantitative manner. PMID:23514759

  8. [Characterization of the Gut Bacterial Community of the Japanese Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Bogatyrenko, E A; Buzoleva, L S

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the composition and abundance of the gut bacterial community of the Japanese sea cucumber (trepang) Apostichopus japonicus and the soil from its habitat was carried out. In spite of the presence of strictly aerobic bacteria in the soil, gut microflora of this holothurian was shown to be formed by facultative anaerobes from the environment. Irrespective of the geographical location of the habitat, the sea cucmber gut community had a constant composition considered its normal microflora. Capacity of bactreia isolated from the Japanese sea cucumber for decomposition of starch, sodium alginate, chitin, chondroitin sulfate, Tweens, olive oil, casein, and gelatin was studied. Various degrees of enzymatic activity were shown for 33% of the studied bacterial strains, which indicates a considerable role of the trepang gut microflora in processing and assimilation of organic matter arriving with food. PMID:27301133

  9. Individual Apostichopus japonicus fecal microbiome reveals a link with polyhydroxybutyrate producers in host growth gaps

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Yohei; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Sakai, Yuichi; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiome shapes various aspects of a host’s physiology, but these functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully investigated. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka is one such example. The large growth gap in their body size has delayed the development of intensive aquaculture, nevertheless the species is in urgent need of conservation. To understand possible contributions of the gut microbiome to its host’s growth, individual fecal microbiome comparisons were performed. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significantly different microbiota in larger and smaller individuals; Rhodobacterales in particular was the most significantly abundant bacterial group in the larger specimens. Further shotgun metagenome of representative samples revealed a significant abundance of microbiome retaining polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism genes in the largest individual. The PHB metabolism reads were potentially derived from Rhodobacterales. These results imply a possible link between microbial PHB producers and potential growth promotion in Deuterostomia marine invertebrates. PMID:26905381

  10. Antibacterial activity of extracts from Zostera marina against pathogens of Apostichopus japonicus skin ulceration disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Jiang, Guoliang; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of extracts from Zostera marina against the pathogens of Apostichopus japonicus skin ulceration disease. When 95% ethanol (v/v) solvent was used to extract Zostera marina at 50°C, aqueous extract (ZA) showed obvious bacteriostatic effects on the tested bacterial strains (inhibition halo diameters between 8.23 mm and 13.62 mm), whereas the ethyl acetate extract (ZE) was almost inactive. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZA against four pathogens were homogeneous at 12.8 g L-1. ZA components were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay and six fractions were obtained. In another study, the six fractions showed inhibitory effects against the tested bacteria while their functions seemed to counteract the ZA activity.

  11. The cloning of growth associated protein 43 of Gekko japonicus and its effect on cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao; Zhou, Youlang; Liu, Mei; Gu, Xingxing; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong; Liu, Yan

    2012-07-01

    The growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) gene of Gekko japonicus was obtained from a brain and spinal cord cDNA library. The results of northern blot analysis showed the gecko GAP-43 gene transcript is 1.7 kb in length, and it was abundantly expressed in tissues of brain, spinal cord and ovary. Gecko GAP-43 promoted the outgrowth of Gsn3 cells and PC12 cell in vitro, and phosphorylation at serine 42 modulated the effect of GAP-43 on cell spreading and morphology. The change in GAP-43 expression in the spinal cord after tail amputation was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The level of GAP-43 in the spinal cord was increased during the time course we examined, indicating a possible correlation between GAP-43 expression and the spinal cord injury and regeneration. PMID:22426865

  12. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  13. (-)-Epicatechin derivate from Orostachys japonicus as potential inhibitor of the human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woo; Sun, Ya Nan; Jang, Won-Hee; Yang, Seo-Young; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-10-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors block the bioconversion of neurotransmitters by cholinesterase in the nervous system. Epicatechin derivatives (1, 3 and 5), polyphenols (6 and 7) from Orostachys japonicus, and catechin derivatives (2 and 4) from our in-house library were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on cholinesterase. Compound 5 exhibited IC50 values of 58.3±2.4 and 17.8±3.8μg/mL on AChE and BuChE, respectively. Compound 5 inhibited BuChE more strongly than AChE through a competitive behavior. In silico binding positions of 5 in the active site were predicted using Autodock 4.2 and processed in a 10000-ps molecular dynamics simulation to assess the stability of compound 5 binding. PMID:27341781

  14. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 μg mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  15. Bioactive Isopimarane Diterpenes from the Fungus, Epicoccum sp. HS-1, Associated with Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuekui; Qi, Jun; Liu, Yayue; Jia, Airong; Zhang, Yonggang; Liu, Changheng; Gao, Cuiling; She, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    One new isopimarane diterpene (1), together with two known compounds, 11-deoxydiaporthein A (2) and iso-pimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the culture of Epicoccum sp., which was associated with Apostichopus japonicus. Their structures were determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was deduced by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. In the bioactivity assay, both Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.6 ± 0.1 and 11.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. This was the first report on isopimarane diterpenes with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25738327

  16. Role of animal pole protuberance and microtubules during meiosis in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhenguo; Chang, Yaqing; Sun, Huiling; Yu, Jiaping

    2010-05-01

    Fully grown oocytes of Apostichopus japonicus have a cytoplasmic protuberance where the oocyte attaches to the follicle. The protuberance and the oolamina located on the opposite side of the oocyte indicate the animal-vegetal axis. Two pre-meiotic centrosomes are anchored to the protuberance by microtubules between centrosomes and protuberance. After meiosis reinitiation induced by DTT solution, the germinal vesicle (GV) migrates towards the protuberance. The GV breaks down after it migrates to the oocyte membrane on the protuberance side. The protuberance then contracts back into the oocyte and the first polar body extrudes from the site of the former protuberance. The second polar body forms beneath the first. Thus the oocyte protuberance indicates the presumptive animal pole well before maturation of the oocyte.

  17. Three Sesquiterpenoid Dimers from Chloranthus japonicus: Absolute Configuration of Chlorahololide A and Related Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin-Wei; Lu, Qiang-Qiang; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Ivšić, Trpimir; Zhou, Jun-Hui; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2016-02-01

    A novel sesquiterpenoid dimer, named multistalide C (1), together with two known congeners, shizukaols C (2) and D (3), was isolated from the whole plant of Chloranthus japonicus Sieb. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by extensive HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited significant toxic effects on brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina). The absolute configuration of 1 was established by CD/TDDFT calculations. The related compound chlorahololide A was also reinvestigated. The previous assignment of the absolute configuration of chlorahololide A and several related sesquiterpenoid dimers, based on an incorrect application of the exciton chirality method, is criticized. PMID:26708509

  18. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  19. Bioactive isopimarane diterpenes from the fungus, Epicoccum sp. HS-1, associated with Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuekui; Qi, Jun; Liu, Yayue; Jia, Airong; Zhang, Yonggang; Liu, Changheng; Gao, Cuiling; She, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    One new isopimarane diterpene (1), together with two known compounds, 11-deoxydiaporthein A (2) and iso-pimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the culture of Epicoccum sp., which was associated with Apostichopus japonicus. Their structures were determined by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was deduced by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. In the bioactivity assay, both Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.6 ± 0.1 and 11.9 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. This was the first report on isopimarane diterpenes with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25738327

  20. Individual Apostichopus japonicus fecal microbiome reveals a link with polyhydroxybutyrate producers in host growth gaps.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yohei; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Thompson, Fabiano L; Sakai, Yuichi; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiome shapes various aspects of a host's physiology, but these functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully investigated. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka is one such example. The large growth gap in their body size has delayed the development of intensive aquaculture, nevertheless the species is in urgent need of conservation. To understand possible contributions of the gut microbiome to its host's growth, individual fecal microbiome comparisons were performed. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significantly different microbiota in larger and smaller individuals; Rhodobacterales in particular was the most significantly abundant bacterial group in the larger specimens. Further shotgun metagenome of representative samples revealed a significant abundance of microbiome retaining polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism genes in the largest individual. The PHB metabolism reads were potentially derived from Rhodobacterales. These results imply a possible link between microbial PHB producers and potential growth promotion in Deuterostomia marine invertebrates. PMID:26905381

  1. DNA Damage in Euonymus japonicus Leaf Cells Caused by Roadside Pollution in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Gu, Ke; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Crittenden, John; Lu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    The inhalable particles from vehicle exhaust can cause DNA damage to exposed organisms. Research on DNA damage is primarily focused on the influence of specific pollutants on certain species or the effect of environmental pollution on human beings. To date, little research has quantitatively studied the relationship between roadside pollution and DNA damage. Based on an investigation of the roadside pollution in Beijing, Euonymus japonicus leaves of differing ages grown in heavily-polluted sections were chosen as biomonitors to detect DNA damage using the comet assay technique. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment was chosen as the analysis index based on SPSS data analysis. The roadside samples showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage than non-roadside samples, which increased in older leaves, and the DNA damage to Euonymus japonicus leaf cells was positively correlated with haze-aggravated roadside pollution. The correlation between damage and the Air Quality Index (AQI) are 0.921 (one-year-old leaves), 0.894 (two-year-old leaves), and 0.878 (three-year-old leaves). Over time, the connection between DNA damage and AQI weakened, with the sensitivity coefficient for δyear 1 being larger than δyear 2 and δyear 3. These findings support the suitability and sensitivity of the comet assay for surveying plants for an estimation of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxic agents. This study might be applied as a preliminary quantitative method for Chinese urban air pollution damage assessment caused by environmental stress. PMID:27455298

  2. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus.

  3. DNA Damage in Euonymus japonicus Leaf Cells Caused by Roadside Pollution in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Gu, Ke; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Crittenden, John; Lu, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    The inhalable particles from vehicle exhaust can cause DNA damage to exposed organisms. Research on DNA damage is primarily focused on the influence of specific pollutants on certain species or the effect of environmental pollution on human beings. To date, little research has quantitatively studied the relationship between roadside pollution and DNA damage. Based on an investigation of the roadside pollution in Beijing, Euonymus japonicus leaves of differing ages grown in heavily-polluted sections were chosen as biomonitors to detect DNA damage using the comet assay technique. The percentage of DNA in the tail and tail moment was chosen as the analysis index based on SPSS data analysis. The roadside samples showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage than non-roadside samples, which increased in older leaves, and the DNA damage to Euonymus japonicus leaf cells was positively correlated with haze-aggravated roadside pollution. The correlation between damage and the Air Quality Index (AQI) are 0.921 (one-year-old leaves), 0.894 (two-year-old leaves), and 0.878 (three-year-old leaves). Over time, the connection between DNA damage and AQI weakened, with the sensitivity coefficient for δyear 1 being larger than δyear 2 and δyear 3. These findings support the suitability and sensitivity of the comet assay for surveying plants for an estimation of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxic agents. This study might be applied as a preliminary quantitative method for Chinese urban air pollution damage assessment caused by environmental stress. PMID:27455298

  4. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis. PMID:23046713

  5. Novel branch patterns and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A novel glucosidic pattern of fucose branches was found in the glycosaminoglycan from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in China. The methylation of desulfated/carboxyl-reduced polysaccharides and analysis of unsaturated disaccharides generated from the enzymolysis of the defucosed polysaccharides demonstrated that the branch is formed by one fucopyranosyl residue, 46.5% of which is linked through the O-3 position of β-D-glucuronic acid, while 8.7% and 43.9% are linked through the O-6 and O-4 positions of the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety. The β-D-glucuronic acid, N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine, α-L-fucose and sulfate ester with the molecular ratio of 0.97:1.00:1.13:3.85 composed the backbone → 4)GlcUAβ(1 → 3)GalNAcβ(1 → and sulfated fucose branches. The sulfation patterns of fucose branches and the linkage pattern of the backbone structure were determined by 1/2 dimension NMR. The most abundant branch species were 2,4-di-O-sulfated and 3,4-di-O-sulfated fucose, but 4-mono-O-sulfated residue was also present. The structure of presently obtained glycosaminoglycan is different from that previously obtained from Stichopus japonicus (Kariya et al., Carbohyd. Res. 297 (1997) 273-279), which suggests that the structures of glycosaminoglycans from the same species of different regions somehow differ. The anticoagulant assay indicated that the polysaccharide possessed a high anticoagulant activity and the sulfated fucose branches were essential to the activity. PMID:25453278

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of a complement component gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of animals. It can be activated by distinct yet overlapping classical, alternative and lectin pathways. In the alternative pathway, complement factor B (Bf) serves as the catalytic subunit of complement component 3 (C3) convertase, which plays the central role among three activation pathways. In this study, the Bf gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), termed AjBf, was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of AjBf was 3231 bp in length barring the poly (A) tail. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2742 bp encoding 913 amino acids, a 105 bp 5'-UTR (5'-terminal untranslated region) and a 384 bp 3'-UTR. AjBf was a mosaic protein with six CCP (complement control protein) domains, a VWA (von Willebrand factor A) domain, and a serine protease domain. The deduced molecular weight of AjBf protein was 101 kDa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression level of AjBf in A. japonicus was obviously higher at larval stage than that at embryonic stage. Expression detection in different tissues showed that AjBf expressed higher in coelomocytes than in other four tissues. In addation, AjBf expression in different tissues was induced significantly after LPS or PolyI:C challenge. These results indicated that AjBf plays an important role in immune responses to pathogen infection.

  7. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers. PMID:27376927

  8. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus. PMID:26204013

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of four caspases members in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Weiwei; Duan, Xuemei; Li, Ye; Jin, Chunhua; Xiong, Jinbo; Qiu, Qiongfen

    2016-08-01

    The caspase family representing aspartate-specific cysteine proteases have been demonstrated to possess key roles in apoptosis and immune response. We previously demonstrated that LPS challenged Apostichopus japonicus coelomocyte could significantly induced apoptosis in vitro. However, apoptosis related molecules were scarcely investigated in this economic species. In the present work, we cloned and characterized four members caspase family from A. japonicus (designated as Ajcaspase-2, Ajcaspase-3, Ajcaspase-6, and Ajcaspase-8, respectively) by RACE. Multiple sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that all Ajcaspases contained the conservative CASC domain at C terminal, in which some unique features for each Ajcaspase made them different from each other. These specific domains together with phylogenetic analysis supported that all these four identified proteins belonged to novel members of apoptotic signaling pathway in sea cucumber. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that four Ajcaspase genes were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The expression of Ajcaspase-2 was tightly correlated with that of Ajcaspase-8 in each detected tissues. Ajcaspase-3 and Ajcaspase-6 transcripts were both highly expressed in immune tissue of coelomocytes. Furthermore, the Vibrio splendidus challenged sea cucumber coelomocytes could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expressions of four genes. The expression levels of Ajcaspase-2 and Ajcaspase-8 were relative earlier than those of Ajcaspase-6 and Ajcaspase-3, respectively, which could be inferred that Ajcapase-2 might directly modulate Ajcaspase-6, and Ajcaspase-8 initiate the expression of Ajcaspase-3. The induce expressions differed among each Ajcaspase depending upon their roles such as initiator or effector caspase. All our results demonstrated that four Ajcaspases present diversified functions in apoptotic cascade signaling pathway of sea cucumber under immune response. PMID:27245866

  10. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences. PMID:26334807

  11. Response of integrated biomarkers of fish (Lateolabrax japonicus) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Jifa, Wu; Yu, Zhiming; Xiuxian, Song; You, Wang

    2006-10-01

    Fish Lateolabrax japonicus were exposed to 0.1 and 1mg/L of anion surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and to 2 and 20 microg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) for 6, 12, and 18 days, with control and solvent control groups. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were determined; brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and liver inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were also measured. The results indicated that (1) L. japonicus avoided oxidative damage through antioxidant systems; (2) SOD, GPx, and GSH were induced, and GST was inhibited and then induced by B[a]P exposure; and (3) CAT, GPx, and AChE were induced while iNOS was inhibited, and GST was induced and then inhibited by SDBS stress in experimental period. PMID:16256195

  12. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 (isolated from mud of sea cucumber culturing water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B. cereus EN25 at 0 (control), 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/g for 30 days. Results showed that dietary B. cereus EN25 had no significant effects on growth, total coelomocytes counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05). Dietary EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g had significantly improved the phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and total nitric oxide synthase activity of animals (P < 0.05). Compared to control, dietary EN25 at 10(5) or 10(7) CFU/g had no significant effects on superoxide dismutase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05), whereas dietary EN25 at 10(9) CFU/g had significantly decreased its activity (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality after V. splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers fed with EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed dietary B. cereus EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g could significantly improve immunity and disease resistance in juvenile A. japonicus. PMID:26723266

  13. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    PubMed

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods. PMID:24981692

  14. Anti-ulcerogenic effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction from the extract of Orostachys japonicus in mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Jongwon; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2007-12-01

    Orostachys japonicus (Crassulaceae) herbal preparations have been used to treat gastric ulcer or gastric cancer disease in Korean folk medicine. To demonstrate the effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract of O. japonicus and its fractions on gastric lesions and pain, the MeOH extract was fractionated into triterpene-rich and flavonoid-rich (FRF) fractions. Second, the fractions were subjected to analgesic assays including hot plate and writhing assays and anti-ulcerogenic assays in HCl/ethanol-induced- and indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer models in mice. In this experiment, it was found that the FRF most significantly reduced ulcerative indices and pain in mice, although the MeOH extract was also effective. Oral administration of the FRF highly reduced the diameter of gastric lesion induced by HCl/ethanol (inhibitory effect, 53%) and by indomethacin/bethanechol (inhibitory effect, 36%) at the 100 mg/kg dose. In addition, oral administration of 200 mg/kg FRF markedly increased the reaction time in the hot plate test by 52% and decreased stretching episodes (45%) in the writhing test. These results suggest that the active component of O. japonicus exhibiting the potent anti-ulcerative and antinociceptive effect is included in the FRF. The anti-ulcerative effects of the MeOH extract and the FRF were also supported by gastric juice and gastric acid volumes and pH in pylorus-ligated mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence-based support for the traditional use of O. japonicus for gastric disease. PMID:18158844

  15. A Suite of Lotus japonicus Starch Mutants Reveals Both Conserved and Novel Features of Starch Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vriet, Cécile; Welham, Tracey; Brachmann, Andreas; Pike, Marilyn; Pike, Jodie; Perry, Jillian; Parniske, Martin; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Smith, Alison M.; Wang, Trevor L.

    2010-01-01

    The metabolism of starch is of central importance for many aspects of plant growth and development. Information on leaf starch metabolism other than in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is scarce. Furthermore, its importance in several agronomically important traits exemplified by legumes remains to be investigated. To address this issue, we have provided detailed information on the genes involved in starch metabolism in Lotus japonicus and have characterized a comprehensive collection of forward and TILLING (for Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) reverse genetics mutants affecting five enzymes of starch synthesis and two enzymes of starch degradation. The mutants provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucan, water dikinase1 in particular. Analyses of the mutant phenotypes indicate that the pathways of leaf starch metabolism in L. japonicus and Arabidopsis are largely conserved. However, the importance of these pathways for plant growth and development differs substantially between the two species. Whereas essentially starchless Arabidopsis plants lacking plastidial phosphoglucomutase grow slowly relative to wild-type plants, the equivalent mutant of L. japonicus grows normally even in a 12-h photoperiod. In contrast, the loss of GLUCAN, WATER DIKINASE1, required for starch degradation, has a far greater effect on plant growth and fertility in L. japonicus than in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we have also identified several mutants likely to be affected in new components or regulators of the pathways of starch metabolism. This suite of mutants provides a substantial new resource for further investigations of the partitioning of carbon and its importance for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legume seed development, and perenniality and vegetative regrowth. PMID:20699404

  16. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  17. A genetic linkage map of the model legume Lotus japonicus and strategies for fast mapping of new loci.

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Niels; Krusell, Lene; Radutoiu, Simona; Olbryt, Magdalena; Pedrosa, Andrea; Stracke, Silke; Sato, Shusei; Kato, Tomohiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin; Bachmair, Andreas; Ketelsen, Tina; Stougaard, Jens

    2002-01-01

    A genetic map for the model legume Lotus japonicus has been developed. The F(2) mapping population was established from an interspecific cross between L. japonicus and L. filicaulis. A high level of DNA polymorphism between these parents was the source of markers for linkage analysis and the map is based on a framework of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Additional markers were generated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence-specific PCR. A total of 524 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers, 39 gene-specific markers, 33 microsatellite markers, and six recessive symbiotic mutant loci were mapped. This genetic map consists of six linkage groups corresponding to the six chromosomes in L. japonicus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected markers aligned the linkage groups to chromosomes as described in the accompanying article by Pedrosa et al. 2002(this issue). The length of the linkage map is 367 cM and the average marker distance is 0.6 cM. Distorted segregation of markers was found in certain sections of the map and linkage group I could be assembled only by combining colormapping and cytogenetics (FISH). A fast method to position genetic loci employing three AFLP primer combinations yielding 89 markers was developed and evaluated by mapping three symbiotic loci, Ljsym1, Ljsym5, and Ljhar1-3. PMID:12196410

  18. La Crosse Encephalitis Virus Infection in Field-Collected Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, and Aedes triseriatus in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Westby, Katie M; Fritzen, Charissa; Paulsen, Dave; Poindexter, Stephanie; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2015-09-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-borne virus and a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in the USA. La Crosse virus emerged in Tennessee and other states in the Appalachian region in 1997. We investigated LACV infection rates and seasonal abundances of the native mosquito vector, Aedes triseriatus, and 2 recently introduced mosquito species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus, in an emerging disease focus in Tennessee. Mosquitoes were collected using multiple trapping methods specific for Aedes mosquitoes at recent human case sites. Mosquito pools were tested via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the S segment to detect multiple Bunyamwera and California serogroup viruses, including LACV, as well as real-time RT-PCR of the M segment. A total of 54 mosquito pools were positive, including wild-caught adult females and laboratory-reared adults, demonstrating transovarial transmission in all 3 species. Maximum likelihood estimates (per 1,000 mosquitoes) were 2.72 for Ae. triseriatus, 3.01 for Ae. albopictus, and 0.63 for Ae. japonicus. We conclude that Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus are important LACV vectors and that Ae. japonicus also may be involved in virus maintenance and transmission. PMID:26375904

  19. Contrasting genetic structure of closely related giant water bugs: phylogeography of Appasus japonicus and Appasus major (Insecta: Heteroptera, Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Kitano, Tadashi; Tojo, Koji

    2014-03-01

    Appasus japonicus and A. major, two belostomatid species of the giant water bug found in parts of East Asia, have very similar morphological characteristics and ecological niches, and also overlapping habitats. However, the results of our previous published study utilizing molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed extensive genetic differences, which indicated that the possibility of inter-specific hybridization was extremely unlikely. We collected A. japonicus and A. major from the Japanese Archipelago, Korean Peninsula, and Russian Far East, and conducted molecular analyses of mitochondrial DNA COI and 16S rRNA to compare phylogenetic relationships between these species. Three major clades were recognized within A. japonicus. Specimens from the Korean population constituted a monophyletic clade, and were a sister group of the western region of the Japanese Archipelago. The Eastern Japanese clade was clearly differentiated. Four major clades were recognized within A. major. Specimens from the Japanese and Korean populations revealed two distinct monophyletic clades. Significant differentiation was clearly observed between their genetic structures. Furthermore, the results of mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline plot analyses suggested the possibility of a bottleneck effect or founder effect in two of the A. major clades. Collectively, these results demonstrated both similarities and differences in these two species even though their distribution widely overlaps in East Asia, with their morphological characteristics and ecological niches being very similar. These differences in genetic structures are considered to be due to their evolutionary history. PMID:24398367

  20. Construction of a Lotus japonicus late nodulin expressed sequence tag library and identification of novel nodule-specific genes.

    PubMed Central

    Szczyglowski, K; Hamburger, D; Kapranov, P; de Bruijn, F J

    1997-01-01

    A range of novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with late developmental events during nodule organogenesis in the legume Lotus japonicus were identified using mRNA differential display; 110 differentially displayed polymerase chain reaction products were cloned and analyzed. Of 88 unique cDNAs obtained, 22 shared significant homology to DNA/protein sequences in the respective databases. This group comprises, among others, a nodule-specific homolog of protein phosphatase 2C, a peptide transporter protein, and a nodule-specific form of cytochrome P450. RNA gel-blot analysis of 16 differentially displayed ESTs confirmed their nodule-specific expression pattern. The kinetics of mRNA accumulation of the majority of the ESTs analyzed were found to resemble the expression pattern observed for the L. japonicus leghemoglobin gene. These results indicate that the newly isolated molecular markers correspond to genes induced during late developmental stages of L. japonicus nodule organogenesis and provide important, novel tools for the study of nodulation. PMID:9276951

  1. Effects of Surfactants and Microwave-assisted Pretreatment of Orange Peel on Extracellular Enzymes Production by Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-jun; Xia, Jin-lan; Shan, Yang; Nie, Zhen-yuan; Wang, Fei-ran

    2015-06-01

    The effects of surfactants and microwave pretreatment of orange peel powder (OPP) on the production of pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase by Aspergillus japonicus PJ01 in submerged fermentation were investigated. The results showed that when OPP was pretreated only by microwave (630 W, 9 min, and liquid/solid ratio 5), the activities of exo-pectinase, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), xylanase, and filter paper cellulase (FPase) were increased by 11.8, 20.6, 16.2, and 24.0 %, respectively, and when OPP was pretreated by microwave at the same conditions cited above plus PEG 4000 at the concentration of 3 g/L, the activities of the above four enzymes were enhanced by 40.2, 30.3, 40.4, and 40.0 % after 84-h cultivation, respectively. It is suggested a synergistic effect between microwave and surfactant treatment in enhancing the multiextracellular enzymes production by OPP fermentation of A. japonicus PJ01. Chemical composition and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed that the microwave pretreatment of OPP led to the decrease of hemicellulose and essential oil contents. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that OPP surface after microwave pretreatment became porous and more susceptible to be invaded by A. japonicus. The results demonstrated that pretreatment of OPP by surfactant PEG 4000 and microwave irradiation as environment-friendly way was cost-effective in enhancing the multienzyme production from agricultural waste orange peel. PMID:25920331

  2. Anillin-related protein Mid1 regulates timely formation of the contractile ring in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tsuyoshi; Takaine, Masak; Numata, Osamu; Nakano, Kentaro

    2016-06-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp), Mid1/Dmf1 plays an important role in positioning the division site by inducing formation of the contractile ring (CR). Mid1, emanating from the nucleus located in the cell center, forms a dozen of nodes in the middle cell cortex ahead of mitosis, and actin filaments and myosin II accumulated at each node interact and assemble the CR in metaphase. Curiously, in another fission yeast S. japonicus (Sj), CR formation begins after nuclear segregation in late anaphase. Here, we investigated the role of S. japonicus Mid1 during mitosis to compare the molecular mechanisms that determine the cell division site in Schizosaccharomyces. Similar to Sp Mid1, Sj Mid1 often accumulated in the nucleus of interphase cells. Moreover, Sj Mid1 localized to cortical dots with myosin II in the future division site and formed a medial ring in mitotic cells. However, S. japonicus cells without Mid1 function still carried out symmetrical binary division. Therefore, the Mid1 dependency for positional control of the cell division site is possibly different between the two species. Meanwhile, we found that Sj Mid1 enhanced CR formation, in a manner possibly similar to that by Sp Mid1. PMID:27059155

  3. Different strategies of Lotus japonicus, L. corniculatus and L. tenuis to deal with complete submergence at seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Striker, G G; Izaguirre, R F; Manzur, M E; Grimoldi, A A

    2012-01-01

    Two main strategies allow plants to deal with submergence: (i) escape from below water by means of shoot elongation, or (ii) remaining quiescent under the water until water subsides and then resume growth. We investigated these strategies in seedlings of Lotus japonicus, L. corniculatus and L. tenuis subjected to control and submergence for 12 days, with a subsequent 30-day recovery period. All three species survived submergence but used different strategies. Submerged seedlings of L. japonicus exhibited an escape strategy (emerging from water) as a result of preferential carbon allocation towards shoot mass and lengthening, in detriment to root growth. In contrast, seedlings of L. corniculatus and L. tenuis became quiescent, with no biomass accumulation, no new unfolding of leaves and no shoot elongation. Upon de-submergence, seedlings of L. japonicus had the lowest recovery growth (a biomass and shoot height 58% and 40% less than controls, respectively), L. corniculatus was intermediate and L. tenuis showed the greatest recovery growth. Previously submerged seedlings of L. tenuis did not differ from their controls, either in final shoot biomass or shoot height. Thus, for the studied species, quiescence appears to be an adequate strategy for tolerance of short-term (i.e., 12 days) complete submergence, being consistent with field observations of L. tenuis colonisation of flood-prone environments. PMID:21972978

  4. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing

    2015-03-01

    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  5. Expression analysis of immune related genes identified from the coelomocytes of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in response to LPS challenge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Sun, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Jiang, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) occupies a basal position during the evolution of deuterostomes and is also an important aquaculture species. In order to identify more immune effectors, transcriptome sequencing of A. japonicus coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was performed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. One hundred and seven differentially expressed genes were selected and divided into four functional categories including pathogen recognition (25 genes), reorganization of cytoskeleton (27 genes), inflammation (41 genes) and apoptosis (14 genes). They were analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and downstream signaling transduction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs) of 10 representative genes validated the accuracy and reliability of RNA sequencing results with the correlation coefficients from 0.88 to 0.98 and p-value <0.05. Expression analysis of immune-related genes after LPS challenge will be useful in understanding the immune response mechanisms of A. japonicus against pathogen invasion and developing strategies for resistant markers selection. PMID:25421239

  6. Expression Analysis of Immune Related Genes Identified from the Coelomocytes of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Response to LPS Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ying; Sun, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Jiang, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) occupies a basal position during the evolution of deuterostomes and is also an important aquaculture species. In order to identify more immune effectors, transcriptome sequencing of A. japonicus coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was performed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. One hundred and seven differentially expressed genes were selected and divided into four functional categories including pathogen recognition (25 genes), reorganization of cytoskeleton (27 genes), inflammation (41 genes) and apoptosis (14 genes). They were analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and downstream signaling transduction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs) of 10 representative genes validated the accuracy and reliability of RNA sequencing results with the correlation coefficients from 0.88 to 0.98 and p-value <0.05. Expression analysis of immune-related genes after LPS challenge will be useful in understanding the immune response mechanisms of A. japonicus against pathogen invasion and developing strategies for resistant markers selection. PMID:25421239

  7. Ontogeny of antipredator performance in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus larvae exposed to visual or tactile predators in relation to turbidity.

    PubMed

    Ohata, R; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2011-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed distinct effects of turbidity on the survival of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus) or tactile (moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita) predators. The experiments were conducted in 30 l tanks with three levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50 or 300 mg l(-1) of kaolin. Predators were introduced to experimental tanks followed by larvae of E. japonicus ranging from 5 to 25 mm standard lengths (L(s) ). When exposed to T. japonicus, the mean survival rate of larvae was significantly higher in 300 mg l(-1) treatments compared to the other turbidity levels. When exposed to A. aurita, however, there was no difference in the survival rates among different turbidity treatments. The survival rates when exposed to either predator improved with larval growth. The logistic survivorship models for E. japonicus larvae when exposed to A. aurita had an inflection point at c. 12 mm L(s) , suggesting that their size refuge from A. aurita is close to this value. Comparison to a previous study suggests a high vulnerability of shirasu (long and transparent) fish larvae to jellyfish predation under turbidity. This study indicates that anthropogenic increases of turbidity in coastal waters may increase the relative effect of jellyfish predation on fish larvae. PMID:22141901

  8. Molecular characterization of two novel molecular chaperones in bacterial-challenged Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihong; Shao, Yina; Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Chenghua; Lv, Zhimeng; Jin, Chunhua

    2015-10-01

    Molecular chaperones of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) are involved in protein folding and assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Increasing evidences also suggest that these two molecules play an important role in immune response. In the present study, we cloned and characterized GRP78 and PDI genes from Apostichopus japonicus by RNA-seq and RACE approaches (designated as AjGRP78 and AjPDI, respectively). The AjGRP78 cDNA was of 2355bp including an open reading frame (ORF) of 2013 bp encoding a protein of 670 amino acids with three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family signatures. AjGRP78 contained a 23-amino acid signal peptide at the N-terminus and a HDEL motif at the C-terminus, which supported the location of the protein in the ER. The full length cDNA of AjPDI was of 1893 bp with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 153 bp, a 3' UTR of 228 bp and an ORF of 1512 bp encoding a protein of 503 amino acids. A 17-amino acid signal peptide, two thioredoxin domains with two active sites of CGHC, and KDEL retention signal were totally conserved in the deduced amino acid of AjPDI. Phylogenic analysis and multiple alignments have shown that both genes shared remarkably higher degree of structural conservation and sequence identities with other counterparts from invertebrates and vertebrates, further supporting that the two proteins were novel members of molecular chaperone family. Spatial expression analysis revealed that AjGRP78 mRNA transcripts were dominantly expressed in the tentacle, while AjPDI mRNA levels were abundant in the muscle, intestine and respiratory trees. For Vibrio splendidus challenged sea cucumber, the peak expression of AjGRP78 and AjPDI mRNAs in coelomocytes were detected at 24h with 1.73-fold increase and at 6h with 1.83-fold increase compared with the control group, respectively. Similarly, a significant increase in the relative mRNA levels of AjGRP78 and AjPDI was also identified in 1 μg mL(-1

  9. Changes of exoskeleton surface roughness and expression of crucial participation genes for chitin formation and digestion in the mud crab (Macrophthalmus japonicus) following the antifouling biocide irgarol.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Won-Seok; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2016-10-01

    Irgarol is a common antifoulant present in coastal sediment. The mud crab Macrophthalmus japonicus is one of the most abundant of the macrobenthos in the costal environment, and its exoskeleton has a protective function against various environmental threats. We evaluated the effects of irgarol toxicity on the exoskeleton of M. japonicus, which is the outer layer facing the environment. We analyzed transcriptional expression of exoskeleton, molting, and proteolysis-related genes in the gill and hepatopancreas of these exposed M. japonicus. In addition, changes in survival and exoskeleton surface characteristics were investigated. In the hepatopancreas, mRNA expression of chitinase 1 (Mj-chi1), chitinase 4 (Mj-chi4), and chitinase 5 (Mj-chi5) increased in M. japonicus exposed to all concentrations of irgarol. Mj-chi1 and Mj-chi4 expressions from 1 to 10μgL(-1) were dose- and time-dependent. Ecdysteroid receptor (Mj-EcR), trypsin (Mj-Tryp), and serine proteinase (Mj-SP) in the hepatopancreas were upregulated in response to different exposure levels of irgarol at day 1, 4, or 7. In contrast, gill Mj-chi5, Mj-Tryp, and Mj-SP exhibited late upregulated responses to 10μgL(-1) irgarol compared to the control at day 7. Mj-chi1 showed early upregulation upon exposure to 10μgL(-1) irgarol and Mj-chi4 showed no changes in transcription in the gill. Gill Mj-EcR presented generally downregulated expression patterns. In addition, decreased survival and change of exoskeleton surface roughness were observed in M. japonicus exposed to the three concentrations of irgarol. These results suggest that exposure to irgarol induces changes in the exoskeleton, molting, and proteolysis metabolism of M. japonicus. PMID:27318560

  10. A Dicarboxylate Transporter, LjALMT4, Mainly Expressed in Nodules of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Kojiro; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kan, Tomohiro; Saida, Yuka; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamamoto, Yoko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2016-07-01

    Legume plants can establish symbiosis with soil bacteria called rhizobia to obtain nitrogen as a nutrient directly from atmospheric N2 via symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Legumes and rhizobia form nodules, symbiotic organs in which fixed-nitrogen and photosynthetic products are exchanged between rhizobia and plant cells. The photosynthetic products supplied to rhizobia are thought to be dicarboxylates but little is known about the movement of dicarboxylates in the nodules. In terms of dicarboxylate transporters, an aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT) family is a strong candidate responsible for the membrane transport of carboxylates in nodules. Among the seven ALMT genes in the Lotus japonicus genome, only one, LjALMT4, shows a high expression in the nodules. LjALMT4 showed transport activity in a Xenopus oocyte system, with LjALMT4 mediating the efflux of dicarboxylates including malate, succinate, and fumarate, but not tricarboxylates such as citrate. LjALMT4 also mediated the influx of several inorganic anions. Organ-specific gene expression analysis showed LjALMT4 mRNA mainly in the parenchyma cells of nodule vascular bundles. These results suggest that LjALMT4 may not be involved in the direct supply of dicarboxylates to rhizobia in infected cells but is responsible for supplying malate as well as several anions necessary for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, via nodule vasculatures. PMID:27183039

  11. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  12. Lipolytic Potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01: Production, Partial Purification, and Characterisation of an Extracellular Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Lívia Tereza Andrade; Oliveira, Jamil S.; dos Santos, Vera L.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Santoro, Marcelo M.; Resende, Rodrigo R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01 was investigated by describing the catalytic properties and stability of a secreted extracellular lipase. Enzyme production was considered high under room temperature after 4 days using sunflower oil and a combination of casein with sodium nitrate. Lipase was partially purified by 3.9-fold, resulting in a 44.2% yield using ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) quantified with Superose 12 HR gel filtration chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was maximised at pH 8.5, and the enzyme demonstrated stability under alkaline conditions. The optimum temperature was found to be 45°C, and the enzyme was stable for up to 100 minutes, with more than 80% of initial activity remaining after incubation at this temperature. Partially purified enzyme showed reasonable stability with triton X-100 and was activated in the presence of organic solvents (toluene, hexane, and methanol). Among the tested ions, only Cu2+, Ni2+, and Al3+ showed inhibitory effects. Substrate specificity of the lipase was higher for C14 among various p-nitrophenyl esters assayed. The KM and Vmax values of the purified enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 0.13 mM and 12.58 umol/(L·min), respectively. These features render a novel biocatalyst for industrial applications. PMID:25530954

  13. Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. PMID:24220796

  14. A metabolic gene cluster in Lotus japonicus discloses novel enzyme functions and products in triterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krokida, Afrodite; Delis, Costas; Geisler, Katrin; Garagounis, Constantine; Tsikou, Daniela; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Katsarou, Dimitra; Field, Ben; Osbourn, Anne E; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2013-11-01

    Genes for triterpene biosynthetic pathways exist as metabolic gene clusters in oat and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We characterized the presence of an analogous gene cluster in the model legume Lotus japonicus. In the genomic regions flanking the oxidosqualene cyclase AMY2 gene, genes for two different classes of cytochrome P450 and a gene predicted to encode a reductase were identified. Functional characterization of the cluster genes was pursued by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The gene expression pattern was studied under different developmental and environmental conditions. The physiological role of the gene cluster in nodulation and plant development was studied in knockdown experiments. A novel triterpene structure, dihydrolupeol, was produced by AMY2. A new plant cytochrome P450, CYP71D353, which catalyses the formation of 20-hydroxybetulinic acid in a sequential three-step oxidation of 20-hydroxylupeol was characterized. The genes within the cluster are highly co-expressed during root and nodule development, in hormone-treated plants and under various environmental stresses. A transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that appears to be involved in the regulation of the cluster genes was also revealed. A tightly co-regulated cluster of functionally related genes is involved in legume triterpene biosynthesis, with a possible role in plant development. PMID:23909862

  15. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shanwei; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan; Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu; Chen, Yuze

    2016-09-01

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M1 populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD50) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M2 plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M2 populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  16. Distribution and abundance of the Japanese snail, Viviparus japonicus, and associated macrobenthos in Sandusky Bay, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Hiltunen, Jarl K.

    1968-01-01

    A survey of the macrobenthos of Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, in June, 1963, provided information on the abundance and distribution of the introduced Japanese snail, Viviparus japonicus, which has become a nuisance to commercial seine fishermen. The abundance and distribution varied considerably within the bay; at the time of the survey, most snails were found near the north-central shore. Environmental characteristics were nearly uniform and had no apparent effect on the distribution; concentrations in different areas at different times appeared to result from water movements induced by winds. The time of the study coincided with a period of reproduction; young-of-the-year snails were most abundant in areas where adults were most common. The frequency distributions of shell height and diameter suggested the presence of two age groups of adults in the population. Considerable natural mortality was seen, both at the time of the study and in other seasons. Only three other gastropods were observed in the bay; the most abundant was another viviparid, Campeloma decisum. Other mollusks present were four species of Sphaeriidae and 18 species of Unionidae. A summary of invertebrates found, other than the mollusks, is also presented.

  17. Proteome Analysis. Novel Proteins Identified at the Peribacteroid Membrane from Lotus japonicus Root Nodules1

    PubMed Central

    Wienkoop, Stefanie; Saalbach, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The peribacteroid membrane (PBM) forms the structural and functional interface between the legume plant and the rhizobia. The model legume Lotus japonicus was chosen to study the proteins present at the PBM by proteome analysis. PBM was purified from root nodules by an aqueous polymer two-phase system. Extracted proteins were subjected to a global trypsin digest. The peptides were separated by nanoscale liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Searching the nonredundant protein database and the green plant expressed sequence tag database using the tandem mass spectrometry data identified approximately 94 proteins, a number far exceeding the number of proteins reported for the PBM hitherto. In particular, a number of membrane proteins like transporters for sugars and sulfate; endomembrane-associated proteins such as GTP-binding proteins and vesicle receptors; and proteins involved in signaling, for example, receptor kinases, calmodulin, 14-3-3 proteins, and pathogen response-related proteins, including a so-called HIR protein, were detected. Several ATPases and aquaporins were present, indicating a more complex situation than previously thought. In addition, the unexpected presence of a number of proteins known to be located in other compartments was observed. Two characteristic protein complexes obtained from native gel electrophoresis of total PBM proteins were also analyzed. Together, the results identified specific proteins at the PBM involved in important physiological processes and localized proteins known from nodule-specific expressed sequence tag databases to the PBM. PMID:12644660

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Plotosus japonicus (Siluriformes: Plotosidae) and phylogenetic studies of Siluriformes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Hai

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of Plotosus japonicus, which is a kind of marine fish widely distributed in Northwest Pacific. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16 472 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition is 31.9% A, 24.7% T, 27.7% C, 15.7% G, with a slight AT bias (56.6%), similar to other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. All the protein-coding genes use the initiation codon ATG except COI uses GTG. Most of them have TAA or TAG as the stop codon, while COII and ND4 use AGA, COIII and Cytb use an incomplete stop codon TA or T. Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree and Bayesian analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were constructed and both yielded identical topologies. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Siluriformes. PMID:26122342

  19. Down-regulated Lotus japonicus GCR1 plants exhibit nodulation signalling pathways alteration.

    PubMed

    Rogato, Alessandra; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Alves, Ludovico Martins; Apone, Fabio; Colucci, Gabriella; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins involved in various signalling pathways by perceiving many extracellular signals and transducing them to heterotrimeric G proteins, which further transduce these signals to intracellular downstream effectors. GCR1 is the only reliable plant candidate as a member of the GPCRs superfamily. In the legume/rhizobia symbiotic interaction, G proteins are involved in signalling pathways controlling different steps of the nodulation program. In order to investigate the putative hierarchic role played by GCR1 in these symbiotic pathways we identified and characterized the Lotus japonicus gene encoding the seven transmembrane GCR1 protein. The detailed molecular and topological analyses of LjGCR1 expression patterns that are presented suggest a possible involvement in the early steps of nodule organogenesis. Furthermore, phenotypic analyses of independent transgenic RNAi lines, showing a significant LjGCR1 expression down regulation, suggest an epistatic action in the control of molecular markers of nodulation pathways, although no macroscopic symbiotic phenotypes could be revealed. PMID:27095401

  20. Structure and rheological characteristics of fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Xu, Xiaoqi; Ge, Lei; Liu, Guanchen

    2015-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional health food consumed in East Asia. In this study, fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC) was isolated, and its structure and rheological characteristics were elucidated for the first time. Aj-FUC was a branched polysaccharide mainly composed of a novel repeating unit [α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3,(α-L-Fucp-1 → 4-α-L-Fucp-1 →)4-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))], clarified by using a combination of infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis, enzymatic degradation and nuclear magnetic resonance. In steady shear measurement, Aj-FUC manifested a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour at low shear rate (1-100 S(-1)) while exhibiting a non-Newtonian shear-thickening behaviour at high shear rate (100-1000 S(-1)); salts had limited impact on its flow curve. Comparative study on viscosity and rheological behaviour of Aj-FUC and a linear fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides suggested that the presence of branch structure might significantly influence the rheological characteristics of fucoidan. PMID:25766803

  1. Depolymerized glycosaminoglycan and its anticoagulant activities from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Boyuan; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A controlled Cu(2+) catalytic free-radical depolymerization process of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was established. The results showed a good linear relationship between 1/Mw and time during the depolymerization. A series of fractions with different molecular weight were obtained, and the physicochemical properties of them were investigated and compared utilizing the chemical method, IR spectra and NMR spectra. The results showed no significant variations of the backbone and branches structures during the depolymerization. Furthermore, the anticoagulant activities of the depolymerized fractions were evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The APTT decreases in proportion to the molecular weight following a linear relationship and the prolongation of APTT activity requires at least oligosaccharide of 4 trisaccharide units (about 4000 Da). Their anticoagulant activity of low molecular weight fraction (Mw = 24,755 Da) is similar to LMWH with significantly less bleeding risk. The results suggest that the low molecular weight fraction could be used as a novel anticoagulant with less undesired side effects. PMID:25260572

  2. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  3. Stress responses to rapid temperature changes of the juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunwei, Dong; Tingting, Ji; Shuanglin, Dong

    2007-07-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and Hsp70 level were measured to evaluate the response of the commercially important sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) to rapid temperature changes in laboratory. Animals were subjected to a higher temperature (from 10 to 20°C) (Tinc treatment) or to a lower temperature (from 20 to 10°C) (Tdec treatment) for 72h. At 1, 3, 12, 24, 72h of exposure, animals were removed and prepared for further analysis. Results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on enzyme activities was significant. In Tinc treatment, activities of SOD and CAT increased immediately. The significant enhancement of SOD and CAT activities suggested that oxidative stress increases significantly when ambient temperature increasing from 10 to 20°C. The up-regulation of Hsp70 in Tinc and Tdec treatments indicated that Hsp70 was a bioindicator of thermal stress in the sea cucumber, and the expression pattern depended on the thermal treatment.

  4. Characterization and expression analysis of a caspase-2 in an invertebrate echinoderm sea cumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shigen; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shengnan; Li, Qiang; Li, Ruijun; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-2 is the most evolutionarily conserved member of the caspase family which mediates the programmed cell death and plays crucial roles in key cellular processes. In this study, a caspase-2 homolog was identified and functionally characterized in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which we named AjCASP. The full-length cDNA consists of 2100 bp with an ORF encoding a protein of 378 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that AjCASP consists of a conserved CARD-CASP2 domain and a CASs domain containing two active residues, two proteolytic cleavage residues, a substrate pocket and a dimer interface as well. In addition, a p20 large subunit with a characteristic five-peptide motif (QACRG) and a p10 small subunit in C-terminal were identified in CASs domain. Above data demonstrated that AjCASP is similar to CED-3 (the caspase-2 homolog of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans), which is further confirmed by phylogenetic tree analysis. AjCASP was ubiquitously expressed in sea cucumber and the obviously higher expression level was observed in coelomocyte, respiratory tree and intestine. Real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that AjCASP was significantly induced by LPS. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that AjCASP is a caspase-2 homolog and it may be involved in invertebrate immune response, especially in eliminating and degrading invading pathogens. PMID:26687532

  5. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  6. Male tarsi specific odorant-binding proteins in the diving beetle Cybister japonicus sharp.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Mei; Jiang, Xiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Li, Jin-Dong; Zhu, Fang; Tu, Xiong-Bing; Zhang, Ze-Hua; Ban, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play critical roles in chemical communication of insects, as they recognize and transport environmental chemical signals to receptors. The diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp shows a remarkable sexual dimorphism. The foreleg tarsi of males are equipped with large suction cups, believed to help holding the female during underwater courtship and mating. Here, we identified two OBPs highly and specifically expressed in male tarsi, suggesting important functions of these structures in chemical communication. The first protein, CjapOBP1, exhibits the 6 conserved cysteines motif of classic OBPs, while the second, CjapOBP2, contains only four cysteines and can be assigned to the sub-class of C-minus OBPs. Both proteins were expressed in a bacterial system and the purified recombinant proteins were used to for antibodies preparation. Western Blot analysis showed that CjapOBP1 is predominantly expressed in male tarsi and could be also detected in antennae and palpi of both sexes, while CjapOBP2, besides male tarsi, is also present in testis. Ligand-binding experiments showed a good binding affinity between CjapOBP1, CjapOBP2 and citral and coniferyl aldehyde, respectively. These results support a possible function of these two OBPs in the male foreleg tarsi of diving beetles in chemical communication. PMID:27545810

  7. Electroejaculation and semen cryopreservation of free-ranging Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Murase, Tetsuma; Tsubota, Toshio

    2004-11-01

    The Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is endangered for extinction in some areas of Japan, and semen collection and cryopreservation are an important means to preserve genetic resources. The aim of this study was to characterize and cryopreserve semen of free-ranging Japanese black bears. Semen was collected by electroejaculation procedure from 4 free-ranging Japanese black bears at the capture point in the field. Ejaculates containing motile sperm were recovered from all of the animals and ejaculate volume, total sperm count, % motility (percentage of motile spermatozoa), % viability (percentage of spermatozoa that excluded eosin) and % abnormal morphology (range (mean)) were 0.65-2.20 (1.51) ml, 99-1082 (490) x 10(6), 5-100 (31), 42-97 (66) and 20-87 (53), respectively. Three of the 4 ejaculates were diluted with an egg yolk-TRIS-citrate-glucose extender and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Motile spermatozoa were observed after freezing and thawing in all cases. This study showed that electroejaculation would be a useful method for collecting semen from free-ranging Japanese black bears and that at least motile spermatozoa would be obtained by freezing the thus collected electroejaculates. PMID:15585951

  8. Determination of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide in plasma by HPLC with modified postcolumn fluorescence derivatization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao; Xu, De-Sheng; Feng, Yi; Shen, Lan

    2005-07-15

    Interest in antimyocardial ischemic activity of a graminan-type fructosan with an average molecular weight of 5,000 Da from Ophiopogon japonicus (FOJ-5) has necessitated the development of a sensitive and specific method to study its pharmacokinetics. An HPLC method with modified postcolumn fluorescence derivatization to determine FOJ-5 in plasma was developed in this study. The Shodex Sugar KS-802 high-performance gel column was chosen for separating FOJ-5 from its degradation products and endogenous carbohydrates. The postcolumn procedure involved acid hydrolysis of the column eluate at 150 degrees C, which decreased the detection limit for FOJ-5 from 1 microg to 25 ng, followed by fluorometric reaction with guanidine in an alkaline medium at 90 degrees C. The clearance of FOJ-5 from the bodies of rats following intravenous injection displayed a complex type of kinetics involving at least two compartments, and the half-life of the elimination of FOJ-5 from plasma administered at 15 mg/kg (18.1 min) was quicker than that administered at 50mg/kg (28.9 min). This modified approach can also be used for microanalysis of both nonreducing oligosaccharides and other neutral polysaccharides. PMID:15935322

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on experimental hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Jin, Shou-Jie; Cui, Lian-Hua; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Fu-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide (SJAMP) is an important biologically active compound that can be extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber. The present study investigated the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of SJAMP in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats. Three doses of SJAMP (17.5 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, and 70 mg/kg administered 5 days/week via oral gavage) were given to rats with diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. SJAMP treatment significantly inhibited DEN-induced HCC by reducing both the number and mean volume of nodules, decreasing serum a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in liver, and increasing p21 expression. Furthermore, SJAMP decreased the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and TNF-α and increased serum IL-2. SJAMP administration also improved indices of spleen and thymus function and improved both macrophage phagocytosis and NK cell-mediated tumoricidal activity. Moreover, CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte levels recovered significantly and the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio normalized in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, SJAMP effectively inhibited the growth of HCC through the stimulation of immune organs and tissue proliferation, leading to the enhancement of cellular immunity pathways in rats. PMID:23783456

  10. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Reid, Dugald E; Heckmann, Anne B; Novák, Ondřej; Kelly, Simon; Stougaard, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Cytokinins are required for symbiotic nodule development in legumes, and cytokinin signaling responses occur locally in nodule primordia and in developing nodules. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Ckx3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene is induced by Nod factor during the early phase of nodule initiation. At the cellular level, pCkx3::YFP reporter-gene studies revealed that the Ckx3 promoter is active during the first cortical cell divisions of the nodule primordium and in growing nodules. Cytokinin measurements in ckx3 mutants confirmed that CKX3 activity negatively regulates root cytokinin levels. Particularly, tZ and DHZ type cytokinins in both inoculated and uninoculated roots were elevated in ckx3 mutants, suggesting that these are targets for degradation by the CKX3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase. The effect of CKX3 on the positive and negative roles of cytokinin in nodule development, infection and regulation was further clarified using ckx3 insertion mutants. Phenotypic analysis indicated that ckx3 mutants have reduced nodulation, infection thread formation and root growth. We also identify a role for cytokinin in regulating nodulation and nitrogen fixation in response to nitrate as ckx3 phenotypes are exaggerated at increased nitrate levels. Together, these findings show that cytokinin accumulation is tightly regulated during nodulation in order to balance the requirement for cell divisions with negative regulatory effects of cytokinin on infection events and root development. PMID:26644503

  11. Male tarsi specific odorant-binding proteins in the diving beetle Cybister japonicus sharp

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li-Mei; Jiang, Xiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Li, Jin-Dong; Zhu, Fang; Tu, Xiong-Bing; Zhang, Ze-Hua; Ban, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play critical roles in chemical communication of insects, as they recognize and transport environmental chemical signals to receptors. The diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp shows a remarkable sexual dimorphism. The foreleg tarsi of males are equipped with large suction cups, believed to help holding the female during underwater courtship and mating. Here, we identified two OBPs highly and specifically expressed in male tarsi, suggesting important functions of these structures in chemical communication. The first protein, CjapOBP1, exhibits the 6 conserved cysteines motif of classic OBPs, while the second, CjapOBP2, contains only four cysteines and can be assigned to the sub-class of C-minus OBPs. Both proteins were expressed in a bacterial system and the purified recombinant proteins were used to for antibodies preparation. Western Blot analysis showed that CjapOBP1 is predominantly expressed in male tarsi and could be also detected in antennae and palpi of both sexes, while CjapOBP2, besides male tarsi, is also present in testis. Ligand-binding experiments showed a good binding affinity between CjapOBP1, CjapOBP2 and citral and coniferyl aldehyde, respectively. These results support a possible function of these two OBPs in the male foreleg tarsi of diving beetles in chemical communication. PMID:27545810

  12. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Giovannetti, Marco; Mari, Alfredo; Novero, Mara; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) germinated spore exudates (GSEs), responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (COs; acknowledged AM fungal signals) and long COs (as activators of pathogenic responses). This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 h and a subsequent down-regulation after 48 h. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be up-regulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long COs activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs. PMID:26175746

  13. Evolution of NIN-like proteins in Arabidopsis, rice, and Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Schauser, Leif; Wieloch, Wioletta; Stougaard, Jens

    2005-02-01

    Genetic studies in Lotus japonicus and pea have identified Nin as a core symbiotic gene required for establishing symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria collectively called Rhizobium. Sequencing of additional Lotus cDNAs combined with analysis of genome sequences from Arabidopsis and rice reveals that Nin homologues in all three species constitute small gene families. In total, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes encode nine and three NIN-like proteins (NLPs), respectively. We present here a bioinformatics analysis and prediction of NLP evolution. On a genome scale we show that in Arabidopsis, this family has evolved through segmental duplication rather than through tandem amplification. Alignment of all predicted NLP protein sequences shows a composition with six conserved modules. In addition, Lotus and pea NLPs contain segments that might characterize NIN proteins of legumes and be of importance for their function in symbiosis. The most conserved region in NLPs, the RWP-RK domain, has secondary structure predictions consistent with DNA binding properties. This motif is shared by several other small proteins in both Arabidopsis and rice. In rice, the RWP-RK domain sequences have diversified significantly more than in Arabidopsis. Database searches reveal that, apart from its presence in Arabidopsis and rice, the motif is also found in the algae Chlamydomonas and in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Thus, the origin of this putative DNA binding region seems to predate the fungus-plant divide. PMID:15785851

  14. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  15. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  16. 58-F, a flavanone from Ophiopogon japonicus, prevents hepatocyte death by decreasing lysosomal membrane permeability

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaofeng; Ye, Tingjie; Hu, Xudong; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP) has been implicated in cell death. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between cell death and H2O2-/CCl4-induced LMP in hepatocytes in vitro and following acute liver injury in vivo. The key finding was that H2O2 triggered LMP by oxidative stress, as evidenced by a suppression of LAMP1 expression, a reduction in LysoTracker Green and AO staining, and the leakage of proton and cathepsin B/D from the lysosome to the cytoplasm, resulting in cell death. CCl4 also triggered hepatocyte death by decreasing lysosome LAMP1 expression and by inducing the accumulation of products of peroxidative lipids and oxidized proteins. Furthermore, a novel compound 5,8-dimethoxy-6-methyl-7-hydroxy-3-3(2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) chroman-4-one (58-F) was extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus and served as a potential therapeutic drug. In vivo and in vitro results showed that 58-F effectively rescued hepatocytes by decreasing LMP and by inducing lysosomal enzyme translocation to the cytosol. PMID:27306715

  17. Alterations of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities in Eriocheir japonicus in response to water pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, M; Hoshi, H; Minamoto, N; Masuda, M; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    1996-01-01

    Eriocheir japonicus, fresh-water crabs inhabiting rivers and estuaries in Japan, were investigated for cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent drug-metabolizing enzyme activities to see if these activities reflect the river pollution gradient. From the laboratory dose-response experiments, we found that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3-methylcholanthrene induced total CYP contents, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity, and bunitrolol 4-hydroxylase activity in crab hepatopancreas. In the field studies, crabs collected from the river with the highest concentration of PAHs exhibited the highest levels of CYP, the highest activities of benzo[a]pyrene 3-hydroxylase, imipramine 2-hydroxylase, bunitrolol 4-hydroxylase, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and the ability to metabolically activate benzo[a]pyrene, but erythromycin N-demethylase activity was not induced. The correlation between PAH levels and drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in female crabs were not as marked as in male crabs. The levels and activities of CYP did not appear to reflect the concentrations of organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) studied in the fat of crab hepatopancreas. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 5. D Figure 5. E Figure 5. F Figure 6. PMID:8841764

  18. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  19. Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks. PMID:25016938

  20. Legume genome evolution viewed through the Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Sterck, Lieven; Rombauts, Stephane; Sato, Shusei; Cheung, Foo; Gouzy, Jérôme; Wang, Xiaohong; Mudge, Joann; Vasdewani, Jayprakash; Schiex, Thomas; Spannagl, Manuel; Monaghan, Erin; Nicholson, Christine; Humphray, Sean J.; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Rogers, Jane; Quétier, Francis; Oldroyd, Giles E.; Debellé, Frédéric; Cook, Douglas R.; Retzel, Ernest F.; Roe, Bruce A.; Town, Christopher D.; Tabata, Satoshi; Van de Peer, Yves; Young, Nevin D.

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, provides an opportunity for large-scale sequence-based comparison of two genomes in the same plant family. Here we report synteny comparisons between these species, including details about chromosome relationships, large-scale synteny blocks, microsynteny within blocks, and genome regions lacking clear correspondence. The Lotus and Medicago genomes share a minimum of 10 large-scale synteny blocks, each with substantial collinearity and frequently extending the length of whole chromosome arms. The proportion of genes syntenic and collinear within each synteny block is relatively homogeneous. Medicago–Lotus comparisons also indicate similar and largely homogeneous gene densities, although gene-containing regions in Mt occupy 20–30% more space than Lj counterparts, primarily because of larger numbers of Mt retrotransposons. Because the interpretation of genome comparisons is complicated by large-scale genome duplications, we describe synteny, synonymous substitutions and phylogenetic analyses to identify and date a probable whole-genome duplication event. There is no direct evidence for any recent large-scale genome duplication in either Medicago or Lotus but instead a duplication predating speciation. Phylogenetic comparisons place this duplication within the Rosid I clade, clearly after the split between legumes and Salicaceae (poplar). PMID:17003129

  1. Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH) and LH (cmLH) were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (Ε2) and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P). In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM) in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel. PMID:22950645

  2. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yun-wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  3. Phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus: cDNA cloning, expression and substrate specificity analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Sun, Hongjuan; Chen, Zhong; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2014-02-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial component of the immune system of echinoderms. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of PO (AjPO) was cloned from coelomocytes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, which is 2508 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2040 bp encoding 679 amino acids. AjPO contains a transmembrane domain, and three Cu-oxidase domains with copper binding centers formed by 10 histidines, one cysteine and one methionine respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AjPO was clustered with laccase-type POs of invertebrates. Using the isolated membrane proteins as crude AjPO, the enzyme could catalyze the substrates catechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine and hydroquinone, but failed to oxidize tyrosine. The results described above collectively proved that AjPO was a membrane-binding laccase-type PO. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that AjPO mRNA was expressed in muscle, body wall, coelomocytes, tube feet, respiratory tree and intestine with the highest expression level in coelomocytes. AjPO could be significantly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), Zymosan A and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), suggesting AjPO is closely involved in the defense against the infection of bacteria, fungi and double-stranded RNA viruses. PMID:24355405

  4. [Seasonal variation of functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in Apostichopus japonicus cultural pond].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fa-Jun; Tian, Xiang-Li; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    The functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) cultural ponds was examined in this paper. The Biolog plate technique and redundancy analysis (RDA) method were used to evaluate seasonal changes and their relationships with environmental factors. The results showed that both total amount and types of carbon sources utilized by microbes in the sea cucumber cultural ponds varied seasonally, and were the highest in summer and lowest in winter, with polymers being the main type of carbon sources. Principal component analysis revealed that the carbon utilization diversity of the microbial communities varied significantly over the seasonal courses. A total of 10 categories of carbon sources were significantly related to the principal component 1, among which were polymers, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, and amines. Significant seasonal changes were detected for all carbon utilization diversity indices of the microbial communities, including Shannon, McIntosh, Simpson, and S-E. However, seasonal variations were different among the microbial diversity indices. RDA analysis revealed that TP, NO(3-)-N, TN, and PO4(3-)-P were the critical environmental factors influencing the seasonal changes in functional diversity of aquatic microbial community in sea cucumber cultural ponds. PMID:25129954

  5. Identification and characterization a novel transcription factor activator protein-1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limeng; Li, Chenghua; Chang, Yaqing; Gao, Yinxue; Wang, Yi; Wei, Jing; Song, Jian; Sun, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important gene expression regulator with typical Jun and region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domains and can respond to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimulus. In this study, we identified a novel AP-1 gene in Apostichopus japonicus by transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (designated as AjAP-1). The full-length of AjAP-1 was of 2944 bp including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 201 bp, a 3' UTR of 1753 bp and a putative open reading frame of 990 bp encoding a polypeptide of 329 amino acid residues. Two representative domains of Jun and bZIP as well as two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were also detected in deduced amino acid of AjAP-1. Spatial distribution expression indicated that AjAP-1 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with predominant expression in the body wall, moderate in the tube feet, respiratory tree and colemocytes and slightly weak in the intestine and longitudinal muscle. Time-course expression analysis in intestine and coelomocytes revealed that AjAP-1 both reached its peak expression at 4 h after Vibrio splendidus challenge with a 2.6 and 8.2-fold increase compared to their control groups, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggested that AjAP-1 was a novel immune factor and might be involved in the processes of anti-bacteria response in sea cucumber. PMID:26093208

  6. Structural characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus and Actinopyga mauritiana.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Stonik, Valentin A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2016-11-20

    Two samples of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), AJ and AM, were isolated from holothurian species Apostichopus japonicus and Actinopyga mauritiana, respectively. Purification of FCS was performed by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. Structure of the biopolymers was elucidated using chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. Both polysaccharides were shown to contain a typical chondroitin core built up of repeating disaccharide units →3)-β-d-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→ and decorated by sulfate groups and α-l-Fuc branches. Two polysaccharides were different in pattern of sulfation of GalNAc and fucosyl branches connected to O-3 of GlcA. The ratio of GalNAc4S6S:GalNAc4S for AJ was about 2:1, whereas for AM this value was approximately 1:1. AJ contained Fucp2S4S and Fucp3S4S residues linked to O-3 of GlcA in a ratio of 3:1, while for AM this ratio was 1:4. Small portions of Fucp4S units attached to O-3 of GlcA were also found in both polysaccharides. Moreover, in a structure of AM the presence of Fucp3S residues linked to O-6 of GalNAc were determined using the data of NMR spectra. PMID:27561511

  7. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  8. Saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from new isolated Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Jun; Xia, Jin-Lan; Nie, Zhen-Yuan; Shan, Yang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from Aspergillus japonicus PJ01. Pretreated orange peel powder was hydrolyzed by submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) crude enzymes, the results showed that 4 % (w/v) of solid loading, undiluted crude enzymes, and 45 °C were suitable saccharification conditions. The hydrolysis kinetics showed that the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant [Formula: see text] and maximal reaction rate [Formula: see text] were 73.32 g/L and 0.118 g/(L min) for SmF enzyme, and 41.45 g/L and 0.116 g/(L min) for SSF enzyme, respectively. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the saccharification yields were 58.5 and 78.7 %, the reducing sugar concentrations were 14.9 and 20.1 mg/mL by SmF and SSF enzymes. Material balance showed that the SmF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > arabinose > galactose > xylose, and the SSF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > xylose > galactose > arabinose. PMID:26718204

  9. Expression of immune-related genes in embryos and larvae of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aifu; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Sun, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The echinoderm immunity system has been extensively investigated in adults in several classes such as echinoid and holothuroidea. However, the defense mechanism in embryos and larvae remains largely unexplored. To profile the immune-related genes expression in embryos and larvae and to monitor the stimulation of the innate immune response by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge, we investigated the expression patterns of nine immune-related genes in embryos and larvae of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) at eleven developmental stages using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of six encoding proteins including heat shock protein70 (Hsp70), Hsp90, Hsp gp96, thymosin-beta, ferritin and DD104 protein was detected at all eleven development stages according to mRNA expression data. However, the expression of mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBCL) was detected at early auricularia to juvenile stages, while lysozyme and serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) were detected only at juvenile stage. Out of these nine genes, three (MBCL, lysozyme and SPI) were found to be up-regulated in mRNA expression upon LPS challenge, whereas the other six showed no significant change. Our study presents a first preliminary view into the expression patterns of immune-related genes at different developmental stages of sea cucumber, which increases the available information on echinoderm immunity. PMID:20673800

  10. Identification and assessment of differentially expressed genes involved in growth regulation in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Li, C H; Su, X R; Guo, C Y; Wang, Z; Jin, C H; Li, Y; Li, T W

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and efficient growth is a major consideration and challenge for global mariculture. The differential growth rate of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, has significantly hampered the total production of the industry. In the present study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed and sequenced from a fast-growth group and a slow-growth group of the sea cucumber. A total of 142 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with insertions longer than 150 bp were identified and further analyzed. Fifty-seven of these ESTs (approximately 40%) were functionally annotated for cell structure, energy metabolism, immunity response, and growth factor categories. Six candidate genes, arginine kinase, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, HSP70, β-actin, ferritin, and the ADP-ribosylation factor, were further validated by quantitative PCR. Significant differences were found between the fast- and slow-growth groups (P < 0.05) for the expression levels of arginine kinase, cytochrome c oxidase, HSP70, the ADP-ribosylation factor, and β-actin. However, no significant difference was observed for ferritin. Our results provide promising candidate gene markers for practical size screening, and also further promote marker-assisted selective breeding of this species. PMID:24065658

  11. Identification and expression analysis of two Toll-like receptor genes from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Yang, Aifu; Jiang, Bei; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Wang, Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of type I integral membrane glycoproteins which play pivotal roles in innate immunity. In this study, two TLRs named AjTLR3 and AjToll were cloned from sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). The full-length cDNA sequences of AjTLR3 and AjToll are 3484 bp and 4211 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2679 bp and 2853 bp, encoding 892 and 950 amino acids, respectively. Both AjTLR3 and AjToll are composed of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a transmembrane (TM) domain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Evolution analysis revealed that AjTLR3 and AjToll were clustered with the vertebrate-like TLRs (V-TLRs) and the protostome-like TLRs (P-TLRs), respectively. These two genes were widely expressed in all five tested tissues (body wall, coelomocytes, tube feet, intestine and respiratory tree), but showed different expression patterns. The significantly up-regulated expressions of AjTLR3 and AjToll after peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Zymosan A and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenges suggested that they were functionally involved in the immune responses to the Cram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, respectively. PMID:23103635

  12. Antiviral effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on hepatitis B virus transgenic mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yongning; Li, Wei; Lu, Linlin; Zhou, Li; Victor, David W.; Xuan, Shiying

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant global pathogen and efficient cure for HBV patients is still a challenging goal. We previously reported that acidic mucopolysaccharide from stichopus japonicus selenka (SJAMP) could inhibit HBsAg and HBeAg expression in vitro. However, the potential anti-HBV effects of SJAMP in vivo have not yet been explored. In this study, we show that SJAMP exhibits potent anti-HBV activity in HBV transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, sixty HBV transgenic male BALB/c mice were randomly selected to receive the treatment of PBS, low dose SJAMP (30 mg kg-1), middle dose SJAMP (40 mg kg-1), high dose SJAMP (50 mg kg-1) and IFN (45 IU kg-1) for 30 d. SJAMP treatment suppressed serum HBV-DNA, and liver HBsAg and HBcAg levels in HBV-transgenic mice. The present study highlights the potential application of SJAMP in HBV therapy.

  13. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output. PMID:26782325

  14. Heterologous Overexpression and Characterization of a Flavoprotein-Cytochrome c Complex Fructose Dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shota; Goda-Tsutsumi, Maiko; Kano, Kenji; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    A heterotrimeric flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260 catalyzes the oxidation of d-fructose to produce 5-keto-d-fructose and is used for diagnosis and basic research purposes as a direct electron transfer-type bioelectrocatalysis. The fdhSCL genes encoding the FDH complex of G. japonicus NBRC3260 were isolated by a PCR-based gene amplification method with degenerate primers designed from the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the large subunit and sequenced. Three open reading frames for fdhSCL encoding the small, cytochrome c, and large subunits, respectively, were found and were presumably in a polycistronic transcriptional unit. Heterologous overexpression of fdhSCL was conducted using a broad-host-range plasmid vector, pBBR1MCS-4, carrying a DNA fragment containing the putative promoter region of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase gene of Gluconobacter oxydans and a G. oxydans strain as the expression host. We also constructed derivatives modified in the translational initiation codon to ATG from TTG, designated TTGFDH and ATGFDH. Membranes of the cells producing recombinant TTGFDH and ATGFDH showed approximately 20 times and 100 times higher specific activity than those of G. japonicus NBRC3260, respectively. The cells producing only FdhS and FdhL had no fructose-oxidizing activity, but showed significantly high d-fructose:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity in the soluble fraction of cell extracts, whereas the cells producing the FDH complex showed activity in the membrane fraction. It is reasonable to conclude that the cytochrome c subunit is responsible not only for membrane anchoring but also for ubiquinone reduction. PMID:23275508

  15. The cloning and characterization of the enolase2 gene of Gekko japonicus and its polyclonal antibody preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Ronghua; Chen, Haijiao; Zhou, Youlang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The enolase2 gene is usually expressed in mature neurons and also named neuron specific enolase (NSE). In the present study, we first obtained the NSE gene cDNA sequence by using the RACE method based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) fragment from the cDNA library of Gekko japonicus and identified one transcript of about 2.2 kb in central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The open reading frame of NSE is 1305 bp, which encodes a 435 amino-acid protein. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern of NSE by RT-PCR and found that the expression of NSE mRNA was very high in brain, spinal cord and low in heart, while it was not detectable in other tissues. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the time-dependent change in the expression of the NSE mRNA level after gecko spinal cord transection and found it significantly increased at one day, reaching its highest level three days post-injury and then decreasing at the seventh day of the experiment. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-NSE was constructed and induced to express His fused NSE protein. The purified NSE protein was used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65536 determined by ELISA. Western blotting showed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and endogenous NSE protein. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals were present in neurons of the brain and the spinal cord. This study provided the tools of cDNA and polyclonal antibody for studying NSE function in Gekko japonicus. PMID:23615470

  16. Expression analysis of microRNAs related to the skin ulceration syndrome of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Yang, Aifu; Jiang, Jingwei; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Bei

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in many biological processes. To investigate the miRNAs related to skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) of Apostichopus japonicus, small RNA libraries of body wall, intestine, respiratory tree and coelomocytes from healthy and diseased A. japonicus were sequenced on Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. A total of 247 conserved and 10 novel miRNAs were identified across all libraries. After pair-wise comparisons, 215 miRNAs in body wall, 36 in intestine, 2 in respiratory tree and 38 in coelomocytes showed significant expression differences. Further analyses were conducted on some tissue-specific differentially expressed miRNAs: miR-8 and miR-486-5p in body wall, miR-200-3p, let-7-5p and miR-125 in intestine, miR-278a-3p and bantam in respiratory, miR-10a and miR-184 in coelomocytes. Notably, these miRNAs in some species were reported to function in various physiological or pathological processes associated with immune regulations. Using stem-loop quantitative real time PCR, six representative miRNAs in four tissues were selected to validate the sequencing results. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of the six miRNAs ranged from 0.777 to 0.948, which confirmed the consistency and accuracy between these two approaches. This study provides comprehensive expression and regulation patterns of functional miRNAs in different tissues and gives insights into the tissue-specific immune response mechanisms in SUS-infected A. japonicus. PMID:26723265

  17. Analysis of the Lotus japonicus nuclear pore NUP107-160 subcomplex reveals pronounced structural plasticity and functional redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Andreas; Parniske, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the Lotus japonicus nucleoporin genes, NUP85, NUP133, and NENA (SEH1), lead to defects in plant-microbe symbiotic signaling. The homologous proteins in yeast and vertebrates are part of the conserved NUP84/NUP107-160 subcomplex, which is an essential component of the nuclear pore scaffold and has a pivotal role in nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Loss and down-regulation of NUP84/NUP107-160 members has previously been correlated with a variety of growth and molecular defects, however, in L. japonicus only surprisingly specific phenotypes have been reported. We investigated whether Lotus nup85, nup133, and nena mutants exhibit general defects in NPC composition and distribution. Whole mount immunolocalization confirmed a typical nucleoporin-like localization for NUP133, which was unchanged in the nup85-1 mutant. Severe NPC clustering and aberrations in the nuclear envelope have been reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae nup85 and nup133 mutants. However, upon transmission electron microscopy analysis of L. japonicus nup85, nup133 and nena, we detected only a slight reduction in the average distances between neighboring NPCs in nup133. Using quantitative immunodetection on protein-blots we observed that loss of individual nucleoporins affected the protein levels of other NUP107–160 complex members. Unlike the single mutants, nup85/nup133 double mutants exhibited severe temperature dependent growth and developmental defects, suggesting that the loss of more than one NUP107–160 member affects basal functions of the NPC. PMID:24478780

  18. Establishment of the Lotus japonicus Gene Expression Atlas (LjGEA) and its use to explore legume seed maturation.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Jerome; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Wang, Mingyi; Andriankaja, Andry; Allen, Stacy N; He, Ji; Tang, Yuhong; Murray, Jeremy D; Udvardi, Michael K

    2013-04-01

    Lotus japonicus is a model species for legume genomics. To accelerate legume functional genomics, we developed a Lotus japonicus Gene Expression Atlas (LjGEA), which provides a global view of gene expression in all organ systems of this species, including roots, nodules, stems, petioles, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds. Time-series data covering multiple stages of developing pod and seed are included in the LjGEA. In addition, previously published L. japonicus Affymetrix data are included in the database, making it a 'one-stop shop' for transcriptome analysis of this species. The LjGEA web server (http://ljgea.noble.org/) enables flexible, multi-faceted analyses of the transcriptome. Transcript data may be accessed using the Affymetrix probe identification number, DNA sequence, gene name, functional description in natural language, and GO and KEGG annotation terms. Genes may be discovered through co-expression or differential expression analysis. Users may select a subset of experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles of multiple genes simultaneously. Data may be downloaded in a tabular form compatible with common analytical and visualization software. To illustrate the power of LjGEA, we explored the transcriptome of developing seeds. Genes represented by 36 474 probe sets were expressed at some stage during seed development, and almost half of these genes displayed differential expression during development. Among the latter were 624 transcription factor genes, some of which are orthologs of transcription factor genes that are known to regulate seed development in other species, while most are novel and represent attractive targets for reverse genetics approaches to determine their roles in this important organ. PMID:23452239

  19. Genome-wide mining, characterization, and development of microsatellite markers in Marsupenaeus japonicus by genome survey sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Kong, Jie; Hu, Longyang; Mao, Yong; Zhong, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    The kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, is one of the most cultivated and consumed species of shrimp. However, very few molecular genetic/genomic resources are publically available for it. Thus, the characterization and distribution of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) remains ambiguous and the use of SSR markers in genomic studies and marker-assisted selection is limited. The goal of this study is to characterize and develop genome-wide SSR markers in M. japonicus by genome survey sequencing for application in comparative genomics and breeding. A total of 326 945 perfect SSRs were identifi ed, among which dinucleotide repeats were the most frequent class (44.08%), followed by mononucleotides (29.67%), trinucleotides (18.96%), tetranucleotides (5.66%), hexanucleotides (1.07%), and pentanucleotides (0.56%). In total, 151 541 SSR loci primers were successfully designed. A subset of 30 SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested in 42 individuals from a wild population, of which 27 loci (90.0%) were successfully amplifi ed with specifi c products and 24 (80.0%) were polymorphic. For the amplifi ed polymorphic loci, the alleles ranged from 5 to 17 (with an average of 9.63), and the average PIC value was 0.796. A total of 58 256 SSR-containing sequences had signifi cant Gene Ontology annotation; these are good functional molecular marker candidates for association studies and comparative genomic analysis. The newly identifi ed SSRs signifi cantly contribute to the M. japonicus genomic resources and will facilitate a number of genetic and genomic studies, including high density linkage mapping, genome-wide association analysis, marker-aided selection, comparative genomics analysis, population genetics, and evolution.

  20. RNA-seq dependent transcriptional analysis unveils gene expression profile in the intestine of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yang, Hongsheng; Storey, Kenneth B; Chen, Muyan

    2014-06-01

    The seasonal marine, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867), cycles annually between periods of torpor when water temperature is above about 25°C in summer and active life when temperature is below about 18°C. This species is a good candidate model organism for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation in marine invertebrates. Previous studies have examined various aspects of aestivation of A. japonicus, however, knowledge of the molecular regulation underpinning these events is still fragmentary. In the present study, we constructed a global gene expression profile of the intestine tissue of A. japonicus using RNA-seq to identify transcriptional responses associated with transitions between different states: non-aestivation (NA), deep-aestivation (DA), and arousal from aestivation (AA). The analysis identified 1245 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between DA vs. NA states, 1338 DEGs between AA vs. DA, and 1321 DEGs between AA vs. NA using the criteria |Log2Ratio|≥1 and FDR≤0.001. Of these, 25 of the most significant DEGs were verified by real-time PCR, showing trends in expression patterns that were almost in full concordance between the two techniques. GO analysis revealed that for DA vs. NA, 24 metabolic associated processes were highly enriched (corrected p value<0.05) whereas for AA vs. NA, 12 transport and metabolism associated processes were significantly enriched (corrected p value<0.05). Pathways associated with aestivation were also mined, and indicated that most DEGs were enriched in metabolic and signal transduction pathways in the deep aestivation stage. Two up pathways were significantly enriched at the arousal stage (ribosome and metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 pathway). A set of key DEGs was identified that may play vital roles in aestivation; these involved metabolism, detoxification and tissue protection, and energy-expensive processes. Our work presents an overview of dynamic gene expression in torpor

  1. Overexpression of the Starch Phosphorylase-Like Gene (PHO3) in Lotus japonicus has a Profound Effect on the Growth of Plants and Reduction of Transitory Starch Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Yuehui; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Pingzhi; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu

    2016-01-01

    Two isoforms of starch phosphorylase (PHO; EC 2.4.1.1), plastidic PHO1 and cytosolic PHO2, have been found in all plants studied to date. Another starch phosphorylase-like gene, PHO3, which is an ortholog of Chlamydomonas PHOB, has been detected in some plant lineages. In this study, we identified three PHO isoform (LjPHO) genes in the Lotus japonicus genome. Expression of the LjPHO3 gene was observed in all tissues tested in L. japonicus, and the LjPHO3 protein was located in the chloroplast. Overexpression of LjPHO3 in L. japonicus resulted in a drastic decline in starch granule sizes and starch content in leaves. The LjPHO3 overexpression transgenic seedlings were smaller, and showed decreased pollen fertility and seed set rate. Our results suggest that LjPHO3 may participate in transitory starch metabolism in L. japonicus leaves, but its catalytic properties remain to be studied.

  2. Changes in endogenous plant hormones and 'H-NMR profiles and signals in Styrax japonicus seeds as influenced by warm and cold stratification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination of Styrax japonicus Sieb. et. Zucc. seeds was promoted by warm stratification (WS) at around 20 °C followed by cold stratification (CS) at around 5oC. Biochemical and physiological changes in Styrax seeds during these WS and CS treatments were not investigated. The objective of this wo...

  3. A Lotus japonicus Cochaperone Protein Interacts With the Ubiquitin-Like Domain Protein CIP73 and Plays a Negative Regulatory Role in Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heng; Xiao, Aifang; Huang, Xiaoqin; Gao, Xioumei; Yu, Haixiang; He, Xingxing; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

    2015-05-01

    The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CCaMK forms a complex with its phosphorylation target CIP73 (CCaMK-interacting protein of 73 kDa). In this work, a homolog of the animal HSC/HSP70 interacting protein (HIP) was identified as an interacting partner of CIP73 in Lotus japonicus. L. japonicus HIP contains all functional domains characteristic of animal HIP proteins. The C-terminal STI1-like domain of L. japonicus HIP was found to be necessary and sufficient for interaction with CIP73. The interaction between CIP73 and HIP occurred in both the nuclei and cytoplasm in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells. The interactions between CIP73 and HIP and between CIP73 and CCaMK could take place simultaneously in the same nuclei. HIP transcripts were detected in all plant tissues tested. As nodule primordia developed into young nodules, the expression of HIP was down-regulated and the HIP transcript level became very low in mature nodules. More nodules were formed in transgenic hairy roots of L. japonicus expressing HIP RNA interference at 16 days postinoculation as compared with the control hairy roots expressing the empty vector. It appears that HIP may play a role as a negative regulator for nodulation. PMID:25761207

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber. PMID:26989617

  5. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production.

    PubMed

    Trollope, K M; Görgens, J F; Volschenk, H

    2015-10-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  6. Identification and characterization of the melanoma differentiation - associated gene 5 in sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Peng; Jia, Kuntong; Chen, Limin; Le, Yao; Jin, Yilin; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Limei; Zhang, Li; Yi, Meisheng

    2016-08-01

    The RIG-I-like receptors family is a group of cytosolic RNA helicase proteins that can recognize viral RNA via binding to pathogen associated molecular pattern motifs within RNA ligands. A novel vertebrate RLR counterpart named LjMDA5 was firstly identified from the marine fish sea perch Lateolabrax japonicus in this study. The full-length cDNA of LjMDA5 is 3750 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 988 amino acids, containing two N-terminal tandem caspase activation and recruitment domains, a DExH (Asp-Glu-X-His) box domain, an HELICc domain, and a C-terminal domain RIG-I. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LjMDA5 shared the closest genetic relationship with the MDA5 of Larimichthys crocea. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that LjMDA5 was ubiquitously expressed and up-regulated significantly in all selected tissues in vivo post NNV infection. Time course analysis showed that LjMDA5 transcripts significantly increased in spleen and kidney. We found LjMDA5 could be regulated in the sea perch LJB and LJF cell lines after lipopolysaccharide, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid treatment and NNV challenge. RNA interference experiment indicated that silencing of LjMDA5 significantly increased RGNNV replication and virus production in NNV infected LJF cells. Our results revealed that MDA5 was essential for host defense against NNV, which provided new insights into the function of RLR signaling pathway during NNV infection in fish. PMID:27039216

  7. Dietary Cordyceps militaris protects against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongxin; Du, Xingfan; Li, Shuying; Wen, Zhixin; Li, Yajie; Li, Xuejun; Meng, Nan; Mi, Rui; Ma, Shuhui; Sun, Aijie

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio splendidus is the common pathogen that causes infectious diseases widely spread in cultured sea cucumber in China. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Cordyceps militaris to protect against infection caused by V. splendidus. In this study, sea cucumbers were fed with a diet containing 0 (control), 1%, 2% or 3% C. militaris for 28 days, and subsequently challenged with V. splendidus by injection with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu per animal. Parameters of immune response such as phagocytosis (PC), lysozyme (LSZ) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after injection. The results showed that dietary C. militaris at a dose of 2% or 3% significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) all the immune parameters on day 0. One day after injection with V. splendidus, all the immune indices except ACP exhibited a tendency to decrease and then increase again, returning to the initial level on days 5 and/or 7 after injection. All the immune parameters of those fed with C. militaris were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group on day 1 after injection. Only LSZ activity of those fed with 1%- or 3%-C. militaris diet on day 5 showed significantly increases (P < 0.05) than the controls. As for ACP activity, the values remained steady with time, but with significant increase (P < 0.05) seen in sea cucumbers fed with 2%-C. militaris diet, and lasted for up to 7 days after V. splendidus injection. The cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers fed with the basal diet followed V. splendidus infection was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed with 2% and 3% C. militaris diet. Under the experimental conditions, dietary C. militaris could enhance the immune responses of Apostichopus japonicus and improve its resistance to infection by V. splendidus. PMID:26099218

  8. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  9. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4+ accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4+ when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4+. Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4+ when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity. PMID:26091523

  10. Effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on lead-treated sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, AsA) on lead (Pb) accumulation and toxicity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Three hundred sea cucumbers (10.02±0.02g) fed a basal diet containing 100mg Pb/kg were subjected to 5 levels of l-ascorbate-2-polyphosphate (LAPP) supplementation to achieve 5 AsA treatment levels of 0, 2727, 4630, 9171, 13,893mg AsA/kg. After 30 days, specific growth rate (SGR) and body weight gain (BWG) of supplementation groups were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control group. Pb contents of the intestine significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 20 days to 30 days in all supplementation groups. Pb contents of the respiratory tree in sea cucumbers in the 2727 and 4630mg AsA/kg treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 10 days to 30 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the sea cucumber body wall in supplementation groups increased after 30 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the body wall significantly (P<0.05) declined with increasing AsA level. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that vitamin C could mitigate the effects of Pb on sea cucumber and the optimum levels ranged from 2727mg AsA/kg to 4630mg AsA/kg when Pb levels were 100mg/kg. PMID:25890051

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber. PMID:26989617

  12. Subcutaneous administration of Kiss1 pentadecapeptide accelerates spermatogenesis in prepubertal male chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Ohga, Hirofumi; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptins, encoded by kiss genes, have emerged as critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. Our previous studies demonstrated that the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses kiss1 and kiss2 and peripheral administration of synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) but not Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) induces spermiation in sexually immature adult chub mackerel. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of Kiss1-15, Kiss2-12, and GnRH analogue (GnRHa) to induce pubertal onset in prepubertal chub mackerel. Peptides were administered through subcutaneous injection for three times (bi-weekly) over 6weeks. Interestingly, gonadosomatic index (GSI) of Kiss1-15 treated fish increased significantly in comparison to other treatments. Histologically, 66.7% of Kiss1-15 treated fish exhibited presence of spermatozoa (SPZ) in the testes with only 28.6% of GnRHa treated fish. However, Kiss2-12 treated fish showed only spermatocytes (SC) as the advanced germ cells in the testes. In contrast, only spermatogonia (SPG) were observed in the testes of control fish. Changes in the number of testicular germ cells among treatments revealed a significantly higher number of SC, spermatids and SPZ in the Kiss1-15 treated fish. Gene expression analyses revealed no significant changes in gnrh1 in the telencephalon-preoptic region of the brain, including fshβ and lhβ in the pituitary of experimental fish. However, GnRHa treated fish showed significantly higher lhβ expression. Levels of sex steroids, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol-17β were significantly higher in Kiss1-15 treated fish. These results indicate application of Kiss1-15 peptides for accelerating pubertal onset in chub mackerel. PMID:23774588

  13. Higher brain centers for social tasks in worker ants, Camponotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Michiko; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-05-01

    Ants, eusocial insects, have highly elaborate chemical communication systems using a wide variety of pheromones. In the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, workers and queens have the female-specific basiconic sensilla on antennae. The antennal lobe, the primary processing center, in female carpenter ants contains about 480 glomeruli, which are divided into seven groups (T1–T7 glomeruli) based on sensory afferent tracts. The axons of sensory neurons in basiconic sensilla are thought to project to female-specific T6 glomeruli. Therefore, these sensilla and glomeruli are thought to relate to female-specific social tasks in the ants. By using dye filling into local neurons (LNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, we neuroanatomically revealed the existence of an isolated processing system for signals probably relating to social tasks in the worker ant. In the antennal lobe, two categories of glomeruli, T6 glomeruli and non-T6 glomeruli, are clearly segregated by LNs. Furthermore, axon terminals of uniglomerular PNs from the respective categories of glomeruli (T6 uni-PNs and non-T6 uni-PNs) are also segregated in the secondary olfactory centers, the calyces of the mushroom body and the lateral horn: T6 uni-PNs terminate in the outer layers of the basal ring and lip of mushroom body calyces and in the posterior region of the lateral horn, whereas non-T6 uni-PNs terminate in the middle and inner layers of the basal ring and lip and in the anterior region of the lateral horn. These findings suggest that information probably relating to social tasks might be isolated from other olfactory information and processed in a separate subsystem. PMID:22102363

  14. Persistence of malachite green and leucomalachite green in perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhijun; Xing, Lihong; Guo, Mengmeng; Wang, Hongyan; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2011-05-01

    The persistence of malachite green (MG), and its metabolite leucomalachite green (LMG), in fish tissues is still unclear, leading to many trade disputes. In this research, we established and evaluated an HPLC method that could detect MG and LMG simultaneously, and then investigated the persistence of these two toxins in the tissues of juvenile perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) post sub-chronic MG exposure at 1.0 mg/L. Exposure lasted for 2 h everyday and was repeated six times. The perch were then placed in MG-free seawater for 100 d to eliminate the toxins. Results show that MG accumulated in the tissues, including the gills, liver, muscle, blood and viscera, and then was metabolized rapidly to LMG. The concentrations of these two toxins increased significantly with the accumulation process. In general, the highest concentrations of MG and LMG in all tissue exceeded 1 000 μg/kg, except for MG in the muscle. The order of accumulation levels (highest to lowest) of MG was gill>blood>liver>viscera>muscle, while that of LMG was liver>blood>gill>viscera>muscle. High levels of MG or LMG could persist for several hours but decreased rapidly during the elimination process. The concentration of LMG was much higher than that of MG during the experiment, especially in the gill, liver and blood. Therefore, the three tissues play important roles in toxin accumulation, biotransformation, and elimination. Although the MG and LMG concentrations in muscle were much lower than in other tissues, the content still exceeded the European minimum required performance limit (MRPL), even after 2 400 h (100 d) of elimination. This demonstrates that it is extremely difficult to eliminate MG and LMG from tissues of perch, and therefore use of these toxins is of concern to public health.

  15. Functional Domain Analysis of the Remorin Protein LjSYMREM1 in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Esben B.; Ye, Juanying; Popp, Claudia; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Grossmann, Christina; Jensen, Ole N.; Schüßler, Arthur; Parniske, Martin; Ott, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In legumes rhizobial infection during root nodule symbiosis (RNS) is controlled by a conserved set of receptor proteins and downstream components. MtSYMREM1, a protein of the Remorin family in Medicago truncatula, was shown to interact with at least three receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that are essential for RNS. Remorins are comprised of a conserved C-terminal domain and a variable N-terminal region that defines the six different Remorin groups. While both N- and C-terminal regions of Remorins belonging to the same phylogenetic group are similar to each other throughout the plant kingdom, the N-terminal domains of legume-specific group 2 Remorins show exceptional high degrees of sequence divergence suggesting evolutionary specialization of this protein within this clade. We therefore identified and characterized the MtSYMREM1 ortholog from Lotus japonicus (LjSYMREM1), a model legume that forms determinate root nodules. Here, we resolved its spatio-temporal regulation and showed that over-expression of LjSYMREM1 increases nodulation on transgenic roots. Using a structure-function approach we show that protein interactions including Remorin oligomerization are mainly mediated and stabilized by the Remorin C-terminal region with its coiled-coil domain while the RLK kinase domains transiently interact in vivo and phosphorylate a residue in the N-terminal region of the LjSYMREM1 protein in vitro. These data provide novel insights into the mechanism of this putative molecular scaffold protein and underline its importance during rhizobial infection. PMID:22292047

  16. Semirational Directed Evolution of Loop Regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase for Improved Fructooligosaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Trollope, K. M.; Görgens, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase catalyzes the industrially important biotransformation of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides. Operating at high substrate loading and temperatures between 50 and 60°C, the enzyme activity is negatively influenced by glucose product inhibition and thermal instability. To address these limitations, the solvent-exposed loop regions of the β-fructofuranosidase were engineered using a combined crystal structure- and evolutionary-guided approach. This semirational approach yielded a functionally enriched first-round library of 36 single-amino-acid-substitution variants with 58% retaining activity, and of these, 71% displayed improved activities compared to the parent. The substitutions yielding the five most improved variants subsequently were exhaustively combined and evaluated. A four-substitution combination variant was identified as the most improved and reduced the time to completion of an efficient industrial-like reaction by 22%. Characterization of the top five combination variants by isothermal denaturation assays indicated that these variants displayed improved thermostability, with the most thermostable variant displaying a 5.7°C increased melting temperature. The variants displayed uniquely altered, concentration-dependent substrate and product binding as determined by differential scanning fluorimetry. The altered catalytic activity was evidenced by increased specific activities of all five variants, with the most improved variant doubling that of the parent. Variant homology modeling and computational analyses were used to rationalize the effects of amino acid changes lacking direct interaction with substrates. Data indicated that targeting substitutions to loop regions resulted in improved enzyme thermostability, specific activity, and relief from product inhibition. PMID:26253664

  17. Vibrio zhuhaiensis sp. nov., isolated from a Japanese prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunying; Luo, Peng; Zuo, Huali; Chen, Jianming; Chen, Mingliang; Wang, Wei

    2013-05-01

    A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain E20121, was isolated from the digestive tract of a Japanese prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) collected from the coastal sea water area of Zhuhai, Guangdong province, China. The new isolate was determined to be closely related to Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T), having 97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis based on recA, pyrH and rpoA also showed low levels of sequence similarities (72.6-96.6 %) with all species of the genus Vibrio. A multigene phylogenetic tree using concatenated sequences of the four genes (16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH) clearly showed that the new isolate is different from the currently known Vibrio species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed similarity values below 70 % with the closest related species V. ponticus DSM 16217(T). Several phenotypic traits enabled the differentiation of strain E20121 from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The DNA G+C content of strain E20121 was determined to be 47.6 mol % and the major fatty acid components identified were C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c (39.8 %), C18:1ω7c (13.6 %) and C16:0 (9.6 %). Based on genotypic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, strain E20121 is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Vibrio for which the name Vibrio zhuhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E20121(T)(=DSM 25602(T) = CCTCC AB 2011174(T)). PMID:23338602

  18. Gene expression and localization of a β-1,3-glucanase of Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Osuki, Ken-Ichi; Hashimoto, Shun; Suzuki, Akihiro; Araragi, Masato; Takahara, Akihito; Kurosawa, Makiko; Kucho, Ken-Ichi; Higashi, Shiro; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-07-01

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits root nodule formation of leguminous plants. LjGlu1, a β-1,3-glucanase gene of Lotus japonicus, has been identified as an ABA responsive gene. RNA interference of LjGlu1 increased nodule number. This suggests that LjGlu1 is involved in the regulation of nodule formation. Host legumes control nodule number by autoregulation of nodulation (AON), in which the presence of existing root nodules inhibits further nodulation. For further characterization of LjGlu1, we focused on the expression of LjGlu1 in relation to AON. In a split-root system, LjGlu1 expression peaked when AON was fully induced. Hairy roots transformed with LjCLE-RS1, a gene that induces AON, were generated. Expression of LjGlu1 was greater in the transgenic roots than in untransformed roots. LjGlu1 was not induced in a hypernodulating mutant inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti. These results suggest that the expression of LjGlu1 is involved in the system of AON. However, neither hypernodulation nor enlarged nodulation zone was observed on the transgenic hairy roots carrying LjGlu1-RNAi, suggesting that LjGlu1 is not a key player of AON. Recombinant LjGlu1 showed endo-β-1,3-glucanase activity. LjGlu1-mOrange fusion protein suggested that LjGlu1 associated with M. loti on the root hairs. Exogenous β-1,3-glucanase inhibited infection thread formation by both the wild type and the mutant, and nodule numbers were reduced. These results suggest that LjGlu1 is expressed in response to M. loti infection and functions outside root tissues, resulting in the inhibition of infection. PMID:26951113

  19. Identification and expression analysis of a new invertebrate lysozyme in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Liu, Min; Niu, Su-Fang; Qiao, Ying; Su, Yong-Quan; Wang, Chun-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi-Peng

    2016-02-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the innate immunity system against invading pathogens. An invertebrate (i-type) lysozyme from the hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-ilys) was identified. The full-length cDNA of Mj-ilys was 580bp with a 429 bp open reading frame encoding a 142 amino acid polypeptide. The encoded polypeptide was predicted to have a 17 amino acid signal peptide, and a 125 amino acid mature protein with a theoretical mass of 14.099 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.18. A Destabilase conserved domain was predicted in Mj-ilys amino acid sequences which may be stable by 10 cysteine residues forming 5 disulfide bonds. Mj-ilys may loss the muramidase and isopeptidase activities due to the lack of the key catalytic residues. Mj-ilys had high homologous of 80-82% with i-type lysozymes of penaeid shrimps. It was first grouped with other i-type lysozyme of shrimps and crabs in a phylogenetic tree predicted by the Neighbor-Joining method. Mj-ilys mRNA was expressed mainly in hepatopancreas and almost undetectable in other tissues. The mRNA expression of Mj-ilys were all found from fertilized eggs to post-larvae of 17 days (PL17), and its expression exhibited significant differences among each developmental stage. After white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge (3.6 × 10(8) virions/μl), the time-dependent expression pattern of Mj-ilys in hepatopancreas and gills showed significantly different. These results indicated that Mj-ilys is potentially involved in the ontogenesis and immune defense in Kuruma shrimp. PMID:26723264

  20. Dual oxidases participate in the regulation of intestinal microbiotic homeostasis in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-06-01

    The metazoan gut lumen harbors numerous microbial communities. Tolerance for high bacterial counts and maintenance of microbiota homeostasis remain insufficiently studied. In this study, we identified a novel dual oxidase (MjDUOX2) involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjDUOX2 is a transmembrane protein with an N-signal peptide region (19 aa) and a peroxidase homology domain (PHD, 554 aa) in the extracellular region; seven transmembrane regions; and three EF (calcium-binding region) domains (110 aa), a FAD-binding domain (104 aa), and a NAD-binding domain (156 aa) in the intracellular region. The novel MjDUOX2 exhibits a relatively low similarity (26.84% identity) to a previously reported DUOX in the shrimp (designated as MjDUOX1). The mRNA of MjDUOXs was widely distributed in the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. Oral infection of the shrimp with pathogenic bacteria upregulated the mRNA expression of MjDUOXs and increased the ROS level in the intestine. However, High ROS level could inhibit the expression of MjDUOXs in shrimp after Vibrio anguillarum infection. Knockdown of MjDUOXs by RNA interference (RNAi) decreased the ROS level, increased the bacterial count in the intestine, and decreased the survival rate of the MjDUOX-RNAi shrimp infected with V. anguillarum. These results suggest that MjDUOXs play an important role for microbiota homeostasis in intestine of shrimp. PMID:26845611

  1. Intraretinal variability and specialization of cones in Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus, Engraulidae).

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, S L; Kornienko, M S; Gnyubkina, V P; Frolova, L T

    2016-04-01

    The retina of anchovies is characterized by an unusual arrangement and ultrastructure of cones. In the retina of Japanese anchovies, Engraulis japonicus, three types of cones are distributed into rows. The nasal, central, temporal, and ventro-temporal regions of the retina were occupied exclusively by the long and short cones. Triple cones, made up of two lateral components and one smaller central component, were found only in the dorsal and ventro-nasal retinal regions. In the outer segments of all short and long cones from the ventro-temporal region, the lamellae were oriented along the cell axis and were perpendicular to the lamellae in the long cones, providing a morphological basis for the detection of polarization. This lamellar orientation is unique to all vertebrates. The cones were examined with respect to regional differentiation in their size and spectral properties via light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microspectrophotometry. Various dimensions of cones were measured in preparations of isolated cells. The cones from the ventro-temporal region had different dimensions than cones of the same type located in other retinal regions. Triple cones from the dorsal region were significantly larger than triple cones from the ventro-nasal region. The spectral absorbance of the lateral components of triple cones in the ventro-nasal retina was identical to the absorbance of all long and short cones from the ventro-temporal region. These are shifted to shorter wavelengths relative to the absorbance of the lateral components of the triple cones located in the dorsal retina. Thus, the retina of the Japanese anchovy shows some features of regional specialization common in other fishes that improves spatial resolution for the upwards and forwards visual axis and provides spectral tuning in downwelling light environment. That results from the differentiation of cone types by size and by different spectral sensitivity of various retinal areas. J

  2. [Effects of two organic pollutants on biomarker system of fish Lateolabrax japonicus and the pollution assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, You; Jiang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiao-wei; Zhao, Yan-fang; Wu, Peng; Cao, Xi-hua; Tang, Xue-xi

    2010-03-01

    Responses of a select suite of protective enzymes in Lateolabrax japonicus including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), reduced glutathione (GSH) glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver tissue and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which could work as sensitively biochemical biomarkers were analyzed when exposed to different concentrations of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) under controlled laboratory conditions. Results showed that: (1) The biochemical biomarkers included in this investigation, different responses occurred in the enzymatic activities when exposed to different pollutants: the activities of SOD, GST, Gpx and GSH content were significantly induced by B[a]P (p < 0.05) while others present little different as compared to the control. Differently, SDBS exposure greatly affected the activities of CAT, Gpx, iNOS and AChE while showed little effect on the other evaluated biomarkers. Gpx was the most sensitive biomarker that sensitively indicated the organic pollution stress. (2) The simultaneous assay on heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression was conducted by flow cytometry (FCM) and result presented that Hsp 70 expression could be effectively induced by SDBS as compared to the control throughout the experiment; however, B[a]P obviously induced Hsp70 during the first 12 d and then decreased to the level of the control. (3) The evaluated method of biomarker system combined with principal component analysis (PCA) could effectively distinguish different pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions and might be a promising and warning method for the early assessment of environmental change exposed to different organic pollutions. PMID:20358846

  3. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)). PMID:26608172

  4. Identification and functional characterization of TNF receptor associated factor 3 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limeng; Chang, Yaqing; Wang, Yi; Wei, Jing; Ge, Chen; Song, Jian

    2016-06-01

    TNF receptor associated factors (TRAFs) are a family of proteins primarily involved in both adaptive and innate immunity. In this study, we identified a novel TRAF3 gene in Apostichopus japonicus by transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (designated as AjTRAF3). The full-length of AjTRAF3 was of 2796 bp including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 83 bp, a 3' UTR of 1066 bp and a putative open reading frame of 1647 bp encoding a polypeptide of 548 amino acid residues. The representative domains such as a RING finger domain (residues 54-96), two TRAF domains with zinc finger structure (residues 141-228), a coiled coil and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain (residues 396-522) were all detected in the deduced amino acids of AjTRAF3. AjTRAF3 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with predominant expression in the body wall and slightly weaker in intestine, respiratory tree, tube feet, coelomocytes and longitudinal muscle. Time-course expression analysis in coelomocytes revealed that AjTRAF3 was significantly depressed towards Vibrio splendidus infection with a 0.20-fold decrease at 12 h, compared to control levels. AjTRAF3 silencing could elevate intracellular ROS levels by 2.08-fold and 2.09-fold compared to each control group in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggested that AjTRAF3 may play a crucial role in the processes of anti-bacteria response in sea cucumber through regulating ROS production. PMID:26828393

  5. Identification and expression analysis of a novel stylicin antimicrobial peptide from Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-tao; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Liu, Min; Niu, Su-fang; Qiao, Ying; Su, Yong-quan; Wang, Chun-zhong; Zheng, Zhi-peng

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system and function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. In current study we identified, cloned and characterized a novel stylicin AMP from Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-sty). The full-length cDNA of Mj-sty was 428 bp with an open reading frame of 315 bp that encoded 104 amino acids. The theoretical molecular mass of mature Mj-sty was 8.693 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.79. A proline-rich N-terminal region and a C-terminal region contained 13 cysteine residues were identified. Genomic sequence analysis with respect to its cDNA showed that Mj-sty was organized into two exons interrupted by one intron. Tissue-specific expression revealed that Mj-sty was mainly transcribed in gills and hemocytes. Expression of Mj-sty in early developmental stages demonstrated that Mj-sty mRNA were present from fertilized eggs to post-larvae of 17 days (PL17), and the expression levels showed a significant variation in different developmental stages. After challenge of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the time-dependent expression pattern of Mj-sty in both gills and hepatopancrease showed down-regulation at the early hours of infection, subsequently up-regulation and down-regulation, and then up-regulation at the end hours to almost the half of the controls. The results indicate that Mj-sty is potentially involved in the ontogenesis and immune responses against WSSV. PMID:26439413

  6. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Lathyrus japonicus indigenous to Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Seishiro; Kondo, Tetsuya; Prévost, Danielle; Nakata, Sayuri; Kajita, Tadashi; Ito, Motomi

    2010-11-01

    Sixty-one rhizobial strains from Lathyrus japonicus nodules growing on the seashore in Japan were characterized and compared to two strains from Canada. The PCR-based method was used to identify test strains with novel taxonomic markers that were designed to discriminate between all known Lathyrus rhizobia. Three genomic groups (I, II, and III) were finally identified using RAPD, RFLP, and phylogenetic analyses. Strains in genomic group I (related to Rhizobium leguminosarum) were divided into two subgroups (Ia and Ib) and subgroup Ia was related to biovar viciae. Strains in subgroup Ib, which were all isolated from Japanese sea pea, belonged to a distinct group from other rhizobial groups in the recA phylogeny and PCR-based grouping, and were more tolerant to salt than the isolate from an inland legume. Test strains in genomic groups II and III belonged to a single clade with the reference strains of R. pisi, R. etli, and R. phaseoli in the 16S rRNA phylogeny. The PCR-based method and phylogenetic analysis of recA revealed that genomic group II was related to R. pisi. The analyses also showed that genomic group III harbored a mixed chromosomal sequence of different genomic groups, suggesting a recent horizontal gene transfer between diverse rhizobia. Although two Canadian strains belonged to subgroup Ia, molecular and physiological analyses showed the divergence between Canadian and Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis of nod genes divided the rhizobial strains into several groups that reflected the host range of rhizobia. Symbiosis between dispersing legumes and rhizobia at seashore is discussed. PMID:20851546

  7. In vitro antibacterial analysis of phenoloxidase reaction products from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Cong, Cong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-08-01

    Three phenoloxidases (POs) of Apostichopus japonicus, AjPOs (AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3), were partially purified from the coelomocytes with an electrophoretic method, and then employed for the in vitro antibacterial analysis. Using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO2-derived compounds inhibited the growth of Vibrio splendidus and Staphylococcus aureus, while AjPO3-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. When dopamine was used as a substrate, AjPO1 and AjPO3-derived compounds inhibited the growth of V. splendidus and Vibrio harveyi, while AjPO2-derived compounds only inhibited the growth of V. splendidus. Moreover, AjPO1-derived compounds showed stronger inhibition in V. harveyi than AjPO3-derived compounds did. However, all of the three AjPO reaction products showed no inhibitions on the growth of Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Shewanella baltica, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Nocardiopsis sp. with L-DOPA or dopamine as a substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of V. harveyi treated by AjPOs and dopamine showed that AjPO1-derived compounds resulted in massive bacteriolysis, AjPO2-derived compounds caused no obvious alteration on bacterial morphology, and AjPO3-derived compounds increased the ratio of spheroidal bacteria. All these results suggested that AjPO reaction products derived by L-DOPA and dopamine had different but limited antibacterial spectrum, and the different antibacterial effects observed among three AjPOs resulted from the different reaction products generated by AjPOs with the same substrate. PMID:24931626

  8. Identification and characterization of a novel Foxo transcription factors in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihong; Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Chenghua; Lv, Zhimeng; Jin, Chunhua

    2015-05-01

    The forkhead box O (Foxo) transcription factors are involved in multiple signaling pathways and play key roles in immunoregulation in vertebrates. In the present study, we firstly identified a novel Foxo gene in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes using transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (denoted as AjFoxo). The full-length cDNA of AjFoxo was of 2248 bp with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 177 bp, a 3' UTR of 367 bp and an ORF of 1704 bp encoding a polypeptide of 567 amino acid residues. The highly conserved forkhead domain was also identified in AjFoxo with remarkably higher degree of structural conservation. AjFoxo transcripts could be detected in all examined tissues with predominant expression in the coelomocytes and muscle, and slightly weak in the tissues of tentacle, intestine and respiratory trees. Concerning the time-course expression of AjFoxo in coelomocytes, the relative expression of AjFoxo was dramatically decreased to 0.44-fold at 48 h compared with that in the control group after Vibrio splendidus challenge, which was consistent with that of AjIκB. RNA interference of AjFoxo in primary coelomocytes also significantly depressed the relative expression of AjIκB with a 0.37-fold decrease compared with control group. Taken together, these results indicated that AjFoxo was a novel immune regulator and might be involved in the processes of anti-bacteria response in sea cucumber through activating the transcription of AjIκB. PMID:25689491

  9. Molecular and biological characterization of a mannan-binding lectin from the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, Aleksandr A; Eliseikina, Marina G; Petrova, Irina Yu; Nazarenko, Evgeny L; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Kozhemyako, Valery B; Rasskazov, Valery A

    2007-12-01

    To elucidate the origin and evolution of mannan-binding lectins (MBL), a new C-type lectin (CTL) specific for high-mannose glycans (MBL-AJ) was isolated from the coelomic plasma of the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus. MBL-AJ has oligomeric forms with identical 17-kDa subunits on SDS-PAGE. Among natural ligands, lectin hemagglutination activity was competitively inhibited by extracellular low-branched, but not high-branched, alpha-D-mannans isolated from marine halophilic bacteria and composed of alpha-1,2 and alpha-1,6 linked D-mannose residues. This suggests that the lectin interacts with backbone or inner side chain mannose residues, but not with terminal ones. The activity of the lectin was Ca(2+)-, pH-, and temperature-dependent. MBL-AJ cDNA was cloned from a holothurian coelomocyte cDNA library. The subunit of the mature protein has 159 amino acids and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of CTL. CRD contains a Glu-Pro-Asp amino acid sequence (EPN-motif) conserved for all known MBLs. A monospecific polyclonal antibody against MBL-AJ was obtained using the 34-kDa lectin dimer as an immunogen. The MBL-AJ has demonstrated immunochemical identity to the earlier isolated mannan-binding CTL from another holothurian, Cucumaria japonica. But a more interesting finding was cross-reactivity of MBL-AJ and human serum MBL detected by the antibody against MBL-AJ. Taking into consideration such MBL-AJ peculiarities as its carbohydrate specificity, the presence of a conserved region forming the mannose-binding site, common antigenic determinants with human MBL, and participation in defense reactions, it is possible that MBL-AJ belongs to the family of evolutionary conserved mannan-binding proteins. PMID:17890508

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a complement component 3 in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zunchun; Sun, Dapeng; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2011-10-01

    The complement system has been discovered in invertebrates and vertebrates, and plays a crucial role in the innate defense against common pathogens. As a central component in the complement system, complement component 3 (C3) is an intermediary between innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, a new isoform of C3 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, termed AjC3-2 was identified. Its open reading frame (ORF) is 5085 bp and encodes for 1695 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues. The mature protein molecular weight of AjC3-2 was 187.72 kDa. It has a conserved thioester site and a linker R(689)RRR(692) where AjC3-2 is splitted into β and α chain during posttranslational modification. The expression patterns of two distinct sea cucumber C3 genes, AjC3-2 and AjC3, were similar. During the different development stages from unfertilized egg to juvenile of the sea cucumber, the highest expression levels of AjC3-2 and AjC3 genes were both found in late auricularia. In the adult, the highest expression of these two genes was observed in the coelomocytes and followed by the body wall. AjC3-2 and AjC3 genes expression increased significantly at 6 h after the LPS challenge. These results indicated that these two C3 genes play a pivotal role in immune responses to the bacterial infection in sea cucumber. PMID:21752342

  11. RNA-seq Transcriptome Analysis of Panax japonicus, and Its Comparison with Other Panax Species to Identify Potential Genes Involved in the Saponins Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amit; Yamazaki, Mami; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Kojoma, Mareshige; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The Panax genus has been a source of natural medicine, benefitting human health over the ages, among which the Panax japonicus represents an important species. Our understanding of several key pathways and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, a pharmacologically active class of metabolites and a major chemical constituents of the rhizome extracts from the Panax species, are limited. Limited genomic information, and lack of studies on comparative transcriptomics across the Panax species have restricted our understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms of these and many other important classes of phytochemicals. Herein, we describe Illumina based RNA sequencing analysis to characterize the transcriptome and expression profiles of genes expressed in the five tissues of P. japonicus, and its comparison with other Panax species. RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for P. japonicus resulted in a total of 135,235 unigenes with 78,794 (58.24%) unigenes being annotated using NCBI-nr database. Transcriptome profiling, and gene ontology enrichment analysis for five tissues of P. japonicus showed that although overall processes were evenly conserved across all tissues. However, each tissue was characterized by several unique unigenes with the leaves showing the most unique unigenes among the tissues studied. A comparative analysis of the P. japonicus transcriptome assembly with publically available transcripts from other Panax species, namely, P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolius also displayed high sequence similarity across all Panax species, with P. japonicus showing highest similarity with P. ginseng. Annotation of P. japonicus transcriptome resulted in the identification of putative genes encoding all enzymes from the triterpene backbone biosynthetic pathways, and identified 24 and 48 unigenes annotated as cytochrome P450 (CYP) and glycosyltransferases (GT), respectively. These CYPs and GTs annotated unigenes were conserved across

  12. RNA-seq Transcriptome Analysis of Panax japonicus, and Its Comparison with Other Panax Species to Identify Potential Genes Involved in the Saponins Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Yamazaki, Mami; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Kojoma, Mareshige; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The Panax genus has been a source of natural medicine, benefitting human health over the ages, among which the Panax japonicus represents an important species. Our understanding of several key pathways and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, a pharmacologically active class of metabolites and a major chemical constituents of the rhizome extracts from the Panax species, are limited. Limited genomic information, and lack of studies on comparative transcriptomics across the Panax species have restricted our understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms of these and many other important classes of phytochemicals. Herein, we describe Illumina based RNA sequencing analysis to characterize the transcriptome and expression profiles of genes expressed in the five tissues of P. japonicus, and its comparison with other Panax species. RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for P. japonicus resulted in a total of 135,235 unigenes with 78,794 (58.24%) unigenes being annotated using NCBI-nr database. Transcriptome profiling, and gene ontology enrichment analysis for five tissues of P. japonicus showed that although overall processes were evenly conserved across all tissues. However, each tissue was characterized by several unique unigenes with the leaves showing the most unique unigenes among the tissues studied. A comparative analysis of the P. japonicus transcriptome assembly with publically available transcripts from other Panax species, namely, P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolius also displayed high sequence similarity across all Panax species, with P. japonicus showing highest similarity with P. ginseng. Annotation of P. japonicus transcriptome resulted in the identification of putative genes encoding all enzymes from the triterpene backbone biosynthetic pathways, and identified 24 and 48 unigenes annotated as cytochrome P450 (CYP) and glycosyltransferases (GT), respectively. These CYPs and GTs annotated unigenes were conserved across

  13. A Lotus japonicus beta-type carbonic anhydrase gene expression pattern suggests distinct physiological roles during nodule development.

    PubMed

    Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Dimou, Maria; Cotzur, Daniela; Aivalakis, Georgios; Efrose, Rodica C; Kenoutis, Christos; Udvardi, Michael; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2003-08-25

    A full-length cDNA clone, designated Ljca1, coding for a beta-type carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC: 4.2.1.1) was isolated from a Lotus japonicus nodule cDNA library. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Ljca1 codes for a nodule-specific CA, transcripts of which accumulate at maximum levels in young nodules at 14 days post-infection (d.p.i.). In situ hybridization and immunolocalization revealed that Ljca1 transcripts and LjCA1 polypeptides were present at high levels in all cell types of young nodules. In contrast, in mature nodules both transcripts and polypeptides were confined in a few cell layers of the nodules inner cortex. However, the central infected tissue of both young and mature nodules exhibited high CA activity, indicating the presence of additional CA isoforms of plant and/or microbial origin. This was supported by the finding that a putative Mesorhizobium loti CA gene was transiently expressed during nodule development. In addition, the temporal and spatial accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC: 4.1.1.31) was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunolocalization. The results suggest that LjCA1 might fulfill different physiological needs during L. japonicus nodule development. PMID:12932831

  14. 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of culturable predominant bacteria from diseased Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Guoliang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-01

    Cultured Apostichopus japonicus in China suffers from a kind of skin ulceration disease that has caused severe economic loss in recent years. The disease, pathogens of which are supposed to be bacteria by most researchers, is highly infectious and can often cause all individuals in the same culture pool to die in a very short time. The 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of the culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased individuals was conducted to study the biodiversity of the bacterial communities in the lesions and to identify probable pathogen(s) associated with this kind of disease. S. japonica samples were selected from a hatchery located in the eastern part of Qingdao, China. Bacterial universal primers GM5F and DS907R were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria colonies, and touchdown PCR was performed to amplify the target sequences. The results suggest that γ- proteobacteria (Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) of CFB group, many strains of which have been also determined as pathogens in other marine species, are the predominant bacterial genera of the diseased Apostichopus japonicus individuals.

  15. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  16. Transcriptomic and Metabolic Changes Associated with Photorespiratory Ammonium Accumulation in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus1[W

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; García-Calderón, Margarita; Sánchez, Diego H.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Kopka, Joachim; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptomic and metabolic consequences of the lack of plastidic glutamine (Gln) synthetase in the model legume Lotus japonicus were investigated. Wild-type and mutant plants lacking the plastidic isoform of Gln synthetase were grown in conditions that suppress photorespiration and then transferred for different lengths of time to photorespiratory conditions. Transcript and metabolite levels were determined at the different time points considered. Under photorespiratory active conditions, the mutant accumulated high levels of ammonium, followed by its subsequent decline. A coordinate repression of the photorespiratory genes was observed in the mutant background. This was part of a greater modulation of the transcriptome, especially in the mutant, that was paralleled by changes in the levels of several key metabolites. The data obtained for the mutant represent the first direct experimental evidence for a coordinate regulation of photorespiratory genes over time. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that mutant plants under active photorespiratory conditions accumulated high levels of several amino acids and organic acids, including intermediates of the Krebs cycle. An increase in Gln levels was also detected in the mutant, which was paralleled by an increase in cytosolic Gln synthetase1 gene transcription and enzyme activity levels. The global panoramic of the transcripts and metabolites that changed in L. japonicus plants during the transfer from photorespiration-suppressed to photorespiration-active conditions highlighted the link between photorespiration and several other cellular processes, including central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and secondary metabolism. PMID:23743713

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Arbuscules from Roots of an Increased-arbuscule-forming Mutant of Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Senoo, Keishi; Solaiman, Zakaria; Tanaka, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Akao, Shoichiro; Tanaka, Akiyoshi; Obata, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous methods for isolation of arbuscules from mycorrhizal roots are time-consuming, complex and expensive. Therefore, a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for the isolation of metabolically active arbuscules from plant root of an increased-arbuscule-forming mutant of Lotus japonicus (Ljsym78-2) is described. Method Roots of the L. japonicus mutant plants Ljsym78-2 colonized by Glomus sp. were separated from soil, washed with water, immersed in CaSO4 before being cut into 5-mm pieces and homogenized with a Waring blender at 6000 rpm for 30 s. The arbuscules were purified by separation from plant tissues with a 50-μm nylon mesh, finally collecting on a 30-μm nylon mesh. Enzyme histochemical staining showed that the collected arbuscules had succinate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities. Key Results and Conclusions The enzymic activity of the arbuscules was not affected after the isolation process. The establishment of this simple, rapid and inexpensive method for the isolation of metabolically active arbuscules will be useful to clarify the biochemical processes occurring in nutrient exchange at the arbuscular interface. PMID:17921523

  18. Impact of CO2-driven acidification on the development of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Dupont, Sam; Meng, Leiming; Liu, Yongjian; Wang, Lijun

    2015-06-15

    We evaluated the impact of ocean acidification on the early development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The effect of pH-levels (pH 8.04, 7.85, 7.70 and 7.42) were tested on post-fertilization success, developmental (stage duration) and growth rates. Post-fertilization success decreased linearly with pH leading to a 6% decrease at pH 7.42 as compared to pH 8.1. The impact of pH on developmental time was stage-dependent: (1) stage duration increased linearly with decreasing pH in early-auricularia stage; (2) decreased linearly with decreasing pH in the mid-auricularia stage; but (3) pH decline had no effect on the late-auricularia stage. At the end of the experiment, the size of doliolaria larvae linearly increased with decreasing pH. In conclusion, a 0.62 unit decrease in pH had relatively small effects on A. japonicus early life-history compared to other echinoderms, leading to a maximum of 6% decrease in post-fertilization success and subtle effects on growth and development. PMID:25913790

  19. Effects of rearing temperature and density on growth, survival and development of sea cucumber larvae, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangbin; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Shilin

    2010-07-01

    In laboratory conditions, effects of rearing temperature and stocking density were examined on hatching of fertilized egg and growth of auricularia larvae of Apostichopus japonicus respectively. Data series like larval length and density, metamorphic time, and survival rate of the larvae were recorded. Statistics showed that for A. japonicus, survival rate (from fertilized egg to late auricularia) decreased significantly with the increasing rearing temperature ( P<0.05). At different temperatures SGR was statistically significant as well ( P<0.05) from day 1, and maximal SGR was found on day 9 at 24°C (159.26±3.28). This study clearly indicated that at low temperature (<24°C), metamorphic rate was remarkably higher than at higher temperature (>26°C). Hatching rate was significantly different between 0.2-5 ind./ml groups and 20-50 ind./ml groups. Rearing larvae at the higher density had the smaller maximal-length, whereas needed longer time to complete metamorphosis. This study suggested that 21°C and 0.4 ind./ml can be used as the most suitable rearing temperature and stocking density for large -scale artificial breeding of A. japonicus’s larvae.

  20. Identification and characterization of 43 microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags of the sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2011-06-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is a commercially and ecologically important species in China. A total of 3056 potential unigenes were generated after assembling 7597 A. japonicus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) downloaded from Gen-Bank. Two hundred and fifty microsatellite-containing ESTs (8.18%) and 299 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. The average density of SSRs was 1 per 7.403 kb of EST after redundancy elimination. Di-nucleotide repeat motifs appeared to be the most abundant type with a percentage of 69.90%. Of the 126 primer pairs designed, 90 amplified the expected products and 43 showed polymorphism in 30 individuals tested. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 26 with an average of 7.0 alleles, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.067 to 1.000 and from 0.066 to 0.959, respectively. These new EST-derived microsatellite markers would provide sufficient polymorphism for population genetic studies and genome mapping of this sea cucumber species.

  1. Biosynthesis of rhodiocyanosides in Lotus japonicus: rhodiocyanoside A is synthesized from (Z)-2-methylbutanaloxime via 2-methyl-2-butenenitrile.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeki; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2012-05-01

    Lotus japonicus contains the two cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, and the non cyanogenic hydroxynitriles, rhodiocyanoside A and D, with rhodiocyanoside A as the major rhodiocyanoside. Rhodiocyanosides are structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides but are not cyanogenic. In vitro administration of intermediates of the lotaustralin pathway to microsomes prepared from selected L. japonicus accessions identified 2-methyl-2-butenenitrile as an intermediate in the rhodiocyanoside biosynthetic pathway. In vitro inhibitory studies with carbon monoxide and tetcyclacis indicate that the conversion of (Z)-2-methylbutanal oxime to 2-methyl-2-butenenitrile is catalyzed by cytochrome P450(s). Carbon monoxide inhibited cyanogenic glucosides as well as rhodiocyanosides synthesis, but inhibition of the latter pathway was much stronger. These results demonstrate that the cyanogenic glucoside and rhodiocyanosides pathways share CYP79Ds to obtain (Z)-2-methylbutanaloxime from l-isoleucine, whereas the subsequent conversions are catalyzed by different P450s. The aglycon of rhodiocyanoside A forms the cyclic product 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone. Furanones are known to possess antimicrobial properties indicating that rhodiocyanoside A may have evolved to serve as a phytoanticipin that following β-glucosidase activation and cyclization of the aglycone formed, give rise to a potent defense compound. PMID:22385904

  2. Biochemical effect of a histidine phosphatase acid (phytase) of Aspergillus japonicus var. Saito on performance and bony characteristics of broiler.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; de Quadros, Thays Cristina Oliveira; Junqueira, Otto M; Graña, Alfredo Lora; de Lima Montaldi, Ana Paula; Alarcon, Ricardo Fernandes; Jorge, João Atílio; de Lourdes T M Polizeli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Phytases are enzymes that hydrolyze the ester linkage of phytic acid, releasing inositol and inorganic phosphate. The phytic acid (phytate) is a major form of phosphorus in plant foods. Knowing that diet for animal of production has the cereal base (corn and soybean), primarily, broilers need for an alternative to use of the phosphate present in these ingredients, since it does not naturally produce the enzyme phytase, which makes it available. The aims of this work was studding the safe supplementation of Aspergillus japonicus var. Saito crude phytase in feeding broilers and check the biochemical effect on performance and bones of these animals. The enzymatic extract did not have aflatoxins B1, B2, G2 and G1 and zearalenone and ochratoxin, and low concentrations of this extract did not have cytotoxic effects on cells derived from lung tissue. The in vivo experiments showed that the phytase supplied the available phosphate reduction in the broiler feed formulation, with a live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, viability, productive efficiency index and carcass yield similar to the control test. Furthermore, the phytase supplementation favored the formation of bone structure and performance of the broilers. The results show the high biotechnological potential of A. japonicus phytase on broiler food supplementation to reduce phosphorus addition in the food formulation. So, this enzyme could be used as a commercial alternative to animal diet supplementation. PMID:27625972

  3. An apposition-like compound eye with a layered rhabdom in the small diving beetle Agabus japonicus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei-Po; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The fine structure of the compound eyes of the adult diving beetle Agabus japonicus is described with light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The eye of A. japonicus is mango-shaped and consists of about 985 ommatidia. Each ommatidium is composed of a corneal facet lens, an eucone type of crystalline cone, a fused layered rhabdom with a basal rhabdomere, seven retinula cells (including six distal cells and one basal cell), two primary pigment cells and an undetermined number of secondary pigment cells that are restricted to the distalmost region of the eye. A clear-zone, separating dioptric apparatus from photoreceptive structures, is not developed and the eye thus resembles an apposition eye. The cross-sectional areas of the rhabdoms are relatively large indicative of enhanced light-sensitivity. The distal and central region of the rhabdom is layered with interdigitating microvilli suggesting polarization sensitivity. According to the features mentioned above, we suggest that 1) the eye, seemingly of the apposition type, occurs in a taxon for which the clear-zone (superposition) eye is characteristic; 2) the eye possesses adaptations to function in a dim-light environment; 3) the eye may be sensitive to underwater polarized light or linearly water-reflected polarized light. PMID:24889009

  4. Biosynthesis and hyper production of pullulan by a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus japonicus-VIT-SB1.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bishwambhar; Suneetha, V

    2014-07-01

    The main focus of this study was to screen and characterize novel microbial strains isolated from culinary leaf samples, capable of producing high concentrations of pullulan. Hundred isolates were screened from the phylloplane of different plants. The results revealed that eight strains had the capability to produce exopolysaccharide (EPS) and only one potential strain (designated as VIT-SB1) could produce the significant amount of EPS (3.9 ± 0.02%) on the 6th day of the fermentation without optimisation. The EPS synthesized by VIT-SB1 strain was confirmed to be pullulan on the basis of the results of FT-IR, HPLC and the enzymatic (Pullulanase) analysis. More than 91% hydrolysis of pullulan by pullulanase enzyme also indicated the presence of α (1 → 6) glycosidic linkages of α (1 → 4) linked maltotriose units. This VIT-SB1 strain was identified as Aspergillus japonicus based on the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 domain of Large-Subunit rRNA gene. The sequence was submitted to the GenBank Nucleotide sequence database with Accession No: KC128815. This study has confirmed that pullulan production capacity of this novel strain and Aureobasidium pullulans are comparable. Hence Aspergillus japonicus-VIT-SB1 strain can be commercially exploited as a potential pullulan producing strain. PMID:24609496

  5. Network of GRAS Transcription Factors Involved in the Control of Arbuscule Development in Lotus japonicus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li; Cui, Haitao; Buer, Benjamin; Vijayakumar, Vinod; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Junkermann, Stefanie; Bucher, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, in symbiosis with plants, facilitate acquisition of nutrients from the soil to their host. After penetration, intracellular hyphae form fine-branched structures in cortical cells termed arbuscules, representing the major site where bidirectional nutrient exchange takes place between the host plant and fungus. Transcriptional mechanisms underlying this cellular reprogramming are still poorly understood. GRAS proteins are an important family of transcriptional regulators in plants, named after the first three members: GIBBERELLIC ACID-INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR of GAI, and SCARECROW. Here, we show that among 45 transcription factors up-regulated in mycorrhizal roots of the legume Lotus japonicus, expression of a unique GRAS protein particularly increases in arbuscule-containing cells under low phosphate conditions and displays a phylogenetic pattern characteristic of symbiotic genes. Allelic rad1 mutants display a strongly reduced number of arbuscules, which undergo accelerated degeneration. In further studies, two RAD1-interacting proteins were identified. One of them is the closest homolog of Medicago truncatula, REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION1 (RAM1), which was reported to regulate a glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase that promotes cutin biosynthesis to enhance hyphopodia formation. As in M. truncatula, the L. japonicus ram1 mutant lines show compromised AM colonization and stunted arbuscules. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, new insight into the transcriptional program underlying the host’s response to AM colonization and propose a function of GRAS transcription factors including RAD1 and RAM1 during arbuscule development. PMID:25560877

  6. Humulus japonicus extract exhibits antioxidative and anti-aging effects via modulation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, BOKYUNG; CHUNG, JI WON; BAE, HA RAM; CHOI, JAE SUE; KIM, CHEOL MIN; KIM, NAM DEUK

    2015-01-01

    The perennial herb, Humulus japonicus, has been previously described as possessing potential antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the anti-aging activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of H. japonicus (HJE) was evaluated in yeast and human fibroblast cells. In addition, the antioxidant activity of HJE was analyzed using free radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the hypothesized HJE-associated extension of lifespan was investigated, and the results indicated that HJE was able to extend the lifespan of yeast cells. Further experiments demonstrated that HJE upregulated the longevity-associated proteins, sirtuin 1 and AMP-activated protein kinase, and effectively inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the antioxidative potential of the active constituents of HJE, including luteolin, luteolin 7-glycoside, quercetin and quercitrin, was evaluated and the results demonstrated that these flavonoids were able to scavenge ROS in cell-free and intracellular systems. In summary, the results revealed that HJE possessed the potential for antioxidative activity; however, further in vivo investigations are required with the aim of developing safe, high-efficacy anti-aging agents. PMID:26136899

  7. Induction of isoflavonoid pathway in the model legume Lotus japonicus: molecular characterization of enzymes involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, N; Akashi, T; Aoki, T; Ayabe, S -i.

    2000-12-01

    Treatment of the seedlings of Lotus japonicus, a model legume for molecular genetic studies, with reduced glutathione (GSH) resulted in the accumulation of an isoflavan phytoalexin, vestitol. Using PCR strategies based on the conserved amino acid sequences, full length P450 cDNAs were obtained from GSH-treated seedling roots. When the clones, LjCYP-1 (CYP93C family) and LjCYP-2 (CYP81E family), were heterologously expressed in yeast, the proteins exhibited 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase (IFS) and isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase (I2'H) activities, respectively. The transcription levels of LjCYP-1, LjCYP-2 and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in vestitol biosynthesis, coordinately increased upon elicitation. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the IFS gene forms a small gene family and a single copy of the I2'H gene is present in the L. japonicus genome. Molecular biological aspects of P450s involved in the isoflavonoid pathway and the genomic approach to flavonoid metabolism in this unique plant are discussed. PMID:11164575

  8. Characterization and identification of enzyme-producing microflora isolated from the gut of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fenghui; Gao, Fei; Tan, Jie; Fan, Chaojing; Sun, Huiling; Yan, Jingping; Chen, Siqing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microorganisms play an important role in the digestion of their host animals. The purpose of this research was to isolate and assess the enzyme-producing microbes from the Apostichopus japonicus gut. Thirty-nine strains that can produce at least one of the three digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, and cellulase) were qualitatively screened based on their extracellular enzyme-producing abilities. The enzyme-producing strains clustered into eight groups at the genetic similarity level of 100% by analyzing the restriction patterns of 16S rDNA amplified with Mbo I. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 37 strains belonged to the genus Bacillus and two were members of the genus Virgibacillus. Enzyme-producing capability results indicate that the main enzyme-producing microflora in the A. japonicus gut was Bacillus, which can produce protease, amylase, and cellulase. Virgibacillus, however, can only produce protease. The high enzyme-producing capability of the isolates suggests that the gut microbiota play an important role in the sea cucumber digestive process.

  9. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions. PMID:27191935

  10. Use of laser microdissection for the construction of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) sex chromosome-specific DNA library and cytogenetics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yakovin, Nickolay A.; Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Razumova, Olga V.; Soloviev, Alexander A.; Karlov, Gennady I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dioecy is relatively rare among plant species, and distinguishable sex chromosomes have been reported in few dioecious species. The multiple sex chromosome system (XX/XY1Y2) of Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zuccarini, 1846 differs from that of other members of the family Cannabaceae, in which the XX/XY chromosome system is present. Sex chromosomes of Humulus japonicus were isolated from meiotic chromosome spreads of males by laser microdissection with the P.A.L.M. MicroLaser system. The chromosomal DNA was directly amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR). Fast fluorescence in situ hybridization (FAST-FISH) using a labeled, chromosome-specific DOP-PCR product as a probe showed preferential hybridization to sex chromosomes. In addition, the DOP-PCR product was used to construct a short-insert, Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes-specific DNA library. The randomly sequenced clones showed that about 12% of them have significant homology to Humulus lupulus and 88% to Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, 1753 sequences from GenBank database. Forty-four percent of the sequences show homology to plant retroelements. It was concluded that laser microdissection is a useful tool for isolating the DNA of sex chromosomes of Humulus japonicus and for the construction of chromosome-specific DNA libraries for the study of the structure and evolution of sex chromosomes. The results provide the potential for identifying unique or sex chromosome-specific sequence elements in Humulus japonicus and could aid in the identification of sex chromosome-specific repeat and coding regions through chromosome isolation and genome complexity reduction. PMID:25610546

  11. Effects of trimethoprim on life history parameters, oxidative stress, and the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic that has been detected in various environments including marine habitats; however, the toxic effects of TMP are poorly understood in non-target marine organisms. In this study, the effects of TMP on mortality, development, reproduction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and transcription levels of antioxidant and xenobiotic detoxification-related enzyme genes were investigated in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The TMP half lethal dose at 48 h (LC50-48 h) in nauplius and TMP LC50-96 h in adult T. japonicus copepods was determined as 156 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. In TMP-exposed T. japonicus, delayed developmental time and impaired reproduction were observed as harmful effects on the life history parameters. Increased ROS levels were also shown in response to TMP exposure at the highest concentration (100 mg/L TMP) and the expression of antioxidant- (e.g. GST-kappa, GST-sigma) and xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. CYPs)-related genes were upregulated in a time and/or dose-dependent manner in response to TMP. Particularly, significant upregulation of three CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) were examined, suggesting that these CYP genes are likely playing an important role in the TMP detoxification metabolism in T. japonicus. In summary, we found that TMP induced oxidative stress via the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant- and xenobiotic detoxification-related genes, leading to changes in life history parameters such as developmental delay and reproduction impairment. Three Tj-CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) could be useful as potential T. japonicus biomarkers in response to antibiotics. PMID:27288646

  12. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of melanotransferrin from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuemei; Li, Dong; Cui, Jun; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-06-01

    Melanotransferrin (MTf), a member of the transferrin families, plays an important role in immune response. But the research about MTf in sea cucumber is limited till now. In this study, the Melanotransferrin (Aj-MTf) gene was firstly cloned and characterized from the sea cucumber Apostichoupus japonicus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Aj-MTf is 2,840 bp in length and contains a 2,184 bp open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 727 amino acids. An iron-responsive element-like structure is located at the 5'-UTR of Aj-MTf cDNA. Sequence analysis shows that the Aj-MTf contains two conserved domains, and the binding-iron (III) sites, including eight amino acid residues (D81,Y109,Y215,H283,D425,Y454,Y565 and H634) and three N-linked glycosylation sites (N121V122S123,N173A174S175 and N673S674T675). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses suggested that the Aj-MTf expressions in the coelomic fluid, body cavity wall and respiratory trees were significantly changed from 4 to 24 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The mRNA levels of Aj-MTf in coelomic fluid was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 h in treatment group, and Aj-MTf shared a similar expression pattern with C-type lectin in coelomic fluid, while both genes appears to gradually increase after 4 h of LPS injection. These results indicate that the Aj-MTf plays a pivotal role in immune responses to the LPS challenge in sea cucumber, and provide new information that it is complementary to the sea cucumber immune genes and initiate new researches concerning the genetic basis of the holothurian immune response. PMID:24535270

  13. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  14. NF-κB/Rel, not STAT5, regulates nitric oxide synthase transcription in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Wang, Zhenhui; Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Ye; Duan, Xuemei

    2016-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecular in the immune system of all vertebrates and invertebrates for pathologic and physiologic process, and it is largely produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). To uncover key mechanisms regulating NOS expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, we amplified a fragment of the NOS promoter by genome walking approach and characterized putative transcription factor binding motifs using luciferase assay. Transient transfection of EPC cells using 5'-deletion constructs linked to luciferase reporter revealed that the region -614/+39 contributed importantly to expression of the AjNOS gene, and the -614 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the AjNOS gene responded well to LPS. Analysis of the functional promoter region revealed the presence of two potential NF-κB (-375 bp to -366 bp, -76 bp to -67 bp) and three STAT binding sites (-284 bp to -276 bp, -95 bp to 87 bp, -81 bp to -73 bp). When luciferase reporter vector and expression vector co-transfected revealed that NF-κB/Rel, but not STAT5, activate the AjNOS promoter fragment. Furthermore, two truncated reporter vectors co-transfected with vector expressing NF-κB/Rel revealed that the first NF-κB binding site (-375 bp to -366 bp) was essential for the ability of this promoter to induce AjNOS transcription. In addition, blocking the AjRel by SN50 (NF-κB inhibitory peptide) depressed the AjNOS expression and NO production both in vivo and in vitro, respectively, revealing that AjRel might directly modulate AjNOS. All our findings confirmed that NF-κB dependent mechanisms regulating expression of AjNOS and suggested a means of linking NO production to the immune response. PMID:27005898

  15. Hyper-expansion of large DNA segments in the genome of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Higher crustaceans (class Malacostraca) represent the most species-rich and morphologically diverse group of non-insect arthropods and many of its members are commercially important. Although the crustacean DNA sequence information is growing exponentially, little is known about the genome organization of Malacostraca. Here, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and performed BAC-end sequencing to provide genomic information for kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus), one of the most widely cultured species among crustaceans, and found the presence of a redundant sequence in the BAC library. We examined the BAC clone that includes the redundant sequence to further analyze its length, copy number and location in the kuruma shrimp genome. Results Mj024A04 BAC clone, which includes one redundant sequence, contained 27 putative genes and seemed to display a normal genomic DNA structure. Notably, of the putative genes, 3 genes encode homologous proteins to the inhibitor of apoptosis protein and 7 genes encode homologous proteins to white spot syndrome virus, a virulent pathogen known to affect crustaceans. Colony hybridization and PCR analysis of 381 BAC clones showed that almost half of the BAC clones maintain DNA segments whose sequences are homologous to the representative BAC clone Mj024A04. The Mj024A04 partial sequence was detected multiple times in the kuruma shrimp nuclear genome with a calculated copy number of at least 100. Microsatellites based BAC genotyping clearly showed that Mj024A04 homologous sequences were cloned from at least 48 different chromosomal loci. The absence of micro-syntenic relationships with the available genomic sequences of Daphnia and Drosophila suggests the uniqueness of these fragments in kuruma shrimp from current arthropod genome sequences. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that hyper-expansion of large DNA segments took place in the kuruma shrimp genome. Although we analyzed only a part of the

  16. Tenacibaculum holothuriorum sp. nov., isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xiaoyi; Hu, Dong; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2015-12-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated S2-2T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Xiapu, Fujian province, China. Strain S2-2T was found to be aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, pale yellow, rod-shaped, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-36 °C (optimum, 25-32 °C), in the presence of 2-7% sea salt (w/v, optimum, 3-5%) and at pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 7.0). The isolate was able to hydrolyse gelatin, casein and DNA, but unable to degrade Tween 20, 40 and 80, starch and cellulose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain S2-2T represented a member of the genus Tenacibaculum, with highest sequence similarity to Tenacibaculum aiptasiae a4T (96.9% similarity), followed by Tenacibaculum xiamenense WJ-1T (96.5% similarity) and showed lower similarities (93.3-95.9%) with other members of the genus Tenacibaculum. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c, 33.8%), iso-C15 : 0 (13.7%), iso-C15 : 1G (8.6%), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH (5.3%) and C15 : 0 3-OH (5.1%). The DNA G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 31.8 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminophospholipid, one unknown phospholipid, one unknown glycolipid and five unknown lipids were detected as major polar lipids. Hence, the combined genotypic and phenotypic data indicated that strain S2-2T represents a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum holothuriorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S2-2T ( = MCCC 1A09872T = LMG 27758T). PMID:26345588

  17. Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Song, Eun-Ji; Seo, Myung-Ji; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jin-Woo; Lee, So-Young; Roh, Seong Woon; Nam, Young-Do

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated UB-M7(T) was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) collected from Pohang in South Korea. Strain UB-M7(T) displayed optimal growth at 25 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and with 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UB-M7(T) clustered with Phaeobacter arcticus DSM 23566(T), Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 16374(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107(T), and Phaeobacter leonis 306(T), exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.8, 96.6, 96.4, and 96.2 %, respectively. Strain UB-M7(T) was found to exhibit the highest gyrB sequence similarity value of 80.6 % to the type strain of P. arcticus. The major respiratory quinone of strain UB-M7(T) was found to be ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) are summed features 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), 11-methyl C18:1 ω7c, and cyclo C19:0 ω8c. The DNA G+C content was found to be 58.5 mol% and DNA-DNA relatedness value with P. arcticus JCM 14644(T) was 17.2 ± 2.4 %. The major polar lipids of strain UB-M7(T) were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine; one phospholipid, and three other lipids remain unidentified. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties it is concluded that strain UB-M7(T) represents a novel species in the genus Phaeobacter, for which the name Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UB-M7(T) (=KCCM 43045(T) = JCM 19926(T)). PMID:25355001

  18. Succession and seasonal variation in epilithic biofilms on artificial reefs in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liming; Du, Rongbin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Shichun

    2016-04-01

    Periphytic biofilms in aquaculture waters are thought to improve water quality, provide an additional food source, and improve the survival and growth of some reared animals. In the Asia- Pacific region, particularly in China, artificial reefs are commonly used in the commercial farming of sea cucumbers. However, few studies have examined the epilithic biofilms on the artificial reefs. To gain a better understanding of the succession of epilithic biofilms and their ecological processes in sea cucumber culture waters, two experiments were conducted in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Rongcheng, China, using artificial test panels. On the test panels of succession experiment, more than 67 species were identified in the biofilms. On the test panels of seasonal variation experiment, more than 46 species were recorded in the biofilms. In both experiments, communities of epilithic biofilms were dominated by diatoms, green algae and the annelid Spirorbis sp. In the initial colonization, the dominant diatoms were Cocconeis sp., Amphora spp. and Nitzschia closterium in June, which were succeeded by species of Navicula, Cocconeis and Nitzschia (July to September), and then by Licmophora abbreviata, Nitzschia closterium and Synedra spp. in the following months. A diatom bloom in the autumn and filamentous green algae burst in the summer were also observed. Ecological indices well annotated the succession and seasonal changes in epilithic communities. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis found significant diff erences in diatom community composition among months and seasons. Fast growth of biofilms was observed in the summer and autumn, whereas the biomass of summer biofilms was largely made up of filamentous green algae. Present results show that the components of epilithic biofilms are mostly optimal foods of A. japonicus, suggesting that biofilms on artificial reefs may contribute important nutritional sources for sea cucumbers during their

  19. Effect of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum on the essential oil yield related characters and nutrient acquisition in the crops of different cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M L; Prasad, Arun; Ram, Muni; Kumar, Sushil

    2002-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomusfasciculatum on the root colonization, growth, essential oil yield and nutrient acquisition of three cultivars of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis); Kalka, Shivalik and Gomti, were studied under field conditions. The VAM inoculation significantly increased the root colonization, plant height, fresh herbage and dry matter yield. oil content and oil yield as compared to non-inoculated cultivars. The effect of VAM inoculation on the root colonization, growth and yield of mint was more pronounced with the cv Shivalik than the cvs Kalka and Gomati, indicating Shivalik as a highly mycorrhizal dependent genotype. VAM inoculation significantly increased the uptake of N, P and K by shoot tissues of mint, but most markedly increased the uptake of P. The VAM-inoculated mint plants depleted the available N, P and K in the rhizosphere soil as compared to non-inoculated control plants, however the extent of nutrient depletion was greater for P than N and K. We conclude that the VAM inoculation could significantly increase the root colonization, growth, essential oil yield and nutrient acquisition of mint for obtaining economic production under field conditions. PMID:11708758

  20. Application of CEDA and ASPIC computer packages to the hairtail ( Trichiurus japonicus) fishery in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Surplus-production models are widely used in fish stock assessment and fisheries management due to their simplicity and lower data demands than age-structured models such as Virtual Population Analysis. The CEDA (catch-effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a surplus-production model incorporating covariates) computer packages are data-fitting or parameter estimation tools that have been developed to analyze catch-and-effort data using non-equilibrium surplus production models. We applied CEDA and ASPIC to the hairtail ( Trichiurus japonicus) fishery in the East China Sea. Both packages produced robust results and yielded similar estimates. In CEDA, the Schaefer surplus production model with log-normal error assumption produced results close to those of ASPIC. CEDA is sensitive to the choice of initial proportion, while ASPIC is not. However, CEDA produced higher R 2 values than ASPIC.

  1. Molecular responses of Lotus japonicus to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Yukihiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lotus japonicus genes responsive to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica were isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. O. aegyptiaca and S. hermonthica parasitism specifically induced the expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and phytoalexin biosynthesis, respectively. Nodulation-related genes were almost exclusively found among the Orobanche-induced genes. Temporal gene expression analyses revealed that 19 out of the 48 Orobanche-induced genes and 5 out of the 48 Striga-induced genes were up-regulated at 1 dai. Four genes, including putative trypsin protease inhibitor genes, exhibited systemic up-regulation in the host plant parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. On the other hand, S. hermonthica attachment did not induce systemic gene expression. PMID:19088337

  2. Structure of fucose branches in the glycosaminoglycan from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Y; Watabe, S; Kyogashima, M; Ishihara, M; Ishii, T

    1997-01-17

    Fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate E was prepared from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. The purified glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was chemically desulfated, followed by carboxyl reduction. Intact, desulfated, and desulfated/carboxyl-reduced GAG fractions were subjected to per-O-methylation. GC-MS analyses of the resultant partially methylated alditol acetates demonstrated that the fucose branch is formed by two fucopyranosyl residues linked glycosidically through position (1-->3), and that the fucose branch and glucuronic acid are almost equimolar. In addition, it was elucidated that about 20% of the branches stretch from O-3 position of a glucuronic acid moiety of the core chondroitin sulfate polymer, while remaining fucose branches are postulated to protrude from O-4 and/or O-6 position(s) of a N-acetylgalactosamine moiety. This fucose branch was also confirmed to be highly sulfated according to six kinds of substitution pattern in methylation analysis. PMID:9060189

  3. Occurrence of a new microsporidium in the skeletal muscle of the flying fish Cypselurus pinnatibarbatus japonicus (Exocoetidae) from Yakushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Lee, Sun-Joung; Bell, Andrew S

    2002-01-01

    A new microsporidium was observed in the flying fish Cypselurus pinnatibarbatus japonicus (Franz) (Exocoetidae) from Yakushima, Japan. Visual examination revealed the microsporidium to form white elongate nodules in the host's trunk muscle. Monomorphic spores were ovoid to pyriform in shape, with average dimensions of 4.1 x 2.2 microm and possessing a polar tube describing 13-15 coils. Histological observations showed that each parasite focus of infection was encapsulated by a host-produced fibrous membrane. The presence of sporophorous vesicles was not clearly determined. Ribosomal DNA sequence analyses showed the microsporidium to be discrete from other known fish muscle-infecting species and to be most closely related to a clade comprising the Pleistophoridae and Glugea spp. The parasite is provisionally placed as Microsporidium cypselurus sp. n. PMID:11993555

  4. MiR-200 modulates coelomocytes antibacterial activities and LPS priming via targeting Tollip in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Pengjuan; Wang, Zhenhui; Zhang, Weiwei; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways, we identified Toll interacting protein as a putative target of miR-200 in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes by RNA-seq screening (denoted as AjTollip). The positive expression profiles of miR-200 and AjTollip were detected in both LPS exposure primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus challenge sea cucumber. Co-infection miR-200 mimics significantly elevated the expression of AjTollip and its down-stream molecules. In contrast, miR-200 inhibitor significantly repressed the expression of these TLR-pathway members. More importantly, miR-200 displayed not only to enhance coelomocytes antibacterial activities, but to suppress LPS priming in vitro. Overall, all these results will enhance our understanding on miR-200 regulatory roles in anti-bacterial process in sea cucumber. PMID:25910848

  5. [Molecular cloning of tubulin beta 3 (TUBB3) in Gekko japonicus and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Qin, Yong; Gu, Yun; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mei

    2012-08-01

    The tubulin beta III (TUBB3) gene encodes a class III member of the beta tubulin protein family that is primarily expressed in neurons and is considered to play a critical role in proper axon guidance and maintenance. This protein is generally used as a specific marker of neurons in the central nervous system. We obtained the full length cDNA sequence of TUBB3 by using the RACE method based on the EST fragment from the brain and spinal cord cDNA library of Gekko japonicus. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern by RT-PCR and identified one transcript of TUBB3 about 1.8 kb in the central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The completed cDNA of gecko TUBB3 is 1 790 bp with an open reading frame of 1 350 bp, encoding a 450 amino-acid protein. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-TUBB3 was constructed and induced to express His-tagged TUBB3 protein in prokaryotic BL21 cells. The purified TUBB3 protein was then used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65 536 determined by ELISA. The result of western blotting showed that the TUBB3 antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant TUBB3 protein and endogenous TUBB3 protein. Our findings provide the tools to further understand the TUBB3 gene and investigate the regeneration of the central nervous system in Gekko japonicas. PMID:22855447

  6. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Reveals Novel Members Involved in Pathogen Challenge in Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Peng; Jin, Chunhua; Pan, Daodong; Bao, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is considered to be a major constraint for the stable development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. In this study, we investigated protein changes in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus challenged by Vibrio splendidus using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) over a 96 h time course. Consequently, 228 differentially expressed proteins were identified in two iTRAQs. A comparison of the protein expression profiles among different time points detected 125 proteins primarily involved in response to endogenous stimuli at 24 h. At 48 h, the number of differentially expressed proteins decreased to 67, with their primary function being oxidation reduction. At the end of pathogen infection, proteins responsive to amino acid stimuli and some metabolic processes were classified as the predominant group. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed at all time points, among which eight proteins related to pathologies in higher animals were shown to be down-regulated after V. splendidus infection: paxillin, fascin-2, aggrecan, ololfactomedin-1, nesprin-3, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (Adamts7), C-type lectin domain family 4 (Clec4g) and n-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1). To gain more insight into two SUS-related miRNA (miR-31 and miR-2008) targets at the protein level, all 129 down-regulated proteins were further analyzed in combination with RNA-seq. Twelve and eight proteins were identified as putative targets for miR-31 and miR-2008, respectively, in which six proteins (5 for miR-31 and 1 for miR-2008) displayed higher possibilities to be regulated at the level of translation. Overall, the present work enhances our understanding of the process of V. splendidus-challenged sea cucumber and provides a new method for screening miRNAs targets at the translation level. PMID:24949634

  7. Chitinase gene responses and tissue sensitivity in an intertidal mud crab (Macrophthalmus japonicus) following low or high salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Won-Seok; Park, Kiyun; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Moon-Ock; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-05-01

    Changes in salinity affect the physiological status of the marine habitat including that of the intertidal mud crab Macrophthalmus japonicus. Chitinases play significant biological roles in crustaceans such as morphogenesis, nutrient digestion, and pathogen defense. In this study, the osmoregulatory function of three chitinase gene transcripts was determined compared to seawater (SW, 31 ± 1 psu) in M. japonicus gills and hepatopancreas under different salinities (10, 25, and 40 psu) for 1, 4, and 7 days. In SW-exposed crab, quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed chitinase 1 (Mj-chi1) and chitinase 4 (Mj-chi4) transcripts constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues with strong expression in hepatopancreas, but chitinase 5 (Mj-chi5) showed highest expression in stomach. When exposed to different salinities, Mj-chi1 showed significant up-regulation at day 4 whereas Mj-chi4 showed late up-regulation (day 7) at all the salinities in hepatopancreas. In the gills, early up-regulation (day 1) in Mj-chi1 and time-dependent late up-regulation (day 7) in Mj-chi4 at high salinity were observed. These results indicate the possibility of using Mj-chi4 as a marker against salinity changes. Moreover, our results further suggest that Mj-chi1 and Mj-chi4 transcriptions were significantly affected by changes in salinity; however, Mj-chi5 in gills was less affected by salinity and showed no effect in hepatopancreas. Thus, chitinase transcription modulations in the gills are more sensitive than hepatopancreas to salinity stress. Further, present data indicate the possible existence of different physiological roles among chitinase gene families, which need to be clarified in more detail by future biochemical and physiological functional studies. PMID:25697403

  8. iTRAQ-based proteomics reveals novel members involved in pathogen challenge in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Peng; Jin, Chunhua; Pan, Daodong; Bao, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is considered to be a major constraint for the stable development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. In this study, we investigated protein changes in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus challenged by Vibrio splendidus using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) over a 96 h time course. Consequently, 228 differentially expressed proteins were identified in two iTRAQs. A comparison of the protein expression profiles among different time points detected 125 proteins primarily involved in response to endogenous stimuli at 24 h. At 48 h, the number of differentially expressed proteins decreased to 67, with their primary function being oxidation reduction. At the end of pathogen infection, proteins responsive to amino acid stimuli and some metabolic processes were classified as the predominant group. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed at all time points, among which eight proteins related to pathologies in higher animals were shown to be down-regulated after V. splendidus infection: paxillin, fascin-2, aggrecan, ololfactomedin-1, nesprin-3, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (Adamts7), C-type lectin domain family 4 (Clec4g) and n-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1). To gain more insight into two SUS-related miRNA (miR-31 and miR-2008) targets at the protein level, all 129 down-regulated proteins were further analyzed in combination with RNA-seq. Twelve and eight proteins were identified as putative targets for miR-31 and miR-2008, respectively, in which six proteins (5 for miR-31 and 1 for miR-2008) displayed higher possibilities to be regulated at the level of translation. Overall, the present work enhances our understanding of the process of V. splendidus-challenged sea cucumber and provides a new method for screening miRNAs targets at the translation level. PMID:24949634

  9. Enhancement of non-specific immune response in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by Astragalus membranaceus and its polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yongxin; Jin, Liji; Xu, Yongping; Wang, Li; Ren, Tongjun; Wang, Kailai

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the immunostimulatory effect of oral administration of different preparations (conventional fine powder [CP] and superfine powder [SP]) of Astragalus membranaceus root or its polysaccharides (APS) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Sea cucumbers with an average initial weight of 49.3 +/- 5.65 g were fed with a diet containing 3% CP or SP or 0.3% APS over a period of 60 days. The non-specific humoral (phenoloxidase, lysozyme and agglutination titer) and cellular (phagocytic capacity and reactive oxygen species) responses were determined and compared with controls (no supplement) after 20, 40 and 60 days of feeding. Variation in the levels of responses was evident among different supplements. SP and APS significantly enhanced most of the immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with SP-supplemented diet for 20, 40 or 60 days. Furthermore, lectin titer showed significant enhancement after 20 and 60 days of feeding with APS-supplemented diet. Significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species was evident for all three supplements after 20 days of feeding, but no significant change in serum phenoloxidase activity was observed for any of the three supplements over the three different periods. Overall, significant modulation of the cellular responses was only noticed after 20 days of feeding with SP- or APS-supplemented diet. After 60 days, these two groups also exhibited a decrease in the cumulative symptom rates compared to the controls when challenged with Vibrio splendidus. These results indicated that dietary intake containing A. membranaceus root or its polysaccharides could enhance the immune responses of A. japonicus and improve its resistance to infection by V. splendidus. PMID:19748588

  10. Seed shape in model legumes: approximation by a cardioid reveals differences in ethylene insensitive mutants of Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Chan, Pick Kuen; Gresshoff, Peter M; Tocino, Ángel

    2012-09-15

    Seed shape in the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula is described. Based in previous work with Arabidopsis, the outline of the longitudinal sections of seeds is compared with a cardioid curve. L. japonicus seeds adjust well to an unmodified cardioid, whereas accurate adjustment in M. truncatula is obtained by the simple transformation of scaling the vertical axis by a factor equal to the Golden Ratio. Adjustments of seed shape measurements with simple geometrical forms are essential tools for the statistical analysis of variations in seed shape under different conditions or in mutants. The efficiency of the adjustment to a cardioid in the model plants suggests that seed morphology may be related to genome complexity. Seeds of ethylene insensitive mutants present differences in size and shape as well as altered responses to imbibition. The biological implication and meaning of these relationships are discussed. PMID:22809828

  11. Dianthosaponins G-I, triterpene saponins, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a flavonoid glycoside from the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus and their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Extensive isolation work on the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus afforded three further triterpene glycosyl estsers, termed dianthosaponins G-I, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a C-glycosyl flavonoid along with one known triterpene saponin. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds toward A549 cells was evaluated. PMID:27351981

  12. Response to Long-Term NaHCO3-Derived Alkalinity in Model Lotus japonicus Ecotypes Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20: Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Rubén; Bordenave, Cesar D.; Escaray, Francisco J.; Antonelli, Cristian; Calzadilla, Pablo; Gárriz, Andrés; Serna, Eva; Carrasco, Pedro; Menendez, Ana B.

    2014-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding transcriptomic changes induced by alkalinity on plants is scarce and limited to studies where plants were subjected to the alkaline salt for periods not longer than 48 h, so there is no information available regarding the regulation of genes involved in the generation of a new homeostatic cellular condition after long-term alkaline stress. Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important physiological processes including biotic interactions and biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we characterized phenotipically the response to alkaline stress of the most widely used L. japonicus ecotypes, Gifu B-129 and MG-20, and analyzed global transcriptome of plants subjected to 10 mM NaHCO3 during 21 days, by using the Affymetrix Lotus japonicus GeneChip®. Plant growth assessment, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis and metal accumulation supported the notion that MG-20 plants displayed a higher tolerance level to alkaline stress than Gifu B-129. Overall, 407 and 459 probe sets were regulated in MG-20 and Gifu B-129, respectively. The number of probe sets differentially expressed in roots was higher than that of shoots, regardless the ecotype. Gifu B-129 and MG-20 also differed in their regulation of genes that could play important roles in the generation of a new Fe/Zn homeostatic cellular condition, synthesis of plant compounds involved in stress response, protein-degradation, damage repair and root senescence, as well as in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and TCA. In addition, there were differences between both ecotypes in the expression patterns of putative transcription factors that could determine distinct arrangements of flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. Our results provided a set of selected, differentially expressed genes deserving further investigation and suggested that the L. japonicus ecotypes could constitute a useful model to search for common and

  13. The Protein Precursors of Peptides That Affect the Mechanics of Connective Tissue and/or Muscle in the Echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Maurice R.

    2012-01-01

    Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea). By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA) have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides) cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins) that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms. PMID:22952987

  14. Effect of potential probiotic Rhodotorula benthica D30 on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immunity in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-hui; Zhao, Liu-qun; Liu, Jin-feng; Wang, Han; Xiao, Shan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary addition of yeast Rhodotorula benthica (R. benthica) D30 which isolated from local sea mud at levels of 0 (control), 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) CFU/g feed on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were investigated. It was shown that dietary addition of R. benthica D30 significantly increased the growth rates of sea cucumbers (p < 0.05). The amylase activity, cellulase activity and alginase activity were increased for the animals from three probiotics treated groups. And with the supplemented concentration increased, the values of those digestive enzyme activities increased as well. Dietary addition of R. benthica D30 at the level of 10(7) CFU significantly increased the lysozyme, phagocytic and total nitric oxide synthase activity of A. japonicus (p < 0.05). While, the highest values of the phenoloxidase and alkaline phosphatase activity were found in sea cucumbers fed with R. benthica D30 at the level of 10(6) CFU. Whereas adding R. benthica D30 to diet had no significant effects on the total coelomocyte counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (p > 0.05). It was observed that adding R. benthica D30 could significantly decrease the cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers. The present study demonstrated that dietary addition of R. benthica D30 could increase growth performance and some digestive enzyme activities, improve immunity and disease resistance of A. japonicus. And the medium (10(6) CFU) and high (10(7) CFU) additional levels showed better effects. It suggests that yeast R. benthica D30 could be a good probiotic for aquaculture. PMID:25592878

  15. Polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus promote phagocytosis and superoxide anion (O2-) production by coelomocytes from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongxin; Jin, Liji; Wang, Tingting; Xue, Jipeng; Liu, Gang; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2008-04-01

    The potential immunostimulatory effects of Astralagus membranaceus polysaccharides (APS) on sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), were investigated in vitro. Phagocytosis and superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production by phagocytic amoebocytes (PA) from A. japonicus coelomic fluid were measured during incubation at 18 degrees C, 22 degrees C, or 25 degrees C with APS at 0, 10, 20, or 40 microg mL(-1) (n=3). Phagocytic activity against yeast cells was quantified by direct visualization, and O(2)(-) production by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay. Compared with controls, including APS at 20 microg mL(-1) significantly increased (P<0.05) the percentage of phagocytic capacity (PC) and phagocytic index (PI) at 18 degrees C and 22 degrees C, but no significant enhancement was observed at 25 degrees C. In contrast, the coelmocytes of A. japonicus can have an obvious generation of O(2)(-) after the stimulation. The concentration of 20 microg mL(-1) APS resulted in a significant increase in nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) positive cells (P<0.05) at different temperature and even 10 microg mL(-1) APS could increase O(2)(-) generation significantly at 18 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Both phagocytosing and O(2)(-) production increased with the increase of APS concentration from 0 to 20 microg mL(-1) at different temperature, and when APS at 40 microg mL(-1), they were decreased. It suggested that immunocytes activity in A. japonicus decreased with the temperature increasing from 18 degrees C to 25 degrees C, and APS could be an effective immunostimulant to enhance phagocytic activity and O(2)(-) production. PMID:18221918

  16. An adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) gene from Apostichopus japonicus; molecular cloning and expression analysis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Tu, Jie; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Li, Chao-Feng; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) play a vital role in energy metabolism via ADP/ATP exchange in eukaryotic cells. Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is an important economic species in China. Here, a cDNA representing an ANT gene of A. japonicus was isolated and characterized from respiratory tree and named AjANT. The full-length AjANT cDNA is 1924 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 38 bp, 3'-UTR of 980 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 906 bp encoding a polypeptide of 301 amino acids. The protein contains three homologous repeat Mito_carr domains (Pfam00153). The deduced AjANT protein sequence has 49-81% in comparison to ANT proteins from other individuals. The predicted tertiary structure of AjANT protein is highly similar to animal ANT proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AjANT is closely related to Holothuroidea ANT genes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that AjANT expression is higher in the respiratory tree than in other examined tissues. After thermal stress or LPS challenge, expression of AjANT was significantly fluctuant compared to the control. These results suggested that changes in the expression of ANT gene might be involved in immune defense and in protecting A. japonicus against thermal stress. PMID:26706223

  17. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas

    PubMed Central

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70–140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas. PMID:25223336

  18. DNA methylation levels analysis in four tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus based on fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-03-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating transcriptional change in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, DNA methylation levels of tissues of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were analyzed by the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) technique over three stages of the aestivation cycle. Overall, a total of 26,963 fragments were amplified including 9112 methylated fragments among four sea cucumber tissues using 18 pairs of selective primers. Results indicated an average DNA methylation level of 33.79% for A. japonicus. The incidence of DNA methylation was different across tissue types in the non-aestivation stage: intestine (30.16%), respiratory tree (27.61%), muscle (27.94%) and body wall (56.25%). Our results show that hypermethylation accompanied deep-aestivation in A. japonicus, which suggests that DNA methylation may have an important role in regulating global transcriptional suppression during aestivation. Further analysis indicated that the main DNA modification sites were focused on intestine and respiratory tree tissues and that full-methylation but not hemi-methylation levels exhibited significant increases in the deep-aestivation stage. PMID:25461675

  19. The SNARE Protein SYP71 Expressed in Vascular Tissues Is Involved in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Lotus japonicus Nodules1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Oi, Ryo; Hazuma, Kazuya; Suga, Eri; Adachi, Yuka; Kobayashi, Mayumi; Akai, Rie; Sato, Shusei; Fukai, Eigo; Tabata, Satoshi; Shibata, Satoshi; Wu, Guo-Jiang; Hase, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (SNARE) proteins are crucial for signal transduction and development in plants. Here, we investigate a Lotus japonicus symbiotic mutant defective in one of the SNARE proteins. When in symbiosis with rhizobia, the growth of the mutant was retarded compared with that of the wild-type plant. Although the mutant formed nodules, these exhibited lower nitrogen fixation activity than the wild type. The rhizobia were able to invade nodule cells, but enlarged symbiosomes were observed in the infected cells. The causal gene, designated LjSYP71 (for L. japonicus syntaxin of plants71), was identified by map-based cloning and shown to encode a Qc-SNARE protein homologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SYP71. LjSYP71 was expressed ubiquitously in shoot, roots, and nodules, and transcripts were detected in the vascular tissues. In the mutant, no other visible defects in plant morphology were observed. Furthermore, in the presence of combined nitrogen, the mutant plant grew almost as well as the wild type. These results suggest that the vascular tissues expressing LjSYP71 play a pivotal role in symbiotic nitrogen fixation in L. japonicus nodules. PMID:22858633

  20. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on antioxidant depletion, the ERK signaling pathway, and copper bioavailability in the copepod (Tigriopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Won, Eun-Ji; Kang, Hye-Min; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are nanoparticles widely applicable in various industrial fields. However, despite the usefulness of MWCNTs in industry, their oxidative stress-induced toxicity, combined toxicity with metal, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation have not been widely investigated in marine organisms. We used the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus as a test organism to demonstrate the adverse effects induced by MWCNTs in aquatic test organisms. The dispersion of the MWCNTs in seawater was maintained over 48 h without aggregation. MWCNTs caused a decrease in acute copper toxicity compared to the copper-only group in response to 20 and 100 mg/L MWCNTs, but not in response to 4 mg/L MWCNT, indicating that MWCNT may suppress acute copper toxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase were significantly down-regulated in response to 100 mg/L MWCNT exposure. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity did not change significantly, indicating that MWCNTs may cause failure of the antioxidant system in T. japonicus. However, MWCNT induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation without p38 and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, suggesting that ERK activation plays a key role in cell signaling pathways downstream of CNT exposure. This suggests that this pathway can be used as a biomarker for CNT exposure in T. japonicus. This study provides a better understanding of the cellular-damage response to MWCNTs. PMID:26716406

  1. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70-140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas.

  2. Identification and expression of the elongator protein 2 (Ajelp2) gene, a novel regeneration-related gene from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanli; Yao, Feng; Wu, Yang; Chu, Bing; Cheng, Cheng; Liu, Yan; Li, Xuejie; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-08-01

    Elongator proteins comprise six subunits (ELP1-ELP6) and form protein complexes. The elongator protein 2 gene (elp2) encodes a protein with a WD40 repeats domain that acts as a scaffold for complex assembly. It also plays an important role in growth and development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of elongator protein 2 (Ajelp2) was cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (A. japonicus) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR techniques and comprised 3,058 bp, including a 54 bp 5' untranslated (UTR), a 526 bp 3' UTR and a 2,478 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. The Ajelp2 sequence showed high homology to 12 other species. The molecular weight and isoelectric of point the presumptive protein were 91.6 kDa and 5.84, respectively. In situ hybridization indicated that the gene is expressed in the body wall, intestine, respiratory tree and longitudinal muscle. The expression level of Ajelp2 increased in recovering of organs in sea cucumber and showed it's the highest expression level at the 15th day in the intestine and respiratory tree. Its expression then gradually decreased to normal levels. In the body wall, the expression level of Ajelp2 was up-regulated and then down-regulated. These results indicated that Ajelp2 is involved in protein regulation during the regeneration process in the sea cucumber A. japonicus. PMID:24748431

  3. Analysis of the essential oil of Dipsacus japonicus flowering aerial parts and its insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Jiang, Guo Hua; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Qi Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Dipsacus japonicus Miq. (Dipsacaceae) at the flowering stage was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-six compounds, accounting for 96.76% of the total oil, were identified and the main compounds of the essential oil were linalool (11.78%), trans-geraniol (8.58%), 1,8-cineole (7.91%), beta-caryophyllene (5.58%), alpha-terpineol (5.32%), beta-selinene (5.15%), and spathulenol (5.04%). The essential oil of D. japonicus possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 18.32 microg/ adult and 13.45 microg/adult, respectively. The essential oil of D. japonicus also exhibited pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 10.11 mg/l air) and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 5.26 mg/l air). Of the three major compounds, 1,8-cineole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the crude essential oil against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 2.96 mg/l air and 4.86 mg/l air, respectively. PMID:23659168

  4. ROS production in homogenate from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus under UVA irradiation: ESR spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Dong, Xiu-fang; Zhao, Ya-ping; Li, Nan; Fu, Hui; Feng, Ding-ding; Liu, Li; Yu, Chen-xu

    2016-02-01

    Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (S. japonicus) shows a strong ability of autolysis, which leads to severe deterioration in sea cucumber quality during processing and storage. In this study, to further characterize the mechanism of sea cucumber autolysis, hydroxyl radical production induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was investigated. Homogenate from the body wall of S. japonicas was prepared and subjected to UVA irradiation at room temperature. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectra of the treated samples were subsequently recorded. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals (OH) became more abundant while the time of UVA treatment and the homogenate concentration were increased. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, EDTA, desferal, NaN3 and D2O to the homogenate samples led to different degrees of inhibition on OH production. Metal cations and pH also showed different effects on OH production. These results indicated that OH was produced in the homogenate with a possible pathway as follows: O2(-) → H2O2 → OH, suggesting that OH might be a critical factor in UVA-induced S. japonicus autolysis. PMID:26304359

  5. Bacterial community composition in the gut content and ambient sediment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  6. Identification, expression pattern and potential role of variable lymphocyte receptor Aj-VLRA from Apostichopus japonicus in response to bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Yao, Feng; Ba, Huazhong; Qin, Tong; Luan, Hong; Li, Zhengmin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    The variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) are found in jawless vertebrates (agnathans), and specifically recognize bacteria and viruses via their leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). VLRs are believed to be adaptive immune response molecules. Echinoderms do not have adaptive immune systems; however, in the present study, a VLR cDNA named Aj-VLRA was cloned and characterized from sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. The complete cDNA of Aj-VLRA was 3072 bp, including a 1995 bp open reading frame encoding 664 amino acids comprising LRR domains, a predicted transmembrane helix and an N-terminal signal peptide. As determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Aj-VLRA transcripts are ubiquitously expressed in the body wall, longitudinal muscles, intestine and respiratory tree of A. japonicus. The expression level of Aj-VLRA was upregulated after challenge with four common marine bacteria. In situ hybridization showed that the expression of Aj-VLRA was widely distributed in the four tissues, particularly in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells. Recombinantly expressed Aj-VLRA (including the LRR domains) could bind to bacteria including Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram+) and Vibrio anguillarum (Gram-). Collectively, the results suggested that Aj-VLRA is related to an innate immune response of A. japonicus. PMID:25896798

  7. Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  8. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those fed with untreated L. japonica feedstuff (mean weight gain of 1.31 g). At the same time, they also showed significantly higher levels of amylase, protease, and alginate lyase activities than the other groups. These individuals and those fed with the commercial feedstuff or heat-inactivated but B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonicas feedstuff showed enhanced levels of activities for the immune enzymes nitric oxide synthase, lysozyme, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase, compared to those fed with nontreated L. japonica feedstuff. Furthermore, A. japonicus individuals fed with B. amyloliquefaciens WB1-treated L. japonica feedstuff exhibited greater resistance to disease following Vibrio splendidus challenge, as shown by the much lower cumulative symptom (10 %) compared to the rest, which showed as much as 73 % in the case of individuals fed with the untreated L. japonica feedstuff. Analysis of their intestinal tract revealed a much lower number of total Vibrio sp. These results demonstrated that L. japonica in which the algin

  9. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  10. p44/42MAPK and p90RSK modulate thermal stressed physiology response in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihong; Li, Chenghua; Wang, Zhenhui; Shao, Yina; Lv, Zhimeng; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation (RPP) plays a key role in signal transduction, enzyme activity and metabolic maintenance in response to extreme changes in the environment. In this study, we identified 55 phosphorylated proteins in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes by iTRAQ analysis, and sixteen proteins displayed differently expressed profiles between thermal stressed and control groups. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade was further characterized by Western blot. Spatial expression analysis revealed that phospho-p44/42MAPK levels were mainly detected in coelomocytes and muscle, and no signal in intestine and respiratory trees, although the protein were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. Time-course expression analysis shown that the amount of phospho-p44/42MAPK decreased by 57-60% in coelomocytes and 29-40% in muscle in acute exposure stage of 20°C and 25°C, respectively. In higher temperature remaining stage, phospho-p44/42MAPK was both induced with 1.7-fold increase at 20°C and 5.2-fold at 25°C at the first 12h in coelomocytes, which was consistent with the change of p44/42MAPK. Similarly, 2.5-fold and 2.7-fold increases were detected in muscle at corresponding exposure temperature. In contrast, the p44/42MAPK in muscle showed depressed expression profiles. As time progressed, phospho-p44/42MAPK levels were all decreased significantly both in coelomocytes and in muscles. A reduction in phosphorylation levels was detected at 84h in 20°C exposed coelomocytes with 0.42-fold decrease, and at 36h in 25°C challenged muscle by 0.80-fold decrease. Correlated expression profiles between phospho-p90RSK and phospho-p44/42MAPK suggest that p44/42MAPK may be involved in temperature-induced metabolic suppression through targeting p90RSK in A. japonicus. PMID:26944306

  11. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. PMID:27503728

  12. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  13. Scanning the effects of ethyl methanesulfonate on the whole genome of Lotus japonicus using second-generation sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Yusoff, Nur Fatihah; Ruperao, Pradeep; Tomoyoshi, Nurain Emylia; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Biswas, Bandana; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Genetic structure can be altered by chemical mutagenesis, which is a common method applied in molecular biology and genetics. Second-generation sequencing provides a platform to reveal base alterations occurring in the whole genome due to mutagenesis. A model legume, Lotus japonicus ecotype Miyakojima, was chemically mutated with alkylating ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for the scanning of DNA lesions throughout the genome. Using second-generation sequencing, two individually mutated third-generation progeny (M3, named AM and AS) were sequenced and analyzed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and reveal the effects of EMS on nucleotide sequences in these mutant genomes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found in every 208 kb (AS) and 202 kb (AM) with a bias mutation of G/C-to-A/T changes at low percentage. Most mutations were intergenic. The mutation spectrum of the genomes was comparable in their individual chromosomes; however, each mutated genome has unique alterations, which are useful to identify causal mutations for their phenotypic changes. The data obtained demonstrate that whole genomic sequencing is applicable as a high-throughput tool to investigate genomic changes due to mutagenesis. The identification of these single-point mutations will facilitate the identification of phenotypically causative mutations in EMS-mutated germplasm. PMID:25660167

  14. The first description of complete invertebrate arginine metabolism pathways implies dose-dependent pathogen regulation in Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Yina, Shao; Chenghua, Li; Weiwei, Zhang; Zhenhui, Wang; Zhimeng, Lv

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three typical members representative of different arginine metabolic pathways were firstly identified from Apostichopus japonicus, including nitric oxide synthase (NOS), arginase, and agmatinase. Spatial expression analysis revealed that the AjNOS transcript presented negative expression patterns relative to those of Ajarginase or Ajagmatinase in most detected tissues. Furthermore, Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and intestine, and LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes could significantly induce AjNOS expression, followed by obviously inhibited Arginase and AjAgmatinase transcripts at the most detected time points. Silencing the three members with two specific siRNAs in vivo and in vitro collectively indicated that AjNOS not only compete with Ajarginase but also with Ajagmatinase in arginine metabolism. Interestingly, Ajarginase and Ajagmatinase displayed cooperative expression profiles in arginine utilization. More importantly, live pathogens of V. splendidus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus co-incubated with primary cells also induced NO production and suppressed arginase activity in a time-dependent at an appropriate multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10, without non-pathogen Escherichia coli. When increasing the pathogen dose (MOI = 100), arginase activity was significantly elevated, and NO production was depressed, with a larger magnitude in V. splendidus co-incubation. The present study expands our understanding of the connection between arginine’s metabolic and immune responses in non-model invertebrates. PMID:27032691

  15. Programmed cell death 4 in bacterially-challenged Apostichopus japonicus: Molecular cloning, expression analysis and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Shao, Yina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Zhenhui; Wang, Haihong

    2016-07-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) plays a crucial role in modulating cellular signals, mainly via TOLL cascades during the immune response. In the present study, a novel PDCD4 homologue gene (denoted as AjPDCD4) was cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using RACE. The full-length AjPDCD4 cDNA comprised a 366bp 5'-UTR, a 418bp 3'-UTR, and a 1353bp open reading frame encoding a 450 amino acid residue protein with two typical MA3 domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AjPDCD4 belonged to the invertebrate PDCD4 family. Spatial expression analysis indicated that AjPDCD4 mRNA transcripts are expressed at a high level in the tentacles and at a low level in muscle compared with coelomocytes. Vibrio splendidus challenge and LPS exposure could both significantly down-regulate AjPDCD4 mRNA expression. More importantly, we found that ultraviolet (UV)-induced ROS production and DNA damage were greatly repressed in AjPDCD4-knockdown coelomocytes. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the NF-kappa B homologue, p105, were synchronously up-regulated in the same conditions. All of these results indicated that AjPDCD4 is involved in modulating DNA damage and ROS production in sea cucumber, perhaps by affecting the TLR pathway. PMID:27262523

  16. Antennal RNA-sequencing analysis reveals evolutionary aspects of chemosensory proteins in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, Masaru K.; Ishii, Kenichi; Sakura, Midori; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is essential for the coordination of complex organisation in ant societies. Recent comparative genomic approaches have revealed that chemosensory genes are diversified in ant lineages, and suggest that this diversification is crucial for social organisation. However, how such diversified genes shape the peripheral chemosensory systems remains unknown. In this study, we annotated and analysed the gene expression profiles of chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which transport lipophilic compounds toward chemosensory receptors in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Transcriptome analysis revealed 12 CSP genes and phylogenetic analysis showed that 3 of these are lineage-specifically expanded in the clade of ants. RNA sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that, among the ant specific CSP genes, two of them (CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13) were specifically expressed in the chemosensory organs and differentially expressed amongst ant castes. Furthermore, CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 had a ratio of divergence at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dN/dS) greater than 1, and they were co-expressed with CjapCSP1, which is known to bind cuticular hydrocarbons. Our results suggested that CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 were functionally differentiated for ant-specific chemosensory events, and that CjapCSP1, CjapCSP12, and CjapCSP13 work cooperatively in the antennal chemosensilla of worker ants. PMID:26310137

  17. Protective Effects of MDG-1, a Polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicus on Diabetic Nephropathy in Diabetic KKAy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Shi, Lin-Lin; Wang, Ling-Yi; Xu, Jin-Wen; Feng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Ophiopogon japonicus is a traditional Chinese medicine that might be effective for treating type 2 diabetes. Recent research confirmed that MDG-1, a polysaccharide from O. japonicas, activates the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and improves insulin sensitivity in a diabetic KKAy mouse model, but little is known about its effects on diabetic nephropathy. In this study, KKAy mice were orally administered distilled water (control group), MDG-1, or rosiglitazone for 12 weeks. Blood glucose levels were tested every two weeks for the fed mice. At 6 and 12 weeks, blood samples were collected for biochemical examination. At the end of the experiment, all kidney tissues were collected for histological examination and western blot analysis. Results show that MDG-1 (300 mg/kg) significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, blood urine nitrogen and albumin, and significantly inhibited the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and connective tissue growth factor. Moreover, MDG-1 could alleviate glomerular mesangial expansion and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the diabetic mice, as confirmed by histopathological examination. These data indicated that MDG-1 ameliorates renal disease in diabetic mice by reducing hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, and by inhibiting intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:26393572

  18. Molecular cloning and altered expression of Pbx4 in the spinal cord during tail regeneration of Gekko japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjun; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yan; Gu, Xingxing; Huan, Youjuan; Ren, Lijie; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong

    2009-12-16

    Transcription factor Pbx4 is recruited to form dimeric or trimeric complexes with Hox and/or Meis homeodomain proteins and participates in patterning the hindbrain and retina during vertebrate CNS development. We characterized a Pbx4 cDNA isolated from a Gekko japonicus brain and spinal cord cDNA library. Northern blot and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gecko Pbx4 was ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In the spinal cord after tail amputation, in situ hybridization results showed that Pbx4 mRNA staining was present in the gray matter and ependymal cells of the spinal cord but that additional staining was seen in the white matter in regions close to the amputation stump. Both in situ hybridization and real-time PCR methods detected no obvious changes in Pbx4 expression in segment of the cord farthest from the amputation site, however, Pbx4 mRNA expression increased by 2 fold in segment close to the amputation site after 2 wks. The upregulation of Pbx4 was inhibited by an intraperitoneal injection of retinoic acid (RA) (100 microg/g body weight). These results suggest that gecko Pbx4 is possibly involved in spinal cord regeneration at sites of proximal amputation, and that the expression of Pbx4 in the spinal cord is regulated by retinoic acid in a manner different from that of Pbx1, Pbx2 and Pbx3. PMID:19712730

  19. The molecular cloning of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Gekko japonicus and its expression changes after spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dehong; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Yan; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Zhengli

    2010-12-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an astrocyte-specific member of the class III intermediate filament proteins. It is generally used as a specific marker of astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). We isolated a GFAP cDNA from the brain and spinal cord cDNA library of Gekko japonicus, and prepared polyclonal antibodies against gecko GFAP to provide useful tools for further immunochemistry studies. Both the real-time quantitative PCR and western blot results revealed that the expression of GFAP in the spinal cord after transection increased, reaching its maximum level after 3 days, and then gradually decreased over the rest of the 2 weeks of the experiment. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the increase in GFAP-positive labeling was restricted to the white matter rather than the gray matter. In particular, a slight increase in the number of GFAP positive star-shaped astrocytes was detected in the ventral and lateral regions of the white matter. Our results indicate that reactive astrogliosis in the gecko spinal cord took place primarily in the white matter during a short time interval, suggesting that the specific astrogliosis evaluated by GFAP expression might be advantageous in spinal cord regeneration. PMID:20711818

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  1. Characterization and Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs in the Tube Foot of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Li, Chengze; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNA with average length of 22 nucleotides, participating in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) by next generation sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Through the bioinformatic analysis, we identified 260 conserved miRNAs and six novel miRNAs from the tube foot small RNA transcriptome. Quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to characterize the specific expression in the tube foot. The results indicated that four miRNAs, including miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-2005 and miR-278-3p, were significantly up-regulated in the tube foot. The target genes of the four specifically expressed miRNAs were predicted in silico and validated by performing qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses with the target genes of these four miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the tube foot. This is the first study to profile the miRNA transcriptome of the tube foot in sea cucumber. This work will provide valuable genomic resources to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation in the tube foot, and will be useful to assist the molecular breeding in sea cucumber. PMID:25372871

  2. Taxonomic status of the three color variants in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus): evidence from mitochondrial phylogenomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zhengfei; Li, Yuchun; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Jianjun; Liang, Zhenlin; Huang, Luqi

    2016-07-01

    Color variation in sea cucumber is one of the most crucial traits affecting price and taste in East Asian countries. However, the relationship and taxonomic status of the three color variants are still unclear. We used 14 samples that covered all three color variants and their geographic distributions, to construct the first phylogeny for the color variants based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequence and a number of tree-building methods (maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference (BI)). The divergence times within color variants were estimated by the Bayesian molecular clock approach using the BEAST program. Our results showed that the color variants were not monophyletic in the well-resolved phylogenetic tree, which strongly refuted their separate species status. The molecular dating estimate revealed that the sea cucumber was a young group, which originated in the early Miocene period (22.03 mya) and rapidly diverged after the late Miocene period. It is interesting that individuals within each variant or geographic distribution were not always closely related and thus did not share a common origin. We propose that although they differ in body color, the three color morphs all belong to a single species of Apostichopus japonicus and the historical marine climate and the hydrographic complexity of the ocean currents could be responsible for their present distribution patterns. PMID:26000949

  3. Construction of a High-Density Genetic Map and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meilin; Li, Yangping; Jing, Jing; Mu, Chuang; Du, Huixia; Dou, Jinzhuang; Mao, Junxia; Li, Xue; Jiao, Wenqian; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Wang, Ruijia; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps are critical and indispensable tools in a wide range of genetic and genomic research. With the advancement of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods, the construction of a high-density and high-resolution linkage maps has become achievable in marine organisms lacking sufficient genomic resources, such as echinoderms. In this study, high-density, high-resolution genetic map was constructed for a sea cucumber species, Apostichopus japonicus, utilizing the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) method. A total of 7839 markers were anchored to the linkage map with the map coverage of 99.57%, to our knowledge, this is the highest marker density among echinoderm species. QTL mapping and association analysis consistently captured one growth-related QTL located in a 5 cM region of linkage group (LG) 5. An annotated candidate gene, retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (RbBP5), which has been reported to be an important regulator of cell proliferation, was recognized in the QTL region. This linkage map represents a powerful tool for research involving both fine-scale QTL mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS), and will facilitate chromosome assignment and improve the whole-genome assembly of sea cucumber in the future. PMID:26439740

  4. The first description of complete invertebrate arginine metabolism pathways implies dose-dependent pathogen regulation in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yina, Shao; Chenghua, Li; Weiwei, Zhang; Zhenhui, Wang; Zhimeng, Lv

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three typical members representative of different arginine metabolic pathways were firstly identified from Apostichopus japonicus, including nitric oxide synthase (NOS), arginase, and agmatinase. Spatial expression analysis revealed that the AjNOS transcript presented negative expression patterns relative to those of Ajarginase or Ajagmatinase in most detected tissues. Furthermore, Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and intestine, and LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes could significantly induce AjNOS expression, followed by obviously inhibited Arginase and AjAgmatinase transcripts at the most detected time points. Silencing the three members with two specific siRNAs in vivo and in vitro collectively indicated that AjNOS not only compete with Ajarginase but also with Ajagmatinase in arginine metabolism. Interestingly, Ajarginase and Ajagmatinase displayed cooperative expression profiles in arginine utilization. More importantly, live pathogens of V. splendidus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus co-incubated with primary cells also induced NO production and suppressed arginase activity in a time-dependent at an appropriate multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10, without non-pathogen Escherichia coli. When increasing the pathogen dose (MOI = 100), arginase activity was significantly elevated, and NO production was depressed, with a larger magnitude in V. splendidus co-incubation. The present study expands our understanding of the connection between arginine's metabolic and immune responses in non-model invertebrates. PMID:27032691

  5. Three members of Ras GTPase superfamily are response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Ye, Ting; Jin, Min; Wang, Wen; Hui, Kaimin; Ren, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Members of the Ras-like GTPase superfamily are key regulators of diverse cellular and developmental events, including differentiation, cell division, vesicle transport, nuclear assembly, and cytoskeleton control. In this study, three Ras family members (MjRap, MjRas, and MjRal) were cloned from Marsupenaeus japonicus. The full lengths of MjRap, MjRas, and MjRal are 788, 1330, and 2074 bp, which encode the proteins of 186, 202, and 198 amino acids respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Rap, Ras, and Ral from different species gather together. The MjRap, MjRas, and MjRal genes were ubiquitously expressed in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and muscle. Results from the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that MjRal in the gills was upregulated 48 and 72 h post-White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. No change in the MjRap or MjRas transcript was observed in the gills under the WSSV challenge. The RNAi of MjRal could enhance the WSSV replication. Injection of rMjRal protein could inhibit WSSV replication, but had no effect on VP28 expression. So, it could be concluded that MjRal was involved in shrimp anti-viral innate immune defense by inhibiting the WSSV replication. PMID:27349204

  6. Two microRNAs linked to nodule infection and nitrogen-fixing ability in the legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    De Luis, Ana; Markmann, Katharina; Cognat, Valérie; Holt, Dennis B; Charpentier, Myriam; Parniske, Martin; Stougaard, Jens; Voinnet, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Legumes overcome nitrogen shortage by developing root nodules in which symbiotic bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for host-derived carbohydrates and mineral nutrients. Nodule development involves the distinct processes of nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection, and the onset of nitrogen fixation. These entail profound, dynamic gene expression changes, notably contributed to by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we used deep-sequencing, candidate-based expression studies and a selection of Lotus japonicus mutants uncoupling different symbiosis stages to identify miRNAs involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Induction of a noncanonical miR171 isoform, which targets the key nodulation transcription factor Nodulation Signaling Pathway2, correlates with bacterial infection in nodules. A second candidate, miR397, is systemically induced in the presence of active, nitrogen-fixing nodules but not in that of noninfected or inactive nodule organs. It is involved in nitrogen fixation-related copper homeostasis and targets a member of the laccase copper protein family. These findings thus identify two miRNAs specifically responding to symbiotic infection and nodule function in legumes. PMID:23071252

  7. Effect of high pressure processing on textural and microbiological quality of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausage during chilled storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnath, Sarika; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Jaganath, Bindu; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2015-10-01

    The non-thermal high pressure (HP) processing was studied on fish sausage to enhance the quality during chilled storage. Pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausages, packed in poly amide casing under vacuum were subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa pressures (dwell time: 10 min and ramp rate: 300 MPa/min) and compared with heat-set samples for physico-chemical and microbial quality parameters. Pressurized samples formed softer and glossier gels with a slight reduction in water-holding capacity. HP made the texture of sausage softer, cohesive and less chewy and gummier than heat-treated ones. Folding test seen higher acceptance values in samples treated at 500 and 600 MPa, during storage. Maximum log reduction in microbial count was observed in 600 MPa immediately, and significant difference in cooked and pressurized sausages was seen only up to 7th day. This revealed the potential application of HP in replacing conventional heat treatment for sausages preparation with enhanced shelf-life.

  8. Biochemical and molecular characterization of transgenic Lotus japonicus plants constitutively over-expressing a cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Jose Luis; Temple, Stephen J.; Bagga, Suman; Ghoshroy, Soumitra; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants assimilate nitrogen in the form of ammonia through the concerted activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). The GS enzyme is either located in the cytoplasm (GS1) or in the chloroplast (GS2). To understand how modulation of GS activity affects plant performance, Lotus japonicus L. plants were transformed with an alfalfa GS1 gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. The transformants showed increased GS activity and an increase in GS1 polypeptide level in all the organs tested. GS was analyzed by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed the presence of multiple GS isoenzymes in the different organs and the presence of a novel isoform in the transgenic plants. The distribution of GS in the different organs was analyzed by immunohistochemical localization. GS was localized in the mesophyll cells of the leaves and in the vasculature of the stem and roots of the transformants. Our results consistently showed higher soluble protein concentration, higher chlorophyll content and a higher biomass accumulation in the transgenic plants. The total amino acid content in the leaves and stems of the transgenic plants was 22–24% more than in the tissues of the non-transformed plants. The relative abundance of individual amino acid was similar except for aspartate/asparagine and proline, which were higher in the transformants. PMID:15197594

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of transgenic Lotus japonicus plants constitutively over-expressing a cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Jose Luis; Temple, Stephen J; Bagga, Suman; Ghoshroy, Soumitra; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2004-09-01

    Higher plants assimilate nitrogen in the form of ammonia through the concerted activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). The GS enzyme is either located in the cytoplasm (GS1) or in the chloroplast (GS2). To understand how modulation of GS activity affects plant performance, Lotus japonicus L. plants were transformed with an alfalfa GS1 gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. The transformants showed increased GS activity and an increase in GS1 polypeptide level in all the organs tested. GS was analyzed by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed the presence of multiple GS isoenzymes in the different organs and the presence of a novel isoform in the transgenic plants. The distribution of GS in the different organs was analyzed by immunohistochemical localization. GS was localized in the mesophyll cells of the leaves and in the vasculature of the stem and roots of the transformants. Our results consistently showed higher soluble protein concentration, higher chlorophyll content and a higher biomass accumulation in the transgenic plants. The total amino acid content in the leaves and stems of the transgenic plants was 22-24% more than in the tissues of the non-transformed plants. The relative abundance of individual amino acid was similar except for aspartate/asparagine and proline, which were higher in the transformants. PMID:15197594

  10. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Anne B.; Kelly, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins are required for symbiotic nodule development in legumes, and cytokinin signaling responses occur locally in nodule primordia and in developing nodules. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Ckx3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene is induced by Nod factor during the early phase of nodule initiation. At the cellular level, pCkx3::YFP reporter-gene studies revealed that the Ckx3 promoter is active during the first cortical cell divisions of the nodule primordium and in growing nodules. Cytokinin measurements in ckx3 mutants confirmed that CKX3 activity negatively regulates root cytokinin levels. Particularly, tZ and DHZ type cytokinins in both inoculated and uninoculated roots were elevated in ckx3 mutants, suggesting that these are targets for degradation by the CKX3 cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase. The effect of CKX3 on the positive and negative roles of cytokinin in nodule development, infection and regulation was further clarified using ckx3 insertion mutants. Phenotypic analysis indicated that ckx3 mutants have reduced nodulation, infection thread formation and root growth. We also identify a role for cytokinin in regulating nodulation and nitrogen fixation in response to nitrate as ckx3 phenotypes are exaggerated at increased nitrate levels. Together, these findings show that cytokinin accumulation is tightly regulated during nodulation in order to balance the requirement for cell divisions with negative regulatory effects of cytokinin on infection events and root development. PMID:26644503

  11. Construction of a High-Density Genetic Map and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Meilin; Li, Yangping; Jing, Jing; Mu, Chuang; Du, Huixia; Dou, Jinzhuang; Mao, Junxia; Li, Xue; Jiao, Wenqian; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Wang, Ruijia; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps are critical and indispensable tools in a wide range of genetic and genomic research. With the advancement of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods, the construction of a high-density and high-resolution linkage maps has become achievable in marine organisms lacking sufficient genomic resources, such as echinoderms. In this study, high-density, high-resolution genetic map was constructed for a sea cucumber species, Apostichopus japonicus, utilizing the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) method. A total of 7839 markers were anchored to the linkage map with the map coverage of 99.57%, to our knowledge, this is the highest marker density among echinoderm species. QTL mapping and association analysis consistently captured one growth-related QTL located in a 5 cM region of linkage group (LG) 5. An annotated candidate gene, retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (RbBP5), which has been reported to be an important regulator of cell proliferation, was recognized in the QTL region. This linkage map represents a powerful tool for research involving both fine-scale QTL mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS), and will facilitate chromosome assignment and improve the whole-genome assembly of sea cucumber in the future. PMID:26439740

  12. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  13. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  14. Long-term transportation, by road and air, of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda).

    PubMed

    Correia, João P S; Graça, José T C; Hirofumi, Morikawa; Kube, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    During the second semester of 2009, three trips were made from Olhão (Southern Portugal) to Stralsund (Northern Germany) carrying 2.122 animals, which included multiple teleosts, elasmobranchs and invertebrates. This group included scombrids, such as 1.869 Scomber japonicus and 9 Sarda sarda, which are notoriously difficult to transport. However, multiple adaptations to transport regimes adopted regularly have allowed the authors to successfully move these animals by road and air over a total of up to 25 hr. Such adaptations included maintaining oxygen saturation rates at approximately 200%, and also the constant addition of AmQuel(®) , sodium bicarbonate, and sodium carbonate. Different formulations were used during the three trips, with the best results corresponding to 20/30/30 ppm of the three aforementioned chemicals, respectively. The authors suggest, however, that a modified formula of 20/40/40 ppm will allow for an even more stable pH on future trips. PMID:20853412

  15. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  16. Effects of Pyriproxifen on Aedes japonicus Development and Its Auto-Dissemination by Gravid Females in Laboratory Trials.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Holly C; Moosmann, Philipp; Mathis, Alexander; Schaffner, Francis

    2016-03-01

    In a series of laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of the juvenile-hormone analog pyriproxyfen on the inhibition of Aedes japonicus adult emergence after exposure of late-stage (3rd/4th) larvae (either field-collected or lab-reared from field-collected eggs) to pyriproxyfen. Emergence inhibition was 74%, 83%, 86%, and 92% at 0.01, 0.5, 2.5, and 5 μg/liter, respectively. Additionally, following a 1-day exposure of larvae to pyriproxyfen-containing water (5 μg/liter), and for a separate cohort exposed to that same water 10 days later, significantly more pupae died resulting in fewer adults emerged in the treatment versus control group. In 4 tent trials, gravid adult females were able to auto-disseminate a 5% pyriproxyfen powder to larval development habitats at high enough concentrations to cause a significant increase in inhibition of adult emergence. Therefore, we conclude that pyriproxyfen has a great potential for use in controlling this invasive cryptic breeder. PMID:27105217

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a F-type lectin gene from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lihua; Lin, Liansheng; Yang, Keng; Zhang, Hanhua; Li, Jianzhu; Zou, Falin; Jiang, Shigui

    2011-08-01

    The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the fucose-binding lectin (F-type lectin) gene from Japanese sea perch (Lateolabrax Japonicus). The full-length cDNA of sea perch F-lectin (JspFL) contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 39 bp, an ORF of 933 bp encoding a polypeptide of 310 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 10.82 kDa and a 3' UTR of 332 bp. The searches for nucleotides and protein sequence similarities with BLAST analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of JspFL was homological to the Fucose-binding lectin in other fish species. In the JspFL deduced amino acid sequence, two tandem domains that exhibit the eel carbohydrate-recognition sequence motif were found. The temporal expressions of gene in the different tissues were measured by real-time PCR. And the mRNA expressions of the gene were constitutively expressed in tissues including spleen, head-kidney, liver, gill, and heart. The JspFL expression in spleen was different during the stimulated time point, 2 h later the expression level became up-regulated, and 6 h later the expression level became down-regulated. The result indicated that JspFL was constitutive and inducible expressed and could play a critical role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:21104013

  18. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L(-1) for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P < 0.05) except in the group treated with 1.00 mg L(-1) Zn (P < 0.05), where the increase of OCR was observed. The OCRs in groups chronically exposed to metals were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The activity of both pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) in sea cucumbers followed: respiratory tree > muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained. PMID:27382568

  19. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  20. Identification and characterization of miR-92a and its targets modulating Vibrio splendidus challenged Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Shao, Yina; Chen, Xiaochong; Li, Ye; Su, Xiurong; Li, Taiwu

    2014-06-01

    miR-92a is a kind of disease related fine-tuning regulator which is not only related with tumorigenesis and tumor development but also participates in host-pathogen interaction in vertebrates. In present study, the potential targets of miR-92a in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes were screened by high-throughout sequencing and PCR approaches. Total of 10 annotated candidates were identified by hybrid PCR, and 23 were verified from RNA-seq, in which SMURF, PCBP and MEGF were found in both methods. The expression patterns of miR-92a and some putative targets were further characterized by qPCR at cell and individual levels. Vibrio splendidus and LPS exposure could significantly increase the expression level of sea cucumber miR-92a at all examined time points. Accordingly, strictly negative correlation expression profiles were detected in two candidates genes of MEGF and SMURF, suggesting that these two genes showed higher possibilities to be the targets of miR-92a in sea cucumber. Overall, the present work will enhance our understanding in the context of miR-92a modulating the interaction of sea cucumber upon pathogen challenged. PMID:24747055

  1. Effects of Acute and Chronic Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, and Zn) Exposure on Sea Cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Tian, Xiangli; Yu, Xiao; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted with sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) exposed to heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96 h LC50) were 2.697, 0.133, and 1.574 mg L−1 for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, and were ranked in order of toxicity: Cu > Cd > Zn. Under chronic metal exposure the specific growth rates of sea cucumbers decreased with the increase of metal concentration for all the three metals. After acute metal exposure, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased. The OCRs in all groups were significantly different than control (P < 0.05) except in the group treated with 1.00 mg L−1 Zn (P < 0.05), where the increase of OCR was observed. The OCRs in groups chronically exposed to metals were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The activity of both pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) in sea cucumbers followed: respiratory tree > muscle > intestine in natural sea water. After chronic Zn, Cu, and Cd exposure, the change pattern of HK and PK in respiratory tree, muscle, and intestine varied slightly. However, the activity of the enzyme showed a general trend of increase and then decrease and the higher the exposure concentration was, the earlier the highest point of enzyme activity was obtained. PMID:27382568

  2. Abscisic acid-induced heat tolerance in Bromus inermis Leyss cell-suspension cultures. Heat-stable, abscisic acid-responsive polypeptides in combination with sucrose confer enhanced thermostability.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A J; Ishikawa, M; Gusta, L V; MacKenzie, S L

    1994-01-01

    Increased heat tolerance is most often associated with the synthesis of heat-shock proteins following pre-exposure to a nonlethal heat treatment. In this study, a bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss cv Manchar) cell suspension cultured in a medium containing 75 microM abscisic acid (ABA) without prior heat treatment had a 87% survival rate, as determined by regrowth analysis, following exposure to 42.5 degrees C for 120 min. In contrast, less than 1% of the control cells survived this heat treatment. The heat tolerance provided by treatment with 75 microM ABA was first evidenced after 4 d of culture and reached a maximum tolerance after 11 d of culture. Preincubation with sucrose partially increased the heat tolerance of control cells and rendered ABA-treated cells tolerant to 45 degrees C for 120 min (a completely lethal heat treatment for control cells). Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cellular protein isolated from heat-tolerant cells identified 43 ABA-responsive proteins of which 26 were heat stable (did not coagulate and remained soluble after 30 min at 90 degrees C). Eight heat-stable, ABA-responsive proteins ranging from 23 to 45 kD had similar N-terminal sequences. The ABA-responsive (43-20 kD), but none of the control heat-stable, proteins cross-reacted to varying degrees with a polyclonal antibody directed against a conserved, lysine-rich dehydrin sequence. A group of 20- to 30-kD heat-stable, ABA-responsive proteins cross-reacted with both the anti-dehydrin antibody and an antibody directed against a cold-responsive winter wheat protein (Wcs 120). In ABA-treated cells, there was a positive correlation between heat- and pH-induced coagulation of a cell-free homogenate and the heat tolerance of these cells. At 50 degrees C, control homogenates coagulated after 8 min, whereas cellular fractions from ABA-treated cells showed only marginal coagulation after 15 min. In protection assays, addition of heat-stable, ABA

  3. Construction of cDNA library from intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of Apostichopus japonicus Selenka infected with Vibrio sp. and a preliminary analysis of immunity-related genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongzhan; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Xiuqin; Cai, Yimei

    2012-06-01

    The aquaculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) has grown rapidly during recent years and has become an important sector of the marine industry in Northern China. However, with the rapid growth of the industry and the use of non-standard culture techniques, epidemic diseases of A. japonicus now pose increasing problems to the industry. To screen the genes with stress response to bacterial infection in sea cucumber at a genome wide level, we constructed a cDNA library from A. japonicus Selenka (Aspidochirotida: Stichopodidae) after infecting them with Vibrio sp. for 48 h. Total RNA was extracted from the intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of infected sea cucumber using Trizol and mRNA was isolated by Oligotex mRNA Kits. The ligated cDNAs were transformed into DH5α, and a library of 3.24×105 clones (3.24×105 cfu mL-1) was obtained with the sizes of inserted fragments ranging from 0.8 to 2.5 kb. Sequencing the cDNA clones resulted in a total of 1106 ESTs that passed the quality control. BlastX and BlastN searches have identified 168 (31.5%) ESTs sharing significant homology with known sequences in NCBI protein or nucleotide databases. Among a panel of 25 putative immunity-related genes, serum lectin isoform, complement component 3, complement component 3-like genes were further studied by real-time PCR and they all increased more than 5 fold in response to Vibrio sp. challenge. Our library provides a valuable molecular tool for future study of invertebrate immunity against bacterial infection and our gene expression data indicates the importance of the immune system in the evolution and development of sea cucumber.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 to Tigriopus japonicus: effects on survival, growth, reproduction, and intrinsic rate of population growth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-03-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus has a wide geographical distribution and is considered as a suitable model species for the assessment of toxicity of marine pollutants. The aim of the present study was to test the impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the growth, development, and reproduction of T. japonicus in two successive generations. We first quantified the 96-h 50% lethal concentration (2.83 mg/L; all reported concentrations are nominal values), the no-observed-effect concentration (0.6 mg/L), and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC; 1.2 mg/L) of PCB126 in the nauplii. Nauplii were more sensitive than the adults, which still survived at the highest tested PCB126 concentration (8 mg/L). In the chronic toxicity testing, 10 life history traits were quantified for T. japonicus. No obvious effect on any of these traits was observed in the first generation (F0) at tested concentrations (<100 µg/L) lower than the LOEC. During the second generational life-cycle exposure (F1), however, PCB126 had an obvious toxic effect on the reproduction (>1 µg/L) and growth (>0.1 µg/L). Thus, copepods became more sensitive to PCB126 exposure as generations developed. Among the different traits tested, body size was the most sensitive parameter. Reproduction (fecundity, number of clutches, nauplii/clutch) and intrinsic population growth were also significantly impacted by PCB exposure. The survivorship, sex ratio, hatching time, and development were not affected. Environmental risk assessment of contaminants must therefore be based on a long-term multigenerational exposure to provide a realistic measurement of the influences of pollutants on aquatic life. PMID:22189719

  5. High-resolution genetic linkage mapping, high-temperature tolerance and growth-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Hu, Long Yang; Mao, Yong; Tao, Ye; Zhong, Sheng Ping; Kong, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The Kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, is one of the most promising marine invertebrates in the industry in Asia, Europe and Australia. However, the increasing global temperatures result in considerable economic losses in M. japonicus farming. In the present study, to select genetically improved animals for the sustainable development of the Kuruma prawn industry, a high-resolution genetic linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification were performed using the RAD technology. The maternal map contained 5849 SNP markers and spanned 3127.23 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.535 cM. Instead, the paternal map contained 3927 SNP markers and spanned 3326.19 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.847 cM. The consensus map contained 9289 SNP markers and spanned 3610.90 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.388 cM and coverage of 99.06 % of the genome. The markers were grouped into 41 linkage groups in the maps. Significantly, negative correlation was detected between high-temperature tolerance (UTT) and body weight (BW). The QTL mapping revealed 129 significant QTL loci for UTT and four significant QTL loci for BW at the genome-wide significance threshold. Among these QTLs, 129 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining four were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. They explained the total phenotypic variance ranging from 8.9 to 12.4 %. Because of a significantly negative correlation between growth and high-temperature tolerance, we demonstrate that this high-resolution linkage map and QTLs would be useful for further marker-assisted selection in the genetic improvement of M. japonicus. PMID:26965508

  6. Effects of dietary live yeast Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the immune and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Li, Ming; Liu, Jiao; Song, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to determine effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumbers were fed with either diets containing C21 at 10(4), 10(5) and 10(6) CFU g(-1) feed or a control diet for 30-50 days, respectively. After feeding for 30 days and 45 days, five sea cucumbers from each tank were sampled for immunological analyses. Results indicated that C21 significantly improved the phagocytic activity in coelomocytes of sea cucumbers (P < 0.05). Moreover, C21 administration significantly enhanced lysozyme (LSZ), phenoloxidase activity (PO), total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities in coelomic fluid, and LSZ, T-NOS, AKP and ACP activities in coelomocytes lysate supernatant (CLS) of sea cucumbers (P < 0.05). After feeding for 45 days, 10 sea cucumbers from each dose group were challenged with V. splendidus NB13. Cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumbers fed with C21 were found to be lower than those of control group. After feeding for 50 days, sea cucumbers in 10(4) CFU g(-1) C21 treatment and control tanks were subjected to acute salinity changes (from 30 to 20) for 24 h in the laboratory, and the immunological parameters were measured to evaluate the immune capacities of the A. japonicus. Phagocytic, LAZ and T-NOS activities of C21-treated group were higher than those of control group, indicating that salinity stress tolerance of sea cucumber was enhanced by C21. The present results showed that a diet supplemented with C21 could stimulate the immune system of juvenile A. japonicus thus enhancing their resistance against V. splendidus. PMID:23063538

  7. Functional Sperm of the Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) Were Produced in the Small-Bodied Surrogate, Jack Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Morita, Tetsuro; Morishima, Kagayaki; Miwa, Misako; Kumakura, Naoki; Kudo, Satomi; Ichida, Kensuke; Mitsuboshi, Toru; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-10-01

    Production of xenogeneic gametes from large-bodied, commercially important marine species in closely related smaller surrogates with short generation times may enable rapid domestication of the targeted species. In this study, we aimed to produce gametes of Japanese yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) using jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) as a surrogate with a smaller body size and shorter maturation period. Donor spermatogonia were collected from the testes of yellowtail males and transferred into the peritoneal cavity of 10- and 12-day-old jack mackerel larvae. Twenty days later, 59.5% of the recipients survived of which 88.2% had donor-derived germ cells in their gonads. One year later, genomic DNA templates were prepared from the semen of 96 male recipients and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses using primers specific for the yellowtail vasa sequence, resulting in the detection of positive signals in semen from two recipients. The milt collected from the recipients was used for fertilization with yellowtail eggs. Of eight hatchlings obtained from the crosses, two were confirmed to be derived from donor yellowtail by DNA markers, although the others were gynogenetic diploids. These findings indicate that it is possible to produce donor-derived sperm in xenogeneic recipients with a smaller body size and shorter generation time by transplanting spermatogonia. Thus, the xenogeneic transplantation of spermatogonia might be a potential tool to produce gametes of large-bodied, commercially important fish, although the efficiency of the method requires further improvement. This is the first report demonstrating that donor-derived sperm could be produced in xenogeneic recipient via spermatogonial transplantation in carangid fishes. PMID:26239188

  8. The routine metabolic rate of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus: Sciaenidae) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi: Carangidae) acclimated to six different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Igor; Booth, Mark A

    2009-04-01

    This study compared the mass-specific routine metabolic rate (RMR) of similar sized mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus), a sedentary species, and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a highly active species, acclimated at one of several temperatures ranging from 10-35 degrees C. Respirometry was carried out in an open-top static system and RMR corrected for seawater-atmosphere O2 exchange using mass-balance equations. For both species RMR increased linearly with increasing temperature (T). RMR for mulloway was 5.78T-29.0 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1) and for yellowtail kingfish was 12.11T-39.40 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1). The factorial difference in RMR between mulloway and yellowtail kingfish ranged from 2.8 to 2.2 depending on temperature. The energetic cost of routine activity can be described as a function of temperature for mulloway as 1.93T-9.68 kJ kg(-0.8) day(-1) and for yellowtail kingfish as 4.04T-13.14 kJ kg(-0.8) day(-1). Over the full range of temperatures tested Q10 values were approximately 2 for both species while Q10 responses at each temperature increment varied considerably with mulloway and yellowtail kingfish displaying thermosensitivities indicative of each species respective niche habitat. RMR for mulloway was least thermally dependent at 28.5 degrees C and for yellowtail kingfish at 22.8 degrees C. Activation energies (Ea) calculated from Arrhenius plots were not significantly different between mulloway (47.6 kJ mol(-1) and yellowtail kingfish (44.1 kJ mol(-1). PMID:19256082

  9. Efficient Production of 2,5-Diketo-d-Gluconate via Heterologous Expression of 2-Ketogluconate Dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoya; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2015-01-01

    2,5-Diketo-d-gluconate (2,5DKG) is a compound that can be the intermediate for d-tartrate and also vitamin C production. Although Gluconobacter oxydans NBRC3293 produces 2,5DKG from d-glucose via d-gluconate and 2-keto-d-gluconate (2KG), with accumulation of the product in the culture medium, the efficiency of 2,5DKG production is unsatisfactory because there is a large amount of residual d-gluconate at the end of the biotransformation process. Oxidation of 2KG to 2,5DKG is catalyzed by a membrane-bound flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex: 2-keto-gluconate dehydrogenase (2KGDH). Here, we studied the kgdSLC genes encoding 2KGDH in G. oxydans NBRC3293 to improve 2,5DKG production by Gluconobacter spp. The kgdS, kgdL, and kgdC genes correspond to the small, large, and cytochrome subunits of 2KGDH, respectively. The kgdSLC genes were cloned into a broad-host-range vector carrying a DNA fragment of the putative promoter region of the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase gene of G. oxydans for expression in Gluconobacter spp. According to our results, 2KGDH that was purified from the recombinant Gluconobacter cells showed characteristics nearly the same as those reported previously. We also expressed the kgdSLC genes in a mutant strain of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3271 (formerly Gluconobacter dioxyacetonicus IFO3271) engineered to produce 2KG efficiently from a mixture of d-glucose and d-gluconate. This mutant strain consumed almost all of the starting materials (d-glucose and d-gluconate) to produce 2,5DKG quantitatively as a seemingly unique metabolite. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gluconobacter strain that produces 2,5DKG efficiently and homogeneously. PMID:25769838

  10. Impacts of mercury exposure on life history traits of Tigriopus japonicus: Multigeneration effects and recovery from pollution.

    PubMed

    Li, Heyang; Shi, Lin; Wang, Dazhi; Wang, Minghua

    2015-09-01

    Here, through a multigenerational life-cycle test, Tigriopus japonicus were exposed to different mercuric chloride treatments in seawater (nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 10, and 50μg/L) for five successive generations (F0-F4), and subsequently all the treatments were recovered in clean environments for one generation (F5). Six life history traits (survival, developmental time for nauplius phase, developmental time to maturation, fecundity, number of clutches, and number of nauplii/clutch) were examined for each generation. Mercury (Hg) accumulation was also analyzed for the adult copepods in the F1, F3, and F5. The results indicated that Hg accumulated in a dose-dependent manner for the F1, F3, and F5 generations. Moreover, higher Hg contents were observed in F3 than F1 at the same exposure levels. Among the six life history traits, only fecundity and number of nauplii/clutch showed a greater sensitivity to Hg toxicity, and the inhibitory effects worsened from F0 to F3, which was explained by a trend for higher metal accumulation with increasing generations. In the recovery generation (F5), none of the traits differed from the control, highlighting that Hg might not induce any epigenetic or parental effects in the following generations. Thus, we hypothesized that although cumulative effects might have been involved in Hg multigenerational toxicity, physiological acclimation, that is, phenotypic plasticity could explain Hg tolerance obtained by marine copepods. Impacts on important life history traits could disturb the population dynamics of some important marine copepods, hence having unexpected ecological consequences in the marine ecosystem. Yet, the Hg harmful impacts rapidly fade away as the Hg is cleared from the environment. PMID:26210816

  11. Nemo like kinase negatively regulates NF-κB activation and coelomocytes apoptosis in Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Weiwei; Jin, Chunua; Shao, Yina; Xuemei, Duan; Qingxi, Han

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are related to several physiological processes, including innate and acquired immunity. In this study, a novel negative regulator of the Nemo-like kinase (NLK) gene was identified from Apostichopus japonicus through PCR (denoted as AjNLK). The complete AjNLK cDNA was of 2335 bp, with a 5'-UTR of 315 bp, a 3'-UTR of 718 bp, and a putative ORF of 1302 bp, and encoded a polypeptide of 433 amino acid residues with a typical serine/threonine protein kinase domain. Blast analysis revealed that AjNLK shared a high degree of structural conservation with its counterparts fro