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Sample records for asbestos exacerbates atherosclerosis

  1. Myeloid Deletion of α1AMPK Exacerbates Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Knockout (LDLRKO) Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qiang; Cui, Xin; Wu, Rui; Zha, Lin; Wang, Xianfeng; Parks, John S; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-06-01

    Macrophage inflammation marks all stages of atherogenesis, and AMPK is a regulator of macrophage inflammation. We therefore generated myeloid α1AMPK knockout (MAKO) mice on the LDL receptor knockout (LDLRKO) background to investigate whether myeloid deletion of α1AMPK exacerbates atherosclerosis. When fed an atherogenic diet, MAKO/LDLRKO mice displayed exacerbated atherosclerosis compared with LDLRKO mice. To determine the underlying pathophysiological pathways, we characterized macrophage inflammation/chemotaxis and lipid/cholesterol metabolism in MAKO/LDLRKO mice. Myeloid deletion of α1AMPK increased macrophage inflammatory gene expression and enhanced macrophage migration and adhesion to endothelial cells. Remarkably, MAKO/LDLRKO mice also displayed higher composition of circulating chemotaxically active Ly-6C(high) monocytes, enhanced atherosclerotic plaque chemokine expression, and monocyte recruitment into plaques, leading to increased atherosclerotic plaque macrophage content and inflammation. MAKO/LDLRKO mice also exhibited higher plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol content, increased circulating apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, and higher liver apoB expression. We conclude that macrophage α1AMPK deficiency promotes atherogenesis in LDLRKO mice and is associated with enhanced macrophage inflammation and hypercholesterolemia and that macrophage α1AMPK may serve as a therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26822081

  2. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe(-/-) mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe(-/-) mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-γ showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  3. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  4. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  5. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... building materials (roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, and asbestos cement products), friction products (automobile ... Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This ...

  6. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  7. ORAL EXPOSURE TO ACROLEIN EXACERBATES ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN APO E-NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Haberzettl, Petra; Hoetker, David J.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Conklin, Daniel J.; D'Souza, Stanley E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-01-01

    Background Acrolein is a dietary aldehyde that is present in high concentrations in alcoholic beverages and foods including cheese, donuts and coffee. It is also abundant in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and is generated in vivo during inflammation and oxidative stress. Objectives The goal of this study was to examine the effects of dietary acrolein on atherosclerosis. Methods Eight-week old male apoE-null mice were gavage-fed acrolein (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion formation and composition and plasma lipids and platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels were measured. Effects of acrolein and PF4 on endothelial cell function was measured in vitro. Results Acrolein feeding increased the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma. NMR analysis of the lipoproteins showed that acrolein feeding increased the abundance of small and medium VLDL particles. Acrolein feeding also increased atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic valve and the aortic arch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased macrophage accumulation in the lesions of acrolein-fed mice. Plasma PF4 levels and accumulation of PF4 in atherosclerotic lesions was increased in the acrolein-fed mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with the plasma of acrolein-fed mice augmented transmigration of monocytic cells, which was abolished by anti-PF4 antibody treatment. Conclusions Dietary exposure to acrolein exacerbates atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Consumption of foods and beverages rich in unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein may be a contributing factor to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21371710

  8. Paraoxonase 2 Deficiency Alters Mitochondrial Function and Exacerbates the Development of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Asokan; Bourquard, Noam; Hama, Susan; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor R.; Morvardi, Susan; Clarke, Catherine F.; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Teiber, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of decreased activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes plays a role in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Our previous studies established that paraoxonase 2 (PON2) possesses antiatherogenic properties and is associated with lower ROS levels. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which PON2 modulates ROS production. In this report, we demonstrate that PON2-def mice on the hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E−/− background (PON2-def/apolipoprotein E−/−) develop exacerbated atherosclerotic lesions with enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress. We show that PON2 protein is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it is found associated with respiratory complex III. Employing surface-plasmon-resonance, we demonstrate that PON2 binds with high affinity to coenzyme Q10, an important component of the ETC. Enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress in PON2-def mice was accompanied by significantly reduced ETC complex I + III activities, oxygen consumption, and adenosine triphosphate levels in PON2-def mice. In contrast, overexpression of PON2 effectively protected mitochondria from antimycin- or oligomycin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results illustrate that the antiatherogenic effects of PON2 are, in part, mediated by the role of PON2 in mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 341–351. PMID:20578959

  9. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  10. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Atherosclerosis? Español Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque ... problems, including heart attack , stroke , or even death. Atherosclerosis Figure A shows a normal artery with normal ...

  11. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance ... flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including Coronary artery ...

  12. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Atherosclerosis Updated:Jul 6,2015 View an animation of ... the arteries as you get older. How does atherosclerosis start and progress? It's a complex process. Exactly ...

  13. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are smooth, allowing blood to flow unimpeded. Atherosclerosis is when harmful material collects on the wall of ... Eventually, the material builds up and a plaque is formed, narrowing the artery. When the build-up ...

  14. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET{sub A}R during insulin resistance, ET{sub A}R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET{sub A}R expression, but not ET{sub B}R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET{sub A}R pathway

  15. Dysfunctional HDL containing L159R apoA-I leads to exacerbation of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the effect of the mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) was assessed. apoA-IL159R (FIN) is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Transgenic mice lines were created through strategic mati...

  16. Deletion of Tenascin-C gene Exacerbates Atherosclerosis and Induces Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Apo E Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Wang, Wei; Shah, Prediman K.; Song, Lei; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, is upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques. We investigated whether the deletion of TNC gene affects the development of atherosclerosis in a murine model. Methods TNC−/−/apo E−/− mice were generated and used for atherosclerosis studies. We compared these results to those observed in control groups of apo E−/− mice. Results The en face analysis of aortic area showed that the mean aortic lesion area of the double KO mice was significantly higher than control mice at different times after feeding of atherogenic diet; the accumulation of lesional macrophages and lipids were significantly higher, respectively. Analysis of cell adhesion molecules revealed that VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, was upregulated 1 week after feeding of atherogenic diet in the double KO mouse as compared to apo E−/− mouse. Cell culture studies revealed that the expression of VCAM-1 in endothelial cells isolated from the double KO mouse is more sensitive to the TNFα stimulation than the cells isolated from apo E−/− mice. Cell adhesion studies showed that the adherence of RAW monocytic cells to the endothelial cells was significantly enhanced in the cultured endothelial cells from the TNC gene-deleted cells. Following the prolonged feeding of an atherogenic diet (28–30 weeks), the aortic and carotid atherosclerotic lesions frequently demonstrated large grossly visible areas of intraplaque hemorrhage in the double KO mice compared to control. Conclusions These data unveil a protective role for TNC in atherosclerosis and suggest that TNC signaling may have the potential to reduce atherosclerosis, in part by modulating VCAM-1 expression. PMID:22300502

  17. Epigenetic regulation of NKG2D ligands is involved in exacerbated atherosclerosis development in Sirt6 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Ren, Si-Chong; Tan, Ying; Li, Zuo-Zhi; Tang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Hao, De-Long; Zhao, Xiang; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, De-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Sirt6 is a member of the class III histone deacetylase family which is associated with aging and longevity. Sirt6 deficient mice show an aging-like phenotype, while male transgenic mice of Sirt6 show increased longevity. Sirt6 acts as a tumor suppressor and deficiency of Sirt6 leads to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Whether Sirt6 is involved in atherosclerosis development, the major cause of cardiovascular diseases, is unknown. We found that the expression of Sirt6 is lower in human atherosclerotic plaques than that in controls. When Sirt6(+/-)ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) mice are fed with high fat diet for 16 weeks, Sirt6(+/-)ApoE(-/-) mice show increased plaque fromation and exhibit feature of plaque instability. Furthermore, Sirt6 downregulation increases expression of NKG2D ligands, which leads to increased cytokine expression. Blocking NKG2D ligand almost completely blocks this effect. Mechanistically, Sirt6 binds to promoters of NKG2D ligand genes and regulates the H3K9 and H3K56 acetylation levels. PMID:27045575

  18. Epigenetic regulation of NKG2D ligands is involved in exacerbated atherosclerosis development in Sirt6 heterozygous mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Ren, Si-Chong; Tan, Ying; Li, Zuo-Zhi; Tang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Hao, De-Long; Zhao, Xiang; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, De-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Sirt6 is a member of the class III histone deacetylase family which is associated with aging and longevity. Sirt6 deficient mice show an aging-like phenotype, while male transgenic mice of Sirt6 show increased longevity. Sirt6 acts as a tumor suppressor and deficiency of Sirt6 leads to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Whether Sirt6 is involved in atherosclerosis development, the major cause of cardiovascular diseases, is unknown. We found that the expression of Sirt6 is lower in human atherosclerotic plaques than that in controls. When Sirt6+/−ApoE−/− and ApoE−/− mice are fed with high fat diet for 16 weeks, Sirt6+/−ApoE−/− mice show increased plaque fromation and exhibit feature of plaque instability. Furthermore, Sirt6 downregulation increases expression of NKG2D ligands, which leads to increased cytokine expression. Blocking NKG2D ligand almost completely blocks this effect. Mechanistically, Sirt6 binds to promoters of NKG2D ligand genes and regulates the H3K9 and H3K56 acetylation levels. PMID:27045575

  19. Short-term administration of basic fibroblast growth factor enhances coronary collateral development without exacerbating atherosclerosis and balloon injury-induced vasoproliferation in atherosclerotic rabbits with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Jian; Feng, Jianzhang; Jennings, Lisa K

    2002-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the extent of atherosclerosis and balloon injury-induced vasoproliferation in atherosclerotic animals with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fifty-six rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet. Balloon injury of iliac arteries and experimental acute myocardial infarction were induced in the same animals. Rabbits were then randomized to a bFGF group (20 pg/day, intravenously) or a control group (intravenous saline solution). The beneficial effects of bFGF on cardiac function, infarct size, and collateral vessel development, and the possible effect on vasoproliferation of balloon-injured vessels, were measured after 1 and 2 weeks. The extent of atherosclerosis was measured after 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Our results showed that bFGF significantly reduced infarct size and increased collateral-vessel density (P <.01) in infarct areas. Cardiac function was better in the bFGF group than in corresponding controls (P <.05). Similar beneficial effects of bFGF were noted in animals after 1- and 2-week treatments. However, the extent of atherosclerosis and the vasoproliferation in chronic atherosclerotic vessels induced by balloon injury and cholesterol diet were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that short-term treatment with bFGF enhances collateral development and produces maximum therapeutic benefits without exacerbating atherosclerosis and cell proliferation in stenotic vessels after AMI in atherosclerotic rabbits. PMID:12228768

  20. Comparative dose-response assessment of various combustion source particles to indcue acute lung-injury and exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE-Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) has been shown to increase arterial plaque area and size in atherosclerosis susceptible mice. CAPs are a complex aerosol mixture consisting of wind-blown dust. emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and secondary transform...

  1. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  2. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  3. Asbestos Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denver, Colorado) Tremolite Asbestos. Close Up of Vermiculite Insulation in an Attic (Photo courtesy of EPA) Different ... Vermiculite (Photo courtesy of EPA) Attic Containing Vermiculite Insulation (Photo courtesy of EPA) Top of Page Text ...

  4. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  5. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  6. Atherosclerosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material is deposited in the vessel wall, ... muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain. Atherosclerosis shows no symptoms until a complication occurs.

  7. Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

    PubMed Central

    Abejie, Belayneh A.; Chung, Eugene H.; Nesto, Richard W.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Context Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related. Relevance to clinical practice Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. PMID:18197304

  8. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  9. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  10. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  11. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  12. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  13. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reasons, asbestos has been used widely in many industries. Chemically, asbestos minerals are silicate compounds, meaning they ... Since then, asbestos has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industries have ...

  14. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  15. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  16. ASBESTOS PROBLEM RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the variety of regulations applicable to asbestos in buildings, ranging from the Clean Air Act to the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act. Remedial actions are discussed (removal, enclosure and encapsulation) and the ongoing research related to those areas ...

  17. All about Asbestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  18. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  19. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  20. Asbestos in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Thomas; Johnston, Ronnie; McIvor, Arthur; Watterson, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the asbestos hazard in Scotland and draws upon a systematic oral history project to analyze from the workers' perspective the nature of exposure, the limitations of government regulatory initiatives, and the ramifications of contracting asbestos-related diseases for sufferers and their families. Current issues are investigated, stressing the agency of workers, trade unions, sympathetic local councils, and, especially, the victims' pressure groups. The occupational and environmental health threats of asbestos in Scotland remain significant, although recent E.U.- and U.K.-based decisions to ban further use of asbestos together with active campaigning by local activist groups have helped to reduce them. Mesothelioma mortality rates remain high, due to historic exposures, and much work remains to be done to reduce the number and plight of asbestos-exposed workers. PMID:15281377

  1. Imaging Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tarkin, Jason M; Dweck, Marc R; Evans, Nicholas R; Takx, Richard A P; Brown, Adam J; Tawakol, Ahmed; Fayad, Zahi A; Rudd, James H F

    2016-02-19

    Advances in atherosclerosis imaging technology and research have provided a range of diagnostic tools to characterize high-risk plaque in vivo; however, these important vascular imaging methods additionally promise great scientific and translational applications beyond this quest. When combined with conventional anatomic- and hemodynamic-based assessments of disease severity, cross-sectional multimodal imaging incorporating molecular probes and other novel noninvasive techniques can add detailed interrogation of plaque composition, activity, and overall disease burden. In the catheterization laboratory, intravascular imaging provides unparalleled access to the world beneath the plaque surface, allowing tissue characterization and measurement of cap thickness with micrometer spatial resolution. Atherosclerosis imaging captures key data that reveal snapshots into underlying biology, which can test our understanding of fundamental research questions and shape our approach toward patient management. Imaging can also be used to quantify response to therapeutic interventions and ultimately help predict cardiovascular risk. Although there are undeniable barriers to clinical translation, many of these hold-ups might soon be surpassed by rapidly evolving innovations to improve image acquisition, coregistration, motion correction, and reduce radiation exposure. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and experimental atherosclerosis imaging methods and their uses in research and potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:26892971

  2. Imaging Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarkin, Jason M.; Dweck, Marc R.; Evans, Nicholas R.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Brown, Adam J.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in atherosclerosis imaging technology and research have provided a range of diagnostic tools to characterize high-risk plaque in vivo; however, these important vascular imaging methods additionally promise great scientific and translational applications beyond this quest. When combined with conventional anatomic- and hemodynamic-based assessments of disease severity, cross-sectional multimodal imaging incorporating molecular probes and other novel noninvasive techniques can add detailed interrogation of plaque composition, activity, and overall disease burden. In the catheterization laboratory, intravascular imaging provides unparalleled access to the world beneath the plaque surface, allowing tissue characterization and measurement of cap thickness with micrometer spatial resolution. Atherosclerosis imaging captures key data that reveal snapshots into underlying biology, which can test our understanding of fundamental research questions and shape our approach toward patient management. Imaging can also be used to quantify response to therapeutic interventions and ultimately help predict cardiovascular risk. Although there are undeniable barriers to clinical translation, many of these hold-ups might soon be surpassed by rapidly evolving innovations to improve image acquisition, coregistration, motion correction, and reduce radiation exposure. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and experimental atherosclerosis imaging methods and their uses in research and potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:26892971

  3. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  4. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  5. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Treated? Treatments for atherosclerosis may include heart-healthy ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  6. Some Facts About Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    For information on historic asbestos mines, historic prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., see: Eastern U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/); Central U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2006-1211 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/); Rocky Mountain States ---> Open-File Report 2007-1182 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/); Southwest U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2008-1095 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). For commodity statistics and information see: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/asbestos/

  7. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... bundles of fibers. These fibers are found in soil and rocks in many parts of the world. ... water through several sources, such as rock or soil erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipes, or the ...

  8. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  9. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  10. The asbestos war.

    PubMed

    Kazan-Allen, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries. PMID:12967154

  11. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors. PMID:26822071

  12. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  13. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  14. Asbestos exposure in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaensler, E.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are dose-related. Among these, asbestosis has occurred only with the heavy exposures of the past, is a disappearing disease, and is of no concern with the very small exposures from building occupancy. A possibly increased incidence of lung cancer has been included in risk analysis, but probably is also related to high exposure in that both epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a link between the process of alveolar inflammation and fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The major concern has been mesothelioma in that it has occurred with much lower household and neighborhood exposure. Additionally, anxiety concerning buildings with ACM has been heightened by finding of friable asbestos in about 20% of public buildings, discovery of environmental asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in autopsies, and demonstration of a linear relationship between exposure and lung cancer risk in occupational groups, inviting extrapolation to a much lower dose. Legislative and regulatory mandates, promotional activities of abatement companies, adverse court decisions placing the onus of repairs on asbestos manufacturers, and a pandemic of mediagenic disease' all have contributed to panic among building owners, school boards, insurers, and others. In that there is neither clinical nor epidemiologic support for asbestos-related disease from building occupancy, risk estimates have been based on extrapolation from past experience with generally high-dose occupational exposure. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have contained quantitative estimates of exposure, and these have been measured in terms of all particles, with conversion to asbestos fibers uncertain and the fiber type and dimension largely unknown.

  15. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data from population studies strengthened the association of asbestos with disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death. The data suggest that the excess risk of lung cancer from asbestos exposure is proportional to cumulati...

  16. Asbestos: From Beginning to End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Richard C.; Cain, Gary K.

    In conjunction with a bond proposal for energy related items, the North County Public Schools (Missouri) undertook the task of removing friable asbestos Missouri school district undertook the task of removing friable asbestos from schools. Specifications for asbestos abatement prepared by the district administrative office were reviewed by the…

  17. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  18. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  19. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  20. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  1. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  2. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  3. Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, Ian D; Jones, Paul W; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Rabe, Klaus F

    2016-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient’s condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated. COPD exacerbations are heterogeneous, and various phenotypes have been proposed which differ in biologic basis, prognosis, and response to therapy. Identification of biomarkers could enable phenotype-driven approaches for the management and prevention of exacerbations. For example, several biomarkers of inflammation can help to identify exacerbations most likely to respond to oral corticosteroids and antibiotics, and patients with a frequent exacerbator phenotype, for whom preventative treatment is appropriate. Reducing the frequency of exacerbations would have a beneficial impact on patient outcomes and prognosis. Preventative strategies include modification of risk factors, treatment of comorbid conditions, the use of bronchodilator therapy with long-acting β2-agonists or long-acting muscarinic antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying COPD exacerbations will help to optimize use of the currently available and new interventions for preventing and treating exacerbations. PMID:26937187

  4. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  5. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  6. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  7. Focus on asbestos; Choosing insurance

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, E.D. )

    1989-01-01

    any asbestos abatement process carries with it some hazards to health. The process of asbestos removal often involves heavy demolition as well as complex area isolation and air engineering procedures. If not planned, monitored and performed correctly, asbestos control work can spread significant amounts of airborne asbestos contamination through a building. Persons who visit or re-occupy such a contaminated building may later seek legal redress against the contractor, architect, building owner and others who are alleged to be responsible for injuries ultimately related to faulty asbestos abatement work. This paper reports that, for this reason, asbestos contractors, building owners, real estate managers, architects and others involved in asbestos abatement work need to be concerned about the adequacy of their insurance coverage.

  8. Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  9. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  10. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  11. Libby Amphibole asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 11 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF LIBBY AMPHIBOLE ASBESTOS In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2014 ( Note : This document is an assessment of the noncancer and cancer health effects associated with the inha

  12. Atherosclerosis and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke When the Beat is Off - Atrial Fibrillation Atherosclerosis and Stroke How Cardiovascular & Stroke Risks Relate Problems ... of LDL cholesterol contribute to the development of atherosclerosis as the cholesterol is deposited in artery walls, ...

  13. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  14. Examination of Susceptibility to Libby Amphibole Asbestos-Induced Injury in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects, no studies have been done assessing the influence of the disease on the development of lung injury induced by asbestos exposure. In this study we examined lung ...

  15. STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the mining, milling, uses, and health effects of asbestos. Its major applications are in asbestos cement products, floor tiles, electrical equipment, brake linings, and flame resistant compositions. Impaired human health from industrial exposure to asbestos i...

  16. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  17. EXACERBATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS COMBUSTION SOURCE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) has been shown to increase arterial plaque area and size. CAPs are a complex aerosol mixture consisting of wind-blown dust, emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, and secondary tr...

  18. Asbestos, Lung Cancers, and Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Nicholas H.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since we published findings in the AJRCMB demonstrating that induction of early response fos/jun proto-oncogenes in rodent tracheal and mesothelial cells correlates with fibrous geometry and pathogenicity of asbestos. Our study was the first to suggest that the aberrant induction of signaling responses by crocidolite asbestos and erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral associated with the development of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) in areas of Turkey, led to altered gene expression. New data questioned the widely held belief at that time that the carcinogenic effects of asbestos in the development of lung cancer and MM were due to genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Later studies by our group revealed that proto-oncogene expression and several of the signaling pathways activated by asbestos were redox dependent, explaining why antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes were elevated in lung and pleura after exposure to asbestos and how they alleviated many of the phenotypic and functional effects of asbestos in vitro or after inhalation. Since these original studies, our efforts have expanded to understand the interface between asbestos-induced redox-dependent signal transduction cascades, the relationship between these pathways and cell fate, and the role of asbestos and cell interactions in development of asbestos-associated diseases. Of considerable significance is the fact that the signal transduction pathways activated by asbestos are also important in survival and chemoresistance of MMs and lung cancers. An understanding of the pathogenic features of asbestos fibers and dysregulation of signaling pathways allows strategies for the prevention and therapy of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:20068227

  19. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  20. History of asbestos related disease.

    PubMed

    Bartrip, P W J

    2004-02-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  1. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  2. Urinary asbestos fibers and inorganic particles in past asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Sara; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Maria Nicoletta; Scoizzato, Luca; Carradori, Giorgio; Fedeli, Ugo; Capella, Silvana; Belluso, Elena

    2016-05-01

    To assess the validity of the procedure as a test of asbestos exposure, we compared urinary asbestos fibers with occupational and environmental exposure data in a random sample of 48 subjects with high past asbestos exposure. Occupational and environmental exposure was estimated on questionnaire, pleural plaques were diagnosed with computed tomography, and inorganic fibers and particles were identified by scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometry. Few urinary asbestos fibers (in 15% of workers and 17% of cases with pleural plaques) and high amount of urinary silicate (particularly nonfibrous particles) were detected. Asbestos undergoes dissolution in lung tissues, but the secondary minerals are largely unknown. These materials, possibly nonfibrous silicates or metals, could be excreted with urine. Therefore, another study including a control group is warranted to discriminate the occupational origin of minerals in the urine. PMID:25455013

  3. DRAFT ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data developed since the early 1970's from large population studies with long follow-up strengthen the association of asbestos exposure to disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death among exposed individuals. The accumulated data...

  4. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  5. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  6. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  7. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  8. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  9. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  10. Atherosclerosis Prevention in Youth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-associated circulatory disturbance is one of the most important global issues. In patients with atherosclerosis, eccentric intimal thickening and lipid deposition progress over a long period (at least 20 to 30 years). On the other hand, in patients with atherosclerosis-associated circulatory disturbance represented by myocardial infarction, the direct cause of death is thrombus formation rather than marked stenosis; wall destruction may lead to a fatal outcome. In the future, atherosclerosis susceptibility, that is, intrinsic genes, should be investigated. PMID:23641261

  11. Infections, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Famularo, G; Trinchieri, V; Santini, G; De Simone, C

    2000-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the immune response is involved in atherosclerosis. Studies done over the past several years have shown an association between markers of inflammation and coronary atherosclerosis with an exacerbation of the inflammatory process during acute myocardial ischemia. Overall, these data have greatly renewed interest in the infectious theory of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Search of bibliographic databases (from January 1991 through December 1999) and manual scanning of both peer-reviewed publications and other documents were used to identify pertinent literature. Infections and coronary heart disease were indexed as key words. A large number of studies have reported an association of human coronary heart disease and certain persistent bacterial and viral infections. The association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease appears quite significant although the sequence of infection and disease is uncertain. The association between Helicobacter pylori and coronary heart disease may be accounted for by residual confounding from classic risk factors. Preliminary findings indicate that this association could be due to a higher prevalence of more virulent Helicobacter strains. Infection with Cytomegalovirus appears to be associated with a greater risk of restenosis after angioplasty rather than primary atherosclerosis. Early trials of appropriate antibiotic therapy in subjects with recent acute myocardial infarction have been encouraging. A causal relationship between infections and coronary heart disease is still elusive. Improved studies involving prospective collection of data are required to demonstrate such an association with potential implications for public health worldwide. PMID:10920505

  12. Asbestos/NESHAP regulated asbestos-containing-materials guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    In the initial Asbestos NESHAP rule promulgated in 1973, a distinction was made between building materials that would readily release asbestos fibers when damaged or disturbed and those materials that were unlikely to result in significant fiber release. The terms friable and nonfriable were used to make this distinction. EPA has since determined that, if severely damaged, otherwise nonfriable materials can release significant amounts of asbestos fibers. Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) is (a) friable asbestos material, (b) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that has become friable, (c) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting, or abrading, or (d) Category 2 nonfriable ACM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations. The purpose of the document is to assist asbestos inspectors and the regulated community in determining whether or not a material is RACM and thus subject to the Asbestos NESHAP.

  13. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  14. Intracranial atherosclerosis following radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.H.; Burger, P.C.; Heinz, E.R.; Friedman, A.H.; Halperin, E.C.; Schold, S.C. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    We describe a case of severe intracranial atherosclerosis in a young man who had received therapeutic radiation for a presumed brain neoplasm. Since there was no evidence of vascular disease outside the radiation ports, we speculate that accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by radiation and that hyperlipidemia may have predisposed him to this effect.

  15. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  16. [Carotid atherosclerosis and dementia].

    PubMed

    Harlé, Louise-Marine; Plichart, Matthieu

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade a growing interest has been devoted to exploring the role of atherosclerosis in the development of dementia. Despite a well-known association between atherosclerosis risk factors in middle-life with later cognitive decline, the pathophysiological pathways underlying this association remain unclear. The current hypothesis is that neurodegenerative and vascular lesions coexist and have a synergistic role in the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Carotid atherosclerosis (e.g. carotid plaques and intima-media thickness as measured by carotid ultrasonography) has been associated with cognitive decline and dementia and may help to better understand the complex interaction between the vascular and neurodegenerative processes. Furthermore, carotid atherosclerosis has been used in the recent field for dementia risk prediction. In this review, we discuss the physiopathological implications from the current available data on the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and dementia as well as the interest of carotid biomarkers for individual dementia risk prediction. PMID:26395304

  17. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  18. Asthma Outcomes: Exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Peden, David; Apter, Andrea J.; Boushey, Homer A.; Camargo, Carlos; Gern, James; Heymann, Peter W.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Mauger, David; Teague, William G.; Blaisdell, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background The goals of asthma treatment include preventing recurrent exacerbations. Yet there is no consensus about the terminology for describing or defining “exacerbation,” or about how to characterize an episode’s severity. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to propose how asthma exacerbation should be assessed as a standardized asthma outcome in future asthma clinical research studies. Methods We utilized comprehensive literature reviews and expert opinion to compile a list of asthma exacerbation outcomes, and classified them as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results No dominant definition of “exacerbation” was found. The most widely used definitions included 3 components, all related to treatment, rather than symptoms: (1) systemic use of corticosteroids, (2) asthma-specific emergency department visits or hospitalization, and (3) use of short-acting β-agonists (SABAs) as quick-relief (sometimes referred to as “rescue” or “reliever”) medications. Conclusions The working group participants propose that the definition of “asthma exacerbation” be “a worsening of asthma requiring the use of systemic corticosteroids to prevent a serious outcome.” As core outcomes, they propose inclusion and separate reporting of several essential variables of an exacerbation. Further, they propose the development of a standardized, component-based definition of “exacerbation” with clear thresholds of severity for each component. PMID:22386508

  19. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage in relation to asbestos bodies and asbestos fibres in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, A; Piipari, R; Mäntylä, T; Mönkkönen, M; Nurminen, M; Tukiainen, P; Vanhala, E; Anttila, S

    1996-05-01

    In Finland, unlike other countries, anthophyllite asbestos has been widely used due to its domestic production in 1918-1975. In this particular context, the aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between asbestos bodies (ABs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the concentration of ABs and the different amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue. Sixty five BAL lung tissue sample pairs from patients with pulmonary disease were analysed. The concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and lung tissue was determined with optical microscopy, and the concentration, type and dimensions of asbestos fibres in lung tissue with scanning electron microscopy. There was a significant correlation between the concentrations of ABs in BAL fluid and in lung tissue (r = 0.72; p < 0.001), between the concentrations of ABs and amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.73; p < 0.001), and between the concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and the concentration of amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). In patients who had been exposed mainly to commercial anthophyllite, significantly higher concentrations of ABs were observed per total pulmonary amphibole fibre burden, as compared to patients whose main exposure was to crocidolite/amosite. The anthophyllite fibres in lung tissue were longer than the crocidolite/amosite fibres. The relationship between asbestos body counts in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was similar to previous international observations. When using the asbestos body count to predict the underlying total pulmonary amphibole asbestos burden in Finnish patients, however, it should be borne in mind that the relationship between the two parameters seems to be different with anthophyllite as compared to crocidolite/amosite fibres. PMID:8793463

  20. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  1. [Asbestos related cancers in seamen].

    PubMed

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Negro, Corrado; De Michieli, Paola; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Seamen and marine engineers were formerly exposed to asbestos used in gasket, pipes, valves and machinery. Ship motion and vibration can release asbestos in the surrounding space. Asbestos fibres may also be inhaled by workers involved in maintenance operations of vessels built before 1992 in Italy. History of asbestos exposure has been reported by workers and confirmed by a higher prevalence of pleural abnormalities and a significant excess of mesothelioma with a Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) ranging between 1.83 and 4.8 as a function of years of exposure. SIR for lung cancer ranged between 1.10 and 1.62. Mesothelioma in seamen and marine engineers represents about 2.5% of the overall Italian mesothelioma cases with a very long latency period (47.6 +/- 9.6 years). There is no epidemiological evidence for an excess risk of mesothelioma in fishermen. PMID:24303696

  2. Animal models of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans’ stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

  3. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Asbestos. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Virta, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of a regulation enacted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that phases out the use of asbestos went into effect on August 27, 1990. Health and liability issues continued to be a major factor in determining the economic stability of several former producers of asbestos products. The number of firms that produce asbestos-containing products continued to decline in response to these issues. Domestic asbestos production increased slightly from that of 1989, but consumption decreased 25%, from 55,306 to 41,348 tons. Asbestos was consumed domestically for roofing products, 37%; friction products, 26%; asbestos-cement pipe, 15%; packing and gaskets, 8%; and other, 14%.

  4. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  5. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Churg, J.; Hammond, E.C.

    1984-07-06

    Builiding trades insulation workers have relatively light, intermittent, exposure to asbestos. Of 632 insulation workers, who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, forty-five died of cancer of the lung or pleura, whereas only 6.6 such deaths were expected. Three of the pleural tumors were mesotheliomas; there was also one peritoneal mesothelioma. Four mesotheliomas in a total of 255 deaths is an exceedingly high incidence for such a rare tumor. In addition, an unexpectedly large number of men died of cancer of the stomach, colon, or rectum (29 compared with 9.4 expected). Other cancers were not increased; 20.5 were expected, 21 occurred. Twelve men died of asbestosis. This landmark article appeared originally in this journal 188:22-26, 1964.

  6. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  7. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis. PMID:25875381

  8. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    PubMed

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. PMID:26711092

  9. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  10. [Epigenetics in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Montse; Vallvé, Joan C; Zaina, Silvio; Ribalta, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The association studies based on candidate genes carried on for decades have helped in visualizing the influence of the genetic component in complex diseases such as atherosclerosis, also showing the interaction between different genes and environmental factors. Even with all the knowledge accumulated, there is still some way to go to decipher the individual predisposition to disease, and if we consider the great influence that environmental factors play in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, epigenetics is presented as a key element in trying to expand our knowledge on individual predisposition to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Epigenetics can be described as the discipline that studies the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, independent of changes in the sequence of DNA, and mostly induced by environmental factors. This review aims to describe what epigenetics is and how epigenetic mechanisms are involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:26088002

  11. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign that you're at risk for atherosclerosis. EKG (Electrocardiogram) An EKG is a simple, painless test that detects and ... beating and its rhythm (steady or irregular). An EKG also records the strength and timing of electrical ...

  12. Diet and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, D.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the statistical establishment of elevated blood lipids as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease, most of the attempts to regulate blood lipids by diet are centered on the fat in the diet. The levels of blood lipids and the course of experimental atherosclerosis can be affected by other dietary components such as type and amount of protein, carbohydrate, and nonnutritive fiber. Interaction among the dietary components further affects serum lipids and atherosclerosis. PMID:786036

  13. Environmental projects. Volume 4: Asbestos survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), near Barstow, California, operates in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. Many of the buildings and structures at the GDSCC were erected before it became known that asbestos posed a hazard to human health. Thus, because of concern with asbestos, two field surveys were conducted at the GDSCC in October/November 1986 and in September 1987 to locate, classify, and quantify all asbestos-containing materials in buildings, structures, roofs and boilers. The report describes the results of the two surveys and describes methods for both asbestos management and asbestos abatement. The surveys found that GDSCC practices involving asbestos are conscientious and forward-thinking. A program, due to start in FY 1988 and to be completed in FY 1990, is planned to remove all friable (easily pulverized) asbestos-containing materials discovered during the two field surveys for asbestos at the GDSCC.

  14. FEDERAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO ASBESTOS POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health effects and epidemiological studies have established that breathing asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis, lung and other organ cancers, and mesothelioma. This has led to publication by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances of guidance for minimizing airborne asbestos exposure i...

  15. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  16. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  17. Reinforcement of polymeric structures with asbestos fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, C. A.; Schwartz, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation determines structural potential of asbestos fibrils. Methods are developed for dispersing macrofibers of the asbestos into colloidal-sized ultimate fibrils and incorporating these fibrils in matrices without causing reagglomeration.

  18. Nutrition and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a universal problem in modern society. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of CVD resulting in high rate of mortality in the population. Nutrition science has focused on the role of essential nutrients in preventing deficiencies, at the present time, the nutritional strategies are crucial to promote health and intervene with these global noncommunicable diseases. In many cases, diet is a major driving force, which is much easier to change and follow than other factors. It is important to establish that the first strategy to treat atherosclerosis is to modify lifestyle habits, focusing on the beneficial properties of specific nutrients. In the last decades, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that diet plays a central role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review we will focus on the effect of specific foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds, including epidemiological facts, potential mechanisms of action and dietary recommendations to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. In particular, we include information about fiber, plant sterols and stanols, niacin, taurine, olive oil, omega 3 fatty acids, antioxidants, minerals, methyl nutrients and soy. In addition, we also show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota associated with a consumption of certain animal food sources can generate some metabolites that are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and its consequences on CVD. According to the epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies we suggest a recommendation for some dietary foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds to support the complementary clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:26031780

  19. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  20. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  1. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  2. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  3. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  4. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  5. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  6. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  7. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  8. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  10. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  11. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  12. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  13. The epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Niklinski, Jacek; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Laudanski, Jerzy; Naumnik, Wojciech; Chyczewski, Lech; Pluygers, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Asbestos has been recognised as a potential health hazard since the 1940s. Of the two major species of asbestos; white asbestos (chrysotile) and blue asbestos (crocidolite), both of which are hazardous. The workers at extraction facilities are at the greatest risk of exposure to asbestos and, therefore, the development of asbestos-related diseases, commonly mesothelioma. However, other individuals at a high risk of exposure include asbestos-cement workers, insulation workers and ship-yard workers. Environmental exposure to asbestos can occur as a result of living in areas either characterised by natural outcrops of asbestos or asbestos-related materials, or those close to asbestos-producing or -using plants. Unfortunately, man-made fibre alternatives to asbestos, such as rock and slag-wool and glass wool, have also been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. A characteristic of mesothelioma is that there is a long latency period (20-30 years) before the signs and symptoms of the disease become apparent. In addition, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult. The use of biological markers, such as tissue polypeptide antigen, may play a useful role in the early detection of the disease in individuals at risk. PMID:15261426

  14. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  15. Uncle Sam Flunks Asbestos Control in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of using asbestos to insulate heating and air-conditioning systems in schools and mixing asbestos into ceiling plaster for fireproofing and noise control. Suggests that the Environmental Protection Agency's plan for asbestos removal may be causing problems where none exist. (TW)

  16. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains eight sections that…

  17. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  18. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  19. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  20. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... role in atherosclerosis risk. Other Factors That Affect Atherosclerosis Other factors also may raise your risk for ...

  1. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  2. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  3. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  4. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  5. Macrophage Autophagy in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Grassia, Gianluca; Platt, Andrew M.; Carnuccio, Rosa; Ialenti, Armando; Maffia, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play crucial roles in atherosclerotic immune responses. Recent investigation into macrophage autophagy (AP) in atherosclerosis has demonstrated a novel pathway through which these cells contribute to vascular inflammation. AP is a cellular catabolic process involving the delivery of cytoplasmic contents to the lysosomal machinery for ultimate degradation and recycling. Basal levels of macrophage AP play an essential role in atheroprotection during early atherosclerosis. However, AP becomes dysfunctional in the more advanced stages of the pathology and its deficiency promotes vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and plaque necrosis. In this paper, we will discuss the role of macrophages and AP in atherosclerosis and the emerging evidence demonstrating the contribution of macrophage AP to vascular pathology. Finally, we will discuss how AP could be targeted for therapeutic utility. PMID:23401644

  6. Spontaneous Atherosclerosis in Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Santerre, Robert F.; Wight, Thomas N.; Smith, Samuel C.; Brannigan, David

    1972-01-01

    The interpretation of metabolic studies related to early changes in spontaneous atherosclerosis has been hampered by the focal nature of the disease and by the lack of a well-defined model system of the disease process. Gross, histologic and ultrastructural observations of lesion development at the celiac bifurcation of the aorta in atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau and atherosclerosis-resistant Show Racer pigeons are compared and discussed in terms of hemodynamics, muscular aggregation and altered metabolism of smooth muscle cells. Detailed knowledge of the morphologic sequence of events in lesion localization makes the celiac bifurcation in White Carneau and Show Racer pigeons a useful model for genetic comparisons of arterial wall metabolism and for investigating metabolic alterations occurring with atherogenesis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 1Fig 2Fig 10Fig 11Fig 3Fig 4Fig 12Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:4261591

  7. Molecular imaging in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Bozzao, Alessandro; Bonanno, Elena; Arca, Marcello; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease, which still has the leading position in morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Many risk factors and pathobiological processes are acting together in the development of atherosclerosis. This leads to different remodelling stages (positive and negative) which are both associated with plaque physiology and clinical presentation. The different remodelling stages of atherosclerosis are explained with their clinical relevance. Recent advances in basic science have established that atherosclerosis is not only a lipid storage disease, but that also inflammation has a fundamental role in all stages of the disease. The molecular events leading to atherosclerosis will be extensively reviewed and described. Further on in this review different modalities and their role in the different stages of atherosclerosis will be discussed. Non-nuclear invasive imaging techniques (intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, intracoronary angioscopy and intravascular optical coherence tomography) and non-nuclear non-invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound with Doppler flow, electron-bean computed tomography, coronary computed tomography angiography, MRI and coronary artery MR angiography) will be reviewed. After that we focus on nuclear imaging techniques for detecting atherosclerotic plaques, divided into three groups: atherosclerotic lesion components, inflammation and thrombosis. This emerging area of nuclear imaging techniques can provide measures of biological activity of atherosclerotic plaques, thereby improving the prediction of clinical events. As we will see in the future perspectives, at present, there is no special tracer that can be called the diagnostic tool to diagnose prospective stroke or infarction in patients. Nevertheless, we expect such a tracer to be developed in the next few years and maybe, theoretically, it could even be used for targeted therapy (in the form of a beta-emitter) to combat

  8. The UPR in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Alex X; Tabas, Ira

    2013-05-01

    Multiple systemic factors and local stressors in the arterial wall can disturb the functions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing ER stress in endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and macrophages during the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. As a protective response to restore ER homeostasis, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is initiated by three major ER sensors: protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). The activation of the various UPR signaling pathways displays a temporal pattern of activation at different stages of the disease. The ATF6 and IRE1α pathways that promote the expression of protein chaperones in ER are activated in ECs in athero-susceptible regions of pre-lesional arteries and before the appearance of foam cells. The PERK pathway that reduces ER protein client load by blocking protein translation is activated in SMCs and macrophages in early lesions. The activation of these UPR signaling pathways aims to cope with the ER stress and plays a pro-survival role in the early stage of atherosclerosis. However, with the progression of atherosclerosis, the extended duration and increased intensity of ER stress in lesions lead to prolonged and enhanced UPR signaling. Under this circumstance, the PERK pathway induces expression of death effectors, and possibly IRE1α activates apoptosis signaling pathways, leading to apoptosis of macrophages and SMCs in advanced lesions. Importantly, UPR-mediated cell death is associated with plaque instability and the clinical progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, UPR signaling is linked to inflammation and possibly to macrophage differentiation in lesions. Therapeutic approaches targeting the UPR may have promise in the prevention and/or regression of atherosclerosis. However, more progress is needed to fully understand all of the roles of the UPR in atherosclerosis and to harness this information

  9. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melious, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

  10. [Lipoproteins, free radicals and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Manso, C

    1990-10-01

    The Author reviews vascular, lipidic and oxidative factors in the genesis of atherosclerosis. He admits the possibility that an alteration in the arterial wall, an increase in circulating lipids or an oxidative stress may influence the precocity of atherosclerosis. The transport of lipoperoxides or of oxidized cholesterol by lipoproteins renders them toxic and susceptible to aggravate atherosclerosis. PMID:2291852

  11. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  12. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  13. Computational modelling of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parton, Andrew; McGilligan, Victoria; O'Kane, Maurice; Baldrick, Francina R; Watterson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the principle pathologies of cardiovascular disease with blood cholesterol a significant risk factor. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2.5 million deaths occur annually because of the risk from elevated cholesterol, with 39% of adults worldwide at future risk. Atherosclerosis emerges from the combination of many dynamical factors, including haemodynamics, endothelial damage, innate immunity and sterol biochemistry. Despite its significance to public health, the dynamics that drive atherosclerosis remain poorly understood. As a disease that depends on multiple factors operating on different length scales, the natural framework to apply to atherosclerosis is mathematical and computational modelling. A computational model provides an integrated description of the disease and serves as an in silico experimental system from which we can learn about the disease and develop therapeutic hypotheses. Although the work completed in this area to date has been limited, there are clear signs that interest is growing and that a nascent field is establishing itself. This article discusses the current state of modelling in this area, bringing together many recent results for the first time. We review the work that has been done, discuss its scope and highlight the gaps in our understanding that could yield future opportunities. PMID:26438419

  14. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

  15. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  16. EVALUATION OF ASBESTOS LEVELS IN TWO SCHOOLS BEFORE AND AFTER ASBESTOS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data, are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requir...

  17. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  18. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma following asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Manavoğlu, O; Orhan, B; Evrensel, T; Ozçelik, T; Yolcu, I; Kunt, E

    1996-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological studies have demonstrated that asbestosis plays a major role in the etiology of mesothelioma. The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma. An increased risk has been found in certain geographic areas of Turkey due to the presence of asbestos deposits and the use of the material known as "white soil" as an insulation. We present a malignant mesothelioma case from rural eastern Turkey with a history of asbestos exposure from using "white soil". We review the epidemiological aspects of asbestos as they relate to mesothelioma. PMID:9216805

  19. Biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Solt, K.

    2008-12-01

    Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos represent two mineralogical categories of regulated asbestos commonly evaluated in epidemiological, toxicological, and pathological studies. Lung and digestive fluids are undersaturated with respect to chrysotile and tremolite asbestos (i.e. dissolution is thermodynamically favorable), where the dissolution kinetics control the durability of these minerals in respiratory and gastric systems. Here we examined the biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos in simulated body fluids (SBFs) as a function of mineral surface area over time. Batch experiments in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; HCl and NaCl solution at pH 1.2) and simulated lung fluid (SLF; a modified Gamble's solution at pH 7.4) were performed at 37°C over 720 hours. The rate-limiting step of Si release for both minerals was used to determine and compare dissolution rates. Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos are less biodurable in SGF compared to SLF. Based on equal suspension densities (surface area per volume of solution, m2 L- 1), chrysotile undergoes dissolution approximately 44 times faster than tremolite asbestos in SGF; however, amphibole asbestos dissolves approximately 6 times faster than chrysotile in SLF. Provided identical fiber dimensions, fiber dissolution models demonstrate that chrysotile is more biodurable in SLF and less biodurable in SGF compared to tremolite asbestos. Overall, the methodology employed here provides an alternative means to evaluate asbestos material fiber lifetimes based on mineral surface considerations.

  20. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  1. Macrophage phenotypes in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Colin, Sophie; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Staels, Bart

    2014-11-01

    Initiation and progression of atherosclerosis depend on local inflammation and accumulation of lipids in the vascular wall. Although many cells are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, macrophages are fundamental contributors. For nearly a decade, the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophages has been studied. In atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages are submitted to a large variety of micro-environmental signals, such as oxidized lipids and cytokines, which influence the phenotypic polarization and activation of macrophages resulting in a dynamic plasticity. The macrophage phenotype spectrum is characterized, at the extremes, by the classical M1 macrophages induced by T-helper 1 (Th-1) cytokines and by the alternative M2 macrophages induced by Th-2 cytokines. M2 macrophages can be further classified into M2a, M2b, M2c, and M2d subtypes. More recently, additional plaque-specific macrophage phenotypes have been identified, termed as Mox, Mhem, and M4. Understanding the mechanisms and functional consequences of the phenotypic heterogeneity of macrophages will contribute to determine their potential role in lesion development and plaque stability. Furthermore, research on macrophage plasticity could lead to novel therapeutic approaches to counteract cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes our current knowledge on macrophage subsets in atherosclerotic plaques and mechanism behind the modulation of the macrophage phenotype. PMID:25319333

  2. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  3. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  4. [Asbestos concentrations in drinking water. Asbestos cement pipes and geogenic sources in Austria].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Frank, W; Golob, P; Warbichler, P

    1996-03-01

    Sources of asbestos in drinking water may be natural deposits or the use of asbestos cement for water distribution. 50 water samples were selected in Austria to detect fibre contamination from either geology or asbestos cement by comparison with control areas and by comparison of raw and treated water. Standardized EPA/BGA methodology with transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction was used to quantify concentrations of different sized amphibole and chrysotile fibres. In 10 areas with asbestos deposits and in 14 areas with use of asbestos cement pipes asbestos concentrations in drinking water were low and not significantly different from 6 control areas (median 32,000 total asbestos fibres per litre). The relative highest concentration was found in an area with natural deposits at the source of the water supply (190,000 per litre). In areas without natural deposits the increase of asbestos concentrations from origin to consumer of water was not significant and unrelated to water aggressiveness, age and length of asbestos cement pipes. This could be mainly due to the fact that in areas with aggressive water asbestos cement pipes have been coated in Austria. A sample from a cistern, however, showed considerable asbestos contamination and raises concern about the use of surface water for room air humidification. PMID:9376056

  5. IRF5 deficiency ameliorates lupus but promotes atherosclerosis and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of lupus-associated atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Amanda A.; Yasuda, Kei; Wilson, Gabriella E.; Aprahamian, Tamar; Xie, Yao; Maganto-Garcia, Elena; Shukla, Prachi; Oberlander, Lillian; Laskow, Bari; Menn-Josephy, Hanni; Wu, Yuanyuan; Duffau, Pierre; Fried, Susan K.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Bonegio, Ramon G.; Rifkin, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Premature atherosclerosis is a severe complication of lupus and other systemic autoimmune disorders. Gain-of-function polymorphisms in interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) are associated with an increased risk of developing lupus and IRF5 deficiency in lupus mouse models ameliorates disease. However, whether IRF5 deficiency also protects against atherosclerosis development in lupus is not known. Here we addressed this question using the gld.apoE−/− mouse model. IRF5 deficiency markedly reduced lupus disease severity. Unexpectedly, despite the reduction in systemic immune activation, IRF5-deficient mice developed increased atherosclerosis and also exhibited metabolic dysregulation characterized by hyperlipidemia, increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Levels of the atheroprotective cytokine IL-10 were reduced in aortae of IRF5-deficient mice and in vitro studies demonstrated that IRF5 is required for IL-10 production downstream of TLR7 and TLR9 signaling in multiple immune cell types. Chimera studies showed that IRF5 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells prevents lupus development and contributes in part to the increased atherosclerosis. Notably, IRF5 deficiency in non-bone marrow-derived cells also contributes to the increased atherosclerosis through the generation of hyperlipidemia and increased adiposity. Together, our results reveal a protective role for IRF5 in lupus-associated atherosclerosis that is mediated through the effects of IRF5 in both immune and non-immune cells. These findings have implications for the proposed targeting of IRF5 in the treatment of autoimmune disease as global IRF5 inhibition may exacerbate cardiovascular disease in these patients. PMID:25595782

  6. IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF ASBESTOS GENOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos fibers are highly cytotoxic to cultured mammalian cells and produce chromosomal aberrations in several rodent cell types. There is some uncertainty in the literature as to whether these fibers are clastogenic to cultured human cells. Asbestos fibers do not produce either...

  7. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  8. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  9. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Although there were several anecdotal reports from earlier times, the first well documented case of asbestosis was reported in 1906 in a worker engaged in the production of asbestos textiles. In 1917 a report of ten cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurring at a Pennsylvania facility was published. The first detailed epidemiologic study of asbestos workers was undertaken in Great Britain in 1928. The first indication that asbestos might be a human carcinogen came in 1935 with the report of three independently diagnosed cases of lung cancer detected during autopsy of asbestos workers. Epidemiologic studies have now repeatedly demonstrated an association between asbestos exposure and increased mortality due to asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and gastrointestinal cancer. In some studies asbestos exposure has also been associated with increased risks for laryngeal cancer and cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. Studies which have been concerned with exposure to crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and chrysotile were highlighted. Other topics reviewed included asbestos contamination of other minerals, the combined effects of asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, mortality and pleural radiographic changes, and mixed fiber exposures.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1)...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  19. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  20. [Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: its relation to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Moruzzo, D; Siuti, E; del Corso, L

    1995-10-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos can induce malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (PMM) without pulmonary or pleural involvement (PIMM). The localization to the peritoneum depends on the different susceptibility of the two mesotheliums and, perhaps, on the length of asbestos fibers which can facilitate their direct translocation. PMID:8622811

  1. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  2. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  3. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  4. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  5. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  6. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  7. Asbestos identification by dispersion staining microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ganotes, J T; Tan, H T

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos can be detected and identified by an optical microscope procedure known as dispersion staining. This procedure can be carried out with most phase contrast equipped microscopes. The primary application is for material samples. Distinction between tremolite and anthophyllite asbestos requires examination between crossed polarizers. PMID:6153496

  8. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  9. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  10. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  11. FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING SOURCE SAMPLING METHODS FOR ASBESTOS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program was to determine the feasibility of developing methods for sampling asbestos in the emissions of major asbestos sources: (1) ore production and taconite production, (2) asbestos-cement production, (3) asbestos felt and paper production, and (4) the p...

  12. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  13. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  14. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

  15. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  16. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  17. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  18. What You Should Know about Asbestos Health Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The presence of asbestos health hazards in the schools is particulary serious since children exposed to asbestos are more likely to develop cancer than adults similarly exposed. Health risks of asbestos, scope of the problem, and asbestos testing are discussed. (DF)

  19. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  20. No meeting of the minds on asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The debate on the health hazards of asbestos has become so polarized that researchers from one camp no longer go to the other camp's meetings. One view suggests that a spate of asbestos-triggered diseases would strike thousands of construction workers, firemen, custodians, and other people exposed to microscopic asbestos fibers that crumble from building and pipe insulation, brake pads, and hundreds of other sources. Other researchers believe that chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type in the US, poses relatively little health risk to the general public at the levels of exposure generally encountered, and that expensive removal of properly maintained asbestos-containing materials such as insulation and cement is not warranted.

  1. Ectasia and Severe Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Adiloglu, Ali K.; Can, Rabia; Nazli, Cem; Ocal, Ahmet; Ergene, Oktay; Tinaz, Gulgun; Kisioglu, Nesimi

    2005-01-01

    To date, there has been no convincing evidence for an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae or Helicobacter pylori and ectasia. In this case-control study, we have investigated the association of H. pylori and C. pneumoniae seropositivity with ectasia, severe coronary atherosclerosis, and normal vessels, which were so classified by coronary angiography. We have also evaluated the influence of these infections on inflammatory markers such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Of the 796 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemic heart disease, 244 patients were recruited. Of these, 91 had normal vessels, 88 had 3 or more obstructed vessels, and 65 had ectatic vessels without atherosclerosis. Eighty-seven atherosclerotic patients (98.9%) were positive for C. pneumoniae IgG, as were 64 ectatic patients (98.5%) and 76 controls (83.5%) (P < 0.001). Forty-two atherosclerotic patients (47.7%) were positive for C. pneumoniae IgM, as were 43 ectatic patients (66.2%) and 43 controls (47.3%) (P = 0.036). Seventy-two atherosclerotic patients (81.8%) were positive for H. pylori IgA, as were 26 ectatic patients (40.0%) and 44 controls (48.4%) (P < 0.001). High-sensitive CRP levels were significantly higher in ectatic patients (5.639 mg/L) than in controls (4.390 mg/L) (P = 0.032), and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in atherosclerotic patients (33.92 U/L) than in controls (14.01 U/L) (P < 0.001). Interleukin-6 levels were higher in H. pylori seropositive patients, and hsCRP levels were higher in C. pneumoniae seropositive patients, when compared with seronegatives. We suggest that, as in atherosclerosis, C. pneumoniae infection is related to ectasia, with raised CRP levels. PMID:15902817

  2. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Van Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam. PMID:23961336

  3. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  4. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  5. Evaluation of asbestos levels in two schools before and after asbestos removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaffa, M.A.; Chesson, J.; Russell, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requirements and recent EPA guidelines, the study evaluates these historical data by standard statistical methods to determine if abated work areas meet proposed clearance criteria. The objectives of this statistical analysis were to compare (1) airborne asbestos levels indoors after removal with levels outdoors, (2) airborne asbestos levels before and after removal of asbestos, and (3) static sampling and aggressive sampling of airborne asbestos. The results of this evaluation indicated the following: the effect of asbestos removal on indoor air quality is unpredictable; the variability in fiber concentrations among different sampling sites within the same building indicates the need to treat different sites as separate areas for the purpose of clearance; and aggressive sampling is appropriate for clearance testing because it captures more entrainable asbestos structures. Aggressive sampling lowers the chance of declaring a worksite clean when entrainable asbestos is still present.

  6. Neutrophil's weapons in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils are important components of immunity associated with inflammatory responses against a broad spectrum of pathogens. These cells could be rapidly activated by proinflammatory stimuli and migrate to the inflamed and infected sites where they release a variety of cytotoxic molecules with antimicrobial activity. Neutrophil antibacterial factors include extracellular proteases, redox enzymes, antimicrobial peptides, and small bioactive molecules. In resting neutrophils, these factors are stored in granules and released upon activation during degranulation. These factors could be also secreted in a neutrophil-derived microparticle-dependent fashion. Neutrophils exhibit a unique property to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of decondensed chromatin and granular proteins to catch and kill bacteria. Neutrophil-released factors are efficient in inactivation and elimination of pathogens through oxidation-dependent or independent damage of bacterial cells, inactivation and neutralization of virulence factors and other mechanisms. However, in chronic atherosclerosis-associated inflammation, protective function of neutrophils could be impaired and misdirected against own cells. This could lead to deleterious effects and progressive vascular injury. In atherogenesis, a pathogenic role of neutrophils could be especially seen in early stages associated with endothelial dysfunction and induction of vascular inflammation and in late atherosclerosis associated with plaque rupture and atherothrombosis. Assuming a prominent impact of neutrophils in cardiovascular pathology, developing therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophil-specific antigens could have a promising clinical potential. PMID:26551083

  7. Aspirin-exacerbated cutaneous disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo

    2013-05-01

    It has been recognized that a high proportion of chronic urticaria patients experience symptom aggravation when exposed to aspirin and NSAIDs. This clinical picture is known as Aspirin-exacerbated cutaneous disease. The pathogenesis of these exacerbations is related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 leading to a decreased synthesis of PGE2 and an increased cysteinyl leukotriene production in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Patient management comprises the treatment of the underlying cutaneous disease with nonsedating antihistamines and other medications, avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors, and the use of alternative NSAIDs that do not inhibit COX-1 for the relief of pain, inflammation and fever. PMID:23639712

  8. Pulmonary carcinoid tumors and asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Clin, Bénédicte; Andujar, Pascal; Abd Al Samad, Issam; Azpitarte, Chantal; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Danel, Claire; Galateau-Salle, Françoise; Housset, Bruno; Legrand-Cattan, Karinne; Matrat, Mireille; Monnet, Isabelle; Riquet, Marc; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The hypothesis that asbestos exposure may have more specific associations with particular histological types of lung cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between asbestos exposure and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 28 cases undergoing surgery for pulmonary carcinoid tumors and aged over 40 years, and in 56 controls with lung cancer of a different histological type, matched for gender and age, from 1994 to 1999, recruited in 2 hospitals in the region of Paris. Asbestos exposure was assessed via expertise of a standardized occupational questionnaire and mineralogical analysis of lung tissue, with quantification of asbestos bodies (AB). Results Definite asbestos exposure was identified in 25% of cases and 14% of controls (ns). Cumulative asbestos exposure was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p<0.05), and results of the quantification of AB tended to be higher in cases than in controls (24% and 9% had more than 1,000 AB/g dry lung tissue, respectively, p=0.09). Mean cumulative smoking was lower in cases than in controls (p<0.05). Conclusion This study argues in favor of a relationship between asbestos exposure and certain pulmonary carcinoid tumors. PMID:22562831

  9. Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Bhuva, Uttpal B; Katoch, Priyanka

    2006-09-01

    Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion. PMID:17119210

  10. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  11. Asbestos Exposure among Mitering Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fiber counting was conducted under Rule A. The study showed that the fiber concentration medians for personal air samples gathered from the two tools were 4.11 fibers/cc (ranged: 1.33-12.41 fibers/cc) and 0.13 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.01-5.00 fibers/cc) respectively. The median for the area samples was 0.59 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.14-3.32 fibers/cc). Comparing each study case, the concentration level caused by the high-speed motor saw was more than twice that of the hand saw. According to the area samples, the workers nearby the test site are at risk from high exposure to asbestos. PMID:23019536

  12. [Health hazards: asbestos--a review (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beck, B; Irmscher, G

    1976-01-01

    The health hazards caused by asbestos are reviewed and some conclusions are drawn. Asbestos and the materials containing a high percentage of asbestos cannot completely be substituted by other materials without dangerous health effects. It is to be expected that the use of asbestos will still increase. An important health hazard has become evident among asbestos insulation workers. But also in other branches the application of asbestos is widespread. It seems to be difficult to find substitutes meeting the same requirements for using like asbestos. Rock-wool and glass fibres are used more and more in exchange for asbestos. Registers for asbestos workers and asbestos working places are established in several countries. The main causes of death induced by asbestos among asbestos workers are asbestosis. mesothelioma and cancer. For the evaluation and assessment of cancer risk due to asbestos epidemiological studies have to be conducted. Even a short period of exposure to low quantities of asbestos fibres proves to be a health hazard causing certain diseases (diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, pleural hyalinosis, pleural calcifications, mesothelioma) after more than 20 years. For avoiding occupational disease hazards among asbestos workers the dust level on the working place has to be lowered to acceptable concentrations (maximal allowable concentrations). The identification of dust sources of asbestos, the application of practice codes for handling of asbestos, the substitution of asbestos by materials without dangerous health effects, and dust control at source are the most effective directions of hygienic practice. The health protection requires annual medical examinations of all persons exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos. PMID:788371

  13. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  14. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  15. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  16. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard...

  18. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  19. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard...

  20. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  1. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  2. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  3. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  5. Conundrum in an asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Barney Thomas Jesudason; McLellan, Thomas; Samuel, Johnson; Yung, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old man, an asthmatic, presented with symptoms suggestive of an acute exacerbation of asthma. His arterial blood gas revealed type 1 respiratory failure (PaO2 <8 kPa or 60 mm Hg with normal or low PaCO2) with a compensated lactic acidosis. He was treated for an asthma exacerbation and sepsis. Despite treatment, his respiratory rate remained elevated although his hypoxaemia improved. There was progressive worsening of the lactic acidosis. Treatment for sepsis was augmented. Peak flow measurements were not used to assess the severity of his exacerbation nor his response to treatment. An alternate diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome with acute pulmonary oedema was made and his asthma treatment was stopped. This coincided with a decline in his serum lactate. A diagnosis of salbutamol-induced lactic acidosis (SILA) was made. SILA is a relatively common complication of salbutamol therapy in moderate/severe asthma exacerbations. It is caused by a mechanism different from the lactataemia that is associated with septic shock and life-threatening asthma. PMID:27166007

  6. [Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antelava, N A; Pachkoriia, K Z; Kezeli, T D; Nikuradze, N S; Shamkulashvili, G G

    2005-11-01

    The experimental and clinical data concerning pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis are summarized and analyzed in this article. Major concepts that explain initiation and progressive growth of atherosclerosis such as lipid infiltrations, response to disturbing factors, "response on the keeping of particles" and inflammatory processes are discussed. These concepts are considered as base for integral theory of atherosclerosis according which the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis are the result of the universal response reaction of endothelium to the various disturbing risk factors. Chronic inflammation leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions among cells derived from the endothelium, smooth muscle and several blood cell components and causes oxidative stress, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, oxidative modification of LDL, uptake and macrophage foam cell formation, endothelium dysfunction. Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, oxidative modification of LDL, lipid infiltration, endothelial dysfunction closely interact, forming close vicious circles which leads to metabolic and morphological disturbances, re-modulation of blood vessels, cardiovascular diseases and such complication as cardiac infarction and stroke. Pathogenic peculiarities of atherosclerosis are the theoretic base to the elaboration of therapeutic strategy. Endothelium may be discussed as a new therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. So far as the leukotrienes play an important role in inflammatory processes, it is suggested that the leukotrienes may be as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16369071

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Tan, Hong-Mei; Wang, Hong

    2005-04-25

    Arteriosclerosis and its complications, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major causes of death in developed countries. It was believed that age, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking are common risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition, overwhelming clinical and epidemiological studies have identified homocysteine (Hcy) as a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In healthy individuals, plasma Hcy is between 5 and 10 micromol/L. One cause of severe hypehomocys- teinemia (HHcy) is the deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), which converts Hcy to cystathionine. CBS homozygous deficiency results in severe HHcy with Hcy levels up to 100 to 500 micromol/L. Patients with severe HHcy usually present with neurological abnormalities, premature arteriosclerosis. It has been reported that lowering plasma Hcy improved endothelial dysfunction and reduced incidence of major adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention. The mechanisms by which Hcy induces atherosclerosis are largely unknown. Several biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain cardiovascular pathological changes associated with HHcy. These include: (1) endothelial cell damage and impaired endothelial function; (2) dysregulation of cholesterol and triglyceride biosynthesis; (3) stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation; (4) thrombosis activation and (5) activation of monocytes. Four major biochemical mechanisms have been proposed to explain the vascular pathology of Hcy. These include: (1) autooxidation through the production of reactive oxygen species; (2) hypomethylation by forming SAH, a potent inhibitor of biological transmethylations; (3) nitrosylation by binding to nitric oxide or (4) protein homocysteinylation by incorporating into protein. In summary, our studies, as well as data from other laboratories support the concept that Hcy is causally linked to atherosclerosis, and is not merely associated with

  8. Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council`s Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  9. Proceedings: Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 6--7, 1993 in conjunction with the Environmental Information Association`s (formerly National Asbestos Council) Environmental Management `93 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Eleven papers covered such topics as changes in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ban on asbestos, utility experience with asbestos management and abatement, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  10. Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council's Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  11. Recent Highlights of ATVB Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Daugherty, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mechanistic studies over the past decades using in vitro systems, animal models, and human tissues have highlighted the complexity of pathophysiological processes of atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia, as one of the major risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, is still the focus of many mechanistic studies and the major therapeutic target of atherosclerosis. Although there is a dire need to validate many experimental findings in humans, there is a large number of approaches that have been showing promise for contributing to future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25717174

  12. [PREDICTORS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS: NEW DEVELOPMENTS].

    PubMed

    Gozhenko, A I; Kotyuzhinskaya, S G; Kovalevskaya, L A

    2014-12-01

    The article describes known atherosclerosis predictors of endothelial origin, which are diagnostic criteria for identifying's early stages of atherosclerosis, and can prevent the development of this disease and are used to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy The authors analyzed the possibility of using heparin as an early marker of atherosclerosis, based on the fact that the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity due hyperheparinemia resulting from depletion of mast cells due to endothelial dysfunction, leads to the disorders of lipid transporting system in the form of the resistant hyperlipidemia with the phenomena of dyslipidemia. PMID:26638463

  13. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

  14. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  15. Innovative technologies for asbestos removal, treatment and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Kasper, K.M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will provide an overview of the Office of Science and Technology`s Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area`s investment in development and demonstration of innovative technologies for asbestos treatment, removal and recycle. The paper will cover the market opportunities for asbestos abatement, major regulations covering asbestos abatement, baseline technologies used by DOE for removal of asbestos, asbestos-related technology needs submitted by DOE`s Site Technology Coordinating Groups, and asbestos development and demonstration projects supported by the D & D Focus Area and other organizations. Based on the Environmental Management Integrated Database, there are about five million cubic feet of asbestos within the DOE Weapons Complex that will be abated by 2030. DOE has three main forms of asbestos: transite used in building construction, thermal pipe insulation, and floor tile. The D & D Focus Area has or is supporting three projects in asbestos removal, and three projects on destruction of asbestos fibers by chemical and thermal treatment. In asbestos removal, the D & D Focus Area is investigating a robot which removes asbestos insulation from pipes; a laser cutting technology which melts asbestos fibers while cutting insulated pipes; and a vacuum system which removes thermal insulation sandwiched between panels of transite. For destruction of asbestos fibers, the D & D Focus Area is supporting development and demonstration of a trailer-mounted process which destroys asbestos fibers by a combination of thermal and chemical treatment; a three-step process which removes organic and radioactive contaminants from the asbestos prior to decomposing the asbestos fibers by acid attack; and an in situ chemical treatment process to convert asbestos fibers into a non-regulated material.

  16. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  17. Respiratory conditions in Malaysian asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Lim, H H; Rampal, K G; Joginder, S; Bakar, C M Abu; Chan, K H; Vivek, T N

    2002-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers. PMID:12440274

  18. Selected new developments in asbestos immunotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, G J; Corsini, E; Simeonova, P

    1998-01-01

    Research over the past three decades has shown that the mammalian immune system can be altered by the occupational exposure of asbestos. Early clinical studies generally focused on systemic observations of immune alteration such as the number and function of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes. More recently as the regulatory influence of local immunity in health and disease becomes more defined, immunologic changes occurring in the lung, the primary target organ of asbestos, have been significant areas of investigation. This review will focus on recent studies that examine the influence of asbestos on pulmonary immunity as well as the role of host immune competence in asbestos-related disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9539011

  19. Asbestos: A Present Hazard in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, L. Dayle; Bilbo, David

    1983-01-01

    Explains what asbestos is, how it can be identified, where it has been used in educational facilities, the health hazards, government regulation, how it can be removed, and lists information sources. (MLF)

  20. Self Insuring against Asbestos Removal Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutzky, Lorence H.

    1987-01-01

    Asbestos removal is costly and many contractors have difficulty in obtaining insurance coverage. Presents a case for self insuring if contractors perform the removal work in compliance with state and federal regulations. Includes a reference list. (MD)

  1. Drinking-Water Criteria Document for Asbestos (final draft), March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sonich-Mullin, C.; Patel, Y.; Bayard, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Asbestos. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Asbestos; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to Asbestos; Health Effects of Asbestos in humans and animals; Mechanisms of toxicity of Asbestos; Quantification of toxicological effects of Asbestos.

  2. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  3. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free. PMID:17317641

  4. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces.

    PubMed

    Schlezinger, Z

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as "asbestos workers." Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period. PMID:3812492

  5. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Schlezinger, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as asbestos workers. Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period.

  6. MicroRNAs and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Rotllan, Noemi; Aranda, Juan F.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (~22nucleotide) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. MiRNA/mRNA base pairing complementarity provokes mRNA decay and consequent gene silencing. These endogenous gene expression inhibitors were primarily described in cancer but recent exciting findings have also demonstrated a key role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. MiRNAs controls endothelial cell (EC), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and macrophage functions, and thereby regulate the progression of atherosclerosis. MiRNAs expression is modulated by different stimuli involved in every stage of atherosclerosis and conversely miRNAs modulates several pathways implicated in plaque development such as cholesterol metabolism. In the present review, we focus on the importance of miRNAs in atherosclerosis and we further discuss their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:23512606

  7. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  8. Get ready for the new asbestos standard

    SciTech Connect

    Onderick, W.A.

    1995-10-09

    On October 1, OSHA`s revised asbestos rules became law, and with them are many changes from the previous 1986 standard. The presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) rule is one of the bigger changes in the revised standard. OSHA has declared that owners must presume that there are certain high-risk asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in facilities built prior to 1981, unless bulk sample results prove them to be nonasbestos. The impact of this provision forces companies to think carefully before presuming where asbestos is or where it is not. Companies must also heed the EPA Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which require inspections and bulk sampling to identify materials prior to renovation or demolition. Short and long term needs should be examined when analyzing how to comply with the PACM provision. There are four options available. Option 1: Ignore the standard and face potential enforcement fines. Option 2: Presume all materials in pre-1981 buildings contain asbestos and simply post additional warning signs. Option 3: Survey or resurvey the facilities to be in compliance with the PACM ruling. Option 4: Conduct more comprehensive surveys. Option 3 is discussed in some detail.

  9. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  10. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    PubMed Central

    Cherrie, John W; Tindall, Matthew; Cowie, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from <0.06 to 0.55 fibres/ml, with no significant difference in fibre exposure between aged and unused mitts. The use of high localised ventilation to simulate convective airflows from a furnace reduced exposure levels by about a factor of five. Differences between tasks were statistically significant, with simulated "rowing" of molten glass lowest and replacement of side seals on the furnace highest. Estimated lifetime cancer risk from 20 years exposure at the upper end of the exposure range measured during the study is less than 22 per 100,000. Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low. PMID:16202137