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Sample records for aryl-ferrocenylpseudo-biarylic complexes part

  1. SnapShot: SMC Protein Complexes Part II.

    PubMed

    Haering, Christian H; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-02-11

    This second of two SnapShots on SMC proteins depicts their roles at different stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle. The composition and architecture of SMC protein complexes and their regulators appear in SMC Protein Complexes Part I (available at http://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-8674%2815%2901690-6.pdf). To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26871638

  2. SnapShot: SMC Protein Complexes Part I.

    PubMed

    Haering, Christian H; Gruber, Stephan

    2016-01-14

    This first of two SnapShots on SMC proteins depicts the composition and architecture of SMC protein complexes and their regulators. Their roles at different stages of the cell cycle will appear in Part II. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26771499

  3. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    PubMed

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems. PMID:23889602

  4. Complex foamed aluminum parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings

    SciTech Connect

    Simancik, F.; Schoerghuber, F.

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of complex shaped aluminum foam parts as permanent cores in aluminum castings has been investigated. The foamed samples were prepared by injection of the foam into sand molds. It turned out that sound castings can be produced if the foam core is properly preheated and/or surface treated before casting. The effect of the foam core on the performance of the casting was evaluated by in compression testing and by measuring structural damping. The gain in the related properties turned out to be much higher than the weight increase of the casting due to the presence of the core. The weight increase may be partially offset through a reduction of the wall-thickness of the shell.

  5. Modern Endodontic Planning Part 1: Assessing Complexity and Predicting Success.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Following a diagnosis of irreversible pulpal disease, periapical disease or failed endodontic therapy, the options for the tooth are extraction or root canal treatment. There is increasing evidence that certain factors may allow the clinician to predict the likely outcome of root canal therapy (RCT) and thus better inform the patient of the possible success rates. Should the patient choose root canal treatment, the clinician must also be able to gauge the potential difficulties that may be encountered and consequently determine whether it is within their competency. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Assessing outcomes and complexity of care is an essential part of informed consent. Knowing when to refer is an essential component of best clinical practice. PMID:26630858

  6. 1. TEST AREA 1115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST AREA 1-115, SOUTH PART OF SUPPORT COMPLEX, LOOKING TO EAST FROM ABOVE BUILDING 8655, THE FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM, IN FOREGROUND SHADOW. AT THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 8660, ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION; TO ITS LEFT IS BUILDING 8663, THE HELIUM COMPRESSION PLANT. THE LIGHT TONED STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, CENTER, IS THE MACHINE SHOP FOR TEST STAND 1-3. IN THE FAR DISTANCE IS TEST STAND 1-A, WITH THE WHITE SPHERICAL TANKS, AND TEST STAND 2-A TO ITS RIGHT. ALONG THE HORIZON FROM FAR LEFT ARE TEST STAND 1-D, TEST STAND 1-C, WATER TANKS ABOVE TEST AREA 1-125, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN TEST AREA 1-120. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Complex Moving Parts: Assessment Systems and Electronic Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Martha J.; Robertson, Royce L.

    2013-01-01

    The largest college within an online university of over 50,000 students invested significant resources in translating a complex assessment system focused on continuous improvement and national accreditation into an effective and efficient electronic portfolio (ePortfolio). The team building the system needed a model to address problems met…

  8. How to Build a Complex, Functional Propeller Protein, From Parts.

    PubMed

    Clark, Patricia L

    2016-04-01

    By combining ancestral sequence reconstruction and in vitro evolution, Smock et al. identified single motifs that assemble into a functional five-bladed β-propeller, and a likely route for conversion into the more complex, extant single chain fusion. Interestingly, although sequence diversification destabilized five-motif fusions, it also destabilized aggregation-prone intermediates, increasing the level of functional protein in vivo. PMID:26971075

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. B Appendix B to Part 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 414 - Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams B Appendix B to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. B Appendix B to Part 414—Complexed Metal-Bearing...

  11. [Music therapy as a part of complex healing].

    PubMed

    Sliwka, Agnieszka; Jarosz, Anna; Nowobilski, Roman

    2006-10-01

    Music therapy is a method which takes the adventage of therapeutic influence of musie on psychological and somatic sphere of the human body. Its therapeutic properties are more and more used. Current scientific research have proved its modifying influence on vegetative, circulatory, respiratory and endocrine systems. Works devoted to the effects of musie on the patients' psychological sphere have also confirmed that it reduces psychopathologic symptoms (anxiety and depression), improves self-rating, influences quality and disorders of sleep, reduces pain, improves moral immunity and patients' openness, readiness, co-operation in treatment process. Music therapy is treated as a method which complements conventional treatment and makes up part of an integral whole together with physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and recuperation. PMID:17205788

  12. Research and Development: A Complex Relationship Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, John Douglas Edward

    Part 1 of this document describes the background, format, and early groundwork that went into the development of a test sponsored entirely by private enterprise. The discipline imposed by a financial bottom line imposes special pressures but also offers new opportunities. This private enterprise model is a multi-constructional process where…

  13. Tectonostratigraphy of the Mesozoic complexes of the northwestern part of the Koryak Highland, Ust' Belaya Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palechek, T. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Gul'pa, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    New data on the structure, age, and composition of the tectonostratigraphic complexes of the western part of the Koryak Highland are presented. The conclusions on the sedimentation conditions are drawn and primary relations are interpreted for most complexes. New Kimmeridgian-Tithonian and Berriasian assemblages of radiolarians are established. Campanian radiolarians are found for the first time in the region.

  14. Retrieval of complex χ(2) parts for quantitative analysis of sum-frequency generation intensity spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Matthias J.; Koelsch, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has become an established technique for in situ surface analysis. While spectral recording procedures and hardware have been optimized, unique data analysis routines have yet to be established. The SFG intensity is related to probing geometries and properties of the system under investigation such as the absolute square of the second-order susceptibility |χ(2)|. A conventional SFG intensity measurement does not grant access to the complex parts of χ(2) unless further assumptions have been made. It is therefore difficult, sometimes impossible, to establish a unique fitting solution for SFG intensity spectra. Recently, interferometric phase-sensitive SFG or heterodyne detection methods have been introduced to measure real and imaginary parts of χ(2) experimentally. Here, we demonstrate that iterative phase-matching between complex spectra retrieved from maximum entropy method analysis and fitting of intensity SFG spectra (iMEMfit) leads to a unique solution for the complex parts of χ(2) and enables quantitative analysis of SFG intensity spectra. A comparison between complex parts retrieved by iMEMfit applied to intensity spectra and phase sensitive experimental data shows excellent agreement between the two methods.

  15. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John W; Slaba, Tony C; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z≤2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency. PMID:27345203

  16. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency.

  17. Geochemistry of Mesozoic carbonatite complexes in the southwestern part of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is the results of geochemical analysis of carbonatite taken at the kimberlite and carbonatite complexes in Tikilusaag and Qaqarssuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. These complexes have high grade of rare earth elements (REE), gold, olivine and diamond ore deposits. These kimberlite, lamprophyre and carbonatite are originated from complex carbonatitic and silicate magma. This kind of ultramafic alkaline complex is not common compared to other igneous bodies in the crust. Tikilusaag carbonatite complex in contains REE in calcite carbonatite. Carbonatite minerals are strontianite (SrCO3) and ancylite (SrCe(CO3)2(OH)H2O). Strontianite contains Ce and ancylite contains considerable amounts of La, Ce, Nd, respectively. Two minerals are the major components which have LREE in the complexes. Tikilussaaq carbonatite complex contain apatite which has maximum 200 micro meter in size and mostly euhedral. Most apatite crystals show compositional zoning under CL attached to SEM (JEOL, JSM-6610). This zoning reflects physiochemical condition of magma at the time of crystallization and the compositional difference of Ca, P, and F with the consideration of chemical composition of apatite. The apatite contain F instead of Cl, namely fluorine apatite. Compositional zoning reflect the difference of Ca and P according to CL image. Qaqarssuk carbonatite complex is consisted of several minerals containing Ba composition. Ba in calcite which is the major mineral of Ba carbonatite (Barytocalcite, CaBa(CO3)2) coexists with barite and Ba-Sr carbonatite. Fenitization near the complex is common process. Basic rocks formed during carbonatitization contain hornblendite predominantly, and high grade of fenitization produced albite-bearing granitic rocks in the area.

  18. Estrogen action and cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Part I: membrane-associated signaling complexes

    PubMed Central

    Segars, James H.; Driggers, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Remarkable progress in recent years has suggested that estrogen action in vivo is complex and often involves activation of cytoplasmic signaling cascades in addition to genomic actions mediated directly through estrogen receptors α and β. Rather than a linear response mediated solely through estrogen-responsive DNA elements, in vivo estrogen might simultaneously activate distinct signaling cascades that function as networks to coordinate tissue responses to estrogen. This complex signaling system provides for exquisite control and plasticity of response to estrogen at the tissue level, and undoubtedly contributes to the remarkable tissue-specific responses to estrogens. In part I of this series, we summarize cytoplasmic signaling modules involving estrogen or estrogen receptors, with particular focus on recently described membrane-associated signaling complexes. PMID:12217492

  19. A Complex Shaped Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Part Made of Commingled Yarns With Integrated Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risicato, Jean-Vincent; Kelly, Fern; Soulat, Damien; Legrand, Xavier; Trümper, Wolfgang; Cochrane, Cedric; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-02-01

    This paper focuses on the design and one shot manufacturing process of complex shaped composite parts based on the overbraiding of commingled yarns. The commingled yarns contain thermoplastic fibres used as the matrix and glass fibres as the reinforcement material. This technology reduces the flow path length for the melted thermoplastic and aims to improve the impregnation of materials with high viscosity. The tensile strength behaviour of the material was firstly investigated in order to evaluate the influence of the manufacturing parameters on flat structured braids that have been consolidated on a heating press. A good compatibility between the required geometry and the braiding process was observed. Additionally, piezo-resistive sensor yarns, based on glass yarns coated with PEDOT: PSS, have been successfully integrated within the composite structure. The sensor yarns have been inserted into the braided fabric, before consolidation. The inserted sensors provide the ability to monitor the structural health of the composite part in a real time. The design and manufacture of the complete complex shaped part has then been successfully achieved.

  20. Method of producing complex aluminum alloy parts of high temper, and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, I. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Fully annealed aluminum sheet is first stretch formed to the complex, doubly compound shape of a previously prepared forming die, e.g., an ejection seat blowout panel of a shuttlecraft. The part is then marked with a series of grid lines for monitoring later elongation. Thereafter it is solution heat treated and refrigerated to retard hardening. While still soft, it is stretched a second time on the same die to induce a modicum of work hardening, after which it is aged to the desired stress corrosion resistant temper, preferably the T8 level, to provide the desired hardness and stress corrosion resistance.

  1. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  2. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  3. Explicit correlation model of multi-source constraints for Re-design parts with complex curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Wang, Fuji; Wang, Yongqing; Guo, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    In precision machining of complex curved surface parts with high performance, geometry accuracy is not the only constraint, but the performance should also be met. Performance of this kind of parts is closely related to the geometrical and physical parameters, so the final actual size and shape are affected by multiple source constraints, such as geometry, physics, and performance. These parts are rather difficult to be manufactured and new manufacturing method according to performance requirement is urgently needed. Based on performance and manufacturing requirements for complex curved surface parts, a new classification method is proposed, which divided the complex curved surface parts into two categories: surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints(PRCS) and surface unique complex curved surface parts with pure geometric constraints(PUCS). A correlation model is constructed between the performance and multi-source constraints for PRCS, which reveals the correlation between the performance and multi-source constraints. A re-design method is also developed. Through solving the correlation model of the typical part's performance-associated surface, the mapping relation between the performance-associated surface and the related removal amount is obtained. The explicit correlation model and the method for the corresponding related removal amount of the performance-associated surface are built based on the classification of surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints. Research results have been used in the actual processing of the typical parts such as radome, common bottom components, nozzle, et al., which shows improved efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining for the surface re-design parts with complex curved surface.

  4. Misho mafic complex - A part of paleotethyan oceanic crust or a magmatism in continental rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Zohreh; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Saccani, Emilio; Dilek, Yildirim

    2013-04-01

    Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) represents a significant component of the West Cimmerian domain in Paleo-Tethys. The Misho Mafic Complex (MMC) consists of gabbro (mainly) and norıte,olivine gabbro, anorthosite and diorite with the east- west sereight. MMC has ıntrussıved ın Kahar sedımrtery Infta- Cambrıan rocks, crosscut by abundant basaltic dykes and the overlying basaltic sheeted dyke complex. Kahar sedimentary rocks are representing the northern margin of Gondwana. Misho mafic complex are covered by Permian sedimentary rocks. The gabbros and basaltic dykes have MORB affinities. MMC formed as a product of interactions between a depleted MORB-type asthenosphere and plume-type material. Mafic rocks represent an early Carboniferous magmatic event developed during the continental break-up of the northern edge of Gondwanaland that led to the opening of Paleotethys. Alternatively, these magmas may have been emplaced into the continental crust at the continental margin soon after the oceanic crust was formed (that is the oceanic crust was still narrow). There is no data for discriminating between these two hypotheses. In first hypothesis MMC is a part of ophiolites related to paleotethyan oceanic crust and the rocks that were above this crustal level should have necessarily been eroded. In another hypothesis Misho complex represents an aborted rift in a triple junction. Above a mantle plume, the continental crust breaks along three directions at 120 degrees. But, soon after, the extension proceeds along two of these three direction. Between them is formed the oceanic crust. The continental extension along the third direction is aborted. Here no oceanic crust if formed and there is only rifted, thinned continental crust. But, also in the aborted branch MORB magmatism can occur for short time. In this hypothesis, the Misho complex was never associated with oceanic crust, but was anyway associated with the opening of the Paleotethys. This magmatism was originally

  5. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-01

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with 2B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50 = 0.58 μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  6. Evidence for a rotating helical filament in L1641, part of the Orion cloud complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Minoshima, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Iwata, T.

    1991-01-01

    The Nagoya 4-m radiotelescope has been used to study L1641, a streamer which is a part of the giant molecular-cloud complex ion Orion, lying south of the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula. The 110-GHz line of (C-=13)O (J = 1-0) has been used to obtain intensity and velocity data. A dense filament with a helical structure, spinning in the same sense as the gas in the Orion KL region, has been found. A model for this structure is proposed in which the streamer, through the action of the interstellar magnetic field, acts as an angular-momentum drain on the Orion KL region, allowing it to collapse. In this model, the approximately 30 pc long streamer is essential to the formation of the cloud, as well as the formation of stars within the dense cloud.

  7. Toward a fundamental theory of optimal feature selection: Part II - Implementation and computational complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Morgera, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Certain algorithms and their computational complexity are examined for use in a VLSI implementation of the real-time pattern classifier described in Part I of this work. The most computationally intensive processing is found in the classifier training mode wherein subsets of the largest and smallest eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors of the input data covariance pair must be computed. It is shown that if the matrix of interest is centrosymmetric and the method for eigensystem decomposition is operator-based, the problem architecture assumes a parallel form. Such a matrix structure is found in a wide variety of pattern recognition and speech and signal processing applications. Each of the parallel channels requires only two specialized matrix-arithmetic modules.

  8. Numerical Prediction Of Elastic Springback In An Automotive Complex Structural Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Livan; Ingarao, Giuseppe; Micari, Fabrizio; Lo Franco, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    The routing and production of 3D complex parts for automotive applications is characterized by springback phenomena affecting the final geometry of the components both after the stamping operations and the trimming ones. FE analyses have to assure effectiveness and consistency in order to be utilized as design tool to be coupled to proper compensating techniques allowing to obtain the desired geometry at the and of the production sequence. In the present paper the full routing of a DP 600 steel automotive structural part is considered and the springback phenomena occurring after forming and trimming are investigated through FE analyses utilizing two different commercial codes. Althought finite element analysis is successful in simulating industrial sheet forming operations, the accurate and reliable applications of this phenomenon and its numerical prediction has not been widely demonstrated. In this paper the influence of the main numerical parameters has been considered i.e. type of the utilized shell element and number of integration points along the thickness, with the aim to improve the effectiveness and reliability of the numerical results. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental evidences derived from CMM acquisitions.

  9. Flexible and Array Eddy Current Probes for Fast Inspection of Complex Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, B.; Decitre, J. M.; Casula, O.

    2010-02-01

    Eddy Current is a powerful mean of detection of detects located in conductive parts. This technique has already proved great performances and brought solutions to different industrial issues in nuclear or aeronautics domains for instance. Probes used in Non Destructive Testing (NDT) are mainly based on winding coils. This technology has shown good efficiency and gave good results in a lot of applications. Nonetheless, it reveals some limits in some cases, when the part has a complex shape for instance or when the defect is deeply buried. Therefore, other technologies have been developed at CEA LIST. An original scheme, optimized using the NDT platform CIVA, led to the development of a 32-elements flexible probe, based on micro-coils. Experimental testing reveals its efficiency in the detection of small surface defects. In other hand, magnetic sensors are very attractive for NDT. Thanks to their small size, a 22-GMRs arrays probe and a 96-AMRs array probes have been achieved. Their high spatial resolution and efficiency in the detection of small defects are demonstrated. The high sensitivity of magnetic sensors at low frequency has been used to design a flexible probe dedicated to the detection of deep defects. Its design and experimental testing are given.

  10. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  11. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  12. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  13. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  14. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  15. Granitoid generation and laxfordian tectonic evolution in the northern part of the lewisian complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, A.; Lopez, S.; Fernandez, C.

    2003-04-01

    Several terranes have been distinguished in the Lewisian complex of Scotland. The contact between the Rhiconich and Assynt terranes, in the northern part of the mainland Lewisian complex, is outlined by a major shear zone, the Laxford front. The tectonic activity in this shear zone took place mainly during the Early Proterozoic (1900 to 1600 Ma), defining a Laxfordian period of deformation and metamorphism. Generalized migmatization of the tonalite-trondhjemite (TT) gneisses developed coeval with the intrusion of abundant Fe-diorite tabular bodies in the Rhiconich terrane. Field structures indicate that both TT gneisses and Fe-diorites coexisted as melts or partially molten systems. The composition of the TT gneisses changes to granodioritic in the vicinity of the diorite intrusions. It is suggested that percolation of alkali-rich fluids released from the crystallising diorite magma through the TT migmatites could explain this compositional change. The presence of granite and pegmatite dikes is characteristic of the Rhiconich terrane. The observed structural relationships indicate that the migmatization of the TT gneisses and the intrusion of basic and granitic rocks are simultaneous processes, and that they developed in association with the Laxfordian deformation. In contrast, the Assynt terrane is almost devoid of basic and granitic intrusions during the Laxfordian period. The main structures developed within the Laxford front are a WNW-ESE oriented foliation, dipping to the north, and a lineation slightly plunging to the ESE. Kinematic criteria include composite planar fabrics, asymmetric porphyroclast systems and sheath folds, and allow us to deducing a dextral-reverse sense of movement. Similarly, the Laxfordian deformation in the Rhiconich terrane gave place to a pervasive foliation and lineation, north-verging folds and dextral-reverse minor shear zones. Accordingly, the Laxfordian period in the northern Lewisian can be wholly described as a dextral

  16. Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes from aortas of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Part 1. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, T P; Augustyn, J M; Fritz, K E

    1978-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes were isolated from rabbit aortas exhibiting nearly confluent cholesterol-induced foam cell lesions by extraction with 0.15 M NaCl. Purification and characterization was achieved by gel chromatography, non-ionic differential flotation and by cellulose polyacetate electrophoresis. Analysis showed that these complexes consisted of very low density lipoproteins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-C and hyaluronic acid. The demonstration that rabbit intimal foam cell lesions contain extractable glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein complexes makes this animal model an excellent tool for further studies on the role of these complexes in the atherogenic process. PMID:215171

  17. Exploring Innovation Processes from a Complexity Perspective. Part II. Experiences from the Subsea Increased Oil Recovery Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Tone Merethe Berg; Johannessen, Stig

    2007-01-01

    In this second part of the papers, exploring innovation processes from a complexity perspective, we present an empirical example to strengthen further the relevance of the approach. The example draws on a longitudinal research initiative conducted in cooperation with the Norwegian petroleum company Statoil ASA. We conducted our research into the…

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  19. Kuranakh complex diabases in the western part of the Aldan-Stanovoi Shield: Age and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, N. V.; Kotov, A. B.; Salnikova, E. B.; Postnikov, A. A.; Timofeev, V. F.; Berezkin, V. I.; Larin, A. M.; Fedoseenko, A. M.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The age of Kuranakh Complex diabases in the western part of the Aldan-Stanovoi Shield determined by the zircon U-Pb method is virtually identical to that of basic rocks in the Chinei stratified pluton and granites in the Kodar Complex. Thus, it is possible to suggest that they form a unified bimodal magmatic association and belong to the South Siberian postcollision magmatic belt, which extends along the southwestern framing of the Siberian Craton for more than 2500 km from the Yenisei mountain range to the Aldan-Stanovoi Shield. The occurrence of the diabase dike swarms in magmatic associations of this belt testifies to formation under lithospheric extension conditions.

  20. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 541: Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides: A New Class of Antiglaucoma Agents

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Jitianu, Andrei

    1997-01-01

    Metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory properties were recently shown to be useful as intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering agents in experimental animals, and might be developed as a novel class of antiglaucoma drugs. Here we report the synthesis of a heterocyclic sulfonamide CA inhibitor and of the metal complexes containing main group metal ions, such as Be(II), Mg(II), Al(III), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) and the new sulfonamide as well as 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide as ligands. The new complexes were characterized by standard physico-chemical procedures, and assayed as inhibitors of three CA isozymes, CA I, II and IV. Some of them (but not the parent sulfonamides) strongly lowered IOP in rabbits when administered as a 2% solution into the eye. PMID:18475811

  1. Complex home care: Part 2- family annual income, insurance premium, and out-of-pocket expenses.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Ross, Vicki M; Smith, Carol E; Clements, Faye; Williams, Arthur R

    2010-01-01

    Annual costs paid by families for intravenous infusion of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-payments for health services, and the wide range of out-of-pocket home health care expenses are significant. The costs of managing complex chronic care at home cannot be completely understood until all out-of-pocket costs have been defined, described, and tabulated. Non-reimbursed and out-of-pocket costs paid by families over years for complex chronic care negatively impact the financial stability of families. National health care reform must take into account the long-term financial burdens of families caring for those with complex home care. Any changes that may increase the out-of-pocket costs or health insurance costs to these families can also have a negative long-term impact on society when greater numbers of patients declare bankruptcy or qualify for medical disability. PMID:21158253

  2. Izumo is part of a multiprotein family whose members form large complexes on mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    Ellerman, Diego A; Pei, Jimin; Gupta, Surabhi; Snell, William J; Myles, Diana; Primakoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Izumo, a sperm membrane protein, is essential for gamete fusion in the mouse. It has an Ig (Immunoglobulin) domain and an N-terminal domain for which neither the functions nor homologous sequences are known. In the present work we identified three novel proteins showing an N-terminal domain with significant homology to the N-terminal domain of Izumo. We named this region "Izumo domain", and the novel proteins “Izumo 2”,”Izumo 3” and “Izumo 4”, retaining “Izumo 1” for the first described member of the family. Izumo 1, 2 and 3 are transmembrane proteins expressed specifically in the testis, and Izumo 4 is a soluble protein expressed in the testis and in other tissues. Electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions, followed by Western blot analysis, showed that Izumo 1, 3 and 4 formed protein complexes on sperm, Izumo 1 forming several larger complexes and Izumo 3 and 4 forming a single larger complex. Studies using different recombinant Izumo constructs suggested the Izumo domain possesses the ability to form dimers, whereas the transmembrane domain or the cytoplasmic domain or both of Izumo 1 are required for the formation of multimers of higher order. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of other sperm proteins associated with Izumo-1, suggesting Izumo 1 forms a multi-protein membrane complex. Our results raise the possibility that Izumo 1 might be involved in organizing or stabilizing a multi-protein complex essential for the function of the membrane fusion machinery. PMID:19658160

  3. Vibration Characteristics of a Large-Capacity Complex Vibration Source Using a Titanium Alloy Complex Transverse Vibration Rod with Two Stepped Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Ueoka, Tetsugi; Kikuchi, Yuya

    2004-05-01

    The configurations of large-capacity 27 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration sources with multiple longitudinal transducers are proposed and studied. Ultrasonic complex vibration systems are effective for various types of metal welding and essential for new applications in various industries. The large-capacity vibration source consists of a complex transverse rod with a welding tip (titanium alloy), a complex vibration rod with a flange and a stepped part for holding the system (stainless-steel), a one-wavelength longitudinal vibration disk (aluminum alloy) and six bolt-clamped Langevin type piezo-electric ceramic (PZT) transducers (BLTs) installed along the circumference of the disk at an angle difference of 60°. The vibration source is driven using three driving systems with three transformers at a phase difference of 120°, and the disk is driven in a circular locus. The transverse vibration rod installed at the center of the disk is driven transversally and the welding tip of the rod vibrates in a circular locus.

  4. Spectral transformation in the SOFI complex for processing photographic images on the ES computer, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debabov, A. S.; Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of three programs catalogued in the form of object modules in the library of a system for processing photographic images computer. PFT is the subprogram of the multi-dimensional BPF of real-valued information, in the operative computer memory. INRECO is a subprogram-interface between the real and complex formats for representing two-dimensional spectra and images. FFT2 is a subprogram for calculating the correlation functions of the image using the previous subprograms.

  5. Generalized model of electromigration with 1:1 (analyte:selector) complexation stoichiometry: part I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Dubský, Pavel; Müllerová, Ludmila; Dvořák, Martin; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2015-03-01

    The model of electromigration of a multivalent weak acidic/basic/amphoteric analyte that undergoes complexation with a mixture of selectors is introduced. The model provides an extension of the series of models starting with the single-selector model without dissociation by Wren and Rowe in 1992, continuing with the monovalent weak analyte/single-selector model by Rawjee, Williams and Vigh in 1993 and that by Lelièvre in 1994, and ending with the multi-selector overall model without dissociation developed by our group in 2008. The new multivalent analyte multi-selector model shows that the effective mobility of the analyte obeys the original Wren and Row's formula. The overall complexation constant, mobility of the free analyte and mobility of complex can be measured and used in a standard way. The mathematical expressions for the overall parameters are provided. We further demonstrate mathematically that the pH dependent parameters for weak analytes can be simply used as an input into the multi-selector overall model and, in reverse, the multi-selector overall parameters can serve as an input into the pH-dependent models for the weak analytes. These findings can greatly simplify the rationale method development in analytical electrophoresis, specifically enantioseparations. PMID:25637010

  6. Petrology of the freetown layered complex, Sierra Leone: part II. Magma evolution and crystallisation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalokwu, C. I.

    2001-04-01

    The Freetown Layered Complex, Sierra Leone, is a 65 km long, 14 km wide and 7 km thick tholeiitic intrusion, which had been intruded in the West African Craton during the Jurassic (˜ 190 Ma) opening of the middle Atlantic Ocean. The complex consists of four zones of rhythmically layered sequences of Pl+Ol+Aug±Tmt-Ol+Opx+Pgt+Ol-Pgt. Cumulus inverted pigeonite first appeared at the bottom of Zone 2 before disappearing in the middle of Zone 3 only to reappear at the top of Zone 4 with cumulus titanomagnetite. Calculated emplacement pressures, based on the compositions of coexisting plagioclase-pyroxene and the CaTs reaction, range from 2.8 to 5.1 kbar. Two-pyroxene geothermometer gives crystallisation temperatures of 972-1305 ± 70°C, which compare favourably with temperatures estimated from O isotope thermometers (1040-1290 ± 60°C) and plagioclase-liquid thermometers (1045-1381°C) applied to the Freetown bulk composition and obtained by geochemical summation for each zone. Fe-Ti oxides have all re-equilibrated during subsolidus cooling of the complex, but yield fO 2 between quartz-fayalite-magnetite and wüstite-magnetite buffers at high pressure. Silica activity, based on the En = Fo + SiO 2 equilibrium, has been calculated for the entire stratigraphic section. Instead of a progressive increase from the bottom to the top of the complex, values of silica activity fluctuate within the zones, with major decreases corresponding to levels of new magma additions or the arrival of cumulus titanomagnetite. Stratigraphic summation of whole rock chemical composition of cumulates for zones 2-4, weighted according to the average density of the zones, indicates the zones were produced by multiple injection of high alumina (18.38-20.47 wt%) low Ti (0.46-0.70 wt%) hypersthene-normative tholeiites with moderately high activities of silica. Numerical simulation using the COMAGMAT computer algorithm indicates zone 4 bulk composition, interpreted as approximating the parental

  7. S1 excitation and zero kinetic energy spectra of partly deuterated 1:1 phenol-water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopfer, Otto; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    1994-11-01

    Two-photon, two-color resonant-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of the S1 state of isotopic 1:1 hydrogen-bonded phenol-water clusters have been recorded. Up to three deuterium atoms are introduced in the phenolic OH group and/or the water molecule. The intermolecular vibrational structure found is in reasonable agreement with previously reported one-color REMPI spectra, however, a partly different interpretation of the spectra is presented here. Zero kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE) spectra have been obtained via different intermediate S1 levels of the various isotopic complexes. The analysis of both the REMPI and the ZEKE spectra supports the new assignment of several vibrational bands observed in the REMPI spectra of the deuterated complexes where one or two hydrogen atoms are substituted by deuterium. For these deuterated complexes, the reassignment given here is based on the assumption that two different nonequivalent isomeric configurations are responsible for the structure observed in the REMPI spectra. This result is in clear contrast to the previously given interpretation where the spectra were analyzed in terms of only one isomer and the occurrence of Fermi resonances. Furthermore, accurate ionization energies are determined for all possible isomers of the various isotopic complexes and propensity rules for these values as a function of site-specific deuteration have been found. In addition, the analysis of the intermolecular vibrational structure of the complex cations confirmed the assignment of the intermolecular stretch vibration.

  8. Immediate Single-Stage Reconstruction of Complex Frontofaciobasal Injuries: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Awadalla, Akram Mohamed; Ezzeddine, Hichem; Fawzy, Naglaaa; Saeed, Mohammad Al; Ahmad, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if immediate (within 6 hours of adequate resuscitation) single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries could be accomplished with acceptable morbidity and mortality taking into consideration the cosmetic appearance of the patient. Patients and Methods A total of 26 patients (19 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 8 to 58 years with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5 to 15 all had a combined single-stage repair of their complex craniofacial injuries within 6 hours of their admission. After initial assessment and adequate resuscitation, they were evaluated with three-dimensional computed tomography of the face and head. Coronal skin flap was used for maximum exposure for frontal sinus exenteration as well as dural repair, cortical debridement, calvarial reconstruction, and titanium mesh placement. Results Neurosurgical outcome at both the early and late evaluations was judged as good in 22 of 26 patients (85%), moderate in 3 of 26 (11%), and poor in 1 of the 26 (3.8%). Cosmetic surgical outcome at the early evaluation showed 17 of 26 (65%) to be excellent, 4 of 26 (15.5%) to be good, 4 patients (15.5%) to be fair, and 1 patient (3.8%) to be poor. At the late reevaluation, the fair had improved to good with an additional reconstructive procedure, and the poor had improved to fair with another surgery. There was no calvarial osteomyelitis, graft resorption, or intracranial abscess. Complications included three patients (11%): one (3.8%) had tension pneumocephaly and meningitis, one (3.8%) had delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak with recurrent attacks of meningitis, and one had a maxillary sinus infection (3.8%) secondary to front maxillary fistula. Conclusion The immediate single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries can be performed with acceptable results, a decreased need for reoperation, and improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25844296

  9. Immediate single-stage reconstruction of complex frontofaciobasal injuries: part I.

    PubMed

    Awadalla, Akram Mohamed; Ezzeddine, Hichem; Fawzy, Naglaaa; Saeed, Mohammad Al; Ahmad, Mohammad R

    2015-03-01

    Objective To determine if immediate (within 6 hours of adequate resuscitation) single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries could be accomplished with acceptable morbidity and mortality taking into consideration the cosmetic appearance of the patient. Patients and Methods A total of 26 patients (19 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 8 to 58 years with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 5 to 15 all had a combined single-stage repair of their complex craniofacial injuries within 6 hours of their admission. After initial assessment and adequate resuscitation, they were evaluated with three-dimensional computed tomography of the face and head. Coronal skin flap was used for maximum exposure for frontal sinus exenteration as well as dural repair, cortical debridement, calvarial reconstruction, and titanium mesh placement. Results Neurosurgical outcome at both the early and late evaluations was judged as good in 22 of 26 patients (85%), moderate in 3 of 26 (11%), and poor in 1 of the 26 (3.8%). Cosmetic surgical outcome at the early evaluation showed 17 of 26 (65%) to be excellent, 4 of 26 (15.5%) to be good, 4 patients (15.5%) to be fair, and 1 patient (3.8%) to be poor. At the late reevaluation, the fair had improved to good with an additional reconstructive procedure, and the poor had improved to fair with another surgery. There was no calvarial osteomyelitis, graft resorption, or intracranial abscess. Complications included three patients (11%): one (3.8%) had tension pneumocephaly and meningitis, one (3.8%) had delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak with recurrent attacks of meningitis, and one had a maxillary sinus infection (3.8%) secondary to front maxillary fistula. Conclusion The immediate single-stage repair of complex craniofacial injuries can be performed with acceptable results, a decreased need for reoperation, and improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. PMID:25844296

  10. Taxonomy of 'Euconnus complex'. Part IV. Review of Euconnus subgenus Rhomboconnus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structures of the type species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus Franz) are described and illustrated, and compared with those of Euconnus s. str. Rhomboconnus, although showing several peculiar character states (e.g., rudimentary or lacking basal elytral foveae) is maintained as a subgenus of Euconnus, and its revised diagnosis is given. Two species currently placed in Rhomboconnus, E. perplexus Franz (Venezuela) and E. trianguliceps Franz (Ecuador) are redescribed. A surprising and striking similarity of the aedeagus of Rhomboconnus to that of Plaumanniola Costa Lima (Plaumanniolini) is discussed as yet another structural evidence supporting a previously postulated close relationship between the enigmatic Plaumanniolini and the 'Euconnus complex'. PMID:26623739

  11. Greater Than the Sum of Parts: Complexity of the Dynamic Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Soshnev, Alexey A; Josefowicz, Steven Z; Allis, C David

    2016-06-01

    Information encoded in DNA is interpreted, modified, and propagated as chromatin. The diversity of inputs encountered by eukaryotic genomes demands a matching capacity for transcriptional outcomes provided by the combinatorial and dynamic nature of epigenetic processes. Advances in genome editing, visualization technology, and genome-wide analyses have revealed unprecedented complexity of chromatin pathways, offering explanations to long-standing questions and presenting new challenges. Here, we review recent findings, exemplified by the emerging understanding of crossregulatory interactions within chromatin, and emphasize the pathologic outcomes of epigenetic misregulation in cancer. PMID:27259201

  12. [Telephone hotlines as a part of complex services for tobacco dependence treatment].

    PubMed

    Králíková, E; Baska, T; Langrová, K; Vojta, M

    2005-01-01

    Telephone quitlines for smoking cessation should be included into the available tobacco dependence treatment and should be included into smoking cessation guidelines. Telephone quitlines does not mean only the help to the calling smoker, but also can increase the number of quit attempts in the general population. Especially minorities that not so often take part in the classic smoking cessation treatment, use quitlines more often (e.g. pregnant women). Quitlines are economically effective, although the most expensive form - individual counselling - should be reserved for those really willing to stop. Quitlines should be given governmental financial support (compared to other medical interventions, any smoking cessation treatment is economically more cost effective). PMID:16173615

  13. PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART II, MANUAL OF ACCOUNTING AND RELATED FINANCIAL PROCEDURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIEDMAN, BURTON DEAN; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT IS THE SECOND PART OF A REPORT, PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART 1, EA 001 170, SUBTITLED "ANALYSIS AND PROPOSALS," CONTAINS AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX WITHIN EACH STATE EDUCATION AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT IS A MANUAL PRESENTING THE PROPOSED…

  14. Illustrated Imaging Essay on Congenital Heart Diseases: Multimodality Approach Part III: Cyanotic Heart Diseases and Complex Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Belaval, Vinay; Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Raj, Vimal; Shah, Sejal

    2016-01-01

    From the stand point of radiographic analysis most of the complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases (CHD), can be divided into those associated with decreased or increased pulmonary vascularity. Combination of a specific cardiac configuration and status of lung vasculature in a clinical context allows plain film diagnosis to be predicted in some CHD. Correlation of the position of the cardiac apex in relation to the visceral situs is an important information that can be obtained from the plain film. This information helps in gathering information about the atrio-ventricular, ventricular arterial concordance or discordance. Categorization of the cyanotic heart disease based on vascularity is presented below. Thorough understanding of cardiac anatomy by different imaging methods is essential in understanding and interpreting complex cardiac disease. Basic anatomical details and background for interpretation are provided in the previous parts of this presentation.

  15. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  16. Modeling complex force systems, Part 1: The cutting and pad forces in deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, B.J. )

    1993-05-01

    An understanding of the forces generated in machining processes is necessary because they are related to such things as wear, vibrations, accuracy, power, process planning, and computer integrated manufacture. Force magnitudes can be determined by a variety of techniques from empirical laws to theoretical analyses of the mechanics of idealized cutting situations. The force situation becomes significantly more difficult to assess when a complex force system exists in which several different force groupings exist simultaneously which cannot be separated and are therefore indeterminate. One such process is deep drilling in which not only cutting forces occur at a cutting edge, but also friction and burnishing forces exist at two separate locations (i.e., the pads). This work describes an approach to (1) model the forces at each location and (2) to determine the constituent and separate forces at each of the locations. This will be done in a two paper series with the first paper describing the former and the second paper describing the latter.

  17. Localised slip controlled by dehydration embrittlement of partly serpentinised dunites, Leka Ophiolite Complex, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Cordonnier, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Dehydration of serpentinised ultramafic rocks can increase the pore fluid pressure and induce brittle failure; however the extents of strain localisation and unstable frictional sliding are still under debate. Microstructural and mineralogical evidence from dunites of the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides demonstrates that prograde metamorphism of serpentinite veins led to local fluid production and to the growth of large-grained olivine rich in magnetite inclusions. The epitaxial growth of comparatively Fe-poor prograde olivine on Fe-richer relics of primary olivine caused a high variability in Fe-content, even within single crystals. On a larger scale, the average Fe-content of olivine rises towards the vein edges, which reflects a decrease in the degree of initial serpentinisation towards the host rock. The former distribution of serpentine strongly influenced the mechanical response of the rock to the fluid production during deserpentinisation: The faulting caused by the associated dehydration embrittlement occurred along highly localized slip planes in the centres of the meta-serpentinite veins. Around these slip planes, the prograde olivine experienced significant grain size reduction, but very limited shear strain. The strain concentration on narrow faults, also documented by a sharp offset of chromite layers, and the brittle deformation of the surrounding olivine suggest unstable frictional sliding rather than slower creep. This natural example of deserpentinisation-induced embrittlement illustrates that structural heterogeneities in the form of serpentinite veins have first-order controls on strain localisation and frictional sliding. While strain may be distributed during dehydration of a homogeneous serpentinite, as has been observed in recent experimental studies, it may become strongly localised in a heterogeneous rock volume where fluid pressure is locally increased along pre-existing veins. As most of the oceanic lithosphere

  18. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  19. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part V: Electrostatically correlated spin-orbit and electrostatically correlated hyperfine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The continuation of the previous series of papers related to the construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms is presented. The contributions from the second-order perturbation theory concerning electrostatically correlated spin-orbit interactions (CSO), as well as electrostatically correlated hyperfine interactions (CHFS) to the atomic structure of nlN, nlNn1l1^{N_1} and nlNn1l1^{N_1}n2l2^{N_2} configurations, are considered. This theory assumes that the electron excitation n0l0→ nl affects spin-orbit splitting and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure in the same way which will be discussed below. Part I of the series presented, in general terms, a method allowing the analysis of complex electronic systems. Parts II, III and IV provided a description of an electrostatic interaction up to second-order perturbation theory; they constitute the basis for the design of an efficient computer program package for large-scale calculations of accurate wave functions. Analyses presented in the entire series of our papers clearly demonstrate that obtaining the precise wave functions is impossible without considering the contribution from the second-order effects into fine and hyperfine atomic structure.

  20. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  1. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer. PMID:23662835

  2. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  3. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-03-01

    This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a), we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004) for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA). That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise) as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM for "effect

  4. Mineralized and unmineralized calderas in Spain; Part II, evolution of the Rodalquilar caldera complex and associated gold-alunite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.; Arribas, A., Jr.; Cunningham, C.G.; McKee, E.H.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Smith, James G.; Kelly, W.C.; Arribas, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Rodalquilar caldera complex is located in the western part of the Cabo de Gata volcanic field in southeastern Spain and is the first documented example of epithermal gold-alunite mineralization within a caldera in Europe. The Rodalquilar caldera is an oval collapse structure having a maximum diameter of 8 km and formed at 11 Ma from eruption of the Cinto ash-flow tuff. The oval Lomilla caldera, with a diameter of 2 km, is nested within the central resurgent dome of the older Rodalquilar caldera. The Lomilla caldera resulted from the eruption of the Lazaras ash-flow tuff which was ponded within the moat of the Rodalquilar caldera. The last phase of volcanic activity in the caldera complex was the emplacement of hornblende andesite flows and intrusions. This magmatic event resulted in structural doming of the caldera, opening of fractures and faults, and provided the heat source for the large hydrothermal systems which deposited quartz-alunite type gold deposits and base metal vein systems. The gold-alunite deposits are enclosed in areas of intense acid sulfate alteration and localized in ring and radial faults and fractures present in the east wall of the Lomilla caldera. Like other acid-sulfate type deposits, the Rodalquilar gold-alunite deposits are closely related in time and space to porphyritic, intermediate composition magma emplaced along caldera structures but unrelated to the caldera forming magmatic system. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  5. A complex investigation of the extent of pollution in sediments of the Sava River. Part 1: selected elements.

    PubMed

    Milacic, Radmila; Scancar, Janez; Murko, Simona; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena

    2010-04-01

    The Sava River is the biggest tributary to the Danube River. As a part of the 6th FW EU project, Sava River Basin: Sustainable Use, Management and Protection of Resources (SARIB), ecological status of sediments was investigated. In order to assess the geographical distribution in sediment contamination of the Sava River, inorganic and persistent organic pollutants were analyzed in sediments at 20 selected sampling sites along the Sava River from its spring to its outfall into the Danube River. For comparability of data to other river basins the sediment fraction below 63 microm was studied. Due to complexity of the work performed, the results are published separately ("Part I: Selected elements" and "Part II: Persistent organic pollutants"). In the present study, the extent of pollution was estimated by determination of the total element concentrations and by the identification of the most hazardous highly mobile element fractions and anthropogenic inputs of elements to sediments. To assess the mobile metal fraction extraction in 0.11 mol L(-1), acetic acid was performed (first step of the Community Bureau of Reference extraction procedure), while anthropogenic inputs of elements were estimated on the basis of normalization to aluminum (Al) concentration. According to the Water Framework Directive, the following elements were investigated in sediments: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and mercury (Hg). Furthermore, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and phosphorous (P) were determined. The analyses of sediments demonstrated slightly elevated values for Hg, Cr, and Ni in industrially exposed sites (concentrations up to 0.6, 380, and 210 mg kg(-1), respectively). However, the latter two elements exist in sparingly soluble forms and therefore do not represent an environmental burden. P concentrations were found in elevated concentrations at agricultural areas and big cities (up to 1,000 mg kg(-1)). PMID:19266293

  6. SIPPI: A Matlab toolbox for sampling the solution to inverse problems with complex prior information. Part 1—Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Skou Cordua, Knud; Caroline Looms, Majken; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    From a probabilistic point-of-view, the solution to an inverse problem can be seen as a combination of independent states of information quantified by probability density functions. Typically, these states of information are provided by a set of observed data and some a priori information on the solution. The combined states of information (i.e. the solution to the inverse problem) is a probability density function typically referred to as the a posteriori probability density function. We present a generic toolbox for Matlab and Gnu Octave called SIPPI that implements a number of methods for solving such probabilistically formulated inverse problems by sampling the a posteriori probability density function. In order to describe the a priori probability density function, we consider both simple Gaussian models and more complex (and realistic) a priori models based on higher order statistics. These a priori models can be used with both linear and non-linear inverse problems. For linear inverse Gaussian problems we make use of least-squares and kriging-based methods to describe the a posteriori probability density function directly. For general non-linear (i.e. non-Gaussian) inverse problems, we make use of the extended Metropolis algorithm to sample the a posteriori probability density function. Together with the extended Metropolis algorithm, we use sequential Gibbs sampling that allow computationally efficient sampling of complex a priori models. The toolbox can be applied to any inverse problem as long as a way of solving the forward problem is provided. Here we demonstrate the methods and algorithms available in SIPPI. An application of SIPPI, to a tomographic cross borehole inverse problems, is presented in a second part of this paper.

  7. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  8. 3D Geometrical Inspection of Complex Geometry Parts Using a Novel Laser Triangulation Sensor and a Robot

    PubMed Central

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly “coupled” as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a “zero” or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy. PMID:22346569

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Electroresponsive Materials with Applications In: Part I. Second Harmonic Generation. Part II. Organic-Lanthanide Ion Complexes for Electroluminescence and Optical Amplifiers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Materials for optical waveguides were developed from two different approaches, inorganic-organic composites and soft gel polymers. Inorganic-organic composites were developed from alkoxysilane and organically modified silanes based on nonlinear optical chromophores. Organically modified silanes based on N-((3^' -trialkoxysilyl)propyl)-4-nitroaniline were synthesized and sol-gelled with trimethoxysilane. After a densification process at 190^circC with a corona discharge, the second harmonic of the film was measured with a Nd:YAG laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, d_{33} = 13pm/V. The decay of the second harmonic was expressed by a stretched bi-exponential equation. The decay time (tau _2) was equal to 3374 hours, and was comparable to nonlinear optical systems based on epoxy/Disperse Orange 1. The processing temperature of the organically modified silane was limited to 200^circC due to the decomposition of the organic chromophore. Soft gel polymers were synthesized and characterized for the development of optical waveguides with dc-electrical field assisted phase-matching. Polymers based on 4-nitroaniline terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) were shown to exhibit second harmonic generation that were optically phase-matched in an electrical field. The optical signals were stable and reproducible. Siloxane polymers modified with 1-mercapto-4-nitrobenzene and 1-mercapto-4-methylsulfonylstilbene nonlinear optical chromophores were synthesized. The physical and the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the polymers were characterized. Waveguides were developed from the polymers which were optically phase -matched and had an efficiency of 8.1%. The siloxane polymers exhibited optical phase-matching in an applied electrical field and can be used with a semiconductor laser. Organic lanthanide ion complexes for electroluminescence and optical amplifiers were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized for their thermal and

  10. Minimum Chemical Requirements for Adhesin Activity of the Acid-Stable Part of Candida albicans Cell Wall Phosphomannoprotein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kanbe, Toshio; Cutler, Jim E.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to define adhesive characteristics of the acid-stable moiety of the Candida albicans phosphomannoprotein complex (PMPC) on adherence of this fungus to marginal zone macrophages of the mouse spleen. Complete digestion of the acid-stable moiety (Fr.IIS) of the C. albicans PMPC with an α-mannosidase or hydrolysis with 0.6 N sulfuric acid destroyed adhesin activity, as determined by the inability of the soluble digests to inhibit yeast cell adherence to the splenic marginal zone. Fr.IIS adhesin activity was decreased following digestion with an α-1,2-specific mannosidase. Oligomannosyls consisting of one to six mannose units, which were isolated from the acid-stable part of the PMPC, did not inhibit yeast cell binding and thus do not function alone as adhesin sites in the PMPC. To gain more insight into the minimum requirements for adhesin activity, PMPCs were isolated from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type strain and from mutant strains mnn1, mnn2, and mnn4; the PMPCs were designated scwt/Fr.II, scmn1/Fr.II, scmn2/Fr.II, and scmn4/Fr.II, respectively. S. cerevisiae scmn2/Fr.II lacks oligomannosyl side chain branches from the outer core mannan, and scmn2/Fr.II was the only PMPC without adhesin activity. S. cerevisiae scwt/Fr.II, scmn1/Fr.II, and scmn4/Fr.II showed adhesin activities less than that of C. albicans Fr.II. These three S. cerevisiae PMPCs are generally similar to Fr.IIS, except that the S. cerevisiae structure has fewer and shorter side chains. Immunofluorescence microscopy show that the acid-stable part of the PMPC is displayed homogeneously on the C. albicans yeast cell surface, which would be expected for a surface adhesin. Our results indicate that both the mannan core and the oligomannosyl side chains are responsible for the adhesin activity of the acid-stable part of the PMPC. PMID:9826359

  11. Metabolic fingerprinting of rat urine by LC/MS Part 2. Data pretreatment methods for handling of complex data.

    PubMed

    Idborg, Helena; Zamani, Leila; Edlund, Per-Olof; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Jacobsson, Sven P

    2005-12-15

    Metabolic fingerprinting of biofluids like urine is a useful technique for detecting differences between individuals. With this approach, it might be possible to classify samples according to their biological relevance. In Part 1 of this work a method for the comprehensive screening of metabolites was described, using two different liquid chromatography (LC) column set-ups and detection by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Data pretreatment of the resulting data described in is needed to reduce the complexity of the data and to obtain useful metabolic fingerprints. Three different approaches, i.e., reduced dimensionality (RD), MarkerLynx, and MS Resolver, were compared for the extraction of information. The pretreated data were then subjected to multivariate data analysis by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification. By combining two different chromatographic procedures and data analysis, the detection of metabolites was enhanced as well as the finding of metabolic fingerprints that govern classification. Additional potential biomarkers or xenobiotic metabolites were detected in the fraction containing highly polar compounds that are normally discarded when using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. PMID:16198158

  12. Gas migration pathways in a complex faulted hangingwall in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritzen, Emil K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2013-04-01

    The studied fault is positioned in the westernmost Danish part of the Norwegian Danish Basin at the southern margin of the Northern Permian Basin. The dominating fault is the so called D-1 fault, which is part of a fault trend which follows the southern pinch-out line of the Zechstein salt and detach along the top Zechstein evaporites. Just north of the D-1 fault is the only Danish commercial HC producing area outside the Mesozoic Central Graben -the Siri Canyon- located The presence of gas within the Neogene sediments at the hanging-wall of the D-1 fault was reported in the D-1 well and the D-1 fault was analyzed in detail using 2-D seismic data in the early 90-ies. Due to the open seismic grid used then it was not possible to link the presence of possible gas occurrences and the faults as well as linking the small faults associated to the hanging-wall deformation. The area was subject to renewed interest due to the HC discoveries in the Siri Valley and industrial 3-D seismic data was acquired covering the D-1 fault.The 3D seismic data has enabled a very detailed mapping of the entire D-1 fault complex as well as seismic attribute analysis (courtesy OpendTect). The D-1 fault is in map-view characterized by segments approximately 10 km long striking E-W and NE-SW respectively. In the Cretaceous and Cenozoic part is the main fault coherent whereas the antithetic and secondary synthetic faults in the hanging-wall are smaller (both with respect to offset and length). The character of the internal hanging-wall faults varies along strike of the main fault. In areas adjacent to NE-SW striking segments is the number of faults much higher and they strike both parallel to the main fault and at an angle to it; whereas the faults are longer, less numerous and dominantly parallel to the main fault in the E-W striking central parts. Gas occurrences are observed as bright-spots associated to small faults in the hanging-wall next to the NE-SW striking segments, whereas

  13. Forest Fires, Oil Spills, and Fractal Geometry: An Investigation in Two Parts. Part 2: Using Fractal Complexity to Analyze Mathematical Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, L. Charles

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that utilizes the mathematical models of forest fires and oil spills that were generated (in the first part of this activity, published in the November 1998 issue) by students using probability and cellular automata. (ASK)

  14. The vibrational spectra of the boron halides and their molecular complexes. Part 10. The complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its methyl derivatives. An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffoor, Fatima; Ford, Thomas A.

    2008-11-01

    Ab initio calculations, at the level of second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and using a triple-zeta Gaussian basis set with polarization and diffuse functions on all atoms, have been carried out on the donor-acceptor complexes of boron trifluoride with ammonia and its mono-, di- and trimethyl derivatives. The structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra of the complexes have been determined. An eclipsed and a staggered conformer have been examined for each complex, and the preferred conformer was found to be the staggered species in each case. The computed data have been compared with those for some similar complexes containing boron trifluoride and a series of oxygen and sulphur electron donors (water, hydrogen sulphide, methanol, methanethiol, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphide) and the effect of successive methyl substitution in all three series has been investigated.

  15. "Why Not Stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry—Why Not?" Part III: Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems.

    PubMed

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Toporek, Marcin; Asuero, Agustin G

    2015-01-01

    In the third part of a series of articles issued under a common title, some examples of complex dynamic redox systems are presented and considered from analytical and physico-chemical viewpoints; the analysis is a leitmotiv for detailed, physico-chemical considerations. All attainable physico-chemical knowledge is involved in algorithms applied for resolution of the systems, realized with use of iterative computer programs. The first redox system (System I) is related to titration of FeSO4 + H2C2O4 with KMnO4 solution in acidic (H2SO4) medium, where simultaneous determination of both analytes from a single curve of potentiometric titration is possible. The possibility of the formation of precipitates (FeC2O4 and/or MnC2O4) in this system is taken into considerations. The second system (System II) relates to the complete analytical procedure involved in the iodometric determination of Cu; four consecutive steps of this analysis are considered. As a reasonable tool for explanation of processes occurring during simulated redox titration, speciation diagrams are suggested. This explanation is based on graphical presentation of results obtained from the calculations. The calculations made for this purpose are performed in accordance with principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) with generalized electron balance (GEB) or GATES/GEB and realized with use of iterative computer programs offered by MATLAB. The reactions proceeding in this system can be formulated, together with their efficiencies, at any stage of the titration. Stoichiometry is considered as the derivative concept when put in context with GATES/GEB. The article illustrates the enormous possibilities and advantages offered by GATES/GEB. PMID:25830547

  16. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  17. Joint Stability Characteristics of the Ankle Complex in Female Athletes With Histories of Lateral Ankle Sprain, Part II: Clinical Experience Using Arthrometric Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleski, John E.; Heitman, Robert J.; Gurchiek, Larry R.; Hollis, J. M.; Liu, Wei; IV, Albert W. Pearsall

    2014-01-01

    Context: This is part II of a 2-part series discussing stability characteristics of the ankle complex. In part I, we used a cadaver model to examine the effects of sectioning the lateral ankle ligaments on anterior and inversion motion and stiffness of the ankle complex. In part II, we wanted to build on and apply these findings to the clinical assessment of ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with a history of unilateral ankle sprain. Objective: To examine ankle-complex motion and stiffness in a group of athletes with reported history of lateral ankle sprain. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-five female college athletes (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 170.2 ± 7.4 cm, mass = 67.3 ± 10.0 kg) with histories of unilateral ankle sprain. Intervention(s): All ankles underwent loading with an ankle arthrometer. Ankles were tested bilaterally. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were anterior displacement, anterior end-range stiffness, inversion rotation, and inversion end-range stiffness. Results: Anterior displacement of the ankle complex did not differ between the uninjured and sprained ankles (P = .37), whereas ankle-complex rotation was greater for the sprained ankles (P = .03). The sprained ankles had less anterior and inversion end-range stiffness than the uninjured ankles (P < .01). Conclusions: Changes in ankle-complex laxity and end-range stiffness were detected in ankles with histories of sprain. These results indicate the presence of altered mechanical characteristics in the soft tissues of the sprained ankles. PMID:24568223

  18. Polysaccharide/polynucleotide complexes. Part 6: complementary-strand-induced release of single-stranded DNA bound in the schizophyllan complex.

    PubMed

    Koumoto, Kazuya; Mizu, Masami; Sakurai, Kazuo; Kunitake, Toyoki; Shinkai, Seiji

    2004-03-01

    Spectroscopic properties of single-stranded DNA/schizophyllan ternary complexes (ss-DNA2s-SPG), induced by addition of either complementary or noncomplementary strands, have been investigated. The addition of the complementary strands to ss-DNA2s-SPG induced the quick release of the bound ss-DNA to the complementary strands (both DNA and RNA), whereas the ternary complex was unaffected upon addition of noncomplementary strands. Our experiments imply that SPG has complexation properties indispensable to the gene carriers. As far as we know, there is no report on exploitation of such nonviral gene carriers that can accomplish an intelligent release of the bound ss-DNA toward the complementary strands. We believe, therefore, that SPG, a natural and neutral polysaccharide, has a great potential to become a new ss-DNA carrier. PMID:17191866

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams A Appendix A to Part 414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Pt. 414, App. A Appendix A to...

  20. Resonance assignment of DVU2108 that is part of the Orange Protein complex in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Neca, António J; Soares, Rui; Carepo, Marta S P; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-04-01

    We report the 94 % assignment of DVU2108, a protein belonging to the Orange Protein family, that in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms a protein complex named the Orange Protein complex. This complex has been shown to be implicated in the cell division of this organism. DVU2108 is a conserved protein in anaerobic microorganisms and in Desulfovibrio gigas the homologous protein was isolated with a novel Mo-Cu cluster non-covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. However, the heterologously produced DVU2108 did not contain any bound metal. These assignments provide the means to characterize the interaction of DVU2108 with the proteins that form the Orange Protein complex using NMR methods. PMID:26373427

  1. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade - Part 1: Experimental Measurements. Part 1; Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Wetzel, Todd G.; Rigby, David L.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a complex blade trailing edge passage. The experimental measurements are made using a steady liquid crystal thermography technique applied to one major side of the passage. The geometry of the trailing edge passage is that of a two-pass serpentine circuit with a sharp 180-degree turning region at the tip. The upflow channel is split by interrupted ribs into two major subchannels, one of which is turbulated. This channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1. The spanwise extent of the channel geometry includes both area convergence from root to tip, as well as taper towards the trailing edge apex. The average section Reynolds numbers tested in this upflow channel range from 55,000 to 98,000. The tip section contains a turning vane near the extreme comer. The downflow channel has an aspect ratio of about 5:1, and also includes convergence and taper. Turbulators of varying sizes are included in this channel also. Both detailed heat transfer and pressure distribution measurements are presented. The pressure measurements are incorporated into a flow network model illustrating the major loss contributors.

  2. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  3. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  4. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  5. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    PubMed

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system. PMID:11603399

  6. The importance of integration and top-down salience when listening to complex multi-part musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Marie; Fairhurst, Merle T; Keller, Peter E

    2013-08-15

    In listening to multi-part music, auditory streams can be attended to either selectively or globally. More specifically, musicians rely on prioritized integrative attention which incorporates both stream segregation and integration to assess the relationship between concurrent parts. In this fMRI study, we used a piano duet to investigate which factors of a leader-follower relationship between parts grab the listener's attention and influence the perception of multi-part music. The factors considered included the structural relationship between melody and accompaniment as well as the temporal relationship (asynchronies) between parts. The structural relationship was manipulated by cueing subjects to the part of the duet that had to be prioritized. The temporal relationship was investigated by synthetically shifting the onset times of melody and accompaniment to either a consistent melody or accompaniment lead. The relative importance of these relationship factors for segregation and integration as attentional mechanisms was of interest. Participants were required to listen to the cued part and then globally assess if the prioritized stream was leading or following compared to the second stream. Results show that the melody is judged as more leading when it is globally temporally ahead whereas the accompaniment is not judged as leading when it is ahead. This bias may be a result of the interaction of salience of both leader-follower relationship factors. Interestingly, the corresponding interaction effect in the fMRI-data yields an inverse bias for melody in a fronto-parietal attention network. Corresponding parameter estimates within the dlPFC and right IPS show higher neural activity for attending to melody when listening to a performance without a temporal leader, pointing to an interaction of salience of both factors in listening to music. Both frontal and parietal activation implicate segregation and integration mechanisms and a top-down influence of salience

  7. AtMic60 Is Involved in Plant Mitochondria Lipid Trafficking and Is Part of a Large Complex.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Gros, Valérie; Tardif, Marianne; Brugière, Sabine; Ferro, Myriam; Prinz, William A; Toulmay, Alexandre; Mathur, Jaideep; Wozny, Michael; Falconet, Denis; Maréchal, Eric; Block, Maryse A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2016-03-01

    The mitochondrion is an organelle originating from an endosymbiotic event and playing a role in several fundamental processes such as energy production, metabolite syntheses, and programmed cell death. This organelle is delineated by two membranes whose synthesis requires an extensive exchange of phospholipids with other cellular organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuolar membranes in yeast. These transfers of phospholipids are thought to occur by a non-vesicular pathway at contact sites between two closely apposed membranes. In plants, little is known about the biogenesis of mitochondrial membranes. Contact sites between ER and mitochondria are suspected to play a similar role in phospholipid trafficking as in yeast, but this has never been demonstrated. In contrast, it has been shown that plastids are able to transfer lipids to mitochondria during phosphate starvation. However, the proteins involved in such transfer are still unknown. Here, we identified in Arabidopsis thaliana a large lipid-enriched complex called the mitochondrial transmembrane lipoprotein (MTL) complex. The MTL complex contains proteins located in the two mitochondrial membranes and conserved in all eukaryotic cells, such as the TOM complex and AtMic60, a component of the MICOS complex. We demonstrate that AtMic60 contributes to the export of phosphatidylethanolamine from mitochondria and the import of galactoglycerolipids from plastids during phosphate starvation. Furthermore, AtMic60 promotes lipid desorption from membranes, likely as an initial step for lipid transfer, and binds to Tom40, suggesting that AtMic60 could regulate the tethering between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. PMID:26898467

  8. The Viral Chemokine MCK-2 of Murine Cytomegalovirus Promotes Infection as Part of a gH/gL/MCK-2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Adrian; Trsan, Tihana; Arapovic, Maja; Lemmermann, Niels A. W.; Podlech, Jürgen; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lemnitzer, Frederic; Bosse, Jens Bernhard; Gimpfl, Martina; Marcinowski, Lisa; MacDonald, Margaret; Adler, Heiko; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Adler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) forms two gH/gL glycoprotein complexes, gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/pUL(128,130,131A), which determine the tropism, the entry pathways and the mode of spread of the virus. For murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), which serves as a model for HCMV, a gH/gL/gO complex functionally homologous to the HCMV gH/gL/gO complex has been described. Knock-out of MCMV gO does impair, but not abolish, virus spread indicating that also MCMV might form an alternative gH/gL complex. Here, we show that the MCMV CC chemokine MCK-2 forms a complex with the glycoprotein gH, a complex which is incorporated into the virion. We could additionally show that mutants lacking both, gO and MCK-2 are not able to produce infectious virus. Trans-complementation of these double mutants with either gO or MCK-2 showed that both proteins can promote infection of host cells, although through different entry pathways. MCK-2 has been extensively studied in vivo by others. It has been shown to be involved in attracting cells for virus dissemination and in regulating antiviral host responses. We now show that MCK-2, by forming a complex with gH, strongly promotes infection of macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MCK-2 may play a dual role in MCMV infection, as a chemokine regulating the host response and attracting specific target cells and as part of a glycoprotein complex promoting entry into cells crucial for virus dissemination. PMID:23935483

  9. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  10. Melanin and humic acid-like polymer complex from olive mill waste waters. Part I. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Khemakhem, Maissa; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Arbez-Gindre, Cécile; Bouzouita, Nabiha; Sotiroudis, Theodore G

    2016-07-15

    A water soluble humic acid and melanin-like polymer complex (OMWW-ASP) was isolated from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) by ammonium sulfate fractionation to be used as natural additive in food preparations. The dark polymer complex was further characterized by a variety of biochemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. OMWW-ASP is composed mainly of proteins associated with polyphenols and carbohydrates and the distribution of its relative molecular size was determined between about 5 and 190 kDa. SDS-PAGE shows the presence of a well separated protein band of 21.3 kDa and a low molecular weight peptide. The OMWW-ASP complex exhibits a monotonically increasing UV-Vis absorption spectrum and it contains stable radicals. Antioxidant activity measurements reveal the ability of the OMWW protein fraction to scavenge both the cationic 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical, as well as the stable nitroxide free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL). PMID:26948649

  11. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27069801

  12. Development of flexible array eddy current probes for complex geometries and inspection of magnetic parts using magnetic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, B.; Decitre, J.-M.; Sergeeva-Chollet, N.; Skarlatos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Eddy Current Technique is a powerful method of inspection of metal parts. When size of flaws decreases, inspection areas become hardly accessible or material is magnetic, traditional winding coil probes are less efficient. Thanks to new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized advanced EC probes: flexible EC probe based on micro-coil arrays and EC probe with magnetic sensors, including specific electronics.

  13. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) computer code documentation (version 3), volume 3, part 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, D. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1983-09-01

    GEMACS, the General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex systems, solves electromagnetic radiation and scattering problems. The Method of Moments (MOM) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) are used. MOM is formalized with the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) for wires and the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) for patches. The code employs both full matrix decomposition and Banded Matrix Iteration (BMI) solution techniques. The MOM, GTD and hybrid MOM/GTD techniques in the code are used to solve electrically small object problems, electrically large object problems and combination sized object problems. A computer code documentation manual is given. The manual contains extensive software information of the code.

  14. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) computer code documentation (version 3), volume 3, part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, D. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1983-09-01

    GEMACS, the General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems solves electromagnetic radiation and scattering problem. The Method of Moments (MOM) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) are used. MOM is formalized with the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) for wires and the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) for patches. The code employ both full matrix decomposition and Banded Matrix Iteration (BMI) solution techniques. The MOM, GTD and hybrid MOM/GTD techniques in the code are used to solve electrically small object problems, electrically large object problems and combination sized object problems. The computer code documentation is given.

  15. Mitochondrial Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) Is Part of an Outer Membrane Fatty Acid Transfer Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangwon; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    CPT1a (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a) in the liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) catalyzes the primary regulated step in overall mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It has been suggested that the fundamental unit of CPT1a exists as a trimer, which, under native conditions, could form a dimer of the trimers, creating a hexamer channel for acylcarnitine translocation. To examine the state of CPT1a in the MOM, we employed a combined approach of sizing by mass and isolation using an immunological method. Blue native electrophoresis followed by detection with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry identified large molecular mass complexes that contained not only CPT1a but also long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). Immunoprecipitation with antisera against the proteins revealed a strong interaction between the three proteins. Immobilized CPT1a-specific antibodies immunocaptured not only CPT1a but also ACSL and VDAC, further strengthening findings with blue native electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. This study shows strong protein-protein interaction between CPT1a, ACSL, and VDAC. We propose that this complex transfers activated fatty acids through the MOM. PMID:21622568

  16. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) is part of an outer membrane fatty acid transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangwon; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L

    2011-07-22

    CPT1a (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a) in the liver mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) catalyzes the primary regulated step in overall mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It has been suggested that the fundamental unit of CPT1a exists as a trimer, which, under native conditions, could form a dimer of the trimers, creating a hexamer channel for acylcarnitine translocation. To examine the state of CPT1a in the MOM, we employed a combined approach of sizing by mass and isolation using an immunological method. Blue native electrophoresis followed by detection with immunoblotting and mass spectrometry identified large molecular mass complexes that contained not only CPT1a but also long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). Immunoprecipitation with antisera against the proteins revealed a strong interaction between the three proteins. Immobilized CPT1a-specific antibodies immunocaptured not only CPT1a but also ACSL and VDAC, further strengthening findings with blue native electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation. This study shows strong protein-protein interaction between CPT1a, ACSL, and VDAC. We propose that this complex transfers activated fatty acids through the MOM. PMID:21622568

  17. Nocturnal Low-Level Jet in a Mountain Basin Complex. Part II: Transport and Diffusion of Tracer under Stable Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, Lisa S.; Allwine, K Jerry; Banta, Robert M.

    2006-05-01

    Differences in nighttime transport and diffusion of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer in an urban complex-terrain setting (Salt Lake City, Utah) are investigated using surface and Dopplerlidar wind data, and large-scale surface pressure differences. Interacting scales of motion, as studied through the URBAN 2000 field program combined with the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX), explained the differences in the tracer behavior during three separate Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). With an emphasis on nighttime stable boundary layer conditions, these field programs were designed to study flow features responsible for the nighttime transport of airborne substances. This transport has implications for air quality, homeland security, and emergency response issues if the airborne substances are hazardous. The important flow features investigated included thermally forced canyon and slope flows and a low-level jet (LLJ) that dominated the basin-scale winds when the surface pressure gradient was weak. The presence of thermally forced flows contributed to the complexity and hindered the predictability of the tracer motion within and beyond the city. When organized thermally forced flows were present, the tracer tended to stay closer to the city for longer periods of time, even though a strong basin-scale LLJ did develop. When thermally forced flows were short-lived or absent, the basin-scale low-level jet dominated the wind field and enhanced the transport of tracer material out of the city.

  18. The feminization of the female oedipal complex, Part I: a reconsideration of the significance of separation issues.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, D; Kulish, N

    2000-01-01

    Freud's insights about the oedipus complex have been universalized to include the psychology of the girl. The authors argue that this crucial developmental phase for girls has uniquely feminine characteristics that have not been fully recognized or cohesively incorporated into psychoanalytic theories. This paper addresses these differences, which are based on characteristic patterns of object relationships, typical defenses, and social considerations. The authors argue that "female oedipal" is an oxymoron, and propose that this constellation be named "the Persephone complex" after the Greek myth of Persephone, which seems to capture better the typical situation of the little girl. They focus on the issue of separation and its complicated and necessary role in the triangular situation of females. Using illustrations from clinical material, the authors argue that the frequent appearance of separation material linked to triangular heterosexual competitive fantasies can and should be differentiated from material in which ideas about separation stem from dyadic and earlier issues. Misunderstanding how these separation conflicts tie into triangular "oedipal" relationships can lead to a "preoedipalization" of the dynamics of girls and women. PMID:11212195

  19. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry.

    PubMed

    Slaba, Tony C; Wilson, John W; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency. PMID:27345204

  20. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  1. MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASES PART I: MOUSE MODELS OF OXPHOS DEFICIENCIES CAUSED BY DEFECTS ON RESPIRATORY COMPLEX SUBUNITS OR ASSEMBLY FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Torraco, Alessandra; Peralta, Susana; Iommarini, Luisa; Diaz, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are the most common inborn errors of metabolism affecting the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Because the poor knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms, a cure for these disorders is still unavailable and all the treatments currently in use are supportive more than curative. Therefore, in the past decade a great variety of mouse models have been developed to assess the in vivo function of several mitochondrial proteins involved in human diseases. Due to the genetic and physiological similarity to humans, mice represent reliable models to study the pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial disorders and are precious to test new therapeutic approaches. Here we summarize the features of several mouse models of mitochondrial diseases directly related to defects in subunits of the OXPHOS complexes or in assembly factors. We discuss how these models recapitulate many human conditions and how they have contributed to the understanding of mitochondrial function in health and disease. PMID:25660179

  2. The grand tour of the Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex, northeastern Nevada: Part 1 - Introduction & road log

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snoke, A.W.; Howard, K.A.; McGrew, A.J.; Burton, B.R.; Barnes, C.G.; Peters, M.T.; Wright, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this geological excursion is to provide an overview of the multiphase developmental history of the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, northeastern Nevada. Although these mountain ranges are commonly cited as a classic example of a Cordilleran metamorphic core complex developed through large-magnitude, mid-Tertiary crustal extension, a preceding polyphase Mesozoic contractional history is also well preserved in the ranges. An early phase of this history involved Late Jurassic two-mica granitic magmatism, high-temperature but relatively low-pressure metamorphism, and polyphase deformation in the central Ruby Mountains. In the northern Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range, a Late Cretaceous history of crustal shortening, metamorphism, and magmatism is manifested by fold-nappes (involving Archean basement rocks in the northern East Humboldt Range), widespread migmatization, injection of monzogranitic and leucogranitic magmas, all coupled with sillimanite-grade metamorphism. Following Late Cretaceous contraction, a protracted extensional deformation partially overprinted these areas during the Cenozoic. This extensional history may have begun as early as the Late Cretaceous or as late as the mid-Eocene. Late Eocene and Oligocene magmatism occurred at various levels in the crust yielding mafic to felsic orthogneisses in the deep crust, a composite granitic pluton in the upper crust, and volcanic rocks at the surface. Movement along a west-rooted, extensional shear zone in the Oligocene and early Miocene led to core-complex exhumation. The shear zone produced mylonitic rocks about 1 km thick at deep crustal levels, and an overprint of brittle detachment faulting at shallower levels as unroofing proceeded. Megabreccias and other synextensional sedimentary deposits are locally preserved in a tilted, upper Eocene through Miocene stratigraphic sequence. Neogene magmatism included the emplacement of basalt dikes and eruption of rhyolitic rocks. Subsequent

  3. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2004-06-18

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction all waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis [9, 16] have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub int} = 75) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents {gamma}, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions from shock polar analysis. In all cases considered, excellent agreement between the simulation results and the analytical predictions was found. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method is a very useful numerical method for the simulation and modeling of complex hydrodynamic flows.

  4. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part II: Application to Partial Differential Equations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.; Owen, Steven J.; Siefert, Christopher M.; Staten, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012), 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs). We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertaintymore » quantification results for a 3D PDE application.« less

  5. A complex investigation of the extent of pollution in sediments of the Sava River: part 2: persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Heath, Ester; Scancar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Milacic, Radmila

    2010-04-01

    Sediment pollution of the biggest Danube tributary, the Sava River, was investigated within the sixth framework European Union project "Sava River Basin: Sustainable Use, Management and Protection of Resources" (SARIB). The extent of pollution was estimated by determining the amount of inorganic and persistent organic pollutants in sediment samples at 20 selected sampling sites along the Sava River. For the purpose of clarity, the findings are presented and published separately (part I: selected elements and part II: persistent organic pollutants). This study presents an investigation into the presence of organic pollutants in the Sava River sediment. According to the Water Framework Directive, the following persistent organic pollutants were investigated: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), selected chlorinated pesticides and organotin compounds. The results reveal that PAHs were present in moderate concentrations (sum of 16 PAHs: up to 4,000 ng g(-1)) and their concentrations increased downstream. Concentrations of PCB were low (sum of seven indicator PCBs: below 4 ng g(-1)) and among the pesticides analyzed only p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was found in moderate concentrations at two sampling sites in Croatia (up to 3 ng g(-1)) and hexachlorobenzene was found in a high concentration in the city of Belgrade (91 ng g(-1)), although the use of these persistent pesticides has been banned for decades. Repeated sampling at the same location revealed point pollution near Belgrade. Among the organic pollutants surveyed, organotin compounds were not detected. Overall results reveal the presence of persistent organic pollutants in 20 of the Sava River sediments tested that is, in general, comparable or lower than the levels in the Danube River and other moderately polluted European rivers. PMID:19259775

  6. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 1. Regular Shock Refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-01-31

    Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction, all of the waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The algorithms used in the HOPE code are described in detail, together with its current capabilities. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub interface} = 75{sup o}) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light gas configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions obtained from shock polar analysis. In all of the cases considered, excellent agreement is found between the simulation results and the analytical predictions. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method

  7. Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moravcová, Martina; Libra, Antonín; Dvořáková, Jana; Víšková, Alena; Muthný, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light evokes a complex stress response in keratinocytes. Keratin filament organization provides structural stability and mechanical integrity of keratinocytes. Involucrin is a transglutaminase substrate protein contributing to the formation of insoluble cornified envelopes. However, a more complex role for keratins and involucrin has been proposed, including the regulation of cell stress response. The aim was to evaluate modulations of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression in HaCaT in the light of the complex response of these cells to UV-B radiation, including effects on c-Jun and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene expression and production of interleukin (IL) 6 and 8. A UV-B (300±5 nm) dose of 10 mJ/cm2 was selected since this dose resulted in a partial decrease in cell viability in contrast to higher UV-B doses, which induced complete cell death 48 h after treatment. The UV-B radiation induced significant expression of keratin 1 and 10 and decreased expression of involucrin. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Jun and MMP-1 and IL-6 and IL-8 production. The data suggest that the expression of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin is modulated in HaCaT keratinocytes as a part of the complex stress response to UV radiation. PMID:24678259

  8. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part II: measurements on a resonant network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Howling, A. A.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements and analysis of a radio-frequency planar antenna are presented for applications in inductively-coupled plasma processing. The network of inductive and capacitive elements exhibits high currents under resonance which are efficient for plasma generation. Mode frequencies and impedances are accurately calculated by accounting for the mutual partial inductances using the impedance matrix. The effect of plasma inductive coupling on mode frequency shift and mode impedance is estimated using the complex image method, giving good agreement with experiment. It is proposed that the complex image method combined with the partial inductance concept (see the accompanying paper, Part I (Howling et al 2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065014)) offers a general way to calculate the impedance characteristics of inductively-coupled plasma sources in planar geometry.

  9. Heat Transfer in a Complex Trailing Edge Passage for a High Pressure Turbine Blade. Part 2:; Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.; Bunker, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study to investigate the heat transfer distribution in a complex blade trailing edge passage was conducted. The geometry consists of a two pass serpentine passage with taper toward the trailing edge, as well as from hub to tip. The upflow channel has an average aspect ratio of roughly 14:1, while the exit passage aspect ratio is about 5:1. The upflow channel is split in an interrupted way and is smooth on the trailing edge side of the split and turbulated on the other side. A turning vane is placed near the tip of the upflow channel. Reynolds numbers in the range of 31,000 to 61,000, based on inlet conditions, were simulated numerically. The simulation was performed using the Glenn-HT code, a full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using the Wilcox k-omega turbulence model. A structured multi-block grid is used with approximately 4.5 million cells and average y+ values on the order of unity. Pressure and heat transfer distributions are presented with comparison to the experimental data. While there are some regions with discrepancies, in general the agreement is very good for both pressure and heat transfer.

  10. Human autonomy and the frontal lobes. Part II: Patient behavior in complex and social situations: the "environmental dependency syndrome".

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, F

    1986-04-01

    Imitation and utilization behavior have previously been described in terms of a simple interaction between an examiner and a patient, and were interpreted as an excessive dependence on environmental cues. In this study, patient dependence was observed in complex situations of everyday life. Two patients with focal unilateral frontal lobe lesions were observed while in a doctor's office, a lecture room, a car, and a garden, while visiting an apartment where various activities were possible, and while in a gift shop. The patients' behavior was striking, as though implicit in the environment was an order to respond to the situation in which they found themselves. The term environmental dependency syndrome is proposed for this condition. It implies a disorder in personal autonomy. Individual psychological traits influenced the way in which loss of autonomy was manifested. This study does not offer a physiological model of autonomy, but it does provide clinical and behavioral observations on the loss of autonomy secondary to unilateral lesions of the frontal lobe. PMID:3707085

  11. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part B--structuromics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidisová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking developments in Omics and bioinformatics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of (radio)biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and dozens of proteins interact in the frame of complex signaling and repair pathways (or, rather, networks) to preserve the integrity of the genome has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone; it requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. In the first part of this review, the article "Giving Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part A--Radiomics," we showed the development of different Omics solutions and how they are contributing to a better understanding of cellular radiation response. In this Part B we show how high-resolution confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place Omics data in the context of space and time. The dynamics of double-strand breaks during repair processes and chromosomal rearrangements at the microscale correlated to aberration induction are explained. For the first time we visualize pan-nuclear nucleosomal rearrangements and clustering at the nanoscale during repair processes. Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting based on a computer database search of uniquely binding oligonucleotide combinations (COMBO-FISH). With these challenging techniques on hand, we speculate future perspectives that may combine specific COMBO-FISH nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to

  12. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  13. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity. PMID:26508401

  14. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, Naoya . E-mail: nakai@hss.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-05-19

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 ({alpha}2{beta}2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1{alpha} subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex.

  15. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two main subdivisions of layered rocks are recognized in the southern Arabian Shield south of lat 22? N. These are an older ensimatic-arc complex, which formed 1100-800 m.y. ago, and a younger marginal-arc complex, which formed 800-690 m.y. ago. The older ensimatic-arc complex, located in the southwestern part of the Shield, includes graywacke and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the essentially contemporaneous Baish, Bahah, and Jiddah groups. Although the younger arc complex is also dominantly ensimatic in character, it is also partly superimposed over the older ensimaticarc complex. The superimposed portions of the younger arc complex are represented by the Ablah, Samran, and possibly the Ararat groups. The ensimatic portion of the younger arc group is represented by the Halaban group, which was deposited to the east and northeast of the older ensimatic-arc complex. The Halaban group includes andesitic and dacitic volcanic rocks and associated clastic sedimentary rocks. The layered rocks of both arc complexes are intruded by dioritic (quartz diorite, tonalite, trondhjemite) plutonic rocks. The southern Shield is also subdivided into a number of structurally bounded, north-trending tectonic belts. Within the older ensimatic complex, three belts are recognized. From west to east, these are the Lith, Bidah, and Tayyah belts. Within these three belts, progressive facies changes indicate a gradation from deep-water facies in the south to shallow-water or-terrestrial facies in the north. The distribution of dioritic batholiths, as well as the distribution of layered-rock facies, suggests a northwest-trending axis for the older ensimatic-arc complex. The younger arc complex is present within six belts, the Makkah source papers. In Fleck and others (1980), the term 'quartz diorite' includes both tonalite and quartz diorite as defined in the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) system of plutonic rock classification (Streckeisen, 1973). Initial 87Sr/86

  16. Electrical properties and fusion dynamics of in vitro membrane vesicles derived from separate parts of the contractile vacuole complex of Paramecium multimicronucleatum.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Kazuyuki; Tominaga, Takashi; Allen, Richard D; Naitoh, Yutaka

    2005-10-01

    The contractile vacuole complex of Paramecium multimicronucleatum transforms into membrane-bound vesicles on excision from the cell. The I-V relationship was linear in a voltage range of -80 to +80 mV in all vesicles, despite being derived from different parts of the contractile vacuole complex. No voltage-gated unit currents were observed in membrane patches from the vesicles. Vesicles derived from the radial arm showed a membrane potential of >10 mV, positive with reference to the cytosol, while those derived from the contractile vacuole showed a residual (<5 mV) membrane potential. The electrogenic V-ATPases in the decorated spongiome are responsible for the positive potential, and Cl- leakage channels are responsible for the residual potential. The specific resistance of the vesicle membrane (approximately 6 kOmega cm2) increased, while the membrane potential shifted in a negative direction when the vesicle rounded. An increase in the membrane tension (to approximately 5 x 10(-3) N m(-1)) is assumed to reduce the Cl- leakage conductance. It is concluded that neither voltage- nor mechano-sensitive ion channels are involved in the control of the fluid segregation and membrane dynamics that govern fluid discharge cycles in the contractile vacuole complex. The membrane vesicles shrank when the external osmolarity was increased, and swelled when the osmolarity was decreased, implying that the contractile vacuole complex membrane is water permeable. The water permeability of the membrane was 4-20 x 10(-7) microm s(-1) Pa(-1). The vesicles containing radial arm membrane swelled after initially shrinking when exposed to higher external osmolarity, implying that the V-ATPases energize osmolyte transport mechanisms that remain functional in the vesicle membrane. The vesicles showed an abrupt (<30 ms), slight, slackening after rounding to the maximum extent. Similar slackening was also observed in the contractile vacuoles in situ before the opening of the contractile

  17. Generalized model of electromigration with 1:1 (analyte:selector) complexation stoichiometry: part II. Application to dual systems and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Ludmila; Dubský, Pavel; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2015-03-01

    Interactions among analyte forms that undergo simultaneous dissociation/protonation and complexation with multiple selectors take the shape of a highly interconnected multi-equilibrium scheme. This makes it difficult to express the effective mobility of the analyte in these systems, which are often encountered in electrophoretical separations, unless a generalized model is introduced. In the first part of this series, we presented the theory of electromigration of a multivalent weakly acidic/basic/amphoteric analyte undergoing complexation with a mixture of an arbitrary number of selectors. In this work we demonstrate the validity of this concept experimentally. The theory leads to three useful perspectives, each of which is closely related to the one originally formulated for simpler systems. If pH, IS and the selector mixture composition are all kept constant, the system is treated as if only a single analyte form interacted with a single selector. If the pH changes at constant IS and mixture composition, the already well-established models of a weakly acidic/basic analyte interacting with a single selector can be employed. Varying the mixture composition at constant IS and pH leads to a situation where virtually a single analyte form interacts with a mixture of selectors. We show how to switch between the three perspectives in practice and confirm that they can be employed interchangeably according to the specific needs by measurements performed in single- and dual-selector systems at a pH where the analyte is fully dissociated, partly dissociated or fully protonated. Weak monoprotic analyte (R-flurbiprofen) and two selectors (native β-cyclodextrin and monovalent positively charged 6-monodeoxy-6-monoamino-β-cyclodextrin) serve as a model system. PMID:25666498

  18. Determining Omics spatiotemporal dimensions using exciting new nanoscopy techniques to assess complex cell responses to DNA damage: part A--radiomics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Martin; Hausmann, Michael; Lukášová, Emílie; Biswas, Abin; Hildenbrand, Georg; Davídková, Marie; Krasavin, Evgeny; Kleibl, Zdeněk; Falková, Iva; Ježková, Lucie; Štefančíková, Lenka; Ševčík, Jan; Hofer, Michal; Bačíková, Alena; Matula, Pavel; Boreyko, Alla; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Recent ground-breaking developments in Omics have generated new hope for overcoming the complexity and variability of biological systems while simultaneously shedding more light on fundamental radiobiological questions that have remained unanswered for decades. In the era of Omics, our knowledge of how genes and proteins interact in the frame of complex networks to preserve genome integrity has been rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, these functional networks must be observed with strong correspondence to the cell nucleus, which is the main target of ionizing radiation. Nuclear architecture and nuclear processes, including DNA damage responses, are precisely organized in space and time. Information regarding these intricate processes cannot be achieved using high-throughput Omics approaches alone, but requires sophisticated structural probing and imaging. Based on the results obtained from studying the relationship between higher-order chromatin structure, DNA double-strand break induction and repair, and the formation of chromosomal translocations, we show the development of Omics solutions especially for radiation research (radiomics) (discussed in this article) and how confocal microscopy as well as novel approaches of molecular localization nanoscopy fill the gaps to successfully place the Omics data in the context of space and time (discussed in our other article in this issue, "Determining Omics Spatiotemporal Dimensions Using Exciting New Nanoscopy Techniques to Assess Complex Cell Responses to DNA Damage: Part B--Structuromics"). Finally, we introduce a novel method of specific chromatin nanotargeting and speculate future perspectives, which may combine nanoprobing and structural nanoscopy to observe structure-function correlations in living cells in real time. Thus, the Omics networks obtained from function analyses may be enriched by real-time visualization of Structuromics. PMID:25072147

  19. Molecular components of the B cell antigen receptor complex of class IgD differ partly from those of IgM.

    PubMed Central

    Wienands, J; Hombach, J; Radbruch, A; Riesterer, C; Reth, M

    1990-01-01

    Two classes of immunoglobulin, IgM and IgD, are present as antigen receptors on the surface of mature B lymphocytes. We show here that IgD molecules are noncovalently associated in the B cell membrane with a heterodimer consisting of two proteins of 35 kd (IgD-alpha) and 39 kd (Ig-beta), respectively. The two novel proteins are not found in the IgD-expressing myeloma J558L delta m, which fails to bring IgD antigen receptor onto the cell surface. In a surface IgD positive variant line of this myeloma, however, membrane-bound IgD molecules are associated with the heterodimer, suggesting that the formation of an antigen receptor complex is required for surface IgD expression. We further demonstrate that the IgD-associated heterodimer differs partly from that of the IgM antigen receptor and that its binding to the heavy chain only requires the presence of the last constant domain and the transmembrane part of the delta m chain. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2303036

  20. Mg-K mafic magmatism and catastrophic melting of the Variscan crust in the southern part of the Velay complex (Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzinié, Simon; Moyen, Jean-François; Villaros, Arnaud; Marignac, Christian; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Scarrow, Jane

    2013-04-01

    The Late Carboniferous Velay complex is a large migmatite dome extending over the central-eastern part of the French Massif Central. Two stages of migmatization were recognized in the southern edge of the complex : (1) "Pre-Velay" anatexis under biotite stable and water saturated conditions. (2) "Velay" water-absent melting synchronous with emplacement of the peraluminous S-type Velay granite cutting across the Early Carboniferous nappe stack. Field study of the southern part of the dome shows that Mg-K-rich micaceous diorites of mantle origin, locally called vaugnerites, outcrop as intrusive bodies in three main settings : (1) Meter-sized stocks are intimately associated with several granite plutons, the comagmatic ascent and crystallization of mafic and felsic melts being evidenced by lobate contacts and intricate shapes. (2) Decameter-sized medium to coarse-grained massifs and sills emplaced in unmolten to metatexitic paragneisses. (3) Fine-grained decimeter-sized concordant lenses are found as clusters in metatexitic to diatexitic orthogneisses. Seven vaugnerites were dated either directly or indirectly through their co-magmatic host granite. In situ (LA-ICP-MS) zircon and monazite U-Pb ages are indistinguishable within analytical uncertainties, spanning from 303.7 ± 3.1 to 307.4 ± 1.8 Ma except for one slightly younger (294.4 ± 3.9 Ma) sample . Granites and vaugnerites of the study area emplaced mainly during a short period of time at ca. 305 Ma. Assuming vaugnerite intrusions are coeval implies that their varied shapes are a consequence of contrasting behavior of the mafic magma depending on the host. Granites from the southern Velay are exactly of the same age, ca. 305 Ma, although several generations can be clearly identified based on field relationships. They display complex zircon inheritance patterns involving Proterozoic to Cambro-Ordovician components; in details, the inheritance pattern varies between (or even within) plutons, pointing to the

  1. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  2. The relevance of Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin and metronidazole during complex maxillary rehabilitations using bone allograft. Part II: implant surgery, prosthodontics, and survival.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2009-06-01

    Extensive bone grafting remains a delicate procedure, due to the slow and difficult integration of the grafted material into the physiological architecture. The recent use of platelet concentrates aims to improve this process of integration by accelerating bone and mucosal healing. Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a healing biomaterial that concentrates in a single autologous fibrin membrane, most platelets, leukocytes, and cytokines from a 10-mL blood harvest, without artificial biochemical modification (no anticoagulant, no bovine thrombin). In this second part, we describe the implant and prosthetic phases of a complex maxillary rehabilitation, after preimplant bone grafting using allograft, Choukroun's PRF membranes, and metronidazole. Twenty patients were treated using this new technique and followed up during 2.1 years (1-5 years). Finally, 184 dental implants were placed, including 54 classical screw implants (3I, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) and 130 implants with microthreaded collar (46 from AstraTech, Mölndal, Sweden; 84 from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL). No implant or graft was lost in this case series, confirming the validity of this reconstructive protocol. However, the number of implants used per maxillary rehabilitation was always higher with simple screw implants than with microthreaded implants, the latter presenting a stronger initial implant stability. Finally, during complex implant rehabilitations, PRF membranes are particularly helpful for periosteum healing and maturation. The thick peri-implant gingiva is related to several healing phases on a PRF membrane layer and could explain the low marginal bone loss observed in this series. Microthreaded collar and platform-switching concept even improved this result. Multiple healing on PRF membranes seems a new opportunity to improve the final esthetic result. PMID:19509532

  3. Archean crustal evolution of the Suomussalmi district as part of the Kianta Complex, Karelia: Constraints from geochemistry and isotopes of granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkola, Perttu; Huhma, Hannu; Heilimo, Esa; Whitehouse, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This study presents new geochemical and isotopic data from granitoids belonging to the Kianta Complex of the Western Karelian terrane, collected from the Suomussalmi district in eastern Finland. Geochemically the Archean granitoids can be divided into five groups: TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite, sensu stricto), transitional TTGs, sanukitoids (high-Mg granitoids), quartz diorites and anatectic leucogranitoids. This study includes chemical data for the first four and isotopic data for all the suites. The majority (78 out of 80 samples) of TTGs sensu stricto (K2O/Na2O < 0.5) belongs to the low-HREE type (YbN < 4) with highly variable (La/Yb)N (7-161) ratios and are interpreted as partial melts of garnet amphibolites. TTGs have low Mg numbers (average 38) and 90% of the samples have Cr and Ni contents below detection limits (30 and 20 ppm respectively). This suggests absence of or limited interaction with mantle. Transitional TTGs (K2O/Na2O > 0.5) display higher LILE concentrations, but otherwise closely resemble the TTGs sensu stricto. Sanukitoids and quartz diorites have moderate (La/Yb)N (6-50) and higher HREE, Cr and Ni than the TTGs. Sanukitoids can be differentiated from quartz diorites based on higher Ba (averages 1453 vs. 626 ppm), K2O (averages 3.02 vs. 1.94%) and LREE (LaN averages 141 vs. 92) contents, although overlap between these two suites exists. TTG magmatism in Suomussalmi and the surrounding parts of Kianta Complex can be divided into three major phases: ca 2.95 Ga, 2.83-2.78 Ga and 2.76-2.74 Ga. Sanukitoid magmatism (2.73-2.71 Ga) partly overlaps in error limits with quartz diorites aged 2.70 Ga and is coeval with one transitional TTG sample (2.72 Ga). Migmatization of older rocks and intrusion of leucogranitoids took place at 2.70-2.69 Ga. Geochemistry, inherited zircons (< 3.44 Ga) and the negative initial εNd values of most rocks indicate varying involvement of older crust in their genesis, but δ18O values of zircons show that source

  4. Polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex (Leaota Massif, South Carpathians) constrained by petrological data and monazite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    The Leaota Massif in Romania consists of a flat-lying sequence of five structurally concordant units displaying mutual and partly internal lithologic and metamorphic contrasts. The lower part of the lithologic sequence is the Iezer Complex, a medium-grade psammopelitic unit with a structurally concordant thin granite sill located at its upper part. The lower limit of the granite is marked discontinuously by hornfels, also present as enclaves, which experienced intense strain and a subsequent low-pressure thermal overprint. Both granite and hornfels were affected by a medium-temperature, medium- to high-pressure event (Săbău, 2000). This event was also identified in gneisses below the hornfels. These rocks contain the assemblage garnet-phengite-chloritoid-kyanite which had overprinted an older garnet-kyanite-staurolite-biotite-muscovite assemblage. Available U-Th zircon ages indicate 472.7 ± 7.3 Ma (Balintoni et al. 2009) for the granite. Monazite geochronology (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013) reveals for the associated hornfels (1) inherited ages of 528 ± 17.86 Ma overprinted by pervasive Ordovician contact metamorphism (462 ± 4.54 Ma), slightly postdating the age of magmatic zircon in the granite, (2) Silurian to Early Devonian recrystallization episodes, and (3) a Variscan medium- to high-pressure metamorphic overprint responsible for the garnet-phengite-kyanite assemblage. New petrological and geochronological data constraining the polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex were acquired from kyanite-garnet mylonitic gneisses made up of large garnet porphyroclasts embedded in a strongly deformed matrix. Large garnets are rich in quartz, phengite, epidote, kyanite, rutile, and ilmenite inclusions. Biotite, chlorite, apatite, monazite, and Al-cerite inclusions are also present. Garnet porphyroclasts are wrapped by laminae of small garnet - white mica - biotite - quartz or zoisite - kyanite - plagioclase alternating with bands made up of fine

  5. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  6. The Sun, Its Extended Corona, the Interplanetary Space, the Earth's Magnetosphere, Ionosphere, Middle and Low Atmosphere, are All Parts of a Complex System - the Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Various manifestations of solar activity cause disturbances known as space weather effects in the interplanetary space, near-Earth environment, and all the Earth's "spheres. Longterm variations in the frequency, intensity and relative importance of the manifestations of solar activity are due to the slow changes in the output of the solar dynamo, and they define space climate. Space climate governs long-term variations in geomagnetic activity and is the primary natural driver of terrestrial climate. To understand how the variable solar activity affects the Earth's environment, geomagnetic activity and climate on both short and long time scales, we need to understand the origins of solar activity itself and its different manifestations, as well as the sequence of coupling processes linking various parts of the system. This session provides a forum to discuss the chain of processes and relations from the Sun to the Earth's surface: the origin and long-term and short-term evolution of solar activity, initiation and temporal variations in solar flares, CMEs, coronal holes, the solar wind and its interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere, the ionosphere and its connection to the neutral dominated regions below and the plasma dominated regions above, the stratosphere, its variations due to the changing solar activity and its interactions with the underlying troposphere, and the mechanisms of solar influences on the lower atmosphere on different time-scales. Particularly welcome are papers highlighting the coupling processes between the different domains in this complex system.

  7. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  8. In Bacillus subtilis LutR is part of the global complex regulatory network governing the adaptation to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Irigül-Sönmez, Öykü; Köroğlu, Türkan E; Öztürk, Büşra; Kovács, Ákos T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten

    2014-02-01

    The lutR gene, encoding a product resembling a GntR-family transcriptional regulator, has previously been identified as a gene required for the production of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin in Bacillus subtilis. To understand the broader regulatory roles of LutR in B. subtilis, we studied the genome-wide effects of a lutR null mutation by combining transcriptional profiling studies using DNA microarrays, reverse transcription quantitative PCR, lacZ fusion analyses and gel mobility shift assays. We report that 65 transcriptional units corresponding to 23 mono-cistronic units and 42 operons show altered expression levels in lutR mutant cells, as compared with lutR(+) wild-type cells in early stationary phase. Among these, 11 single genes and 25 operons are likely to be under direct control of LutR. The products of these genes are involved in a variety of physiological processes associated with the onset of stationary phase in B. subtilis, including degradative enzyme production, antibiotic production and resistance, carbohydrate utilization and transport, nitrogen metabolism, phosphate uptake, fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, protein synthesis and translocation, cell-wall metabolism, energy production, transfer of mobile genetic elements, induction of phage-related genes, sporulation, delay of sporulation and cannibalism, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed in the presence of both SinR and LutR revealed a close overlap between the LutR and SinR targets. Our data also revealed a significant overlap with the AbrB regulon. Together, these findings reveal that LutR is part of the global complex, interconnected regulatory systems governing adaptation of bacteria to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase. PMID:24196425

  9. Preparation, X-ray crystallography and thermolysis of lanthanide metal nitrate complexes with 2,2‧-bipyridine, Part-88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibha; Kapoor, I. P. S.; Singh, Gurdip; Frohlich, Roland

    2013-02-01

    The nitrate complexes of cerium, praseodymium and neodymium with 2,2'-bipyridine of general formulae, [Ln(bipy)2(NO3)3], have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Thermal studies were undertaken using thermogravimetry (TG), TG (DTA) differential thermal analysis and ignition delay measurements. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of these complexes was investigated using isothermal TG data by applying model-fitting and iso-conversional methods. The cerium complex decomposes in single step whereas praseodymium and neodymium complexes decompose in three steps.

  10. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XIX. Synthesis, characterization, circular dichroism and antimicrobial activity of oxalato and malonato-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-(3-methyl)butanoato-chromate(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Dragoslav; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radojević, Ivana D.; Vasić, Sava M.; Stefanović, Olgica D.; Čomić, Ljiljana R.; Vasojević, Miorad M.; Jelić, Miodrag Ž.; Koval'chuk, Tatyana V.; Loginova, Natalia V.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2013-10-01

    The s-cis-[Cr(S,S-eddv)L]-complexes (1,2) (S,S-eddv = (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-(3-methyl)butanoato ion; L = oxalate or malonate ion) were prepared. The complexes were purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The geometry of the complexes has been supposed on the basis of the infrared and electronic absorption spectra, and the absolute configurations of the isolated s-cis-[Cr(S,S-eddv)L]-complexes have been predicted on the basis of their circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Also, the results of thermal decomposition have been discussed. Antimicrobial activity of the prepared complexes (1-4) was investigated against 28 species of microorganisms. Testing was performed by microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) have been determined. Complexes demonstrated in generally low antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  11. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clos, Frediano; Gilio, Mattia; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2014-04-01

    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP is an orogenic peridotite containing a well developed penetrative compositional layering, defined by highly depleted dunite with olivine Mg# (100 × Mg/Mg + Fe) of 92.0-93.5 and harzburgite with lower Mg# (91.0-92.5). Dunite is characterized by three contrasting olivine microstructures formed in response to different tectonometamorphic events: Coarse-grained, highly strained olivine porphyroclasts (M1) up to 20 cm long are surrounded by dynamically recrystallized olivine grains (M2) defining a characteristic olivine "foam" microstructure (grain size: 200-2000 μm). An olivine "mortar" (M3) microstructure (10-50 μm) forms a penetrative fabric element only in strongly localized, cm-to-m sized shear zones that crosscut earlier structures/foliations. Olivine fabric analysis in synergy, with mineralogical and chemical analyses, reveals that the KSP body represents old, possibly Archean, sub-continental lithospheric mantle that was crustally emplaced into the Caledonian tectonic edifice from the hanging wall mantle during exhumation of the subducted Seve Nappe Complex (Jämtlandian orogeny ~ 454 Ma). Olivine porphyroclasts (M1) grew at high temperature during dominant isobaric cooling after extensive polybaric melt extraction (> 40%) and subsequent refertilization. The onset of the early Caledonian deformation is interpreted to be related to the crustal emplacement of the KSP during eduction of the SNC. This phase is characterized by the development of the olivine M2 foam microstructure, formed at 650-830 °C/1-2 GPa by dislocation creep processes producing an E-type CPO's by the operation of the [100](001) and subordinate [001](100) slip systems with operating flow stress

  12. Elevated Hepcidin Is Part of a Complex Relation That Links Mortality with Iron Homeostasis and Anemia in Men and Women with HIV Infection123

    PubMed Central

    Minchella, Peter A; Armitage, Andrew E; Darboe, Bakary; Jallow, Momodou W; Drakesmith, Hal; Jaye, Assan; Prentice, Andrew M; McDermid, Joann M

    2015-01-01

    hepcidin is also part of a complex relation linking iron homeostasis, anemia, and HIV. Understanding the mechanisms and role of hepcidin modulation may further guide evidence-based interventions needed to counter detrimental iron homeostasis and anemia in HIV infection. PMID:25904736

  13. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part I: Petrography and Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Braga, Roberto; Cesare, Bernardo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Del Moro, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The San Vincenzo Volcanic Complex was emplaced ~ 4.4 Ma. ago and consists of cordierite-bearing lavas which are the result of a complex interaction between mantle-derived and crustal anatectic magmas. The lavas are mostly characterized by porphyritic, glassy peraluminous rhyolites hosting variable contents of magmatic enclaves (clinopyroxene-bearing latites and amphibole-bearing clinopyroxene crystal mushes), sialic and ultramafic cognates (syenogranites, anorthosites, cordierite-biotite and pyroxenite inclusions), and crustal rocks (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, cordierite and biotite xenocrysts) of centimetric-to-millimetric size. Mineral chemistry shows large variations as well. Plagioclase and sanidine are represented respectively by An21-79Or1-13 and An≤ 1Or57-77. Cordierite has a Mg# of 51-78%, while garnet shows almandine compositions with low CaO (≤ 2 wt.%) and variable MnO contents (1-5 wt.%). Clinopyroxene indicates large ranges of Mg# (68-92%) and Al2O3 (0.5-6.3 wt.%), and relatively high CaO contents (up to 24 wt.%); orthopyroxene shows both ferroan enstatite (Mg# = 60-78%) and magnesian ferrosilite (Mg# = 39-44%) compositions; whereas amphibole shows only Mg-rich calcic compositions. On the basis of textural characteristics, as well as Ti and XMg variations, we have identified six different types of biotite associated with oxide minerals such as ilmenite and spinels of both aluminium (Al > 1 in Y site) and iron (Fe > 1 in Y site) subgroups. Compositional/textural relationships indicate crystallization at both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. Minerals with euhedral habits and homogeneous compositions usually occur in the same thin sections of partly-equilibrated crustal xenoliths (and xenocrysts) and zones of "active" mixing between mantle-derived and crustal magmas characterized by "needle-like" and skeletal microlites, and subhedral microphenocrysts of amphibole and biotite. These hybrid-mixed features, as well as the occurrence of

  14. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part I: Petrography and Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Braga, Roberto; Cesare, Bernardo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Del Moro, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The San Vincenzo Volcanic Complex was emplaced ~ 4.4 Ma. ago and consists of cordierite-bearing lavas which are the result of a complex interaction between mantle-derived and crustal anatectic magmas. The lavas are mostly characterized by porphyritic, glassy peraluminous rhyolites hosting variable contents of magmatic enclaves (clinopyroxene-bearing latites and amphibole-bearing clinopyroxene crystal mushes), sialic and ultramafic cognates (syenogranites, anorthosites, cordierite-biotite and pyroxenite inclusions), and crustal rocks (sillimanite-cordierite xenoliths, cordierite and biotite xenocrysts) of centimetric-to-millimetric size. Mineral chemistry shows large variations as well. Plagioclase and sanidine are represented respectively by An21-79Or1-13 and An≤ 1Or57-77. Cordierite has a Mg# of 51-78%, while garnet shows almandine compositions with low CaO (≤ 2 wt.%) and variable MnO contents (1-5 wt.%). Clinopyroxene indicates large ranges of Mg# (68-92%) and Al2O3 (0.5-6.3 wt.%), and relatively high CaO contents (up to 24 wt.%); orthopyroxene shows both ferroan enstatite (Mg# = 60-78%) and magnesian ferrosilite (Mg# = 39-44%) compositions; whereas amphibole shows only Mg-rich calcic compositions. On the basis of textural characteristics, as well as Ti and XMg variations, we have identified six different types of biotite associated with oxide minerals such as ilmenite and spinels of both aluminium (Al > 1 in Y site) and iron (Fe > 1 in Y site) subgroups. Compositional/textural relationships indicate crystallization at both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions. Minerals with euhedral habits and homogeneous compositions usually occur in the same thin sections of partly-equilibrated crustal xenoliths (and xenocrysts) and zones of "active" mixing between mantle-derived and crustal magmas characterized by "needle-like" and skeletal microlites, and subhedral microphenocrysts of amphibole and biotite. These hybrid-mixed features, as well as the occurrence of

  15. Protein-protein interactions in the β-oxidation part of the phenylacetate utilization pathway: crystal structure of the PaaF-PaaG hydratase-isomerase complex.

    PubMed

    Grishin, Andrey M; Ajamian, Eunice; Zhang, Linhua; Rouiller, Isabelle; Bostina, Mihnea; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2012-11-01

    Microbial anaerobic and so-called hybrid pathways for degradation of aromatic compounds contain β-oxidation-like steps. These reactions convert the product of the opening of the aromatic ring to common metabolites. The hybrid phenylacetate degradation pathway is encoded in Escherichia coli by the paa operon containing genes for 10 enzymes. Previously, we have analyzed protein-protein interactions among the enzymes catalyzing the initial oxidation steps in the paa pathway (Grishin, A. M., Ajamian, E., Tao, L., Zhang, L., Menard, R., and Cygler, M. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10735-10743). Here we report characterization of interactions between the remaining enzymes of this pathway and show another stable complex, PaaFG, an enoyl-CoA hydratase and enoyl-Coa isomerase, both belonging to the crotonase superfamily. These steps are biochemically similar to the well studied fatty acid β-oxidation, which can be catalyzed by individual monofunctional enzymes, multifunctional enzymes comprising several domains, or enzymatic complexes such as the bacterial fatty acid β-oxidation complex. We have determined the structure of the PaaFG complex and determined that although individually PaaF and PaaG are similar to enzymes from the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, the structure of the complex is dissimilar from bacterial fatty acid β-oxidation complexes. The PaaFG complex has a four-layered structure composed of homotrimeric discs of PaaF and PaaG. The active sites of PaaF and PaaG are adapted to accept the intermediary components of the Paa pathway, different from those of the fatty acid β-oxidation. The association of PaaF and PaaG into a stable complex might serve to speed up the steps of the pathway following the conversion of phenylacetyl-CoA to a toxic and unstable epoxide-CoA by PaaABCE monooxygenase. PMID:22961985

  16. Comparison of Crystal Field Dependent and Independent Methods to Analyse Lanthanide Induced NMR Shifts in Axially Symmetric Complexes. Part II: Systems with a C4 Symmetry Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shanrong; Sherry, A. Dean

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the LIS data for several series of Ln3+ complexes of C4 symmetry in terms of structural changes, crystal-field effects and/or variation of hyperfine constants along the lanthanide series was undertaken using a combination of the two-nuclei and three-nuclei techniques together with the classical onenucleus technique. Isostructurality of whole series of complexes, with changes of the Fi, and B02 parameters, was clearly defined for the complexes of L by the combination of the two first methods. Small changes, involving the three Fi, Gi and B02 parameters, are observed for the series of complexes of L-L4, using the three data plotting methods. Some of the plots according to the two- and three-nuclei methods are accidentally linear, without necessarily implying isostructurality of the complexes, as they involve parameters, which may be insensitive to any small structural changes occurring in these systems. These parameter variations could result from a magnification, by the present graphical analysis, of the breaks expected from the gradual structural changes along the series due to the lanthanide contraction. The α and β parameters of the three-nuclei method are not diagnostic of the type of structures the complexes have in solution, due to their very indirect dependence on the geometric factors. PMID:18365039

  17. The vibrational spectra of the boron halides and their molecular complexes. Part 9. Ab initio studies of the complexes of boron trifluoride with methanol, methanethiol and some related bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas A.

    2007-05-01

    The structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra of the electron donor-acceptor complexes formed between boron trifluoride, as Lewis acid, and methanol and methanethiol, as Lewis bases, have been determined by means of ab initio calculations at the level of second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, using a triple-zeta Gaussian basis set with polarization and diffuse functions on all atoms. Two conformers, an eclipsed and a staggered species, have been examined for each complex, and the preferred conformer identified in each case. The computed data have been compared with those for some related complexes containing boron trifluoride and other oxygen and sulphur electron donors (water, hydrogen sulphide, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphide).

  18. Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 101 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I and II With Metal Complexes of Imidazo[2,1−b ]-1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Sulfonamide

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    The title compound was prepared by an improved variant of the literature procedure, and metal complexes containing its anion and the following metal ions: Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), V(IV), Fe(III) and Ag(I) were synthesized and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis; IR, electronic, NMR and EPR spectroscopy; TG, magnetic and conductimetric measurements). The parent sulfonamide and its metal complexes are potent inhibitors of two carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes, CA I and II, and they might possess applications as selective cerebrovasodilating agents. PMID:18475761

  19. School-Based Study of Complex Environmental Exposures and Related Health Effects in Children: Part A - Exposure. Final Report and Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. School of Public Health.

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study examined children's exposure to complex mixtures of environmental agents (i.e., volatile organic chemicals, environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, and pesticides). Environmental, personal, and biological data were collected on ethnically and…

  20. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 2. Key to the Phytoplankton Phyla and Genera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helrich, Jane

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. This document is the second of a series of guides designed to help students and teachers gather data concerning the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex and to organize these data to make a contribution to the literature of…

  1. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powder at different moisture contents - Part 2: Characterization of complexed powders and determination of crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Jack, Kevin S; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize CO2-α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) inclusion complexes produced from amorphous α-CD powder at moisture contents (MC) close to or higher than the critical level of crystallization (e.g. 13, 15 and 17% MC on wet basis, w.b.) at 0.4 and 1.6MPa pressure for 72h. The results of (13)C NMR, SEM, DSC and X-ray analyses showed that these MC levels were high enough to induce crystallization of CO2-α-CD complexed powders during encapsulation, by which amount of CO2 encapsulated by amorphous α-CD powder was significantly increased. The formation of inclusion complexes were well confirmed by results of FTIR and (13)C NMR analyses through an appearance of a peak associated with CO2 on the FTIR (2334cm(-1)) and NMR (125.3ppm) spectra. Determination of crystal packing patterns of CO2-α-CD complexed powders showed that during crystallization, α-CD molecules were arranged in cage-type structure in which CO2 molecules were entrapped in isolated cavities. PMID:27041303

  2. Use of the ion exchange method for the determination of stability constants of trivalent metal complexes with humic and fulvic acids--part I: Eu3+ and Am3+ complexes in weakly acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wenming, Dong; Hongxia, Zhang; Meide, Huang; Zuyi, Tao

    2002-06-01

    The conditional stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) with a red earth humic acid (REHA), a red earth fulvic acid (REFA) and a fulvic acid from weathered coal (WFA) were determined at pH 5.2-6.4 (such values are similar to those in non-calcareous soils) in the presence of HAc/NaAc or NaNO3 by using the cation exchange method. It was found that 1:1 complexes were predominately formed in weakly acidic conditions. The total exchangeable proton capacities and the degrees of dissociation of these humic substances were determined by using a potentiometric titration method. The key parameters necessary for the experimental determination of the conditional stability constants of metal ions with humic substances in weakly acidic conditions by using the cation exchange method were discussed. The conditional stability constants of 1:1 complexes obtained in this paper were compared with the literature data of Am(III) determined by using the ion exchange method and the solvent extraction method and with the stability constants of 1:1 complexes of UO2(2+) and Th4+ with the same soil humic substances. These results indicate the great stability of bivalent UO2(2+), trivalent Eu3+, Am3+ and tetravalent Th4+ complexes with humic and fulvic acids in weakly acidic conditions. PMID:12102358

  3. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 6. Key to the Common Fishes of San Francisco Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Bob

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the sixth of a series produced to help students and teachers gather data…

  4. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 3. Key to the Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettler, James

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the third of a series produced to help students and teachers gather data…

  5. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 4. Key to the Coastal Marine Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the fourth of a series which was produced to help students and teachers gather…

  6. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 5. Keys to the Freshwater and Anadromous Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, J. B.; Fisk, Leonard O.

    1960-01-01

    This key to freshwater and anadromous fishes of California is included as the fifth of a series of guides being produced by Project MER (Marine Ecology Research). This project is part of the effort to improve environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools by gathering and organizing data on the ecological character of the San…

  7. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 91. Metal Complexes of Heterocyclic Sulfonamides as Potential Pharmacological Agents in the Treatment of Gastric Acid Secretion Imbalances

    PubMed Central

    Ilies, Marc A.; Scozzafava, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Zinc, magnesium, aluminum and copper complexes of several potent, clinically used carbonic anhydrase (CA) sulfonamide inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide and benzolamide were tested for their possible applications as antacids, in experimental animals. Gastric acid secretion parameters 3 days after treatment with these CA inhibitors (2 × 500 mg, twice a day), in dogs with chronic gastric fistulas, led to the observation that the gastric acid parameters BAO (the basal acid output), and MAO (the maximal acid output after stimulation with histamine) were drastically reduced, as compared to the same parameters in animals that did not receive these enzyme inhibitors. These are promising results for the possible use of metal complexes of heterocyclic sulfonamides as treatment alternatives (alone or in combination with other drugs) for gastric acid secretion imbalances. PMID:18475926

  8. Learning new tricks from an old dog: MalT of the Escherichia coli maltose system is part of a complex regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Boos, W; Böhm, A

    2000-09-01

    The regulation of the maltose system in Escherichia coli has traditionally been viewed as a simple positive feedback loop. Today, we know that there are cross connections to several, seemingly unrelated, metabolic pathways. MalT, the central activator of the mal genes, is the key element in this complex regulatory network and integrates the different signals to give an appropriate transcriptional response. PMID:10973069

  9. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 461 Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV With Trifluoromethylsulfonamide Derivatives and Their Zinc(II) and Copper(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Giovanna; Scozzafava, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing a free amino group with triflic anhydride afforded compounds possessing trifluoromethanesulfonamido moieties in their molecule. The Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes of these new sulfonamides were prepared and characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). The new derivatives showed good inhibitory activity against three isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), i.e., CA I, II and IV. PMID:18475762

  10. Improving ozone modeling in complex terrain at a fine grid resolution: Part I - examination of analysis nudging and all PBL schemes associated with LSMs in meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yunhee; Fu, Joshua S.; Miller, Terry L.

    2010-02-01

    Meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed, wind directions, and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have critical implications for air quality simulations. Sensitivity simulations with five different PBL schemes associated with three different Land Surface Models (LSMs) were conducted to examine the impact of meteorological variables on the predicted ozone concentrations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.5 with local perspective. Additionally, the nudging analysis for winds was adopted with three different coefficients to improve the wind fields in the complex terrain at 4-km grid resolution. The simulations focus on complex terrain having valley and mountain areas at 4-km grid resolution. The ETA M-Y (Mellor-Yamada) and G-S (Gayno-Seaman) PBL schemes are identified as favorite options and promote O 3 formation causing the higher temperature, slower winds, and lower mixing height among sensitivity simulations in the area of study. It is found that PX (Pleim-Xiu) simulation does not always give optimal meteorological model performance. We also note that the PBL scheme plays a more important role in predicting daily maximum 8-h O 3 than land surface models. The results of nudging analysis for winds with three different increased coefficients' values (2.5, 4.5, and 6.0 × 10 -4 s -1) over seven sensitivity simulations show that the meteorological model performance was enhanced due to improved wind fields, indicating the FDDA nudging analysis can improve model performance considerably at 4-km grid resolution. Specifically, the sensitivity simulations with the coefficient value (6.0 × 10 -4) yielded more substantial improvements than with the other values (2.5 and 4.5 × 10 -4). Hence, choosing the nudging coefficient of 6.0 × 10 -4 s -1 for winds in MM5 may be the best choice to improve wind fields as an input, as well as, better model performance of CMAQ in the complex terrain area. As a result, a finer grid resolution is

  11. Mercury enrichments in core sediments in Hugli-Matla-Bidyadhari estuarine complex, north-eastern part of the Bay of Bengal and their ecotoxicological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, M.; Canário, J.; Sarkar, S. K.; Branco, V.; Bhattacharya, A. K.; Satpathy, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    Mercury concentrations (HgT) in fine-grained fraction (<63 μm) of core sediments of the Hugli-Matla-Bidyadhari estuarine complex, India were analyzed. Results revealed a wide range of spatial variations (<4-93 ng g-1 dry weight) with a definite enhancement level at the lower stretch of the estuarine complex infested with mangrove plants, which might act as a sink to HgT. An elevated concentration of Hg was encountered in surface/subsurface layer of the core in majority of the cases resulting from physical, biogenic and postdepositional diagenetic processes that remobilized and resuspended the metal from deeper sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the Hg and clay fraction content of the sediments, while the correlations of Hg with Al, Fe and Mn were poor. Based on the index of geoaccumulation ( I geo) and effects range-low (ER-L) value, it is considered that the sediments are less polluted and thus there is less chance of ecotoxicological risk to organisms living in sediments.

  12. Quantum chemistry-based interpretations on the lowest triplet state of luminescent lanthanides complexes. Part 1. Relation between the triplet state energy of hydroxamate complexes and their luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Fabien; Tedeschi, Christine; Maron, Laurent; Daudey, Jean-Pierre; Poteau, Romuald; Azema, Joëlle; Tisnès, Pierre; Picard, Claude

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the potential use of theoretical calculations to obtain an energy scale of the lowest ligand-centred triplet excited state in luminescent terbium(III) complexes. In these complexes, non-radiative deactivation of the terbium emitting state via a back-energy transfer process (T1<--Tb(5D4)) is a common quenching process. Consequently the prediction of the energy gap between these two excited states should be useful for programming highly luminescent Tb(III) systems. We report on a strategy based upon experimental and theoretical investigations of the excited state properties of a series of four simple aromatic hydroxamate ligands coordinated to Tb(III) and Gd(III) ions. By using previously reported crystallographic data, the structural and energies properties of these systems were investigated in the ground and first excited triplet states at the density functional theory (DFT) level of calculations. Our theoretical results are consistent with a triplet excited state T1 which is localised on one ligand only and whose the energy level is independent of the lanthanide ion nature (Tb(III), Gd(III)). A good agreement between the calculated adiabatic transition energies and experimental data derived from emission spectra is obtained when a corrective term is considered. These satisfactory results are an indication that this type of modelling can lead to discriminate in terms of the position of the lowest ligand triplet energy level the best antenna among a family of chromophoric compounds. In addition this theoretical approach has provided indications that the difference between the adiabatic transition energies of all the investigated complexes can be mainly explained by metal-ligand electrostatic interactions. The influence of the number of antennae on the quantum yield and the luminescence lifetime is discussed. PMID:15252626

  13. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Part 551 Metal Complexes of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole-2-Sulfonamide Derivatives: In Vitro Inhibition Studies With Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes I, II and IV

    PubMed Central

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio; Ilies, Marc A.; Jitianu, Andrei

    1998-01-01

    Coordination compounds of 5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (Hcaz) with V(IV), Cr(lll), Fe(ll), Co(ll), Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) have been prepared and characterized by standard procedures (spectroscopic, magnetic, EPR, thermogravimetric and conductimetric measurements). Some of these compounds showed very good in vitro inhibitory properties against three physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA)isozymes, i.e., CA I, II, and IV. The differences between these isozymes in susceptibility to inhibition by these metal complexes is discussed in relationship to the characteristic features of their active sites, and is rationalized in terms useful for developing isozyme-specific CA inhibitors. PMID:18475829

  14. Post-folding magmatism (1.85-1.7 Ga) in the eastern part of the Baltic Shield: Correlation of its structural position and evolution of surrounding complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhov, E. N.; Baluev, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    This work discusses the structural and compositional correlation of an unusual group of rocks that comprise post-folding massifs and dikes in the eastern Baltic Shield, which formed between 1.85 and 1.7 Ga. Occurring from the Barents Sea in the north to the Gulf of Finland in the south, these structures are associated with areas of granulite facies rocks that formed under conditions corresponding to the deep continental crust. Large-scale extension of continental crust, which led to the exhumation of the granulite complex, simultaneous with the formation of metasomatic formations and manifestations of post-folding magmatism, was confined to the periphery of a large circular structure, which is interpreted by us as the Baltic nucleus, or a tectonic portion of the continental crust at the end of early Precambrian. The formation of enriched mantle, a source of the Paleozoic alkaline melts, can also be associated with these processes of extension.

  15. Alkali-metal ion coordination in uranyl(VI) poly-peroxo complexes in solution, inorganic analogues to crown-ethers. Part 2. Complex formation in the tetramethyl ammonium-, Li(+)-, Na(+)- and K(+)-uranyl(VI)-peroxide-carbonate systems.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Szabó, Zoltán; Vallet, Valerie; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2015-10-01

    The constitution and equilibrium constants of ternary uranyl(vi) peroxide carbonate complexes [(UO2)p(O2)q(CO3)r](2(p-q-r)) have been determined at 0 °C in 0.50 M MNO3, M = Li, K, and TMA (tetramethyl ammonium), ionic media using potentiometric and spectrophotometric data; (17)O NMR data were used to determine the number of complexes present. The formation of cyclic oligomers, "[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]n", n = 4, 5, 6, with different stoichiometries depending on the ionic medium used, suggests that Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and TMA ions act as templates for the formation of uranyl peroxide rings where the uranyl-units are linked by μ-η(2)-η(2) bridged peroxide-ions. The templating effect is due to the coordination of the M(+)-ions to the uranyl oxygen atoms, where the coordination of Li(+) results in the formation of Li[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]4(7-), Na(+) and K(+) in the formation of Na/K[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) complexes, while the large tetramethyl ammonium ion promotes the formation of two oligomers, TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) and TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-). The NMR spectra demonstrate that the coordination of Na(+) in the five- and six-membered oligomers is significantly stronger than that of TMA(+); these observations suggest that the templating effect is similar to the one observed in the synthesis of crown-ethers. The NMR experiments also demonstrate that the exchange between TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) and TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) is slow on the (17)O chemical shift time-scale, while the exchange between TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) and Na[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) is fast. There was no indication of the presence of large clusters of the type identified by Burns and Nyman (M. Nyman and P. C. Burns, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 7314-7367) and possible reasons for this and the implications for the synthesis of large clusters are briefly discussed. PMID:26331776

  16. The 90-kDa junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein forms an integral part of a supramolecular triad complex in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Froemming, G R; Pette, D; Ohlendieck, K

    1999-08-11

    Although it is well established that voltage-sensing of the alpha(1)-dihydropyridine receptor triggers Ca(2+)-release via the ryanodine receptor during excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers, it remains to be determined which junctional components are responsible for the assembly, maintenance, and stabilization of triads. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern and neighborhood relationship of a novel 90-kDa sarcoplasmic reticulum protein. This protein is highly enriched in the triad fraction and is predominantly expressed in fast-twitching muscle fibers. Chronic low-frequency electro-stimulation induced a drastic decrease in the relative abundance of this protein. Chemical crosslinking showed a potential overlap between the 90-kDa junctional face membrane protein and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel, suggesting tight protein-protein interactions between these two triad components. Hence, Ca(2+)-regulatory muscle proteins have a strong tendency to oligomerize and the triad region of skeletal muscle fibers forms supramolecular membrane complexes involved in the regulation of Ca(2+)-homeostasis and signal transduction. PMID:10441473

  17. 2D dry granular free-surface transient flow over complex topography with obstacles. Part II: Numerical predictions of fluid structures and benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juez, C.; Caviedes-Voullième, D.; Murillo, J.; García-Navarro, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense granular flows are present in geophysics and in several industrial processes, which has lead to an increasing interest for the knowledge and understanding of the physics which govern their propagation. For this reason, a wide range of laboratory experiments on gravity-driven flows have been carried out during the last two decades. The present work is focused on geomorphological processes and, following previous work, a series of laboratory studies which constitute a further step in mimicking natural phenomena are described and simulated. Three situations are considered with some common properties: a two-dimensional configuration, variable slope of the topography and the presence of obstacles. The setup and measurement technique employed during the development of these experiments are deeply explained in the companion work. The first experiment is based on a single obstacle, the second one is performed against multiple obstacles and the third one studies the influence of a dike on which overtopping occurs. Due to the impact of the flow against the obstacles, fast moving shocks appear, and a variety of secondary waves emerge. In order to delve into the physics of these types of phenomena, a shock-capturing numerical scheme is used to simulate the cases. The suitability of the mathematical models employed in this work has been previously validated. Comparisons between computed and experimental data are presented for the three cases. The computed results show that the numerical tool is able to predict faithfully the overall behavior of this type of complex dense granular flow.

  18. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powder at different moisture contents - Part 1: Encapsulation capacity and stability of inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-07-15

    This study investigated the effects of water-induced crystallization of amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) powder on CO2 encapsulation at 0.4-1.6 MPa pressure for 1-72 h through the addition of water (to reach to 13, 15 and 17% wet basis, w.b.) into amorphous α-CD powder prior to the encapsulation. The results showed that the α-CD encapsulation capacity was over 1 mol CO2/mol α-CD after pressurizing for longer than 48 h. The encapsulated CO2 concentration by the addition of water was considerably higher (p<0.05) than that of amorphous α-CD powder (5.51% MC, w.b.) without an addition of water and that of crystalline α-CD powders under the same MC and encapsulation conditions. A comparison of CO2 release properties (75% relative humidity, 25 °C) from complexed powders prepared from amorphous and crystalline α-CD powders under the same conditions is also presented. PMID:26948624

  19. Comparison of 3-Dimensional Shoulder Complex Kinematics in Individuals With and Without Shoulder Pain, Part 1: Sternoclavicular, Acromioclavicular, and Scapulothoracic Joints

    PubMed Central

    LAWRENCE, REBEKAH L.; BRAMAN, JONATHAN P.; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.; LUDEWIG, PAULA M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES To compare sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and scapulothoracic joint motion between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals during shoulder motion performed in 3 planes of humerothoracic elevation. BACKGROUND Differences in scapulothoracic kinematics are associated with shoulder pain. Several studies have measured these differences using surface sensors, but the results of this technique may be affected by skin-motion artifact. Furthermore, previous studies have not included the simultaneous measurement of sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joint motion. METHODS Transcortical bone pins were inserted into the clavicle, scapula, and humerus of 12 asymptomatic and 10 symptomatic individuals for direct, bone-fixed tracking using electromagnetic sensors. Angular positions for the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and scapulothoracic joints were measured during shoulder flexion, abduction, and scapular plane abduction. RESULTS Differences between groups were found for sternoclavicular and scapulothoracic joint positions. Symptomatic individuals consistently demonstrated less sternoclavicular posterior rotation, regardless of angle, phase, or plane of shoulder motion. Symptomatic individuals also demonstrated less scapulothoracic upward rotation at 30° and 60° of humerothoracic elevation during shoulder abduction and scapular plane abduction. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that differences in shoulder complex kinematics exist between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. However, the magnitude of these differences was small, and the resulting clinical implications are not yet fully understood. The biomechanical coupling of the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints requires further research to better understand scapulothoracic movement deviations and to improve manual therapy and exercise-based physical therapy interventions. PMID:25103135

  20. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  1. Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients and imaginary part of the complex refractive indices of mineral dust components measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utry, N.; Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Tombácz, E.; Illés, E.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    Mass-specific optical absorption coefficients (MACs) and the imaginary part (κ) of the refractive indices of various mineral dust components including silicate clays (illite, kaolin and bentonite), oxides (quartz, hematite and rutile), and carbonate (limestone) were determined at the wavelengths of 1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm. The MAC values were calculated from aerosol optical absorption coefficients measured by a multi-wavelength photoacoustic (PA) instrument, the mass concentration and the number size distribution of the generated aerosol samples as well as the size transfer functions of the measuring instruments. Values of κ were calculated from the measured and particle-loss-corrected data by using a Mie-theory-based retrieval algorithm. The determined values could be used for comparisons with calculated wavelength-dependent κ values typically deduced from bulk-phase measurements by using indirect measurement methods. Accordingly, the presented comparison of the measured and calculated aerosol optical absorption spectra revealed the strong need for standardized sample preparation and measurement methodology in case of bulk-phase measurements.

  2. 2D dry granular free-surface flow over complex topography with obstacles. Part I: experimental study using a consumer-grade RGB-D sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Juez, Carmelo; Murillo, Javier; García-Navarro, Pilar

    2014-12-01

    Avalanches, debris flows and other types of gravity-driven granular flows are a common hazard in mountainous regions. These regions often have human settlements in the lower parts of valleys, with human structures dangerously exposed to the destructive effects of these geophysical flows. Therefore a scientific effort has been made to understand, model and simulate geophysical granular flows. In order for computer models and simulations to be of predictive value they need to be validated under controlled, yet nature-like conditions. This work presents an experimental study of granular flow over a simplified mountain slope and valley topography. The experimental facility has a rough bed with very high slope at the upstream end and adverse slope on the downstream end, following a parabolic profile. Obstacles are present in the lower regions. Transient measurements of the moving granular surfaces were taken with a consumer-grade RGB-D sensor, providing transient 2D elevation fields around the obstacles. Three experimental configurations were tested, with semispheres of different diameters and a square dike obstacle. The experimental results are very consistent and repeatable. The quantitative, transient and two-dimensional data for all three experiments constitute excellent benchmarking tests for computational models, such as the one presented in a companion paper.

  3. Fast dissolving cyclodextrin complex of piroxicam in solid dispersion part I: influence of β-CD and HPβ-CD on the dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    PubMed

    Bouchal, F; Skiba, M; Chaffai, N; Hallouard, F; Fatmi, S; Lahiani-Skiba, M

    2015-01-30

    Sublingual drug delivery is an interesting route for drug having significant hepatic first-pass metabolism or requiring rapid pharmacological effect as for patients suffering from swallowing difficulties, nausea or vomiting. Sublingual absorption could however be limited by the kinetic of drug dissolution. This study evaluated influences of cyclodextrins (β-CD or HP-β-CD) and their different inclusion process (spray-drying or freeze-drying) on the drug dissolution kinetic of solid dispersions in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw 6000Da) of piroxicam, used as poor hydrosoluble drug model. A secondary objective was to determine influences of drug dispersion process in PEG (evaporation or melting methods) on the drug dissolution kinetic of piroxicam. Piroxicam solid dispersions containing or not cyclodextrins were characterized by different scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravometry analyser (TGA) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In vitro drug dissolution study of these solid dispersions was then performed. The results demonstrated the high potential and interest of solid dispersions of drug previously included in cyclodextrins for sublingual delivery of hydrophobic drugs. This study also showed the advantages of evaporation method on the melting ones during drug dispersion in PEG. Indeed, drug complexation with cyclodextrins as dispersion by melting prevented the presence in solid dispersions of drug in crystalline form which can represent up to 63%. Moreover, dispersion in PEG by evaporation method gave more porous drug delivery system than with melting methods. This allowed complete (limited at most at 80-90% with melting methods) and quick drug dissolution without rebound effect like with melting ones. PMID:25522828

  4. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 2. Single-Mode Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Reshock

    SciTech Connect

    Latini, M; Schilling, O

    2005-04-27

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further elucidate the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [68]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [29] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF{sub 6} shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and on the spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing.

  5. Evidence that the 45-kD glycoprotein, part of a putative dengue virus receptor complex in the mosquito cell line C6/36, is a heat-shock related protein.

    PubMed

    Salas-Benito, Juan; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge; Salas-Benito, Mariana; Ceballos-Olvera, Ivonne; Mosso, Clemente; del Angel, Rosa M

    2007-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Although several molecules have been described as part of DENV receptor complex in mosquito cells, none of them have been identified. Our group characterized two glycoproteins (40 and 45 kD) as part of the DENV receptor complex in C6/36 cells. Because identification of the mosquito cell receptor has been unsuccessful and some cell receptors described for DENV in mammalian cells are heat-shock proteins (HSPs), the role of HSPs in DENV binding and infection in C6/36 cells was evaluated. Our results indicate that gp45 and a 74-kD molecule (p74), which interact with DENV envelope protein, are immunologically related to HSP90. Although p74 is induced by heat shock, gp45 apparently is not. However, these proteins are relocated to the cell surface after heat-shock treatment, causing an increase in virus binding without any effect on virus yield. PMID:17690400

  6. Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Simulations and Modeling of Complex Hydrodynamic Flows. Part 2. Single-Mode Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Reshock

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, O; Latini, M

    2004-10-06

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further understand the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [57]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [23] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF6 shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross-section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing. First, analytical, semi-analytical, and

  7. The Hox-4.8 gene is localized at the 5' extremity of the Hox-4 complex and is expressed in the most posterior parts of the body during development.

    PubMed

    Dollé, P; Izpisúa-Belmonte, J C; Boncinelli, E; Duboule, D

    1991-12-01

    We report the isolation and expression pattern of a novel mouse homeobox gene, Hox-4.8. Hox-4.8 is the most 5'-located homeobox gene in the HOX-4 complex. Sequence analysis confirmed that Hox-4.8 is a member of the subfamily of AbdominalB-related Hox-4 genes and revealed strong interspecies conservation. As for the human locus, Hox-4.8 is probably the last Hox gene in this part of the HOX-4 complex. During development, Hox-4.8 transcripts are restricted to the extremities of the embryonic anteroposterior axis and limbs as well as in the developing tail bud and to the most posterior segment of the gut (the rectum). Within the limb mesenchyme, Hox-4.8 is expressed in more posterodistal regions than those of its neighbour Hox-4.7. Hence, Hox-4.8 expression appears to be related to the last significant phenotypic changes towards the extremities of the embryonic body and limb axes. PMID:1685889

  8. Computerized parts list system coordinates engineering releases, parts control, and manufacturing planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W.; Kinsey, M.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized parts list system compiles and summarize all pertinent and available information on complex new systems. The parts list system consists of three computer subroutines - list of parts, parts numerical sequence list, and specifications list.

  9. Prediction of a Flash Flood in Complex Terrain. Part I: A Comparison of Rainfall Estimates from Radar, and Very Short Range Rainfall Simulations from a Dynamic Model and an Automated Algorithmic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Brandes, Edward A.; Sun, Juanzhen; Yates, David N.; Mueller, Cynthia K.

    2000-06-01

    Operational prediction of flash floods caused by convective rainfall in mountainous areas requires accurate estimates or predictions of the rainfall distribution in space and time. The details of the spatial distribution are especially critical in complex terrain because the watersheds generally are small in size, and position errors in the placement of the rainfall can distribute the rain over the wrong watershed. In addition to the need for good rainfall estimates, accurate flood prediction requires a surface-hydrologic model that is capable of predicting stream or river discharge based on the rainfall-rate input data. In part 1 of this study, different techniques for the estimation and prediction of convective rainfall are applied to the Buffalo Creek, Colorado, flash flood of July 1996, during which over 75 mm of rain from a thunderstorm fell on the watershed in less than 1 h. The hydrologic impact of the rainfall was exacerbated by the fact that a considerable fraction of the watershed experienced a wildfire approximately two months prior to the rain event.Precipitation estimates from the National Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler and the National Center for Atmospheric Research S-band, dual-polarization radar, collocated east of Denver, Colorado, were compared. Very short range simulations from a convection-resolving dynamic model that was initialized variationally using the radar reflectivity and Doppler winds were compared with simulations from an automated algorithmic forecast system that also employs the radar data. The radar estimates of rain rate and the two forecasting systems that employ the radar data have degraded accuracy by virtue of the fact that they are applied in complex terrain. Nevertheless, the dynamic model and automated algorithms both produce simulations that could be useful operationally for input to surface-hydrologic models employed for flood warning. Part 2 of this study, reported in a companion paper, describes

  10. E. coli RNA polymerase, deleted in the C-terminal part of its alpha-subunit, interacts differently with the cAMP-CRP complex at the lacP1 and at the galP1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, A; Igarashi, K; Ishihama, A; Lavigne, M; Buckle, M; Buc, H

    1993-01-01

    A deletion of the C-terminal part of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase is known to affect differently promoters activated by CRP depending on the location of the CRP binding site at the promoter. When the CRP binding site is located at -61.5, as at lacP1 (a type I promoter), activation is strongly impaired while it is not significantly affected at galP1 where CRP binds 41.5 bp upstream of the start of the message (type II promoter). We have investigated the differences in the architecture of the corresponding open complexes by comparing the positioning of holoenzymes reconstituted respectively with native or with truncated alpha-subunits (containing the first 235 or 256 residues of a) at two 'up' promoter mutants of the lacP1 and galP1 promoters (respectively lacUV5 and gal9A16C). First, the affinity of wild-type RNA polymerase for both promoters is increased by the presence of CRP and cAMP. By contrast, holoenzymes reconstituted with truncated alpha-subunits, show cooperative binding at the galP1 promoter only. Second, footprinting data confirm these observations and indicate that the truncated holoenzymes are unable to recognize regions of the promoter upstream from position -40. The absence of contacts between the truncated enzymes and CRP at the lacP1 promoter can explain the deficiency in activation. At the galP1 promoter, where the CRP site is closer to the initiation site, protein-protein contacts can still occur with the truncated polymerases, showing that the C-terminal part of the alpha-subunit is not involved in activation. Images PMID:8382795

  11. Re-Os isotope and platinum-group element geochemistry of the Pobei Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic complex in the northeastern part of the Tarim Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Hong; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Xu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Christina Yan; Jiang, Chang-Yi; Qu, Wen-Jun

    2014-03-01

    A number of mafic-ultramafic intrusions that host Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization occur in the northeastern Tarim Craton and the eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China). The sulfide-mineralized Pobei mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the northeastern part of the Tarim Craton. The complex is composed of gabbro and olivine gabbro, cut by dunite, wehrlite, and melatroctolite of the Poyi and Poshi intrusions. Disseminated Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization is present towards the base of the ultramafic bodies. The sulfide mineralization is typically low grade (<0.5 wt.% Ni and <2 wt.% S) with low platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations (<24.5 ppb Pt and <69 ppb Pd); the abundance of Cu in 100 % sulfide is 1-8 wt.%, and Ni abundance in 100 % sulfide is typically >4 wt.%. Samples from the Pobei complex have ɛNd (at 280 Ma) values up to +8.1, consistent with the derivation of the magma from an asthenospheric mantle source. Fo 89.5 mol.% olivine from the ultramafic bodies is consistent with a primitive parental magma. Sulfide-bearing dunite and wehrlite have high Cu/Pd ratios ranging from 24,000 to 218,000, indicating a magma that evolved under conditions of sulfide saturation. The grades of Ni, Cu, and PGE in 100 % sulfide show a strong positive correlation. A model for these variations is proposed where the mantle source of the Pobei magma retained ~0.033 wt.% sulfide during the production of a PGE-depleted parental magma. The parental magma migrated from the mantle to the crust and underwent further S saturation to generate the observed mineralization along with its high Cu/Pd ratio at an R-factor varying from 100 to 1,200. The mineralization at Poshi and Poyi has very high γOs (at 280 Ma) values (+30 to +292) that are negatively correlated with the abundance of Os in 100 % sulfide (5.81-271 ppb) and positively correlated with the Re/Os ratios; this indicates that sulfide saturation was triggered by the assimilation of crustal sulfide with both high γOs and Re

  12. Parts Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Lou; Fuqua, Debbie

    Designed to address the skills that an auto parts specialist must master in order to be effective in the market place, this manual consists of 13 units of instruction. Covered in the units are orientation; human relations; communications; safety; parts and systems identification; stocking, shipping, and receiving; inventory control; cataloging and…

  13. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 2: User's manual and program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D, was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  14. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiyan; Fan, Yao; Zhang, Xu; Lan, Hanyue; Yang, Tianming; Shao, Mei; Li, Sihan

    2015-01-01

    As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and near-infrared (NIR), with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines. PMID:26345990

  15. Motorcycle Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  16. Serotonin discovery and stepwise disclosure of 5-HT receptor complexity over four decades. Part I. General background and discovery of serotonin as a basis for 5-HT receptor identification.

    PubMed

    Göthert, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    This review contains background information on the serotonin system, furthermore the suggestion to introduce the term Contemporary Witness Report (CWR) for a novel type of review and, as the main part, an overview over the history of serotonin discovery as a basis for the identification of its receptor heterogeneity and the increase in complexity by genetic and allosteric variation. The present article conforms to CWRs in historical and autobiographical elements, in more emphasis on the author's work than in conventional reviews and in aspects neglected in previous reviews, but not in the main feature namely the work of a scientist with comprehensive expertise in a field in which, over long time, he/she continuously performed research and published. A scientist complying with these requirements is a contemporary witness in that field. His report on the scientific achievements in that period, a CWR, comprises confirmation and putative re-interpretation of data from a superior viewpoint. Identification of serotonin's vascular properties (publication year: 1912) as an "adrenaline mimicking substance" (without attempt to isolate it) by O'Connor preceded the discovery of serotonin in the gastrointestinal tract by Erspamer [1937] and in blood by Rapport [1948, 1949], who identified its structure as 5-hydroxytryptamine [1949]. Detection as a neurotransmitter in invertebrates suggested its occurrence in vertebrate CNS as well. This was verified by finding it in dog, rat and rabbit brain [1953]. The Falck-Hillarp technique [1962] visualized serotonin neurones as fluorescent structures. The neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine [1972] indirectly proved the involvement of 5-HT in multiple CNS functions. PMID:24145072

  17. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  18. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    PubMed

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity. PMID

  19. Low-dimensional compounds containing bioactive ligands. Part VI: Synthesis, structures, in vitro DNA binding, antimicrobial and anticancer properties of first row transition metal complexes with 5-chloro-quinolin-8-ol.

    PubMed

    Potočňák, Ivan; Vranec, Peter; Farkasová, Veronika; Sabolová, Danica; Vataščinová, Michaela; Kudláčová, Júlia; Radojević, Ivana D; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Markovic, Bojana Simovic; Volarevic, Vladislav; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Trifunović, Srećko R

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 3d metal complexes with 5-chloro-quinolin-8-ol (ClQ), [Mn(ClQ)2] (1), [Fe(ClQ)3] (2), [Co(ClQ)2(H2O)2] (3), [Ni(ClQ)2(H2O)2] (4), [Cu(ClQ)2] (5), [Zn(ClQ)2(H2O)2] (6), [Mn(ClQ)3]·DMF (7) and [Co(ClQ)3]·DMF·(EtOH)0.35 (8) (DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA thermal analysis. X-ray structure analysis of 7 and 8 revealed that these molecular complexes contain three chelate ClQ molecules coordinated to the central atoms in a deformed octahedral geometry and free space between the complex units is filled by solvated DMF and ethanol molecules. Antimicrobial activity of 1-6 was tested by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentration against 12 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. The intensity of antimicrobial action varies depending on the group of microorganism and can be sorted: 1>ClQ>6>3/4>2>5. Complexes 1-6 exhibit high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB, HCT-116 and A549 cancer cell lines. Among them, complex 2 is significantly more cytotoxic against MDA-MB cells than cisplatin at all tested concentrations and is not cytotoxic against control mesenchymal stem cells indicating that this complex seems to be a good candidate for future pharmacological evaluation. Interaction of 1-6 with DNA was investigated using UV-VIS spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. The binding studies indicate that 1-6 can interact with CT-DNA through intercalation; complex 2 has the highest binding affinity. Moreover, complexes 1-6 inhibit the catalytic activity of topoisomerase I. PMID:26600190

  20. U1-RNP and TLR receptors in the pathogenesis of mixed connective tissue diseasePart I. The U1-RNP complex and its biological significance in the pathogenesis of mixed connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune syndrome, signified by complex interactions between disease-related phenomena, including inflammation, proliferative vascular arteriopathy, thrombotic events and humoral autoimmune processes. It is still controversial whether MCTD is a distinct clinical entity among systemic connective tissue diseases, although several authors consider that it is distinct and underline characteristic, distinct clinical, serological and immunogenetic features. The putative target of autoimmunity in MCTD is U1-RNP, which is a complex of U1-RNA and small nuclear RNP. Both the U1-RNA component and the specific proteins, particularly U1-70K, engage immune cells and their receptors in a complex network of interactions that ultimately lead to autoimmunity, inflammation, and tissue injury. U1-RNA is capable of inducing manifestations consistent with TLR activation. Stimulation of innate immunity by native RNA molecules with a double-stranded secondary structure may help explain the high prevalence of autoimmunity to RNA binding proteins.

  1. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  2. Cosmic Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  3. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part I: study of a synthesis procedure including solubilization of N-adamantyl-acrylamide via complex formation with a water-soluble cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2013-04-19

    A new synthesis procedure for highly crosslinked macroporous amphiphilic N-adamantyl-functionalized mixed-mode acrylamide-based monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is investigated employing solubilization of the hydrophobic monomer by complexation with a cyclodextrin. N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide is synthesized and characterized as a hydrophobic monomer forming a water soluble-inclusion complex with statistically methylated-β-cyclodextrin. The stoichiometry, the complex formation constant and the spatial arrangement of the formed complex are determined. Mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases are synthesized by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, a water soluble crosslinker (piperazinediacrylamide), a hydrophilic monomer (methacrylamide), and a negatively charged monomer (vinylsulfonic acid) in aqueous medium in bind silane-pretreated fused silica capillaries. The synthesized monolithic stationary phases are amphiphilic and can be employed in the reversed- and in the normal-phase mode (depending on the composition of the mobile phase), which is demonstrated with polar and non-polar analytes. Observations made with polar analytes and polar mobile phase can only be explained by a mixed-mode retention mechanism. The influence of the total monomer concentration (%T) on the chromatographic properties, the electroosmotic mobility, and on the specific permeability is investigated. With a homologues series of alkylphenones it is confirmed that the hydrophobicity (methylene selectivity) of the stationary phase increases with increasing mass fraction of N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide in the synthesis mixture. PMID:23489493

  4. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  5. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol](211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol](211)At complexes as potential precursors for astatine radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with (211)At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different (211)At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of (211)At(-) and *I(-) (*I = (131)I or (125)I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I(-) anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with (211)At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/(211)At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0-4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1-1.5 h at 75-80 degrees C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol](131)I and Ir[16aneS4-diol](131)I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to

  6. Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211 At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]211 At Complexes as Potential Precursors for Astatine Radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pruszyński, Marek; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a new approach that can be applied for labeling biomolecules with 211At. Many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking different 211At labeling strategies. The approach evaluated in this study was to attach astatide anions to soft metal cations, which are also complexed by a bifunctional ligand. Ultimately, this complex could in principle be subsequently conjugated to a biomolecule with the proper selection of ligand functionality. We report here the attachment of 211At− and *I− (*I = 131I or 125I) anions to the soft metal cations Rh(III) and Ir(III), which are complexed by the 1,5,9,13-tetrathiacyclohexadecane-3,11-diol (16aneS4-diol) ligand. Radioactive *I− anions were used for preliminary studies directed at the optimization of reaction conditions and to provide a baseline for comparison of results with 211At. Four complexes Rh[16aneS4-diol]*I/211At and Ir[16aneS4-diol]*I/211 At were synthesized in high yield in a one-step procedure, and the products were characterized mainly by paper electrophoresis and reversed-phase HPLC. The influences of time and temperature of heating and concentrations of metal cations and sulfur ligand 16aneS4-diol, as well as pH on the reaction yields were determined. Yields of about 80% were obtained when the quantities of Rh(III) or Ir(III) cations and 16aneS4-diol ligand in the solutions were 62.5 nmol and 250 nmol, respectively, and the pH ranged 3.0–4.0. Syntheses required heating for 1–1.5 h at 75–80 °C. The influence of microwave heating on the time and completeness of the complexation reaction was evaluated and compared with the conventional method of heating in an oil bath. Microwave synthesis accelerates reactions significantly. With microwave heating, yields of about 75% for Rh[16aneS4-diol]131I and Ir[16aneS4-diol]131I complexes were obtained after only 20 min exposure of the reaction mixtures to microwave

  7. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 1. Monitoring Techniques for the Measurement of Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the first of a series produced to help the students and teachers gather data…

  8. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  9. Designing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanville, Ranulph

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the nature of complexity and design, as well as relationships between the two, and suggests that design may have much potential as an approach to improving human performance in situations seen as complex. It is developed against two backgrounds. The first is a world view that derives from second order cybernetics and radical…

  10. Macroporous hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Part 4: growth of rat bone marrow stromal cells in three-dimensional hydrogels with positive and negative surface charges and in polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Lesný, P; Prádný, M; Jendelová, P; Michálek, J; Vacík, J; Syková, E

    2006-09-01

    The growth of bone marrow stromal cells was assessed in vitro in macroporous hydrogels based on 2-hydro- xyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymers with different electric charges. Copolymers of HEMA with sodium methacrylate (MA(-)) carried a negative electric charge, copolymers of HEMA with [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (MOETA(-)) carried a positive electric charge and terpolymers of HEMA, MA(-) and MOETA(+) carried both, positive and negative electric charges. The charges in the polyelectrolyte complexes were shielded by counter-ions. The hydrogels had similar porosities, based on a comparison of their diffusion parameters for small cations as measured by the real-time tetramethylammonium iontophoretic method of diffusion analysis. The cell growth was studied in the peripheral and central regions of the hydrogels at 2 hours and 2, 7, 14 and 28 days after cell seeding. Image analysis revealed the highest cellular density in the HEMA-MOETA(+) copolymers; most of the cells were present in the peripheral region of the hydrogels. A lower density of cells but no difference between the peripheral and central regions was observed in the HEMA-MA(-) copolymers and in polyelectrolyte complexes. This study showed that positively charged functional groups promote the adhesion of cells. PMID:16932865

  11. A geometric approach to complexity.

    PubMed

    Ay, Nihat; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils; Jost, Jürgen

    2011-09-01

    We develop a geometric approach to complexity based on the principle that complexity requires interactions at different scales of description. Complex systems are more than the sum of their parts of any size and not just more than the sum of their elements. Using information geometry, we therefore analyze the decomposition of a system in terms of an interaction hierarchy. In mathematical terms, we present a theory of complexity measures for finite random fields using the geometric framework of hierarchies of exponential families. Within our framework, previously proposed complexity measures find their natural place and gain a new interpretation. PMID:21974666

  12. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part 3, Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 33 absorbers from four variations of a 3:1 dilution of Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) simulant: Part 4, The effects of varying dilution ratios on the distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 12 absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at USDOE facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. Objective of this study was to measure effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on sorption of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu and Am onto 33 absorbers that in the absence of these organic compounds offer high sorption of these elements. The elements were in a generic simulant for Hanford complexant concentrate supernate that initially contained six organic complexants: EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, citrate, gluconate, and iminodiacetate. This simulant was tested as prepared and after gamma-irradiation to approximately 34 Mrads. Two other variations consisted of the unirradiated and irradiated simulants after treatment at 450C and 15,000 psi in a hydrothermal organic-destruction process. These experiments were conducted with a 3:1 water-to-simulant dilution of each of the four simulant variations. To determine effects of varying dilution ratios on the sorption of these five elements from the unirradiated and gamma-irradiated simulants that were not treated with the hydrothermal process, we measured their distribution from a 1:1 dilution, using 1 M NaOH as the diluent, onto the 12 best-performing absorbers. We then measured the sorption of these five elements from solutions having diluent-simulant ratios of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 onto the three absorbers that performed best for sorbing Sr, Pu and Am from the 1:1 dilution. For each of 900 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kd values) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about absorber stability and sorption kinetics. The 5400 measured Kd values indicate that the sorption of Sr, Pu, and Am is significantly decreased by the organic complexants in these simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of Cs and Tc is much less affected.

  13. Petrology and U/Pb geochronology of the Santa Maria Ipalapa region in the southeastern part of the Xolapa Complex, Mexico: Constrains of the metamorphic evolution of the Xolapa Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Aguilar, F.; Victoria Morales, A.; Maldonado, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Xolapa Complex is a metamorphic-plutonic basement that forms a large belt with more than 600 km length and 50-100 km wide along the Pacific coast of southeastern Mexico. This Complex is constituted by a high grade sequence of meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks, locally migmatisized, and which are intruded by strongly deformed plutonic rocks. Because of their representative characteristics, two samples were analyzed: 1) Para-schist: this rocks present a mineral assemblage composed of biotite, sillimanite, plagioclase, k-feldspar and garnet, and 2) Amphibolite: which are constituted by amphibole, plagioclase, biotite and garnet. The garnet porphydoblasts in the para-schist are subhedral, presents retrograde compositional zoning, with almandine and pyrope rich core (Alm74-75Sps7.-10.1Pyr12.1-12.5Grs3.8-3.9) and spessartine rich rim (Alm69-71Sps14-19Pyr7.9-9.6Grs3.6-3.7). The garnet in amphibolite, presents a prograde growth zoning with a slight increase in spessartine in the core (Alm59-60Grs24-25Pyr8.0-8.3Sps7.3-7.6), and low content of spessartine component toward the rim (Alm60-62Grs23-24Pyr8.8-9.6Sps5.4-5.5). In order to constrain the P-T evolution of the region, multiequilibria thermobarometry was applied to both samples, the para-schist unit presents P-T data from 706 (ºC) and 7.5 (kbar), in the other hand the garnet amphibolite unit shows P-T data from 734 (ºC) and 7 (kbar). This study provides new geochronological data (U/Pb in zircons) for the amphibolite facies metamorphism and for the migmatitic event in the region that contributes to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of southeastern Mexico.

  14. A dynamic phase-field model for structural transformations and twinning: Regularized interfaces with transparent prescription of complex kinetics and nucleation. Part II: Two-dimensional characterization and boundary kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik

    2015-12-01

    A companion paper presented the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients were a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation through the source term of the conservation law and of kinetics through an interfacial velocity field. This model overcomes an important shortcoming of existing phase-field models, namely that the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. In this paper, we present a number of numerical calculations - in one and two dimensions - that characterize our formulation. These calculations illustrate (i) highly-sensitive rate-dependent nucleation; (ii) independent prescription of the forward and backward nucleation stresses without changing the energy landscape; (iii) stick-slip interface kinetics; (iii) the competition between nucleation and kinetics in determining the final microstructural state; (iv) the effect of anisotropic kinetics; and (v) the effect of non-monotone kinetics. These calculations demonstrate the ability of this formulation to precisely prescribe complex nucleation and kinetics in a simple and transparent manner. We also extend our conservation statement to describe the kinetics of the junction lines between microstructural interfaces and boundaries. This enables us to prescribe an additional kinetic relation for the boundary, and we examine the interplay between the bulk kinetics and the junction kinetics.

  15. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of dicyanamido-Cu(II) complexes. Part 2 : Crystal structure of the complexes of tris[2-(2-pyridylethyl)]amine, tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and 1,4-bis[2-(2-pyridylethyl)]piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Franz A.; Soileau, Jesse B.; Bankole, Paul K.; Gallo, August A.; Massoud, Salah S.

    2008-10-01

    Two classes of novel dicyanamido (dca)-Cu(II) complexes were synthesized with a variety of tetradentate tripod amines, tridentate amines and diazacycloalkanes with pyridyl arms of different alkyl lengths and with tetra-aza macrocycles with different cavity sizes; the mononuclear, Cu(L)(dca)]ClO 4 (L = tepa ( 1), TPA ( 2), pzdepy ( 4), hpzpy 2 ( 5), cyclen ( 7), cyclam ( 8), tacp ( 9)) or Cu(L)(dca)ClO 4 (L = MeDPA ( 10), Mepea ( 11)) and the dinuclear, [Cu 2(L') 2(dca)](ClO 4) 3 (L' = pmap ( 3), pzpy 2 ( 6)). The isolated complexes were structurally characterized by electronic and IR spectroscopy as well as by X-ray. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the complexes [Cu(tepa)(dca)]ClO 4 ( 1), [Cu(TPA)(dca)]ClO 4 ( 2) and [Cu(pzdepy)(dca)]ClO 4 ( 4) reveal their monomeric penta-coordinate nature with the isolated [Cu(L)(dca)] + cations and ClO4- counter ions. All the complexes with the exception of 2 adapt distorted square pyramidal geometry while the coordination polyhedron around the copper center in 2 may be described as a distorted trigonal bipyramidal stereochemistry. The visible spectra of the complexes in aqueous solutions or in methanol are in complete agreement with the assigned X-ray geometry around the Cu(II) centers.

  16. Carney Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Screening guidelines may change over time as new technologies are developed and more is learned about Carney complex. It is important to talk with your doctor about appropriate screening tests. Learn more about what to expect when having ...

  17. Oceanic core complex and newly-formed basalts in axial part of Mid-Atlantic Ridge (5-7oN): Implications for formation and evolution of slow-spreading ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Sharkov, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    Data on petrography, mineralogy and U-Pb and Sr isotope studies of rocks exposed in the axial valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 5oN to 7oN are discussed. Samples were collected in 10th cruise of R/V "Academik Ioffe" (2001-2002) and 22nd cruise of R/V "Professor Logachev" (2003). Dredged rocks are serpentinized mantle peridotites, gabbros, including ferrogabbros and trondhjemites as well as fresh basalts with chilled glassy crusts. Plutonic rocks are strongly altered and tectonized. The association of rocks is identical to that defined as oceanic core complexes (OCC), described by Tucholke et al. (1998), Escartin et al. (2003), Ildefonse et al. (2007), MacLeod et al. (2009). Two complexes of altered gabbros: (1) primitive magnesian gabbros, derived from MORB, and (2) hornblende-bearing ferrogabbros defined as siliceous Fe-Ti-oxide series were found. The latter are saturated and supersaturated with silica under relatively high water content. Such features are usually typical of subduction-related magmas, but they have high contents of Ti, Fe, Nb, Ta and P, which characterize plume-related magmas. SHRIMP-studies of the magmatic zircon grains with oscillatory zoning, extracted from the gabbros, showed that their U-Pb age range from 0.7 to 2.3 Ma. Newly-formed fresh basaltic flows covered protrusions in the rift valleys and fill in dips in axial valleys where they overlap both altered gabbros and serpentinites. Fresh basalts are close in composition to oceanic platobasalts. These basalts are considered to be derived due to crystallizing differentiation in shallow transitional magmatic chambers (intrusions). This assumes the present-day magmatic activity beneath the spreading zone in this area. Several centimeters-scale Sr-isotopic heterogeneity in basalts was discovered. It is considered as a result of incomplete dissolution in basaltic magmas of gabbro fragments, captured during rapid ascent of the melt through the lower crust. This is evidence that a magmatic

  18. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O‧-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, Danijela Lj.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radić, Gordana P.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Ćurčić, Milena G.; Marković, Snežana D.; Ðinović, Vesna M.; Petrović, Vladimir P.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N‧-ligand precursors, O,O‧-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  19. In situ chemical and Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions of apatite from the Tongshi intrusive complex in the southern part of the North China Craton: Implications for petrogenesis and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Gang; Fan, Hong-Rui; Hu, Fang-Fang; Santosh, M.; Yang, Kui-Feng; Lan, Ting-Guang

    2015-06-01

    The Tongshi intrusive complex from the southeastern margin of the North China Craton is composed of syenite and monzonite, and was emplaced at ca. 180 Ma. Apatite from the syenite and monzonite were analyzed to better understand the petrogenesis of the complex and its mineralization potential. The cathodoluminescence images of some apatites from the monzonite exhibit core-rim texture, whereas the apatites from the syenite display uniform inner texture. The core and rim domains of the apatites exhibit distinct Sr isotopes and major-trace element compositions, whereas only little variation is displayed by the oxygen isotopes. The core portions of the apatites were inferred to be inherited from the protolith of the monzonite during remelting process. The calculated δ18O values of the syenite range from 3.5‰ to 4.1‰ with an average of 3.8‰ (SE = 0.21), which is significantly lower than that of the monzonite sample (with a range of 6.4-6.9‰, and mean at 6.7‰). In conjunction with the heterogeneity of Nd isotopic compositions (with normalized 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying from 0.51151 to 0.51236, and εNd (t = 180 Ma) values from -20.3 to -4.8) of the apatites from the syenite, it is proposed that the syenite melts may have been contaminated by crustal components which were earlier hydrothermally altered at high temperature. Based on element diffusion theory, we calculate the temperature of this crustal contamination to be higher than 637 °C, the closure temperature of Sm-Nd isotopic diffusion in apatite, and estimate that the duration of this process is probably shorter than 0.13 Ma. The oxygen fugacity of the syenite and monzonite calculated by apatite Mn content indicate that high oxidization state of the syenite magma can enhance the metallic mineralization potential. In contrast, the lower oxygen fugacity of the monzonite melt was unfavorable for metal enrichment, thus leading to insignificant mineralization. Our study recommends more focus for gold

  20. β-Lactam antibiotics. Spectroscopy and molecular orbital (MO) calculations . Part I: IR studies of complexation in penicillin-transition metal ion systems and semi-empirical PM3 calculations on simple model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Teobald

    1997-12-01

    IR studies were preformed to determine possible transition metal ion binding sites of penicillin. the observed changes in spectral position and shape of characteristic IR bands of cloxacillin in the presence of transition metal ions (both in solutions and in the solid state) indicate formation of M-L complexes with engagement of -COO - and/or -CONH- functional groups. The small shift of νCO towards higher frequencies rules out direct M-L interaction via β-lactam carbonyl. PM3 calculations on simple model compounds (substituted formamide, cyclic ketones, lactams and substituted monocyclic β-lactams) have been performed. All structures were fully optimized and the calculated bond lengths, angles, heats of formation and CO stretching frequencies were discussed to determine the β-lactam binding sites and to explain its susceptibility towards nucleophilic attack (hydrolysis in vitro) and biological activity. The relative changes of calculated values were critically compared with available experimental data and same correlation between structural parameters and in vivo activity was shown.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions in uranyl complexes. Part 5. Exchange reaction of acetylacetonate in bis(acetylacetonato)(dimethyl sulfoxide)dioxouranium(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Y.; Tomiyasu, H.; Fukutomi, H.

    1984-09-26

    The kinetics of the exchange reaction of acac in UO/sub 2/(acac)/sub 2/Me/sub 2/SO (acac = acetylacetonate, Me/sub 2/SO = dimethyl sulfoxide) has been studied in o-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/Cl/sub 2/ by means of /sup 1/H NMR. The exchange rate depends on the concentration of the enol isomer of acetylacetone in its low region and approaches to the limiting value in its high region. The rate-determining step seems to be ring opening for one of two coordinated acac ions. The kinetic parameters of this step at 25/sup 0/C were found to be: equilibrium constant = 2.04 sec/sup -1/, enthalpy = 66.4 +/- 8.4 kJ mol/sup -1/, and entropy = 17.1 +/- 28.6 J K/sup -1/ mol/sup -1/. It was found that the exchange rate is decreased by addition of free Me/sub 2/SO. This is explained by considering the competition of Me/sub 2/SO with the enol isomer in attacking the four-coordinated intermediate in the equatorial plane or the outer-sphere complex formation between UO/sub 2/(acac)/sub 2/Me/sub 2/SO and free Me/sub 2/SO.

  2. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  3. Consequences of prolonged inhalation of ozone on f344/n rats: Collaborative studies. Part 3. Effects on complex carbohydrates of lung connective tissue. Research report, April 1991-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnamurthy, B.

    1994-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are constituents of proteoglycans, which are integral components of lung connective tissue. Changes in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans have been noted in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The authors studied quantitative and qualitative changes of glycosaminoglycans in the lungs of rats exposed to a range of ozone levels (0, 0.12, 0.5, or 1.0 parts per million) for 20 months. Although wide variations in total glycosaminoglycans concentrations exist among individual animals within each exposure group, regression analyses of data indicated a monotonic and statistically significant decrease of total glycosaminoglycans after ozone exposure. Among individual glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin 6-sulfate levels decreased significantly in animals exposed to ozone when compared with control animals. Heparan sulfate concentration exhibited a significant trend toward increase with increasing doses of ozone, but the difference in heparan sulfate concentration animals exposed to ozone and control animals was not significant. Gel filtration studies of glycosaminoglycans in pooled sampled indicated that the molecular size of hyaluronan in animals exposed to ozone was lower than it was in control animals. The authors noted differences in heparan sulfate`s chemical properties and its affinity to antithrombin III between animals exposed to ozone and control animals. These observations indicate that inhalation of ozone for 20 months affects normal cellular metabolism of proteoglycans, which may contribute to the functional impairment of the lung.

  4. Prediction of a Flash Flood in Complex Terrain. Part II: A Comparison of Flood Discharge Simulations Using Rainfall Input from Radar, a Dynamic Model, and an Automated Algorithmic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, David N.; Warner, Thomas T.; Leavesley, George H.

    2000-06-01

    Three techniques were employed for the estimation and prediction of precipitation from a thunderstorm that produced a flash flood in the Buffalo Creek watershed located in the mountainous Front Range near Denver, Colorado, on 12 July 1996. The techniques included 1) quantitative precipitation estimation using the National Weather Service's Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler and the National Center for Atmospheric Research's S-band, dual-polarization radars, 2) quantitative precipitation forecasting utilizing a dynamic model, and 3) quantitative precipitation forecasting using an automated algorithmic system for tracking thunderstorms. Rainfall data provided by these various techniques at short timescales (6 min) and at fine spatial resolutions (150 m to 2 km) served as input to a distributed-parameter hydrologic model for analysis of the flash flood. The quantitative precipitation estimates from the weather radar demonstrated their ability to aid in simulating a watershed's response to precipitation forcing from small-scale, convective weather in complex terrain. That is, with the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates employed as input, the simulated peak discharge was similar to that estimated. The dynamic model showed the most promise in providing a significant forecast lead time for this flash-flood event. The algorithmic system did not show as much skill in comparison with the dynamic model in providing precipitation forcing to the hydrologic model. The discharge forecasts based on the dynamic-model and algorithmic-system inputs point to the need to improve the ability to forecast convective storms, especially if models such as these eventually are to be used in operational flood forecasting.

  5. A dynamic phase-field model for structural transformations and twinning: Regularized interfaces with transparent prescription of complex kinetics and nucleation. Part I: Formulation and one-dimensional characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik

    2015-12-01

    The motion of microstructural interfaces is important in modeling twinning and structural phase transformations. Continuum models fall into two classes: sharp-interface models, where interfaces are singular surfaces; and regularized-interface models, such as phase-field models, where interfaces are smeared out. The former are challenging for numerical solutions because the interfaces need to be explicitly tracked, but have the advantage that the kinetics of existing interfaces and the nucleation of new interfaces can be transparently and precisely prescribed. In contrast, phase-field models do not require explicit tracking of interfaces, thereby enabling relatively simple numerical calculations, but the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. This prevents straightforward calibration of phase-field models to experiment and/or molecular simulations, and breaks the multiscale hierarchy of passing information from atomic to continuum. Consequently, phase-field models cannot be confidently used in dynamic settings. This shortcoming of existing phase-field models motivates our work. We present the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients are a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation - through the source term of the conservation law - and kinetics - through a distinct interfacial velocity field. A formal limit of the kinetic driving force recovers the classical continuum sharp-interface driving force, providing confidence in both the re-parametrized energy and the evolution statement. We present some 1D calculations characterizing the formulation; in a

  6. On real quadric line complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A.

    2010-12-01

    We describe the topological types of the real parts of the Kummer surfaces associated with real three-dimensional quadric line complexes. The topological type of the real part of such a surface is shown to depend on the number of real singular points: it is determined by the number of such points if any exist, and otherwise the real part of the Kummer surface is either empty or consists of one or two tori.

  7. Indentured Parts List Maintenance and Part Assembly Capture Tool - IMPACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Bobby; Morris, Jill; Sharpe, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) indentured parts list (IPL) maintenance and parts assembly capture tool (IMPACT) is an easy-to-use graphical interface for viewing and maintaining the complex assembly hierarchies of large databases. IMPACT, already in use at JSC to support the International Space Station (ISS), queries, updates, modifies, and views data in IPL and associated resource data, functions that it can also perform, with modification, for any large commercial database. By enabling its users to efficiently view and manipulate IPL hierarchical data, IMPACT performs a function unlike that of any other tool. Through IMPACT, users will achieve results quickly, efficiently, and cost effectively.

  8. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  9. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  10. Complex interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Régules, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Complexity science – which describes phenomena such as collective and emergent behaviour – is the focus of a new centre where researchers are examining everything from the spread of influenza to what a healthy heartbeat looks like. Sergio de Régules reports.

  11. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  12. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe ...

  13. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  14. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part II: Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, and Am onto 32 absorbers from four variations of Hanford tank 101-SY simulant solution

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. In this second part of our three-part investigation of the effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products, we measured the sorption of strontium, cesium, technetium, and americium onto 32 absorbers that offer high sorption of these elements in the absence of organic complexants. The four solutions tested were (1) a simulant for a 3:1 dilution of Hanford Tank 101-SY contents that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (2) this simulant after gamma-irradiation to 34 Mrads, (3) the unirradiated simulant after treatment with a hydrothermal organic-destruction process, and (4) the irradiated simulant after hydrothermal processing. For each of 512 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kds) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of our 3,072 measured Kd values, the sorption of strontium and americium is significantly decreased by the organic components of the simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of cesium and technetium appears unaffected by the organic components of the simulant solutions.

  15. Managing Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  16. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  17. Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    2006-01-01

    Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and “chaos theory,” is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease. PMID:16921107

  18. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, D; Michal, M; Síma, R; Grossmann, P; Kazakov, D V

    2011-10-01

    Carney complex is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease, with at least two genetic loci including the PRKAR1A gene located on chromosome 17 and the CNC2 locus mapped to chromosome 2. Clinically this syndrome is characterized by multiple myxomas occurring in different anatomic sites, mucocutaneous pigmentary lesions, and a variety of non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, often causing endocrine abnormalities, involving various organs. Knowledge of morphological findings in CNC patients with their typical locations is necessary to raise suspicion of this syndrome by pathologists. Confirmation of the diagnosis allows regular clinical check-ups and early treatment of these patients. PMID:22145222

  19. Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Carney complex is a rare, dominantly inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, affecting endocrine glands as the adrenal cortex (causing Cushing's syndrome), the pituitary and the thyroid. It is associated with many other nonendocrine tumors, including cardiac myxomas, testicular tumors, melanotic schwannoma, breast myxomatosis, and abnormal pigmentation (lentiginosis) or myxomas of the skin. The gene located on the CNC1 locus was identified 12 years ago as the regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) located at 17q22-24. Inactivating heterozygous germline mutations of PRKAR1A are observed in about two thirds of Carney complex patients with some genotype-phenotype correlation useful for follow-up and prognosis. More rarely, mutations of phosphodiesterase genes have been reported in patients presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies help to understand how R1A inactivation leads to tumorigenesis. PRKAR1A appears to be a relatively weak tumorigenic signal which can cooperate with other signaling pathways and tumor suppressors. PMID:23652670

  20. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  1. Laser beam welding of high stressed, complex aircraft structural parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Hummel, Peter; Ferstl, Stefan; Sengotta, Marcus; Lang, Roland

    2003-03-01

    Laser beam welding of primary aircraft structures manufactured from aluminum alloys is considered to have a great potential in cost saving. In order to evaluate this advantage, a technology program has been adopted at EADS, Military Aircraft. The goal was to manufacture air intake shells for the Eurofighter in a cost efficient way. Stretch formed skins and machined stiffeners are joined together with laser beam welding. The baseline for a comparison in terms of cost and weight was the conventional process based on stretch forming of thick plates and subsequent milling. The major tasks of the program have been the optimization of the twin focus laser beam welding process and the proof of the structural integrity including weld strength evaluation.

  2. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  3. Ternary complexes in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Babko, A K

    1968-08-01

    Reactions between a complex AB and a third component C do not always proceed by a displacement mechanism governed by the energy difference of the chemical bonds A-B and A-C. The third component often becomes part of the complex, forming a mixed co-ordination sphere or ternary complex. The properties of this ternary complex ABC are not additive functions of the properties of AB and AC. Such reactions are important in many methods in analytical chemistry, particularly in photometric analysis, extractive separation, masking, etc. The general properties of the four basic types of ternary complex are reviewed and examples given. The four types comprise the systems (a) metal ion, electronegative ligand, organic base, (b) one metal ion, two different electronegative ligands, (c) ternary heteropoly acids, and (d) two different metal ions, one ligand. PMID:18960358

  4. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital. PMID:15805027

  5. [Carney complex].

    PubMed

    Losada Grande, Eladio José; Al Kassam Martínez, Daniel; González Boillos, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, and endocrine overactivity. Skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi. Myxomas may occur in breast, skin and heart. Cardiac myxomas may be multiple and occur in any cardiac chamber, and are more prone to recurrence. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD may occur isolated, with no other signs of CNC. Pituitary and thyroid glands and gonads are also involved. The PRKAR1A gene, located in 17 q22-24, encodes type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. Inactivating germline mutations of this gene are found in 70% of patients with CNC. PRKAR1A is a key component of the c-AMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis. Many different mutations have been reported in the PRKAR1A gene. In almost all cases the sequence change was predicted to lead to a premature stop codon and the resultant mutant mRNA was subject to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. There is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with CNC. Genetic analysis should be performed in all CNC index cases. All affected patients should be monitored for clinical signs of CNC at least once a year. Genetic diagnosis allows for more effective preparation of more appropriate and effective therapeutic strategies and genetic counseling for patients and gene carriers, and to avoid unnecessary tests to relatives not carrying the gene. PMID:21536508

  6. Women's Health and Complexity Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    Explores how changes in conceptual frameworks in science, from reductionism to complexity; an outgrowth of the chaos theory that views parts in relation to one another, the entity they form, and the environment, must inform the development of an academic discipline in women's health. (SLD)

  7. Measuring Populations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson dealing with the study of population growth is the second part of a two-part sequence. This is a learning activity for high school students who have completed Part 1 of "Measuring Populations" and are capable of using a microscope and of preparing slides to be observed. The behavioral objectives, both general and…

  8. Complex I function in mitochondrial supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Lenaz, Giorgio; Tioli, Gaia; Falasca, Anna Ida; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses the functional properties of mitochondrial Complex I originating from its presence in an assembled form as a supercomplex comprising Complex III and Complex IV in stoichiometric ratios. In particular several lines of evidence are presented favouring the concept that electron transfer from Complex I to Complex III is operated by channelling of electrons through Coenzyme Q molecules bound to the supercomplex, in contrast with the hypothesis that the transfer of reducing equivalents from Complex I to Complex III occurs via random diffusion of the Coenzyme Q molecules in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, another property provided by the supercomplex assembly is the control of generation of reactive oxygen species by Complex I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26820434

  9. Manufacturing complexity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the complexity of a typical system is presented. Starting with the subsystems of an example system, the step-by-step procedure for analysis of the complexity of an overall system is given. The learning curves for the various subsystems are determined as well as the concurrent numbers of relevant design parameters. Then trend curves are plotted for the learning curve slopes versus the various design-oriented parameters, e.g. number of parts versus slope of learning curve, or number of fasteners versus slope of learning curve, etc. Representative cuts are taken from each trend curve, and a figure-of-merit analysis is made for each of the subsystems. Based on these values, a characteristic curve is plotted which is indicative of the complexity of the particular subsystem. Each such characteristic curve is based on a universe of trend curve data taken from data points observed for the subsystem in question. Thus, a characteristic curve is developed for each of the subsystems in the overall system.

  10. The complexity of anatomical systems

    PubMed Central

    Grizzi, Fabio; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The conception of anatomical entities as a hierarchy of infinitely graduated forms and the increase in the number of observed anatomical sub-entities and structural variables has generated a growing complexity, thus highlighting new properties of organised biological matter. Results (1) Complexity is so pervasive in the anatomical world that it has come to be considered as a primary characteristic of anatomical systems. (2) Anatomical entities, when viewed at microscopic as well as macroscopic level of observation, show a different degree of complexity. (3) Complexity can reside in the structure of the anatomical system (having many diverse parts with varying interactions or an intricate architecture) or in its behaviour. Often complexity in structure and behaviour go together. (4) Complex systems admit many descriptions (ways of looking at the system) each of which is only partially true. Each way of looking at a complex system requires its own description, its own mode of analysis and its own breaking down of the system in different parts; (5) Almost all the anatomical entities display hierarchical forms: their component structures at different spatial scales or their process at different time scales are related to each other. Conclusion The need to find a new way of observing and measuring anatomical entities, and objectively quantifying their different structural changes, prompted us to investigate the non-Euclidean geometries and the theories of complexity, and to apply their concepts to human anatomy. This attempt has led us to reflect upon the complex significance of the shape of an observed anatomical entity. Its changes have been defined in relation to variations in its status: from a normal (i.e. natural) to a pathological or altered state introducing the concepts of kinematics and dynamics of anatomical forms, speed of their changes, and that of scale of their observation. PMID:16029490

  11. Formation of parting in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Eske Sørensen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents hydrothermal quartz with macroscopic planar parting from the Mesoproterozoic Modum complex in southern Norway. Similar macroscopic parting in hydrothermal quartz with macroscopic planar structures has only been described from two localities in the world; Madagascar (Flörke et al., 1981) and Southern California (Murdoch et al., 1938). The study area consists of well foliated and banded sillimanite- garnet- amphibolite- mica gneiss that is cut at high angle by hydrothermal veins containing albite, chlinoclore, hornblende, hydroxyl apatite and quartz. The rim of the veins is generally made up of almost pure end-member euhedral albite. Then there is vugs with euhedral hornblende (10-25cm long) and euhedral hydroxyl apatite with size ranging from mm scale to several cm. Some places the quartz encloses apatite and hornblende. The quartz is anhedral, inequigranular with undulose extinction bordering sub grain rotation. It has large planar penetrative parting faces with pearly luster; however this is not consistent throughout the outcrop and some places the penetrative faces disappears and the quartz has a conchoidal fracture. The planar faces continue throughout the specimens with a few mm spacing. Thin sections oriented perpendicular to the most pronounced planar structure show lamellas that extinguishes at small angles (2 degrees) to each other. EBSD mapping of the planar faces shows two orientations {0-111} and {1-101}, corresponding to the r- and z-faces respectively, separated by irregular boundaries. The misorientation between these two crystallographic orientations on the parting is a 60 degree rotation on [0 0 1] in correspondence to the dauphiné twin law. Investigations conducted on thin sections cut orthogonal to the parting shows that the parting cuts and offsets the dauphiné twins, indicating a late genesis of the parting. However some internal stress induced movement of the twins are visible. SEM-CL documents three generations of quartz

  12. Parts-R-Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunvand, Erik

    1987-12-01

    Parts-R-Us is a chip that contains a collection of building block parts for asynchronous circuit design. The parts contained on the chip are either not available as standard commercial components, or are standard gates combined into small modules that are particularly useful for building asynchronous control circuits. There are eight different configurations of Parts-R-Us, each offering a different set of asynchronous parts to the user. The parts contained on the chip include: C-elements, transition call modules, transition selectors, transition toggles, transition arbiters, a four phase mutual exclusion element, an asynchronous register, two phase Q-registers, and four phase Q-registers. This document is both a description of Parts-R-Us, and a user's manual for designers using the chip.

  13. Metallic parts fabrication using the SIS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojdeh, Mehdi

    Since early 1980s, quite a few techniques of Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Layered Manufacturing, have been developed. By building three-dimensional parts in a layer-by-layer additive manner, these techniques allow freeform fabrication of parts of complex geometry. Despite recent advances in fabrication of polymer parts, most of the existing rapid prototyping processes are still not capable of fabrication of accurate metallic parts with acceptable mechanical properties. Insufficient dimensional accuracy, limited number of materials, proper mechanical properties, required post machining and lack of repeatability between builds have greatly limited the market penetration of these techniques. This dissertation presents an innovative layered manufacturing technique for fabrication of dense metallic parts called Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS), developed at the University of Southern California. The SIS-Metal technology adapts RP capabilities and extends them to the field of fabrication of metallic parts for a variety of applications such as tooling and low volume production. Using this process, a metallic part, with varying 3 dimensional geometries, can be automatically constructed from a wide range of materials. SIS-Metal is the only RP process which is suitable for fabrication of dense, complex shaped, accurate objects using a variety of materials. In the SIS-Metal process a metallic part is built layer by layer by deposition for each layer of an inhibitor material which defines the corresponding layer boundary and then filling the voids of the created geometry with metal powder; and compacting the layer formed to reach a high powder density. The resulting green part is then sintered in a furnace to yield the final functional part. In this research different inhibition techniques were explored and a series of single and multi layer parts was fabricated using the most promising inhibition technique, namely, macro-mechanical inhibition. Dimensional

  14. Controlled parts management

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, C. M.; Hidalgo, S. P.; Martinez, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Controlled Parts Management (CPM) system is based on industry standard practices for managing inventory. CPM is designed to record the movement of any type of inventory in a defined region referred to as an Account or SubAccount. The system is used to track the receiving, processing, storing and transfer of inventory parts. CPM provides information on parts, quantity and the exact location of the inventory. CPM is a barcode-based-part tracking system currently used to track controlled parts that are used in the R&D and testing of weapons; this tracking helps maintain the part pedigree that is required for certification of a weapon or weapon test. CPM includes bar code data collection software programmed into portable bar code readers for automating physical inventory services and remote transaction capture. CPM interfaces to other Engineering systems and supports a 'material content' of a weapons test through the test Bill of Materials and assignment of a unique inventory part in CPM. Additional functionality includes the ability to group or join parts, logically or physically and temporary or permanent, to represent discrete parts, containers, subassemblies and assemblies, and groupings.

  15. Heat-treatment of metal parts facilitated by sand embedment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briscoe, C. C.; Kelley, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Embedding metal parts of complex shape in sand contained in a steel box prevents strains and warping during heat treatment. The sand not only provides a simple, inexpensive support for the parts but also ensures more uniform distribution of heat to the parts.

  16. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  17. Drawing an elephant with four complex parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jürgen; Khairy, Khaled; Howard, Jonathon

    2010-06-01

    We define four complex numbers representing the parameters needed to specify an elephantine shape. The real and imaginary parts of these complex numbers are the coefficients of a Fourier coordinate expansion, a powerful tool for reducing the data required to define shapes.

  18. Approximation by fully complex multilayer perceptrons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehwan; Adali, Tülay

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the approximation ability of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) network when it is extended to the complex domain. The main challenge for processing complex data with neural networks has been the lack of bounded and analytic complex nonlinear activation functions in the complex domain, as stated by Liouville's theorem. To avoid the conflict between the boundedness and the analyticity of a nonlinear complex function in the complex domain, a number of ad hoc MLPs that include using two real-valued MLPs, one processing the real part and the other processing the imaginary part, have been traditionally employed. However, since nonanalytic functions do not meet the Cauchy-Riemann conditions, they render themselves into degenerative backpropagation algorithms that compromise the efficiency of nonlinear approximation and learning in the complex vector field. A number of elementary transcendental functions (ETFs) derivable from the entire exponential function e(z) that are analytic are defined as fully complex activation functions and are shown to provide a parsimonious structure for processing data in the complex domain and address most of the shortcomings of the traditional approach. The introduction of ETFs, however, raises a new question in the approximation capability of this fully complex MLP. In this letter, three proofs of the approximation capability of the fully complex MLP are provided based on the characteristics of singularity among ETFs. First, the fully complex MLPs with continuous ETFs over a compact set in the complex vector field are shown to be the universal approximator of any continuous complex mappings. The complex universal approximation theorem extends to bounded measurable ETFs possessing a removable singularity. Finally, it is shown that the output of complex MLPs using ETFs with isolated and essential singularities uniformly converges to any nonlinear mapping in the deleted annulus of singularity nearest to the origin. PMID:12816570

  19. Part-Time Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Suzanne B.

    2001-01-01

    This study relates information regarding the role part-time faculty members fill in colleges and universities. Data are from the U.S. Department of Education's National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, 1999. In that year, 2 of every 5 faculty members taught on a part-time basis, and they taught nearly 40% of all classes and students that were…

  20. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  1. Holder for Fragile Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Fixture with many springfingers holds irregularly-shaped parts. Gripping fixture has hundreds of springfingers, each applies minute force. Total force approximates hydrostatic pressure, resulting in well-distributed load that maintains firm grip without high stress concentrations. Applied to industrial robot manipulators, fixutre enhances ability to grasp delicate parts.

  2. Microlabels For Auto Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed method of unique labeling and identification of automotive parts greatly simplifies recall campaigns and reduces effort and expense associated. Compressed symbols fully characterize each part by type and manufacturing history. Manufacturers notify only those owners whose cars need repairs or modifications. Similar compressed symbology developed for possible use on spacecraft.

  3. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  4. 1998 Complex Systems Summer School

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-15

    For the past eleven years a group of institutes, centers, and universities throughout the country have sponsored a summer school in Santa Fe, New Mexico as part of an interdisciplinary effort to promote the understanding of complex systems. The goal of these summer schools is to provide graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and active research scientists with an introduction to the study of complex behavior in mathematical, physical, and living systems. The Center for Nonlinear Studies supported the eleventh in this series of highly successful schools in Santa Fe in June, 1998.

  5. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure. PMID:27226234

  6. [Complex decongestive therapy].

    PubMed

    Heinig, B; Wollina, U

    2015-11-01

    The amount of physical pressure plays an important role in complex decongestive therapy (CDT). As a function of pressure, microcirculation takes place between blood vessels and tissue. As part of the total lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels transport the lymphatic load from the interstitial space to the blood stream. The lymphatic vessel system, characterized by specific anatomical conditions like initial lymphatic vessels, precollectors, collectors, and lymphatic strains, is the therapeutic target of complex decongestive therapy. Components of CDT include manual lymphatic drainage, compression therapy, decongestive kinesitherapy, and good skin care, which increase the transport capacity of the lymphatic vessel system. Currently, CDT is acknowledged as the main conservative treatment of lymphedema of primary and secondary genesis, lipolymphedema, and phlebolymphedema. In clinical practice, we are increasingly confronted with edema of multifactorial genesis requiring a critical discussion and stocktaking of comprehensive clinical findings in terms of the indication for CDT. Therapeutic success depends on a joint application of all CDT components and patient compliance. To an increasing extent, medical research tries to combine successfully CDT with adjunct treatment options. PMID:26315101

  7. Diversity of parasite complex II.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeharu; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Ohmori, Junko; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for completing at least part of their life cycles in the specialized environments of surrounding the parasites in the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is essential for survival, parasites adapt to the low oxygen environment in mammalian hosts by using metabolic systems that are very different from those of the hosts. In many cases, the parasite employs aerobic metabolism during the free-living stage outside the host but undergoes major changes in developmental control and environmental adaptation to switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. Parasite mitochondria play diverse roles in their energy metabolism, and in recent studies of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, the mitochondrial complex II plays an important role in anaerobic energy metabolism of parasites inhabiting hosts by acting as a quinol-fumarate reductase. In Trypanosomes, parasite complex II has been found to have a novel function and structure. Complex II of Trypanosoma cruzi is an unusual supramolecular complex with a heterodimeric iron-sulfur subunit and seven additional non-catalytic subunits. The enzyme shows reduced binding affinities for both substrates and inhibitors. Interestingly, this structural organization is conserved in all trypanosomatids. Since the properties of complex II differ across a wide range of parasites, this complex is a potential target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In this regard, structural information on the target enzyme is essential for the molecular design of drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23333273

  8. The Stigma Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  9. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  10. Complexity in scalable computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-12-01

    The rich history of scalable computing research owes much to a rapid rise in computing platform scale in terms of size and speed. As platforms evolve, so must algorithms and the software expressions of those algorithms. Unbridled growth in scale inevitably leads to complexity. This special issue grapples with two facets of this complexity: scalable execution and scalable development. The former results from efficient programming of novel hardware with increasing numbers of processing units (e.g., cores, processors, threads or processes). The latter results from efficient development of robust, flexible software with increasing numbers of programming units (e.g., procedures, classes, components or developers). The progression in the above two parenthetical lists goes from the lowest levels of abstraction (hardware) to the highest (people). This issue's theme encompasses this entire spectrum. The lead author of each article resides in the Scalable Computing Research and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. Their co-authors hail from other parts of Sandia, other national laboratories and academia. Their research sponsors include several programs within the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and its National Nuclear Security Administration, along with Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and the Office of Naval Research. The breadth of interests of these authors and their customers reflects in the breadth of applications this issue covers. This article demonstrates how to obtain scalable execution on the increasingly dominant high-performance computing platform: a Linux cluster with multicore chips. The authors describe how deep memory hierarchies necessitate reducing communication overhead by using threads to exploit shared register and cache memory. On a matrix-matrix multiplication problem, they achieve up to 96% parallel efficiency with a three-part strategy: intra