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Sample records for asbestos

  1. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  2. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  3. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... building materials (roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, and asbestos cement products), friction products (automobile ... Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This ...

  4. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  5. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  6. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  7. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  8. Asbestos Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denver, Colorado) Tremolite Asbestos. Close Up of Vermiculite Insulation in an Attic (Photo courtesy of EPA) Different ... Vermiculite (Photo courtesy of EPA) Attic Containing Vermiculite Insulation (Photo courtesy of EPA) Top of Page Text ...

  9. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  10. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  11. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  12. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  13. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  14. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  15. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  16. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reasons, asbestos has been used widely in many industries. Chemically, asbestos minerals are silicate compounds, meaning they ... Since then, asbestos has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industries have ...

  17. ASBESTOS PROBLEM RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the variety of regulations applicable to asbestos in buildings, ranging from the Clean Air Act to the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act. Remedial actions are discussed (removal, enclosure and encapsulation) and the ongoing research related to those areas ...

  18. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  19. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  20. All about Asbestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  1. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  2. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  3. Asbestos in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Thomas; Johnston, Ronnie; McIvor, Arthur; Watterson, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the asbestos hazard in Scotland and draws upon a systematic oral history project to analyze from the workers' perspective the nature of exposure, the limitations of government regulatory initiatives, and the ramifications of contracting asbestos-related diseases for sufferers and their families. Current issues are investigated, stressing the agency of workers, trade unions, sympathetic local councils, and, especially, the victims' pressure groups. The occupational and environmental health threats of asbestos in Scotland remain significant, although recent E.U.- and U.K.-based decisions to ban further use of asbestos together with active campaigning by local activist groups have helped to reduce them. Mesothelioma mortality rates remain high, due to historic exposures, and much work remains to be done to reduce the number and plight of asbestos-exposed workers. PMID:15281377

  4. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  5. Some Facts About Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    For information on historic asbestos mines, historic prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., see: Eastern U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/); Central U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2006-1211 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/); Rocky Mountain States ---> Open-File Report 2007-1182 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/); Southwest U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2008-1095 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). For commodity statistics and information see: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/asbestos/

  6. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... bundles of fibers. These fibers are found in soil and rocks in many parts of the world. ... water through several sources, such as rock or soil erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipes, or the ...

  7. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  8. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  9. The asbestos war.

    PubMed

    Kazan-Allen, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries. PMID:12967154

  10. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors. PMID:26822071

  11. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  12. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  13. Asbestos exposure in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaensler, E.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are dose-related. Among these, asbestosis has occurred only with the heavy exposures of the past, is a disappearing disease, and is of no concern with the very small exposures from building occupancy. A possibly increased incidence of lung cancer has been included in risk analysis, but probably is also related to high exposure in that both epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a link between the process of alveolar inflammation and fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The major concern has been mesothelioma in that it has occurred with much lower household and neighborhood exposure. Additionally, anxiety concerning buildings with ACM has been heightened by finding of friable asbestos in about 20% of public buildings, discovery of environmental asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in autopsies, and demonstration of a linear relationship between exposure and lung cancer risk in occupational groups, inviting extrapolation to a much lower dose. Legislative and regulatory mandates, promotional activities of abatement companies, adverse court decisions placing the onus of repairs on asbestos manufacturers, and a pandemic of mediagenic disease' all have contributed to panic among building owners, school boards, insurers, and others. In that there is neither clinical nor epidemiologic support for asbestos-related disease from building occupancy, risk estimates have been based on extrapolation from past experience with generally high-dose occupational exposure. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have contained quantitative estimates of exposure, and these have been measured in terms of all particles, with conversion to asbestos fibers uncertain and the fiber type and dimension largely unknown.

  14. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data from population studies strengthened the association of asbestos with disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death. The data suggest that the excess risk of lung cancer from asbestos exposure is proportional to cumulati...

  15. Asbestos: From Beginning to End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Richard C.; Cain, Gary K.

    In conjunction with a bond proposal for energy related items, the North County Public Schools (Missouri) undertook the task of removing friable asbestos Missouri school district undertook the task of removing friable asbestos from schools. Specifications for asbestos abatement prepared by the district administrative office were reviewed by the…

  16. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  17. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  18. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  19. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  20. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  1. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  2. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  3. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  4. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  5. Focus on asbestos; Choosing insurance

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, E.D. )

    1989-01-01

    any asbestos abatement process carries with it some hazards to health. The process of asbestos removal often involves heavy demolition as well as complex area isolation and air engineering procedures. If not planned, monitored and performed correctly, asbestos control work can spread significant amounts of airborne asbestos contamination through a building. Persons who visit or re-occupy such a contaminated building may later seek legal redress against the contractor, architect, building owner and others who are alleged to be responsible for injuries ultimately related to faulty asbestos abatement work. This paper reports that, for this reason, asbestos contractors, building owners, real estate managers, architects and others involved in asbestos abatement work need to be concerned about the adequacy of their insurance coverage.

  6. Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  7. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  8. Libby Amphibole asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 11 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF LIBBY AMPHIBOLE ASBESTOS In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2014 ( Note : This document is an assessment of the noncancer and cancer health effects associated with the inha

  9. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  10. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  11. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  12. STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the mining, milling, uses, and health effects of asbestos. Its major applications are in asbestos cement products, floor tiles, electrical equipment, brake linings, and flame resistant compositions. Impaired human health from industrial exposure to asbestos i...

  13. Asbestos, Lung Cancers, and Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Nicholas H.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since we published findings in the AJRCMB demonstrating that induction of early response fos/jun proto-oncogenes in rodent tracheal and mesothelial cells correlates with fibrous geometry and pathogenicity of asbestos. Our study was the first to suggest that the aberrant induction of signaling responses by crocidolite asbestos and erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral associated with the development of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) in areas of Turkey, led to altered gene expression. New data questioned the widely held belief at that time that the carcinogenic effects of asbestos in the development of lung cancer and MM were due to genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Later studies by our group revealed that proto-oncogene expression and several of the signaling pathways activated by asbestos were redox dependent, explaining why antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes were elevated in lung and pleura after exposure to asbestos and how they alleviated many of the phenotypic and functional effects of asbestos in vitro or after inhalation. Since these original studies, our efforts have expanded to understand the interface between asbestos-induced redox-dependent signal transduction cascades, the relationship between these pathways and cell fate, and the role of asbestos and cell interactions in development of asbestos-associated diseases. Of considerable significance is the fact that the signal transduction pathways activated by asbestos are also important in survival and chemoresistance of MMs and lung cancers. An understanding of the pathogenic features of asbestos fibers and dysregulation of signaling pathways allows strategies for the prevention and therapy of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:20068227

  14. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  15. History of asbestos related disease.

    PubMed

    Bartrip, P W J

    2004-02-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  16. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  17. Urinary asbestos fibers and inorganic particles in past asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Sara; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Maria Nicoletta; Scoizzato, Luca; Carradori, Giorgio; Fedeli, Ugo; Capella, Silvana; Belluso, Elena

    2016-05-01

    To assess the validity of the procedure as a test of asbestos exposure, we compared urinary asbestos fibers with occupational and environmental exposure data in a random sample of 48 subjects with high past asbestos exposure. Occupational and environmental exposure was estimated on questionnaire, pleural plaques were diagnosed with computed tomography, and inorganic fibers and particles were identified by scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometry. Few urinary asbestos fibers (in 15% of workers and 17% of cases with pleural plaques) and high amount of urinary silicate (particularly nonfibrous particles) were detected. Asbestos undergoes dissolution in lung tissues, but the secondary minerals are largely unknown. These materials, possibly nonfibrous silicates or metals, could be excreted with urine. Therefore, another study including a control group is warranted to discriminate the occupational origin of minerals in the urine. PMID:25455013

  18. DRAFT ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data developed since the early 1970's from large population studies with long follow-up strengthen the association of asbestos exposure to disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death among exposed individuals. The accumulated data...

  19. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  20. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  1. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  2. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  3. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  4. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  5. Asbestos/NESHAP regulated asbestos-containing-materials guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    In the initial Asbestos NESHAP rule promulgated in 1973, a distinction was made between building materials that would readily release asbestos fibers when damaged or disturbed and those materials that were unlikely to result in significant fiber release. The terms friable and nonfriable were used to make this distinction. EPA has since determined that, if severely damaged, otherwise nonfriable materials can release significant amounts of asbestos fibers. Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) is (a) friable asbestos material, (b) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that has become friable, (c) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting, or abrading, or (d) Category 2 nonfriable ACM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations. The purpose of the document is to assist asbestos inspectors and the regulated community in determining whether or not a material is RACM and thus subject to the Asbestos NESHAP.

  6. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  7. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  8. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  9. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage in relation to asbestos bodies and asbestos fibres in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, A; Piipari, R; Mäntylä, T; Mönkkönen, M; Nurminen, M; Tukiainen, P; Vanhala, E; Anttila, S

    1996-05-01

    In Finland, unlike other countries, anthophyllite asbestos has been widely used due to its domestic production in 1918-1975. In this particular context, the aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between asbestos bodies (ABs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the concentration of ABs and the different amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue. Sixty five BAL lung tissue sample pairs from patients with pulmonary disease were analysed. The concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and lung tissue was determined with optical microscopy, and the concentration, type and dimensions of asbestos fibres in lung tissue with scanning electron microscopy. There was a significant correlation between the concentrations of ABs in BAL fluid and in lung tissue (r = 0.72; p < 0.001), between the concentrations of ABs and amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.73; p < 0.001), and between the concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and the concentration of amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). In patients who had been exposed mainly to commercial anthophyllite, significantly higher concentrations of ABs were observed per total pulmonary amphibole fibre burden, as compared to patients whose main exposure was to crocidolite/amosite. The anthophyllite fibres in lung tissue were longer than the crocidolite/amosite fibres. The relationship between asbestos body counts in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was similar to previous international observations. When using the asbestos body count to predict the underlying total pulmonary amphibole asbestos burden in Finnish patients, however, it should be borne in mind that the relationship between the two parameters seems to be different with anthophyllite as compared to crocidolite/amosite fibres. PMID:8793463

  10. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  11. [Asbestos related cancers in seamen].

    PubMed

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Negro, Corrado; De Michieli, Paola; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Seamen and marine engineers were formerly exposed to asbestos used in gasket, pipes, valves and machinery. Ship motion and vibration can release asbestos in the surrounding space. Asbestos fibres may also be inhaled by workers involved in maintenance operations of vessels built before 1992 in Italy. History of asbestos exposure has been reported by workers and confirmed by a higher prevalence of pleural abnormalities and a significant excess of mesothelioma with a Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) ranging between 1.83 and 4.8 as a function of years of exposure. SIR for lung cancer ranged between 1.10 and 1.62. Mesothelioma in seamen and marine engineers represents about 2.5% of the overall Italian mesothelioma cases with a very long latency period (47.6 +/- 9.6 years). There is no epidemiological evidence for an excess risk of mesothelioma in fishermen. PMID:24303696

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Asbestos. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Virta, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of a regulation enacted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that phases out the use of asbestos went into effect on August 27, 1990. Health and liability issues continued to be a major factor in determining the economic stability of several former producers of asbestos products. The number of firms that produce asbestos-containing products continued to decline in response to these issues. Domestic asbestos production increased slightly from that of 1989, but consumption decreased 25%, from 55,306 to 41,348 tons. Asbestos was consumed domestically for roofing products, 37%; friction products, 26%; asbestos-cement pipe, 15%; packing and gaskets, 8%; and other, 14%.

  13. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  14. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Churg, J.; Hammond, E.C.

    1984-07-06

    Builiding trades insulation workers have relatively light, intermittent, exposure to asbestos. Of 632 insulation workers, who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, forty-five died of cancer of the lung or pleura, whereas only 6.6 such deaths were expected. Three of the pleural tumors were mesotheliomas; there was also one peritoneal mesothelioma. Four mesotheliomas in a total of 255 deaths is an exceedingly high incidence for such a rare tumor. In addition, an unexpectedly large number of men died of cancer of the stomach, colon, or rectum (29 compared with 9.4 expected). Other cancers were not increased; 20.5 were expected, 21 occurred. Twelve men died of asbestosis. This landmark article appeared originally in this journal 188:22-26, 1964.

  15. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  16. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  17. Environmental projects. Volume 4: Asbestos survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), near Barstow, California, operates in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. Many of the buildings and structures at the GDSCC were erected before it became known that asbestos posed a hazard to human health. Thus, because of concern with asbestos, two field surveys were conducted at the GDSCC in October/November 1986 and in September 1987 to locate, classify, and quantify all asbestos-containing materials in buildings, structures, roofs and boilers. The report describes the results of the two surveys and describes methods for both asbestos management and asbestos abatement. The surveys found that GDSCC practices involving asbestos are conscientious and forward-thinking. A program, due to start in FY 1988 and to be completed in FY 1990, is planned to remove all friable (easily pulverized) asbestos-containing materials discovered during the two field surveys for asbestos at the GDSCC.

  18. FEDERAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO ASBESTOS POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health effects and epidemiological studies have established that breathing asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis, lung and other organ cancers, and mesothelioma. This has led to publication by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances of guidance for minimizing airborne asbestos exposure i...

  19. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  20. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  1. Reinforcement of polymeric structures with asbestos fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, C. A.; Schwartz, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation determines structural potential of asbestos fibrils. Methods are developed for dispersing macrofibers of the asbestos into colloidal-sized ultimate fibrils and incorporating these fibrils in matrices without causing reagglomeration.

  2. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  3. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  4. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  5. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  6. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  7. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  8. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  10. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  11. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  12. The epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Niklinski, Jacek; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Laudanski, Jerzy; Naumnik, Wojciech; Chyczewski, Lech; Pluygers, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Asbestos has been recognised as a potential health hazard since the 1940s. Of the two major species of asbestos; white asbestos (chrysotile) and blue asbestos (crocidolite), both of which are hazardous. The workers at extraction facilities are at the greatest risk of exposure to asbestos and, therefore, the development of asbestos-related diseases, commonly mesothelioma. However, other individuals at a high risk of exposure include asbestos-cement workers, insulation workers and ship-yard workers. Environmental exposure to asbestos can occur as a result of living in areas either characterised by natural outcrops of asbestos or asbestos-related materials, or those close to asbestos-producing or -using plants. Unfortunately, man-made fibre alternatives to asbestos, such as rock and slag-wool and glass wool, have also been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. A characteristic of mesothelioma is that there is a long latency period (20-30 years) before the signs and symptoms of the disease become apparent. In addition, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult. The use of biological markers, such as tissue polypeptide antigen, may play a useful role in the early detection of the disease in individuals at risk. PMID:15261426

  13. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  14. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  15. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  16. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  17. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  18. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  19. Uncle Sam Flunks Asbestos Control in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of using asbestos to insulate heating and air-conditioning systems in schools and mixing asbestos into ceiling plaster for fireproofing and noise control. Suggests that the Environmental Protection Agency's plan for asbestos removal may be causing problems where none exist. (TW)

  20. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains eight sections that…

  1. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  2. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  3. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  4. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  5. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  6. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  7. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  8. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  9. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

  10. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  11. EVALUATION OF ASBESTOS LEVELS IN TWO SCHOOLS BEFORE AND AFTER ASBESTOS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data, are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requir...

  12. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  13. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma following asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Manavoğlu, O; Orhan, B; Evrensel, T; Ozçelik, T; Yolcu, I; Kunt, E

    1996-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological studies have demonstrated that asbestosis plays a major role in the etiology of mesothelioma. The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma. An increased risk has been found in certain geographic areas of Turkey due to the presence of asbestos deposits and the use of the material known as "white soil" as an insulation. We present a malignant mesothelioma case from rural eastern Turkey with a history of asbestos exposure from using "white soil". We review the epidemiological aspects of asbestos as they relate to mesothelioma. PMID:9216805

  14. Biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Solt, K.

    2008-12-01

    Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos represent two mineralogical categories of regulated asbestos commonly evaluated in epidemiological, toxicological, and pathological studies. Lung and digestive fluids are undersaturated with respect to chrysotile and tremolite asbestos (i.e. dissolution is thermodynamically favorable), where the dissolution kinetics control the durability of these minerals in respiratory and gastric systems. Here we examined the biodurability of chrysotile and tremolite asbestos in simulated body fluids (SBFs) as a function of mineral surface area over time. Batch experiments in simulated gastric fluid (SGF; HCl and NaCl solution at pH 1.2) and simulated lung fluid (SLF; a modified Gamble's solution at pH 7.4) were performed at 37°C over 720 hours. The rate-limiting step of Si release for both minerals was used to determine and compare dissolution rates. Chrysotile and tremolite asbestos are less biodurable in SGF compared to SLF. Based on equal suspension densities (surface area per volume of solution, m2 L- 1), chrysotile undergoes dissolution approximately 44 times faster than tremolite asbestos in SGF; however, amphibole asbestos dissolves approximately 6 times faster than chrysotile in SLF. Provided identical fiber dimensions, fiber dissolution models demonstrate that chrysotile is more biodurable in SLF and less biodurable in SGF compared to tremolite asbestos. Overall, the methodology employed here provides an alternative means to evaluate asbestos material fiber lifetimes based on mineral surface considerations.

  15. Reconstituted asbestos matrix for fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1975-01-01

    Method is described for reprocessing commercially available asbestos matrix stock to yield greater porosity and bubble pressure (due to increased surface tension), improved homogeneity, and greater uniformity.

  16. [Asbestos concentrations in drinking water. Asbestos cement pipes and geogenic sources in Austria].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M; Frank, W; Golob, P; Warbichler, P

    1996-03-01

    Sources of asbestos in drinking water may be natural deposits or the use of asbestos cement for water distribution. 50 water samples were selected in Austria to detect fibre contamination from either geology or asbestos cement by comparison with control areas and by comparison of raw and treated water. Standardized EPA/BGA methodology with transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction was used to quantify concentrations of different sized amphibole and chrysotile fibres. In 10 areas with asbestos deposits and in 14 areas with use of asbestos cement pipes asbestos concentrations in drinking water were low and not significantly different from 6 control areas (median 32,000 total asbestos fibres per litre). The relative highest concentration was found in an area with natural deposits at the source of the water supply (190,000 per litre). In areas without natural deposits the increase of asbestos concentrations from origin to consumer of water was not significant and unrelated to water aggressiveness, age and length of asbestos cement pipes. This could be mainly due to the fact that in areas with aggressive water asbestos cement pipes have been coated in Austria. A sample from a cistern, however, showed considerable asbestos contamination and raises concern about the use of surface water for room air humidification. PMID:9376056

  17. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, "local" studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  18. Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Daniela; Terracini, Benedetto; Santana, Vilma S.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Pasetto, Roberto; Mazzeo, Agata; Loomis, Dana; Comba, Pietro; Algranti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. PMID:27187433

  19. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  20. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  1. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Although there were several anecdotal reports from earlier times, the first well documented case of asbestosis was reported in 1906 in a worker engaged in the production of asbestos textiles. In 1917 a report of ten cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurring at a Pennsylvania facility was published. The first detailed epidemiologic study of asbestos workers was undertaken in Great Britain in 1928. The first indication that asbestos might be a human carcinogen came in 1935 with the report of three independently diagnosed cases of lung cancer detected during autopsy of asbestos workers. Epidemiologic studies have now repeatedly demonstrated an association between asbestos exposure and increased mortality due to asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma, and gastrointestinal cancer. In some studies asbestos exposure has also been associated with increased risks for laryngeal cancer and cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. Studies which have been concerned with exposure to crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and chrysotile were highlighted. Other topics reviewed included asbestos contamination of other minerals, the combined effects of asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, mortality and pleural radiographic changes, and mixed fiber exposures.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1910.1001 Section 1910.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. (1)...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1915.1001 Section 1915.1001 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1001 Asbestos. (a) Scope and...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asbestos. 1926.1101 Section 1926.1101 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1101 Asbestos. (a) Scope and application. This...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (2) This section does not apply to construction work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b). (Exposure to asbestos in construction work is covered by 29 CFR 1926.1101). (3) This section does not apply... CFR 1915.4. (Exposure to asbestos in these employments is covered by 29 CFR 1915.1001)....

  11. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  12. [Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: its relation to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Moruzzo, D; Siuti, E; del Corso, L

    1995-10-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos can induce malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (PMM) without pulmonary or pleural involvement (PIMM). The localization to the peritoneum depends on the different susceptibility of the two mesotheliums and, perhaps, on the length of asbestos fibers which can facilitate their direct translocation. PMID:8622811

  13. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  14. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  15. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  16. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  17. 30 CFR 71.702 - Asbestos standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a... concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (2) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air...

  18. IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF ASBESTOS GENOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos fibers are highly cytotoxic to cultured mammalian cells and produce chromosomal aberrations in several rodent cell types. There is some uncertainty in the literature as to whether these fibers are clastogenic to cultured human cells. Asbestos fibers do not produce either...

  19. Asbestos identification by dispersion staining microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ganotes, J T; Tan, H T

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos can be detected and identified by an optical microscope procedure known as dispersion staining. This procedure can be carried out with most phase contrast equipped microscopes. The primary application is for material samples. Distinction between tremolite and anthophyllite asbestos requires examination between crossed polarizers. PMID:6153496

  20. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  1. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  2. Asbestos in Buildings: What You Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safe Buildings Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-one critical questions about asbestos, its use in school buildings, and the risks it poses to health are answered in this booklet. Issued by the Safe Buildings Alliance, an incorporated association of manufacturers that once supplied asbestos-containing materials for building construction, the booklet's purpose is to provide information…

  3. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  4. FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING SOURCE SAMPLING METHODS FOR ASBESTOS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program was to determine the feasibility of developing methods for sampling asbestos in the emissions of major asbestos sources: (1) ore production and taconite production, (2) asbestos-cement production, (3) asbestos felt and paper production, and (4) the p...

  5. What You Should Know about Asbestos Health Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The presence of asbestos health hazards in the schools is particulary serious since children exposed to asbestos are more likely to develop cancer than adults similarly exposed. Health risks of asbestos, scope of the problem, and asbestos testing are discussed. (DF)

  6. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  7. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  8. Asbestos: Rationale Behind a Proposed Air Quality Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Leonard; Rubino, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes an asbestos air quality standard for Connecticut lower than proposed Federal regulation. Data are given relating mesothelioma incidence to occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure. New standards lower asbestos emissions from manufacturing operations thus reducing possible asbestos-related fatalities. Rebuttals and…

  9. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  10. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  11. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  12. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  13. No meeting of the minds on asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The debate on the health hazards of asbestos has become so polarized that researchers from one camp no longer go to the other camp's meetings. One view suggests that a spate of asbestos-triggered diseases would strike thousands of construction workers, firemen, custodians, and other people exposed to microscopic asbestos fibers that crumble from building and pipe insulation, brake pads, and hundreds of other sources. Other researchers believe that chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type in the US, poses relatively little health risk to the general public at the levels of exposure generally encountered, and that expensive removal of properly maintained asbestos-containing materials such as insulation and cement is not warranted.

  14. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Van Hai; Lan Tran, Thi Ngoc; Le, Giang Vinh; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Jiang, Ying; Pham, Nguyen Ha; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam. PMID:23961336

  15. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    SciTech Connect

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  16. Evaluation of asbestos levels in two schools before and after asbestos removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karaffa, M.A.; Chesson, J.; Russell, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requirements and recent EPA guidelines, the study evaluates these historical data by standard statistical methods to determine if abated work areas meet proposed clearance criteria. The objectives of this statistical analysis were to compare (1) airborne asbestos levels indoors after removal with levels outdoors, (2) airborne asbestos levels before and after removal of asbestos, and (3) static sampling and aggressive sampling of airborne asbestos. The results of this evaluation indicated the following: the effect of asbestos removal on indoor air quality is unpredictable; the variability in fiber concentrations among different sampling sites within the same building indicates the need to treat different sites as separate areas for the purpose of clearance; and aggressive sampling is appropriate for clearance testing because it captures more entrainable asbestos structures. Aggressive sampling lowers the chance of declaring a worksite clean when entrainable asbestos is still present.

  17. Pulmonary carcinoid tumors and asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Clin, Bénédicte; Andujar, Pascal; Abd Al Samad, Issam; Azpitarte, Chantal; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Danel, Claire; Galateau-Salle, Françoise; Housset, Bruno; Legrand-Cattan, Karinne; Matrat, Mireille; Monnet, Isabelle; Riquet, Marc; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The hypothesis that asbestos exposure may have more specific associations with particular histological types of lung cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between asbestos exposure and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 28 cases undergoing surgery for pulmonary carcinoid tumors and aged over 40 years, and in 56 controls with lung cancer of a different histological type, matched for gender and age, from 1994 to 1999, recruited in 2 hospitals in the region of Paris. Asbestos exposure was assessed via expertise of a standardized occupational questionnaire and mineralogical analysis of lung tissue, with quantification of asbestos bodies (AB). Results Definite asbestos exposure was identified in 25% of cases and 14% of controls (ns). Cumulative asbestos exposure was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p<0.05), and results of the quantification of AB tended to be higher in cases than in controls (24% and 9% had more than 1,000 AB/g dry lung tissue, respectively, p=0.09). Mean cumulative smoking was lower in cases than in controls (p<0.05). Conclusion This study argues in favor of a relationship between asbestos exposure and certain pulmonary carcinoid tumors. PMID:22562831

  18. Asbestos ban in India: challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Bhuva, Uttpal B; Katoch, Priyanka

    2006-09-01

    Rapidly industrializing India is described by the International Monetary Fund as a young, disciplined, and vibrant economy with a projected growth of 6.7% for 2005. The total workforce of 397 million has only 7% of workers employed in the organized sector with construction, where asbestos exposure is prevalent, employing 4.4%. The domestic production of asbestos declined from 20,111 tons in 1998-1999 to 14,340 tons in 2002-2003. The imports from Russia and Canada increased from 61,474 tons in 1997-1998 to 97,884 tons in 2001-2002. The production of asbestos cement products went up from 0.68 million tons in 1993-1994 to 1.38 million tons in 2002-2003. The asbestos industry has been delicensed since March 2003. The number of asbestos-based units stood at 32, with the western state of Maharashtra having the largest number. According to official figures, the industry employs 8000 workers. The occupational exposure standard is still 2 fibers/mL, worse still, mesothelioma is not recognized as an occupational disease. The latest cancer registry data have no information on mesothelioma. The health and safety legislation does not cover 93% of workers in the unorganized sector where asbestos exposures are extremely high. Workers remain uninformed and untrained in dealing with asbestos exposure. Enforcement agencies are not fully conscious of the risks of asbestos exposure. Industrial hygiene assessment is seldom carried out and pathologists do not receive training in identifying mesothelioma histopathologically. The lack of political will and powerful influence of the asbestos industry are pushing India toward a disaster of unimaginable proportion. PMID:17119210

  19. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  20. Asbestos Exposure among Mitering Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fiber counting was conducted under Rule A. The study showed that the fiber concentration medians for personal air samples gathered from the two tools were 4.11 fibers/cc (ranged: 1.33-12.41 fibers/cc) and 0.13 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.01-5.00 fibers/cc) respectively. The median for the area samples was 0.59 fibers/cc (ranged: 0.14-3.32 fibers/cc). Comparing each study case, the concentration level caused by the high-speed motor saw was more than twice that of the hand saw. According to the area samples, the workers nearby the test site are at risk from high exposure to asbestos. PMID:23019536

  1. [Health hazards: asbestos--a review (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beck, B; Irmscher, G

    1976-01-01

    The health hazards caused by asbestos are reviewed and some conclusions are drawn. Asbestos and the materials containing a high percentage of asbestos cannot completely be substituted by other materials without dangerous health effects. It is to be expected that the use of asbestos will still increase. An important health hazard has become evident among asbestos insulation workers. But also in other branches the application of asbestos is widespread. It seems to be difficult to find substitutes meeting the same requirements for using like asbestos. Rock-wool and glass fibres are used more and more in exchange for asbestos. Registers for asbestos workers and asbestos working places are established in several countries. The main causes of death induced by asbestos among asbestos workers are asbestosis. mesothelioma and cancer. For the evaluation and assessment of cancer risk due to asbestos epidemiological studies have to be conducted. Even a short period of exposure to low quantities of asbestos fibres proves to be a health hazard causing certain diseases (diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, pleural hyalinosis, pleural calcifications, mesothelioma) after more than 20 years. For avoiding occupational disease hazards among asbestos workers the dust level on the working place has to be lowered to acceptable concentrations (maximal allowable concentrations). The identification of dust sources of asbestos, the application of practice codes for handling of asbestos, the substitution of asbestos by materials without dangerous health effects, and dust control at source are the most effective directions of hygienic practice. The health protection requires annual medical examinations of all persons exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos. PMID:788371

  2. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  3. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  4. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  5. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard...

  7. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  8. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard...

  9. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  10. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  11. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  12. 40 CFR 427.60 - Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos roofing subcategory. 427.60 Section 427.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.60 Applicability; description of the asbestos roofing subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR 427.50 - Applicability; description of the asbestos millboard subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos millboard subcategory. 427.50 Section 427.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.50 Applicability; description of the asbestos...

  14. Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council`s Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  15. Proceedings: Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 6--7, 1993 in conjunction with the Environmental Information Association`s (formerly National Asbestos Council) Environmental Management `93 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Eleven papers covered such topics as changes in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ban on asbestos, utility experience with asbestos management and abatement, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  16. Conference on asbestos control and replacement for electric utilities: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An EPRI conference on Asbestos Control and Replacement for Electric Utilities was held April 9, 1992 in conjunction with the National Asbestos Council's Environmental Management 192 Conference and Exposition. The high cost and potential liabilities of asbestos removal projects, compounded by concerns over the health effects of asbestos replacement materials, was the main motivation for the conference. The objective of the conference was to assemble guidance and information that will help utilities manage asbestos and to effectively prioritize EPRI research in this area. Ten papers covered such topics as computer-aided asbestos management, utility experience with asbestos management, asbestos monitoring and disposal, and asbestos replacement materials. Utility feedback received at the conference indicates that present and planned EPRI research activities in this area will effectively meet industry needs.

  17. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Other Natural Occurrences of Asbestos in Oregon and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 51 natural occurrences of asbestos in Washington and Oregon, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Pacific Northwest States of Washington and Oregon. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the United States, which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), and the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the United States.

  18. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  19. Innovative technologies for asbestos removal, treatment and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Kasper, K.M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will provide an overview of the Office of Science and Technology`s Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area`s investment in development and demonstration of innovative technologies for asbestos treatment, removal and recycle. The paper will cover the market opportunities for asbestos abatement, major regulations covering asbestos abatement, baseline technologies used by DOE for removal of asbestos, asbestos-related technology needs submitted by DOE`s Site Technology Coordinating Groups, and asbestos development and demonstration projects supported by the D & D Focus Area and other organizations. Based on the Environmental Management Integrated Database, there are about five million cubic feet of asbestos within the DOE Weapons Complex that will be abated by 2030. DOE has three main forms of asbestos: transite used in building construction, thermal pipe insulation, and floor tile. The D & D Focus Area has or is supporting three projects in asbestos removal, and three projects on destruction of asbestos fibers by chemical and thermal treatment. In asbestos removal, the D & D Focus Area is investigating a robot which removes asbestos insulation from pipes; a laser cutting technology which melts asbestos fibers while cutting insulated pipes; and a vacuum system which removes thermal insulation sandwiched between panels of transite. For destruction of asbestos fibers, the D & D Focus Area is supporting development and demonstration of a trailer-mounted process which destroys asbestos fibers by a combination of thermal and chemical treatment; a three-step process which removes organic and radioactive contaminants from the asbestos prior to decomposing the asbestos fibers by acid attack; and an in situ chemical treatment process to convert asbestos fibers into a non-regulated material.

  20. Respiratory conditions in Malaysian asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Lim, H H; Rampal, K G; Joginder, S; Bakar, C M Abu; Chan, K H; Vivek, T N

    2002-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of respiratory conditions including asbestos-related diseases among Malaysian asbestos cement workers. The study population consisted of 1164 workers who had undergone medical surveillance from 1995 to 1997, including full history, physical examination, chest radiography and spirometry. More than half the male workers were smokers or ex-smokers, with smokers having more respiratory symptoms and signs, and reduced FEV1 compared with non smokers. The five most common respiratory conditions diagnosed were bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections and allergic rhinitis. On follow-up, there were also two cases of asbestosis and one case of bronchial carcinoma. The asbestosis cases were probably related to heavy occupational exposure to asbestos fibres in the past, before governmental regulations were gazetted in 1986. Further follow-up is essential for continued monitoring of the health status of asbestos workers. PMID:12440274

  1. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  2. Selected new developments in asbestos immunotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, G J; Corsini, E; Simeonova, P

    1998-01-01

    Research over the past three decades has shown that the mammalian immune system can be altered by the occupational exposure of asbestos. Early clinical studies generally focused on systemic observations of immune alteration such as the number and function of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes. More recently as the regulatory influence of local immunity in health and disease becomes more defined, immunologic changes occurring in the lung, the primary target organ of asbestos, have been significant areas of investigation. This review will focus on recent studies that examine the influence of asbestos on pulmonary immunity as well as the role of host immune competence in asbestos-related disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9539011

  3. Asbestos: A Present Hazard in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, L. Dayle; Bilbo, David

    1983-01-01

    Explains what asbestos is, how it can be identified, where it has been used in educational facilities, the health hazards, government regulation, how it can be removed, and lists information sources. (MLF)

  4. Self Insuring against Asbestos Removal Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutzky, Lorence H.

    1987-01-01

    Asbestos removal is costly and many contractors have difficulty in obtaining insurance coverage. Presents a case for self insuring if contractors perform the removal work in compliance with state and federal regulations. Includes a reference list. (MD)

  5. Drinking-Water Criteria Document for Asbestos (final draft), March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sonich-Mullin, C.; Patel, Y.; Bayard, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Asbestos. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Asbestos; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to Asbestos; Health Effects of Asbestos in humans and animals; Mechanisms of toxicity of Asbestos; Quantification of toxicological effects of Asbestos.

  6. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free. PMID:17317641

  7. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  8. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces.

    PubMed

    Schlezinger, Z

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as "asbestos workers." Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period. PMID:3812492

  9. Use of asbestos in the Israeli Defense Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Schlezinger, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) have adopted the current standards for asbestos in the workplace (1 fiber/ml). Although average daily exposure to asbestos is relatively limited, nevertheless, the army personnel concerned are defined as asbestos workers. Four main areas of asbestos use were monitored, and medical examinations of susceptible personnel were performed. Recommendations were suggested for improving conditions. The IDF is now in the process of eliminating the use of materials containing asbestos, with the aim of eliminating asbestos use in the IDF within a three-to five-year period.

  10. The Veterans Administration's Asbestos Abatement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schepers, G.W. )

    1991-12-31

    The Veterans Administration has developed a program of asbestos abatement for its more than 1000 buildings, where health care personnel from 173 hospitals and 238 ambulatory care clinics are likely to encounter respirable asbestos. This is a costly program, which has averaged about $25 million annually for the past ten years. The VA has banned the use of new asbestos products containing more than 1% of asbestos in building construction or renovation projects. Industrial hygiene engineering programs have been ordered instituted at all VA medical centers to monitor dust levels in compliance with OSHA and EPA requirements. Health surveillance programs, managed by an environmental health physician at each medical center, have been instituted for all personnel who have been identified to have breathed asbestos fibers in excess of OSHA-EPA threshold limit values. The health care program focuses on the identification of asbestosis and asbestos-related cancer through periodic X-ray films, lung function tests, and electrocardiographic and physical examination screening. The program also stresses cessation of smoking.

  11. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    PubMed Central

    Cherrie, John W; Tindall, Matthew; Cowie, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from <0.06 to 0.55 fibres/ml, with no significant difference in fibre exposure between aged and unused mitts. The use of high localised ventilation to simulate convective airflows from a furnace reduced exposure levels by about a factor of five. Differences between tasks were statistically significant, with simulated "rowing" of molten glass lowest and replacement of side seals on the furnace highest. Estimated lifetime cancer risk from 20 years exposure at the upper end of the exposure range measured during the study is less than 22 per 100,000. Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low. PMID:16202137

  12. Get ready for the new asbestos standard

    SciTech Connect

    Onderick, W.A.

    1995-10-09

    On October 1, OSHA`s revised asbestos rules became law, and with them are many changes from the previous 1986 standard. The presumed asbestos-containing material (PACM) rule is one of the bigger changes in the revised standard. OSHA has declared that owners must presume that there are certain high-risk asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in facilities built prior to 1981, unless bulk sample results prove them to be nonasbestos. The impact of this provision forces companies to think carefully before presuming where asbestos is or where it is not. Companies must also heed the EPA Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which require inspections and bulk sampling to identify materials prior to renovation or demolition. Short and long term needs should be examined when analyzing how to comply with the PACM provision. There are four options available. Option 1: Ignore the standard and face potential enforcement fines. Option 2: Presume all materials in pre-1981 buildings contain asbestos and simply post additional warning signs. Option 3: Survey or resurvey the facilities to be in compliance with the PACM ruling. Option 4: Conduct more comprehensive surveys. Option 3 is discussed in some detail.

  13. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  14. TEM OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following details a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Tulsa District) research project to determine potential release of asbestos during removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both containing asbestos. Tests were conducted in seven enclosed test areas constructed...

  15. Measurement of Aerosolization of Asbestos from Soil Using the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) was designed to provide an alternative to activity-based sampling (ABS) for determining likely asbestos exposure resulting from activities at site with low contaminant levels. This paper presents a description of the RAFS device and a comp...

  16. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... each(function(i){ var city = $(this).find('city').text(); var state = $(this).find('state').text(); var date = $(this).find('date').text(); if ((city != "") && (state != "")){ var citystate = ' | ' + city + ', ' + state; } else ...

  17. [Issues related to long-term asbestos use and manufacture].

    PubMed

    Trosić, Ivancica

    2009-11-01

    Extensive measures to ban mining, manufacture, use, and trade of asbestos and asbestos materials have been taken worldwide. In this century asbestos will continue to be an economic, industrial, health, social, and environmental issue. Five thousand products that are still in use have been inherited from a century of asbestos processing. In 1999, the EU member states decided to take steps that would eventually terminate the use of asbestos. At the same time, about 4000 t of asbestos had been imported to Croatia every year. EU member states started to enforce asbestos ban in 2005. This encouraged the Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare to issue a list of toxicants whose manufacture, trade, and use were banned, and which included asbestos and asbestos products. In 2007, several national acts came to force regulating protection of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is ubiquitous in the environment. It has been released from construction materials during renovations, demolitions, maintenance, and other building activities. It is released by drilling, blowing, demolishing, loading, transport, and improper storage of asbestos materials. Asbestos was often used for insulation. It was favoured for its resistance to heat, fire, moisture, noise, electricity, friction, and fraying. Materials used for firefighting, insulation, protection from noise, and construction frequently contain one or more types of asbestos. Landfills present a particular problem, since asbestos materials can not be recognised macroscopically. Asbestos can be identified by standardised polarising microscopy. This raises the need for education, because human exposure should be kept as low as possible to prevent the development of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:20853772

  18. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  19. Reported historic asbestos prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 26 natural asbestos occurrences in the Central United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Central U.S. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which began with U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  20. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  1. Pleural plaque related to asbestos mining in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Jen-Jyh

    2010-12-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of twisting-like pain in her left lower chest. During physical examination, friction rubbing was noted in both lungs. Chest radiography showed extensive bilateral pleural calcification. High-resolution computed tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral calcified pleural plaques. The patient had worked at a Japanese asbestos factory in Taiwan for 1 year when she was 16 years old. Her job involved picking out asbestos fibers from crushed asbestos minerals, but no protective equipment was used at that time. This is believed to be the first reported case of asbestos-related disease in Taiwan that resulted from asbestos mining. We also summarize the history of domestic asbestos mining, importation of asbestos, and trends in asbestos use in Taiwan. PMID:21195893

  2. DRAFT METHODOLOGY FOR CONDUCTING RISK ASSESSMENTS AT ASBESTOS SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document will be an updated draft metholodogy for cancer risk assessment of asbestos. The draft methodology will address potential differences in cancer potency of different fiber types and different fiber dimensions of asbestos.

  3. Guide to the asbestos NESHAP as revised November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The specific authority of EPA regarding asbestos is listed under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act entitled 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants' (NESHAP). The particular standard, that addresses asbestos is contained in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Part 61, Subpart M. These regulations generally specify emission control requirements for the milling, manufacturing and fabricating of asbestos, for activities associated with the demolition and renovation of asbestos-containing buildings, and for the handling and disposal of asbestos-containing waste material. The major intention of the regulations is to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during all activities involving the handling and processing of asbestos and asbestos-containing material.

  4. Asbestos in Schools. An AS&U Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A discussion among six professionals about the status and outlook for asbestos removal in schools. The experts call for state or federal standards for asbestos in buildings and cite lack of funding as a major problem. (MLF)

  5. Latency attention deficit: Asbestos abatement workers need us to investigate.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora

    2015-12-01

    Little is known of the impact of asbestos on the health of the workers in the United States who have removed or abated asbestos from buildings following recognition of its adverse effects on health. The United States does not have a national occupational health surveillance network to monitor asbestos-related disease and, while the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration has a strong and detailed asbestos standard, its enforcement resources are limited. A significant proportion of asbestos abatement workers are foreign-born, and may face numerous challenges in achieving safe workplaces, including lack of union representation, economic vulnerability, and inadequate training. Public health surveillance and increased and coordinated enforcement is needed to monitor the health and exposure experiences of asbestos-exposed workers. Alarming disease trends in asbestos removal workers in Great Britain suggest that, in the United States, increased public attention will be necessary to end the epidemic of asbestos-related disease. PMID:26523746

  6. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  7. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos.

  8. Method for converting asbestos to non-carcinogenic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Selby, T.W.

    1996-08-06

    Hazardous and carcinogenic asbestos waste characterized by a crystalline fibrous structure is transformed into non-carcinogenic, relatively nonhazardous, and non-crystalline solid compounds and gaseous compounds which have commercial utilization. The asbestos waste is so transformed by the complete fluorination of the crystalline fibrous silicate mineral defining the asbestos. 7 figs.

  9. ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD (AACM) RESEARCH - BALTIMORE, MD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  10. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. The AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary ...

  11. VISUAL INSPECTION AND AHERA CLEARANCE AT ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos abatement carried out in schools is subject to regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) of 1986. he AHERA rule (40 CFR Part 763) specifies a bifactorial process for determining when an asbestos abatement site is clean enough for the primary co...

  12. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - St. Louis, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  13. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Wisconsin Dells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  14. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  15. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  16. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  17. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  18. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  19. Asbestos: The Need for and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    The monograph presents a brief summary of the problems associated with airborne asbestos. It discusses the evidence regarding the pathogenicity of asbestos in man and animals, considers the evidence of human non-occupational exposure to asbestos, evaluates the evidence regarding health risks associated with various degrees and types of exposure,…

  20. Selected References on Asbestos: Its Nature, Hazards, Detection, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This document provides teachers with sources of information about the nature, hazards, detection, and control of asbestos. Because many school buildings include asbestos-containing materials, teachers and other school personnel must be aware of the potential dangers to students and to themselves and take steps to have asbestos hazards contained or…

  1. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  2. Rapid Measurement Of Asbestos Content Of Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, James R.; Grove, Cindy I.; Hoover, Gordon L.; Stephens, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Portable instrument measures asbestos content of construction materials in place. Helps building renovators determine, quickly and accurately, whether asbestos is present. Concept readily adapted to special-purpose, battery-powered instrument. Contractor using such instrument could obtain reliable information on asbestos content in minutes.

  3. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  4. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  5. Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma and asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, F.; Rawcliffe, Rachel M.

    1971-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma has been diagnosed in 52 patients in three hospitals on Merseyside between 1955 and 1970, 60% being diagnosed from operation specimens and the rest from postmortem tissues. Necropsies eventually held on nearly half the operation cases confirmed the diagnosis, giving a necropsy rate of 70% for the series. The morbid anatomy conformed to earlier descriptions except that widespread metastases were much commoner than has usually been described. Histological findings agreed with previous accounts of the tumour, except that, in our hands, special acid mucopolysaccharide staining was less reliable than Southgate's mucicarmine, which was of value in differential diagnosis. Association with asbestos was confirmed from industrial histories in 80% of cases, the commonest industries involved being shipbuilding and repairing in men and sackware repairing in women. Lungs of industrial mesothelioma cases showed basal asbestosis in 17% and excessive asbestos bodies in almost all the rest. Quantitative comparison of asbestos bodies in lung smears from mesothelioma cases compared with lung smears from other Merseyside adults showed much higher counts in the mesothelioma cases. The interval from first exposure to asbestos until appearance of mesothelioma ranged between 13 and 63 years, with a mean of 42 years. We think the incidence of mesothelioma will continue to rise with the increased use of asbestos until about 40 years after adequate protective measures have been taken. Images PMID:5101273

  6. Tabulation of asbestos-related terminology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Greg

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos has been defined in numerous publications including many State and Federal regulations. The definition of asbestos often varies depending on the source or publication in which it is used. Differences in definitions also exist for the asbestos-related terms acicular, asbestiform, cleavage, cleavage fragment, fiber, fibril, fibrous, and parting. An inexperienced reader of the asbestos literature would have difficulty understanding these differences and grasping many of the subtleties that exist in the literature and regulatory language. Disagreement among workers from the industrial, medical, mineralogical, and regulatory communities regarding these definitions has fueled debate as to their applicability to various morphological structures and chemical compositions that exist in the amphibole and serpentine groups of minerals. This debate has significant public health, economic and legal implications. This report summarizes asbestos-related definitions taken from a variety of academic, industrial, and regulatory sources. This summary is by no means complete but includes the majority of significant definitions currently applied in the discipline.

  7. Asbestos and ship-building: fatal consequences.

    PubMed

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2008-09-01

    The severe bombing of Belfast in 1941 had far-reaching consequences. Harland and Wolff was crippled. The British Merchant Ship Building Mission to the U.S.A. was being constrained by the U.K. treasury. On being told of the Belfast destruction, the British Mission and the United States Maritime Commission were emboldened. The result was 2,710 Liberty Ships launched to a British design. The necessary asbestos use associated with this and other shipbuilding, after a quarter century or more latency, is a genesis of malignancy killing thousands. Reversal of studies on asbestos limitation of fire propagation was crucial to Allied strategic planning of mass-fires which resulted in the slaughter of one to two million civilians. Boston and Belfast institutions made seminal discoveries about asbestos use and its sequelae. PMID:18956802

  8. Asbestos-induced intrathoracic tissue reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, P.; Harley, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Research tested the trace metal hypothesis for the development of asbestos-related lung cancer while also documenting the occurrence of malignant intrathoracic tumors resulting following intrathoracic injections of different types of asbestos in rats and hamsters. Rats and hamsters were injected with amosite, chrysotile or crocidolite prepared by one of five methods. Animals injected with dusts that had been heated (dust treated or untreated with aqua-regia) demonstrated a low tumor incidence, around 2%, whereas animals treated with dusts which had not been heated or treated demonstrated a 21% tumor rate in hamsters and 33% in mice. The incidence of tumors in both species was least with chrysotile. The other two types of asbestos caused similar incidences of tumors in rats, but in hamsters amosite caused a higher incidence of tumors than crocidolite.

  9. Asbestos and Ship-Building: Fatal Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2008-01-01

    The severe bombing of Belfast in 1941 had far-reaching consequences. Harland and Wolff was crippled. The British Merchant Ship Building Mission to the USA was being constrained by the UK treasury. On being told of the Belfast destruction, the British Mission and the United States Maritime Commission were emboldened. The result was 2,710 Liberty Ships launched to a British design. The necessary asbestos use associated with this and other shipbuilding, after a quarter century or more latency, is a genesis of malignancy killing thousands. Reversal of studies on asbestos limitation of fire propagation was crucial to Allied strategic planning of mass-fires which resulted in the slaughter of one to two million civilians. Boston and Belfast institutions made seminal discoveries about asbestos use and its sequelae. PMID:18956802

  10. Oxygen radicals and asbestos-mediated disease.

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, T R; Marsh, J P; Janssen, Y M; Borm, P A; Mossman, B T

    1994-01-01

    Asbestos fibers are potent elaborators of active oxygen species whether by reactions involving iron on the surface of the fiber, or by attempted phagocytosis of fibers by cell types resident in the lung. The link between production of active oxygen species and the pathogenesis of asbestos-mediated disease has been highlighted by studies outlined here exploring the use of antioxidant scavengers which inhibit the cytotoxic effects of asbestos both in vitro and in vivo. The use of antioxidant enzymes ameliorates the induction of certain genes necessary for cell proliferation, such as ornithine decarboxylase, implicating oxidants as causative factors in some abnormal cell replicative events. Based on these observations, antioxidant enzymes likely represent an important lung defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress. In addition, their gene expression in lung or in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage might be a valuable biomarker of chronic inflammation and pulmonary disease after inhalation of oxidants. PMID:7705283

  11. Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.

    1984-08-01

    The long-term inhalation of cigarette smoke is associated with the appearance of diffuse small irregular opacities of mild profusion on chest roentogenograms of some subjects in a limited number of reports. Human histologic and experimental animal studies have shown the presence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. The radiographic abnormalities may be explained by interstitial fibrosis, although bronchiolar wall thickening may also be involved. Because asbestos causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, the literature was reviewed for evidence concerning an interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos in the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis. A majority of 14 prevalence studies and 7 cohort studies of asbestos workers with information on smoking habits have shown a positive interaction between the 2 agents. The interaction appears to be additive rather than synergistic. Smoking may exert an effect on the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis by increasing the effective fiber dose retained in the lungs through interference with clearance.

  12. Pulmonary cytology in chrysotile asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobusch, A.B.; Simard, A.; Feldstein, M.; Vauclair, R.; Gibbs, G.W.; Bergeron, F.; Morissette, N.; Davis, R.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of atypical cytology has been determined in relation to age, smoking and asbestos exposure for male workers employed in 3 mines in the Province of Quebec. Overall participation was 71%. Out of 867 participating workers, 626 (72%) presented a deep cough specimen within normal limits, 74 (8.5%) a specimen with mild atypical metaplasia and 10 (1.2%) a specimen with moderate atypical metaplasia. Four lung carcinoma were identified. Five percent of the workers initially interviewed did not return their specimen and 12.7% had unsatisfactory test results. Proportions of cellular atypical increased with age and asbestos exposure. Using logistic regression analysis, estimated probabilities of abnormal cytology for workers aged 25 years when started mining increased with both years of asbestos exposure and exposure index measured in fibres per cubic centimeter.

  13. Pulmonary fibrosis following household exposure to asbestos dust?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Joachim; Brückel, Bernd; Fink, Ludger; Woitowitz, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman was dying from histologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis without having had any asbestos exposure in the workplace. The lung dust fibre analysis showed significantly increased "asbestos bodies" (AB) (2,640 AB per gram of wet lung tissue) and asbestos fibre concentrations (8,600,000 amphibole fibres of all lengths and 540,000 amphibole fibres with a length ≥5 μm per gram of dry lung tissue). Asbestos exposure was revealed to have occurred during household contact after 27 years of washing her husband's industrial clothing that had been contaminated by asbestos at his workplace in an asbestos textile factory. Household asbestos dust exposure as a risk or co-factor in the aetiology of the fatal pulmonary fibrosis is discussed. PMID:25419224

  14. Case report: peritoneal mesothelioma from asbestos in hairdryers

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, James; Talbott, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between mesothelioma and exposure to asbestos is well established. As a result, the use of asbestos in buildings, construction sites, and mines, as well as the implications of disease for the workers has received considerable attention. However, asbestos was also used in household equipment and consumer products, including hairdryers. Purpose: To examine one case of peritoneal mesothelioma in a hairdresser and review the relevant literature on asbestos exposure from hairdryers. Methods: The subject’s medical and occupational records were obtained and reviewed and a physical examination was performed. Results: The results indicate that the subject developed peritoneal mesothelioma from her occupational exposure to asbestos containing hairdryers in accordance with the literature. Conclusion: Hairdryers are possible sources of asbestos exposure in patients with mesothelioma, and the asbestos exposure risk is higher for those who use hairdryers occupationally. PMID:25633928

  15. Asbestos exposures during reprocessing of automobile brakes and clutches.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Hisanaga, Naomi; Shibata, Eiji; Ono, Yuichiro; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos exposures of workers in three small factories reprocessing automobile brakes and clutches in Japan were investigated. Airborne asbestos was collected on a membrane filter using an air sampler. From 1982 to 1989, asbestos counting was performed on 295 samples (198 personal and 97 stationary), using phase contrast microscopy. Only chrysotile asbestos was detected. Workers who reprocessed automobile brakes and clutches were exposed to asbestos concentrations of 0.025-76.4 fibers/cm3. Geometric mean asbestos concentrations during attaching linings to brake shoes and attaching facings to clutch disks were 0.859 fibers/cm3 and 0.780 fibers/cm3, respectively. Concentrations during stripping worn brake linings and clutch facings were 0.484 fibers/cm3 and 0.382 fibers/cm3, respectively. Machine grinding and leveling of new brake-lining surfaces represent potential sources of heavy asbestos exposures, unless enclosures and local ventilation are efficient. PMID:16722188

  16. Asbestos occurrence in the Eagle C-4 quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Helen Laura

    1969-01-01

    An asbestos occurrence was discovered in a remote part of the Eagle quadrangle, Alaska, in the summer of 1968 during geologic reconnaissance in connection with the U.S. Geological Survey's Heavy Metals program. The exposed part of the deposit consists of large joint blocks of serpentine which are cut by closely spaced subparallel veins. Most of the veins are about ? inch thick, and they consist of cross-fiber chrysotile asbestos. The asbestos appears to be of commercial quality, but the total quantity is unknown. The asbestos occurs in a serpentinized ultramafic mass which appears to intrude metamorphic rocks. Many other serpentinized ultramafic masses are known in the Eagle quadrangle, but this is the first one in which considerable asbestos has been found. The deposit is of importance because it shows that geologic conditions are locally favorable for the formation of asbestos in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, and hope of finding commercial asbestos deposits thus seems possible.

  17. Evaluation of exposure to the airborne asbestos in an asbestos cement sheet manufacturing industry in Iran.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Davood; Kakooei, Hossein; Marioryad, Hossein; Mehrdad, Ramin; Golhosseini, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 tons of Chrysotile asbestos per year and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, airborne asbestos concentrations during AC sheet manufacturing were measured. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Airborne total fiber concentrations of 45 personal samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy. The results have highlighted that 15.5% of samples exceed the threshold limit value (TLV) established the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, which is 0.1 fiber per milliliter (f/ml). Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.16 ± 0.03 f/ml. The geometrical mean was 0.05 ± 1.36 f/ml, which is considerably lower than the TLV. SEM data demonstrate that the fibrous particles consisted, approximately, of Chrysotile (55.89%) and amphiboles (44.11%). We conclude that the industrial consumption of imported Chrysotile asbestos is responsible for the high airborne amphibole asbestos levels in the AC sheet industry. More research is needed to improve characterization of occupational exposures by fiber size and concentration in a variety of industries. PMID:20852930

  18. Epidemiological evidence indicates asbestos causes laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.H.; Handley, M.A.; Wood, R. )

    1990-06-01

    A variety of opinions have been expressed in the literature concerning asbestos and laryngeal cancer. This paper presents an analysis of epidemiological studies based on criteria that prioritized the most heavily exposed cohorts. Emphasis was given to the six cohorts or subcohorts with lung cancer relative risk estimates of 2 or more. The two groups of workers with the highest lung cancer relative risk estimates (4.06 and 3.28) both gave strong support for a causal association of asbestos and laryngeal cancer, with relative risk estimates of 1.91 (90% confidence limits 1.00 to 3.34) and 3.75 (90% confidence limits 1.01 to 9.68), respectively. Confounding with cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption does not explain the findings. Case-control studies gave mixed results, but generally supported the hypothesis. It was concluded that asbestos is a probable cause of laryngeal cancer in view of the reasonable consistency of the studies, the strength of the association in key studies, the evidence for dose-response relationships, and the biological plausibility for asbestos being a cause of laryngeal cancer. 48 references.

  19. QUANTITATIVE SEPARATION OF ASBESTOS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluations were made of a novel approach for separating chrysotile asbestos from other particulate matter to improve the application and detection limit of a broad beam x-ray diffraction analysis method developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. The separation method is based o...

  20. WATER FILTRATION FOR ASBESTOS FIBER REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a comprehensive review of data on removal of asbestos fibers by granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth filtration. It summarizes data obtained in pilot plant studies at Duluth and Seattle, in research program carried out at Duluth's Lakewood filtrat...

  1. Mortality study of asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Giaroli, C; Belli, S; Bruno, C; Candela, S; Grignoli, M; Minisci, S; Poletti, R; Riccò, G; Vecchi, G; Venturi, G

    1994-01-01

    The present study describes cause-specific mortality of asbestos cement workers in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. The cohort included workers in ten factories, most of which started operating between 1955 and 1965. Asbestos, mainly chrysotile, constituted 10%-20% of the dry component of the mixture. Crocidolite range between 5% and 50% of total asbestos. Asbestos concentrations up to 44 ff/cc were reported prior to 1975, while in recent years they have usually been below 0-1 ff/cc. The cohort included 3341 workers who had at some time been employed in the ten factories under study. Their mortality experience was compared with that of the population resident in Emilia Romagna. Vital status was ascertained at 1989. Seventy-three subjects were lost to follow-up (2.2%). Mortality from all causes and from all types of cancer was increased in the cohort. Malignant neoplasms of the respiratory tract showed a significant increase (SMR: 134; 90% confidence interval: 101-175; 40 observed) due to lung cancer (SMR: 124; 90% confidence interval: 91-166; 33 observed) and neoplasms of the pleura, mediastinum, and other parts of the respiratory tract (SMR: 602; 90% confidence interval 237-1267; 5 observed). The discrepancy between observed and expected mortality mainly concerned subjects with at least 20 years of employment in the factories. Five more cases of histologically confirmed mesothelioma occurred after the end of follow-up. PMID:7927845

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... work as defined in 29 CFR part 1915, including but not limited to the following: (1) Demolition or... addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32(f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos... authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f);...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... work as defined in 29 CFR part 1915, including but not limited to the following: (1) Demolition or... addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32(f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos... authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f);...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1001 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... work as defined in 29 CFR part 1915, including but not limited to the following: (1) Demolition or... addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32(f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos... authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f);...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Scope and application. This section regulates asbestos exposure in all work as defined in 29 CFR 1910.12... conditions of the current workplace. Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32... to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work...

  8. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Adam; Božek, František

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction. PMID:26070993

  9. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-15

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized.

  10. INTERIM METHOD FOR DETERMINING ASBESTOS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes an interim electron microscope (EM) procedure for measuring the concentration of asbestos in water samples. The main features of the method include filtering the sample through a sub-micron polycarbonate membrane filter, examining an EM specimen grid in a tr...

  11. Progression of irregular opacities in asbestos miners.

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G K; Hnizdo, E

    1989-01-01

    All white and mixed race men who were employed in South African asbestos mines and mills between 30 November 1970 and 30 November 1975 were studied. The men who had two radiographs available, the first taken some time between the above two dates and the latest available radiograph which had to be at least two years after the first one numbered 1454: 793 continued exposure after the first radiograph and 661 did not. The films were read by a panel of three readers. Data available included age, years of exposure to asbestos and other mining, intensity of exposure to asbestos and other dust, and smoking habit. Progression was expressed as the difference between the average readings of radiograph 2--radiograph 1 in minor categories per year of irregular opacities. Changes in pleural abnormality were also measured. No differences of progression in the profusion or change in size of the irregular opacities were found between the two groups or in the number of zones affected. "New attacks" appeared equally frequently between the two groups. No difference in the change in extent of any type of pleural change was seen. It appears that once a dose of asbestos sufficient to initiate the disease has been retained it is inexorably progressive. PMID:2611157

  12. Asbestos and other ferruginous bodies: their formation and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Churg, A. M.; Warnock, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of asbestos bodies from the general population have confirmed that these structures, like asbestos bodies from the lungs of asbestos workers, contain an asbestos core. In members of the general population this core is almost always an amphibole, whereas asbestos workers may have bodies formed on either amphibole or chrysotile. Most adults have a few bodies, and increasing numbers are seen in blue collar workers and others who handle small amounts of the fiber, with the highest levels being seen in asbestos workers. In men with minimal or extensive occupational exposure, asbestos bodies are formed on the commercial fibers, amosite and crocidolite, whereas women also form a significant number of bodies on the noncommercial fibers, anthophyllite and tremolite. These findings suggest that women may be exposed to specific asbestos-containing products, eg, cosmetic talc. The commercial fibers found in women and white collar men probably reflect atmospheric pollution with asbestos. At the highest levels of exposure, numbers of asbestos bodies correlate in a general way with the presence of asbestosis, although no precise value has been determined above which asbestosis is always found. In persons with much lower or environmental exposure, there does not appear to be any correlation between numbers of bodies and disease, in particular between numbers of bodies and carcinoma of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. The situation for mesothelioma is uncertain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6101235

  13. Thermal modification of chrysotile asbestos: evidence for decreased cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R; Chang, M J; Hart, R W; Finch, G L; Fisher, G L

    1983-01-01

    Many asbestiform minerals exhibit temperature-dependent thermoluminescence. Since thermoluminescence involves electronic transitions within crystalline materials, the effect of temperature on asbestos cytotoxicity was evaluated. Heat pretreatment of Canadian chrysotile asbestos reduces its cytotoxicity towards cultured human fibroblasts and bovine alveolar macrophages. When monitored 44 hr after the addition of either 200 degrees C or 400 degrees C heat-pretreated asbestos, alveolar macrophage viability was approximately 40% higher than comparable amounts of unheated asbestos. Similarly, asbestos toxicity, expressed as fibroblast growth inhibition, was inversely related to the asbestos pretreatment temperature in the following manner, 70 degrees C greater than 200 degrees C greater than 400 degrees C = unexposed fibroblast controls. Pretreatment of chrysotile asbestos to 400 degrees C reduced its adsorptive capacity for bovine serum albumin by 25%. Furthermore, asbestos heated to 200 degrees C followed by irradiation with 4 MeV X-rays (4500 rads) resulted in reactivation of asbestos cytotoxicity. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the ratios of free to fiber-associated alveolar macrophages and the fiber fragment size distributions were unaffected by either heat pretreatment or X-ray irradiation. These observations strongly suggest that the surface charge characteristics and electronic state of asbestos fibers may be responsible for its biological activity. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. (A) FIGURE 5. (B) FIGURE 6. (A) FIGURE 6. (B) FIGURE 6. (C) FIGURE 6. (D) FIGURE 7. PMID:6315379

  14. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  15. Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

    PubMed Central

    Abejie, Belayneh A.; Chung, Eugene H.; Nesto, Richard W.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Context Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related. Relevance to clinical practice Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. PMID:18197304

  16. The impact of asbestos in Illinois public schools

    SciTech Connect

    Marucco, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law providing a framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. This study examines the perceived attitudes of Illinois School personnel relative to the impact of asbestos in their buildings. Conclusions are: (1) All districts regardless of size, type, and enrollment have the largest concentration of non-friable asbestos in floor tile. (2) All school districts are surveying their asbestos and report that they are managing it properly following AHERA and state guidelines; removal is the most accepted method of abatement. (3) Administrators, schools boards, teachers, and maintenance staff in general showed a high concern about asbestos abatement. (4) Governmental agencies have exerted the greatest pressure on school districts to manage existing asbestos properly. (5) External pressure does not appear to influence school districts regarding asbestos abatement. (6) Current attitudes and activities would change little if AHERA were repealed. (7) Asbestos abatement activities have taken place when schools are vacated. (8) Most administrators regard radon, leaded water, toxic chemicals, indoor air quality, and air pollution equal to or more threatening than asbestos.

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  18. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  19. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  20. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  1. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description...

  2. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  3. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  4. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40...

  5. Concentration and size of asbestos in water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Pansing, M F; Twyman, J D

    1980-01-01

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 1 x 10(6) fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that are exposed to waterborne asbestos concentrations over 10 x 10(6) fibers per liter caused by natural erosion, mine processing wastes, waste pile erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, or disintegration of asbestos tile roofs running into cisterns. The distribution of fiber sizes in the water is dependent on the source of the fibers. The average length of chrysotile fibers found in an asbestos cement distribution system was 4 micrometers, while the average fiber length of chrysotile fibers contributed to a water supply by natural erosion was 1 micrometer. PMID:7389681

  6. Asbestos lung burden and disease patterns in man

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.

    1993-12-31

    This article discusses the relationship between disease and asbestos burden in the human lung. The differences in this relationship for various types of asbestos are also discussed. Finally the outstanding issues in the field of asbestos research and disease are presented including the following: discrepancies between data derived from animal experiments, predictions based on mathematical models, and data derived from actual analysis of autopsied human lungs. 75 refs., 3 figs., 3 tab.

  7. Defining asbestos: differences between the built and natural environments.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Mickey E

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos - while most think they know what this material is, few understand the current issues surrounding it. Few would also realize that asbestos is the form of a mineral, and even fewer would know that there are different types of asbestos, that not only had different industrial applications, but pose differing health risks when inhaled. Asbestos was in wide-spread use mid-last century in many consumer products, and no doubt saved thousands of lives, but by the latter part of last century concerns over its health risk caused its use to wane, to the point it was removed from many buildings. So in many ways the asbestos story was coming to an end in the 1990s, but two events in the USA - the vermiculite ore produced from Libby, Montana which contained amphibole asbestos and was used in a million homes in the USA as attic insulation and the concern for exposure to asbestos occurring in its natural setting in El Dorado Hills, California led to an increased concern of the potential for low-level environmental exposure to asbestos to the general public. The current dilemma we find ourselves in, especially in the USA, deals with the relationships between our knowledge of handling asbestos and an understanding of its risk potential in the built environment versus the natural environment. And one perfect metaphor for this is the term used by many non-geologists to differentiate asbestos in the built vs natural environment - 'naturally occurring asbestos'. Clearly a misstatement, but only one of many we must deal with as we struggle to understand the risk to humans of natural occurrences of asbestos. This paper will try and address some of these issues centering around those occurring in the USA. PMID:21138165

  8. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure during the servicing and handling of automobile asbestos-containing gaskets.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Dotson, G Scott; Harbison, Raymond D

    2006-07-01

    Five test sessions were conducted to assess asbestos exposure during the removal or installation of asbestos-containing gaskets on vehicles. All testing took place within an operative automotive repair facility involving passenger cars and a pickup truck ranging in vintage from late 1960s through 1970s. A professional mechanic performed all shop work including engine disassembly and reassembly, gasket manipulation and parts cleaning. Bulk sample analysis of removed gaskets through polarized light microscopy (PLM) revealed asbestos fiber concentrations ranging between 0 and 75%. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed using National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 [phase contrast microscopy (PCM)] and 7402 [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. Among all air samples collected, approximately 21% (n = 11) contained chrysotile fibers. The mean PCM and phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) 8-h time weighted average (TWA) concentrations for these samples were 0.0031 fibers/cubic centimeters (f/cc) and 0.0017 f/cc, respectively. Based on these findings, automobile mechanics who worked with asbestos-containing gaskets may have been exposed to concentrations of airborne asbestos concentrations approximately 100 times lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc. PMID:16730109

  9. The global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs. PMID:26822250

  10. The Global Health Dimensions of Asbestos and Asbestos-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ken; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The Collegium Ramazzini (CR) reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates earlier statements by the CR with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARDs will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue. Industrialized countries that have already gone through the transition to an asbestos ban have learned lessons and acquired know-how and capacity that could be of great value if deployed in industrializing countries embarking on the transition. The accumulated wealth of experience and technologies in industrialized countries should thus be shared internationally through global campaigns to eliminate ARDs. PMID:27325079

  11. Cigarette smoke potentiates asbestos-induced airflow abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.; Tron, V.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that exposure to both asbestos and cigarette smoke can produce worse parenchymal lung disease than exposure to asbestos alone. Using a guinea pig model of asbestos administration that produces primarily airway disease and associated airflow abnormalities, we showed previously that the combination of asbestos and smoke acts synergistically to produce more marked increases in tissue collagen, fibrosis of airway walls, and early interstitial fibrosis than are seen with asbestos alone. To investigate the functional effects of these morphological and biochemical abnormalities, pulmonary function tests for volumes and flows, including lung volumes, pressure-volume curves, and flow-volume curves, were performed. By themselves, both smoke and asbestos produced increases in total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC); the two agents together made all these changes worse than either one alone. Both smoking and asbestos moved the pressure-volume curve upward, and the effects of the two agents together were again greater than either alone. Similarly, both smoke and asbestos decreased flows, and the two agents produced more severe impairment than either one by itself. The changes in volumes, pressure-volume curve, and flows correlated with both increased thickness of small airway walls and increases in airspace size. These observations indicate that, at least in this guinea pig model, cigarette smoke can potentiate the functional consequences of asbestos exposure.

  12. Asbestos--a legacy and a persistent problem.

    PubMed

    Brims, F J H

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos has been utilised by industrialised nations for over a century and its deleterious health effects have been reported for an almost equal length of time. Whilst developed countries have now reduced their asbestos use, developing nations are increasing their asbestos imports and consumption. Because of this, there is now a perceived risk to Non Government Organisation and military personnel involved in aid operations or conflict areas, where asbestos containing materials and buildings may have been disrupted. With significant asbestos exposures to U.K. military and dockyard personnel in the past, the health consequences are continuing to increase, with the incidence of malignant mesothelioma expected to continue to rise until between 2012-2020. There is no effective cure or treatment for any of the lung or pleural asbestos related diseases; malignant mesothelioma has a median survival of just 6-12 months. Misconceptions about asbestos are widespread, contributed in part by a long latency between exposure and disease. Following diagnosis of an asbestos related disease, financial recompense for ex-service personnel is limited, and the civilian legal implications continue to change. This review will encompass the historical usage of asbestos, its biological effects, the legal and financial implications of exposure, and establish that there may be a continuing threat of exposure to deployed military personnel PMID:19425525

  13. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  14. Asbestos in water supplies of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Stober, J; Rosenthal, M

    1983-01-01

    The review of available data on the concentrations of asbestos in U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations over 1 million fibers/Liter. A few populations, however, may be exposed to concentrations over 1 billion fibers/L. Of the 538 water supplies for which waterborne asbestos data are available, 8% have concentrations of fibers over 10 million fibers/L. The vast majority of asbestos fibers found in U.S. water supplies are under 5 micron in length. PMID:6662093

  15. Asbestos as an air pollutant and synergism with smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    For many years the health consequences of asbestos exposure, including an overall mortality experience of approximately 50% from cancer among occupationally exposed individuals, have been well documented worldwide. Less well appreciated are the lessons to be learned from data available concerning outdoor asbestos air pollution and, of perhaps greater concern, the risks in certain indoor environments contaminated by this useful mineral. The biologically complex issue of carcinogenic synergism has been clearly demonstrated for cigarette smoking, asbestos-exposed individuals. Prevention of cancer among those exposed to asbestos not only requires efforts to minimize such exposure, but also requires strong antismoking measures among those exposed.

  16. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Judithann Ruth

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  17. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, J.R.

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  18. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  19. Asbestos removal in the construction industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the impact of asbestos abatement on the construction industry. It is estimated that the cleanup effort may cost $100 billion over the next twenty five years. More than 733,000 structures, or twenty percent of U. S. commercial and public properties are believed to contain asbestos. Some of the material is in a friable state. This asbestos is crumbling into microscopic fibers that can float in through the air. The use of asbestos was restricted after high doses of its fibers were found to scar lungs, causing cancer and other diseases. Construction businesses use 50 percent of the U. S. supply of asbestos in asbestos cement pipes, sheets, siding shingles, floor tiles, coatings, and sealants. Some 29,000 workers install asbestos insulation during building construction. Other estimates of exposed workers include 20,400 in demolition, 67,800 in abatement, 82,500 in general building renovation, 135,700 doing routine maintenance in buildings, and 183,200 in routine maintenance in general industry. The demand for asbestos removal services exceeds the ability of the industry to supply it safely. Asbestos management and removal are major issues for the construction industry world wide.

  20. Chlor-alkali producers evaluate safer alternatives to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Stadig, W.

    1993-03-01

    Until recently, 75% of all US capacity for producing chlor-alkali - more than 40% of the world's capacity - has used asbestos diaphragm-cell technology. Although the Environmental Protection Agency continues to exempt asbestos use in diaphragms from restrictions, producers are considering alternatives. In Germany, stringent regulations will ban asbestos in chlor-alkali production after 1994. Heavy fines were levied recently against some chlor-alkali producers in the United States when EPA inspectors found asbestos fibers in cell renewal areas. Restrictions on the mining of asbestos raise the cost of obtaining adequate amounts of high-quality asbestos and gradually raise the cost of transporting and discarding spent diaphragms. Two alternatives are to use newly developed, non-asbestos diaphragms or to convert to existing ion-exchange membrane-cell technology. Only the former seems economical in the United States. The non-asbestos diaphragm is based on an inorganic polymer composite developed in 1988 as an asbestos substitute. The composite received Du Pont's Plunkett Award for Innovation with Teflon[trademark], landed on the National Development Association's 1991 Honor Roll and became a 1991 R D 100 Award winner. 6 figs.

  1. Software for Apportionment of Asbestos-Related Mesotheliomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with an asbestos-related mesothelioma may be legally entitled to financial compensation. In this context, a physician may be called upon to apportion the contribution of an asbestos containing product or facility where there was asbestos exposure in the development of that individual's mesothelioma. This task is mathematically not simple. It is a complex function of each and the entire individual's above-background asbestos exposures. Factors to be considered for each of these exposures are the amount of exposure to mesotheliogenic fibers, each of the asbestos containing products' potency to cause mesothelioma, and the time period when the exposures occurred relative to when the mesothelioma was diagnosed. In this paper, the known factors related to asbestos-related mesothelioma risk are briefly reviewed and the software that is downloadable and fully functional in a Windows® environment is also provided. This software allows for rapid assessment of relative contributions and deals with the somewhat tedious mathematical calculations. With this software and a reasonable occupational history, if it is decided that the mesothelioma was due to above-background asbestos exposure, the contribution of an asbestos containing product or a time period of asbestos exposure can be apportioned. PMID:27445546

  2. Survival of asbestos insulation workers with mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, J; Selikoff, I J

    1992-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a lethal disease. It is rare in the general population; however, workers exposed to asbestos suffer significant burdens of the neoplasm. The survival time of 457 consecutive fatal cases of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma that occurred among 17,800 asbestos insulation workers observed prospectively from 1 January 1967 to 1 January 1987 was studied. Mean survival time from initial presentation of the disease to death was 11.4 months for the pleural mesothelioma patients compared with 7.4 months for the peritoneal group. This difference was statistically significant. Mean survival time from diagnosis to death was shorter for both groups of patients: 8.4 months for pleural mesothelioma v 5.8 months for the peritoneal cases. In conclusion, survival time in mesothelioma patients is short; most die within a year from the onset of the initial symptoms. No effective therapy is yet available. PMID:1419863

  3. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis associated with asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, K; Ohwada, H; Ishibashi, M; Yamamoto, N; Tamiya, N; Yamaguchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    A 71 year old man was admitted for the purpose of diagnosis of a right solitary pulmonary nodule. The size of the nodule was 18 x 18 mm in diameter 2 years ago, but it has become large, 25 x 25 mm in diameter. The nodule was resected by thoracotomy. Microscopically, eosinophilic amorphous, acellular substances were surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates. It stained with Congo red stain and showed green birefringence with polarizing microscopy. Amyloid fibrils were observed electron microscopically. Asbestos bodies were observed in the lung parenchyma around the nodule. This case shows that a nodule in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis can grow gradually and suggests the possibility of asbestos fibers as one of the etiologic factors in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. PMID:10846552

  4. Inspection In Overhead Spaces Containing Asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jacque; Hartwick, George; Hutcherson, Jerry

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for inspection in spaces above dropped ceilings that contain asbestos saves time and effort without sacrificing safety. With new method, only items of safety equipment needed are glove bag, storage bag, and roll of adhesive tape. Inspector tapes glove bag tightly to support grid around ceiling tile to be removed. With hands in gloves inspector lifts tile gently and places it aside. Extending head and shoulders into bag, inspector examines space above ceiling with help of flashlight.

  5. Biological effects: asbestos-cement manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Weill, H

    1994-08-01

    Fourteen cohorts of asbestos-cement workers have been studied. These studies have demonstrated exposure-response relationships for lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. For lung cancer, relatively consistent results have been observed, with risk two-fold or less in 13 of the 14 cohorts. Among New Orleans workers, excess risk was restricted to those with X-ray evidence of asbestosis. Workers employed at least 21 years but without X-ray abnormalities, experienced no elevated risk, while those with small opacities (1/0 or higher) had substantially elevated risk (SMR > 400). Exposures in these two groups had been similar. These results suggest that asbestosis may be a necessary precursor for asbestos-induced lung cancer; if so, then the no-threshold model for lung cancer risk is inappropriate since there is general agreement that very low exposures will not result in radiologically detectable lung fibrosis. Further data on this potential link are needed. As in other industries, mesothelioma risk was strongly related to amphibole exposure, especially to crocidolite in asbestos-cement pipe manufacture. A cluster of cases has recently been reported in a family amosite-cement business. Among New Orleans workers, risk of asbestosis was related to cumulative exposure but there was little evidence of risk below 30 f ml-1-years. Progression of asbestosis in these workers was slow, related to past cumulative exposure and not related to lung function decline. Asbestosis risk is therefore not likely to develop in workers under current controlled exposure conditions. PMID:7978975

  6. Decomposition of chrysotile asbestos by fluorosulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Sabatini, R.; Petrakis, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a fluorosulfonic acid (FSO{sub 3}H) aqueous solution on decomposing the chrysotile asbestos fibers was investigated by using FT-IR, XRD, and XPS. From the equilibrium of FSO{sub 3}H in an aqueous medium (FSO{sub 3}H + H{sub 2}O = HF + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), the resulting H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} had a strong affinity for the external Mg(OH){sub 2} layers in the tubular, scroll-like chrysotile structure. This acid-base reaction led to the precipitation and lixiviation of MgSO{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, MgO, and Mg{sup 2+} ion. Once the breakage of the outer Mg(OH){sub 2} layers occurred, HF readily diffused into the inner silicious layers and then reacted with silicates, converting them into SiO{sub 2} hydrate and H{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}, while the ionic reaction between lixiviated Mg{sup 2+} and F{sup {minus}} resulted in precipitating MgF{sub 2}, thereby destroying the fibrous nature of the asbestos. An optimum combination of HF and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} contributed significantly to enhancing the rate of conversion of asbestos into nonfibrous materials in a short treatment time without any physical agitation.

  7. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  8. [A Forensic Autopsy Case Applied for Asbestos-Related Disease].

    PubMed

    Makihara, Kosuke; Hamada, Tetsuo; Kasai, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    We had a forensic autopsy case that required additive pathological examination for the asbestos-related lung disease compensatory application afterwards. A man in his sixties with a history of occupational asbestos inhalation who had neither visited a hospital nor received a physical examination received forensic autopsy because of his death from unknown cause. An inmate said, "He developed cough and dyspnea, and died in the progression of the symptoms." The autopsy revealed widespread pleural plaques on both sides of the parietal pleura and multiple tumors in both sides of the lungs. The cause of death was diagnosed as lung cancer. Additional pathological examination was asked by his family to certify that he had suffered from asbestos-related lung disease in order to apply to the Asbestos-related Damage Relief Law. The Japanese criteria of the compensation law of asbestos-related lung cancer is the detection of more than 5,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry lung tissue, while his number of asbestos bodies was 4,860. Asbestos bodies were reported to be accumulated in the distal lung parenchyma with no pathological changes. The present lung samples were collected from proximal section around the tumor, which might have made the number of asbestos bodies less than the criteria. Both the number of patients suffering from asbestos-related lung disease and the number of forensic autopsy cases have increased in Japan. Collecting lung samples from the appropriate lung section is essential and should be noted when the lung cancer is suspected at forensic autopsy in order to apply for asbestos-related lung disease compensation. PMID:26972947

  9. Radiological changes in asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, K; Strömberg, U; Albin, M; Welinder, H; Hagmar, L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore associations between exposure to asbestos cement dust and radiographic findings in lung parenchyma and pleura. METHODS--Radiographs from 174 blue collar workers and 29 white collar workers from an asbestos cement plant formed one part of the study. Progression of small opacities was further studied in those 124 blue collar workers, for whom two radiographs taken after the end of employment were available. The median readings from five readers who used the full ILO 1980 classification were used. As exposure indices, time since start of employment, duration of employment, cumulative exposure, and average intensity of asbestos exposure were used. The influence of age and smoking was also considered in multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS--Small opacities (profusion > or = 1/0) were closely correlated with time related exposure variables, and showed weaker association with intensity based exposure variables. The odds ratio (OR) for small opacities was equal to 2.8 (90% CI 1.2, 6.7) in the > 30 f(fibre)-y/ml group, compared with those in the 0-10 f-y/ml group. Progression of at least two minor ILO categories after the end of employment was seen in 20%. Also, pleural thickening was closely related to time. By contrast, costophrenic angle obliterations were not associated with the time related variables, but closely associated with the intensity of asbestos exposure, and tended to occur during employment. The OR was 4.5 (90% CI 1.3, 15) in the > 2 f/ml group, compared with those in the 0-1 f/ml group. CONCLUSIONS--In these workers, exposed mainly to chrysotile but also to small amounts of amphibole, the risk of radiographically visible parenchymal abnormality was substantially increased and strongly dependent on time related exposure variables. Progression was found long after the end of exposure. The findings on costophrenic angle obliterations, supposed to be sequelae of benign pleural effusions, were consistent with an immediate reaction

  10. H. R. 5369: a bill to require asbestos manufacturers to submit information on their asbestos products to the Environmental Protection Agency. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, August 8, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Asbestos Information Act of 1986 requires asbestos manufacturers to submit information on their asbestos products to the Environmental Protection Agency. It also requires owners of buildings containing asbestos to inspect the buildings and take samples of asbestos before initiating civil actions aimed at recovering costs or seeking relief relating to the presence, abatement, or management of asbestos or asbestos-containing material. The information developed under the analysis must accompany any civil action.

  11. [Concentration and form of asbestos fibers in tap drinking water contaminated from a water supply pipe with asbestos-cement].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, K; Takizawa, Y; Muto, H; Hirano, K

    1992-10-01

    The identification and concentration of asbestos fibers in tap drinking water supplied in a central area of Akita Prefecture, Japan, were determined by phase-contrast microscopy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. The following results were obtained. 1. Asbestos fibers were found in the tap water from two areas in which an asbestos-cement pipe was used for public water supply. The concentrations of asbestos fibers in the tap water were 2.7 x 10(4) to 27.0 x 10(4) fibers per liter of water in area A and 10.0 x 10(4) to 21.0 x 10(4) in area B. On the other hand, no asbestos fiber contamination was observed in tap water of area C, which shared a common water source with area A. A vinyl chloride pipe was used over the entire length of the water supply in route C. 2. Crocidolite was the predominant type of asbestos fiber detected in the tap water. Chrysotile and a mixture of chrysotile and amosite were also observed. 3. Almost all asbestos fibers detected in the tap water possessed the form of thick or sheaved fibers with lengths ranging from ca. 5 to 10 microns. Their shapes were very different from those of asbestos fibers found in the atmosphere. The typical form of the latter is short (ca. 1 micron in length) and needle-like. 4. It was suggested that the contamination of asbestos fibers in the tap water was caused by erosion and peeling off of the inner wall of the asbestos-cement pipe used as a conduit. In order to evaluate the safety of drinking water in Japan, an extensive survey on asbestos-fiber contamination in tap water is necessary. PMID:1464953

  12. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wiggans, R. E.; Young, C.; Fishwick, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. Aims To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Methods Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. Results For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. Conclusions The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. PMID:26511746

  13. Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Airborne asbestos levels in non-occupational environments in Japan were determined by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) for about 100 air samples from various outdoor settings. Asbestos fibres (chrysotile) were found in almost all samples. The fibre (mass) concentrations were in the range of 4-367 fibres per litre (0.02-47.2 ng/m3) with a geometric mean of 18 f/1 (0.3 ng/m3). The mass concentrations were similar to the earlier data reported from other countries. Samples from main roads showed extremely high asbestos concentrations and short fibre lengths compared with those of the other samples. This strongly suggested that braking of vehicles was a significant emission source of airborne asbestos. Laboratory experiments using a brake testing machine demonstrated that asbestos fibres were released during braking. In addition, the present study found high levels of airborne asbestos in some highly polluted areas, such as a serpentine quarry, a town adjacent to an asbestos mine, and factories making asbestos slate-board. On the other hand, chrysotile fibres were also found in air samples from a small isolated island in the Pacific Ocean as well as in ice samples from ten thousand years ago in Antarctica. These facts suggest that chrysotile fibres have been liberated both by industrial activities and natural weathering, and have circulated around the earth. PMID:2744826

  14. Malignant mesothelioma: global incidence and relationship with asbestos.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2007-06-01

    Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The highest annual crude incidence rates (about 30 cases per million) are observed in Australia, Belgium, and Great Britain. A lot of data indicate a relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos. The hot areas for mesothelioma exactly correspond to the sites of industries with high asbestos use, such as shipbuilding and asbestos-cement industry. However, in many countries with high asbestos consumption, mesothelioma incidence is low. The reasons for this fact are not clear. The latency periods elapsing between first exposure to asbestos and development of mesothelioma are mostly longer than 40 yr. An inverse relationship exists between intensity of asbestos exposure and length of the latency period. Mesothelioma generally develops after long-time exposures to asbestos. Some recent studies show that the risk increases with the duration of exposure. Possible co-factors in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related mesothelioma include genetic predisposition, diets poor in fruit and vegetables, viruses, immune impairment, recurrent serosal inflammation. The study of co-morbidity in mesothelioma could give an insight into the pathogenesis of the tumor. While a levelling-off in mesothelioma incidence has been registered in some countries, a worsening of the epidemic is predictable in large parts of the world. PMID:17634686

  15. Environmental health survey in asbestos cement sheets manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Ansari, F A; Bihari, V; Rastogi, S K; Ashquin, M; Ahmad, I

    2007-01-01

    About 673 small-scale asbestos mining and milling facilities and 33 large - scale asbestos manufacturing plants, (17 asbestos-cement product manufacturing plants and 16 other than asbestos-cement product plants) are situated in India. The present study reveals the exposure of commercial asbestos (chrysotile) in the occupational as well as ambient air environment of the asbestos-cement (AC) sheets industry using membrane filter method of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The fibre concentrations in 15 samples collected in the occupational environment at ingredient feeding site, sheet-producing site, fibre godown were 0.079, 0.057 and 0.078 f/cc, respectively and in five samples from surrounding ambient air at factory gate resulted fibre concentration of 0.071 f/cc. All the samples have shown fibre concentration lower than the threshold limit values (TLVs) prescribed by BIS. Morphological analysis of samples, further under phase contrast and polarized microscopy indicates the presence of chrysotile asbestos, which acts as carcinogen as well as co-carcinogen. A clinical examination of exposed subjects reveals that there was no case of clubbing, crepitation, ronchi and dyspnea on exertion; however, obstruction and restriction were 10.9 per cent and 25 per cent in exposed subjects, respectively while in control there were 12 per cent and 28 per cent, respectively. The study revealed that chrysotile asbestos is emitted in the occupational as well as ambient environment that may cause adverse health impact. PMID:21957367

  16. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  17. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. hese 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Departm...

  18. Environmental health survey in asbestos cement sheets manufacturing industry

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, F. A.; Bihari, V.; Rastogi, S. K.; Ashquin, M.; Ahmad, I.

    2007-01-01

    About 673 small-scale asbestos mining and milling facilities and 33 large - scale asbestos manufacturing plants, (17 asbestos-cement product manufacturing plants and 16 other than asbestos-cement product plants) are situated in India. The present study reveals the exposure of commercial asbestos (chrysotile) in the occupational as well as ambient air environment of the asbestos-cement (AC) sheets industry using membrane filter method of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The fibre concentrations in 15 samples collected in the occupational environment at ingredient feeding site, sheet-producing site, fibre godown were 0.079, 0.057 and 0.078 f/cc, respectively and in five samples from surrounding ambient air at factory gate resulted fibre concentration of 0.071 f/cc. All the samples have shown fibre concentration lower than the threshold limit values (TLVs) prescribed by BIS. Morphological analysis of samples, further under phase contrast and polarized microscopy indicates the presence of chrysotile asbestos, which acts as carcinogen as well as co-carcinogen. A clinical examination of exposed subjects reveals that there was no case of clubbing, crepitation, ronchi and dyspnea on exertion; however, obstruction and restriction were 10.9 per cent and 25 per cent in exposed subjects, respectively while in control there were 12 per cent and 28 per cent, respectively. The study revealed that chrysotile asbestos is emitted in the occupational as well as ambient environment that may cause adverse health impact. PMID:21957367

  19. Epidemiology of occupational asbestos-related diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, S X; Zhang, C H; Zhang, X; Morinaga, K

    2001-04-01

    In 1950s and 60s, asbestosis had been a major health hazard for asbestos exposed workers. In the late 1970s, lung cancers with or without asbestosis were found among asbestos workers. All cohort studies on asbestos workers and on chrysotile miners in China showed excess deaths from lung cancer. In a large scale of cohort study on asbestos workers, a synergistic effect was found between cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure in the production of lung cancer. There have been not so many cases of malignant mesotheliomas reported, so far. In the cohort of chrysotile miners, 4 cases of pleural mesothelioma were observed. In the large scale of cohort study on asbestos workers in 9 factories using only chrysotile only one case of pleural mesothelioma was detected for 10 years' observation. In another 2 cohort studies, 2 cases of peritoneal mesotheliomas were found, one in Shanghai asbestos factory where a small amount of crocidolite had been used in 1960s, and one in Anqing asbestos factory that was located near tremolite mine. Further study is needed especially for the relationship between exposure to Chinese chrysotile and malignant mesotheliomas. PMID:11341561

  20. FIELD TESTING OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING WASTE PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abatement of fugitive emissions from asbestos cement waste disposal activities has been studied. The primary sources of asbestos emissions are, (1) transfer of baghouse fines to the dump, (2) crushing and leveling of waste on the fines, (3) active dump areas, (4) inactive dump ar...

  1. Fungal weathering of asbestos in semi arid regions of India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; John, P J; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-02-01

    The science of Geomicrobiology, which deals with mineral- microbe interaction in nature contributes effectively to three important processes namely- mineral and metal bioremediation, biomining and soil mineral formation by microbes. Bioremediation one of the important process of the above, degrades or transforms hazardous contaminants to less toxic compounds. Several groups of fungi have proved highly efficient in this aspect, with asbestos being one such toxic entity in the environment on which their activity was studied. The present investigation uses the same tool as a device for detoxifying asbestos, a potent carcinogenic entity; with fungal isolates native to the asbestos mines of Rajasthan, India, being investigated for the first time. The cellular mechanism of asbestos toxicity is mainly attributed to the presence of iron in its chemical composition which catalyzes generation of free radicals leading to oxidation of biomolecules. The two dominant novel species found therein, identified as Aspergillus tubingenesis and Coemansia reversa have proved capable of actively removing iron from asbestos fibers as studied by scanning electron microscopy- electron diffraction X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis. This probably could lead to a reduction in toxicity of asbestos, due to reduced iron concentration as reported in related studies. Many fungi are known to release iron chelating compounds, siderophores, which could be instrumental in the study. The findings related to two new fungal species being added to the list of earlier identified fungal bioremediators of asbestos, widens the prospect of using bioremediation as an effective tool for asbestos detoxification. PMID:26520469

  2. Iron homeostasis in the lung following asbestos exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to asbestos can cause a wide variety of pulmonary diseases, including pneumoconiosis (i.e., asbestosis). This lung injury is mediated by oxidant generation which increases with the concentration of iron associated with the asbestos. Iron from host sources is comple...

  3. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF ASBESTOS FIBERS TO SUPPORT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency's Asbestos Coordinating Committee (ACT) has conducted a technical review of the research needs for asbestos programs. The overall research in this task has been highlighted as a high prioirty need from that review. The filter comparison needs assessment was a recommen...

  4. Bidding Documents for Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Public Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    All relevant specifications and forms for the removal of asbestos from Oklahoma public buildings are consolidated in this document. The specifications cover the entire procedure for asbestos removal beginning with solicitation for bids; contractor's responsibilities concerning date of completion, general cleanup, laying out work, wage scale, and…

  5. Contracting for Asbestos Abatement: What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittle, Edgar H.; McAllister, Jane B.

    1990-01-01

    School districts are required to determine if asbestos-containing materials exist at school facilities and design and implement asbestos abatement. Reviews how to select a contractor, draft the contract, and ensure its proper implementation by complying with the law and avoiding liability. (MLF)

  6. The Continuing Problem of Asbestos in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the significant health problems caused by asbestos materials in school buildings throughout the United States in general and in New York in particular. Describes state and federal statutes and the financial problems that result in noncompliance and argues for available federal funding for asbestos inspection and mandatory removal. (MLF)

  7. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by specific…

  8. The Role of Gatekeepers in the Asbestos Awareness Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freimuth, Vicki S.; Van Nevel, J. Paul

    The role of news media as gatekeepers controlling the flow of information that the public receives was explored during the 1978 Asbestos Awareness campaign conducted by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). In an effort to inform high risk workers and the general public about the health hazards associated with asbestos exposure,…

  9. Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Howard J; Van Orden, Drew R

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. For most of the 20th century, friction components used in brakes and manual transmission clutches contained approximately 25-60% chrysotile asbestos. Since the late 1960s, asbestos exposure assessment studies conducted on mechanics performing brake service have frequently reported levels below the current OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 fiber/cc (flcc). Although there is a robust asbestos exposure data set for mechanics performing brake service, there are almost no data for mechanics removing and replacing clutches in manual transmission vehicles. Personal and area airborne asbestos samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analyzed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibers using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics who began work prior to 1975. The mechanics were asked about the duration, frequency, and methods used to perform clutch service. Wear debris in the bell housing surrounding clutches had an average of 0.1% chrysotile asbestos by weight, a value consistent with similar reports of brake debris. Asbestos air sampling data collected averaged 0.047 flcc. Mechanics participating in the telephone survey indicated that clutch service was performed infrequently, the entire clutch assembly was normally replaced, and there was no need to otherwise handle the asbestos-containing clutch plates. These mechanics also confirmed that wet methods were most frequently used to clean debris from the bell housing. Combining the asbestos exposure that occurred when mechanics performed clutch service, along with the duration

  10. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  11. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  12. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  13. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  14. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  15. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  16. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  17. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  18. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile...

  19. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  20. 40 CFR 436.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. 436.70 Section 436.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Asbestos and Wollastonite Subcategory § 436.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of asbestos...

  1. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  2. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  3. 40 CFR 763.123 - May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a State implement its own asbestos... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos Worker Protection § 763.123 May a State implement its own asbestos worker protection plan? This section describes the process under which a State may...

  4. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  5. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  6. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  7. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor...

  8. 40 CFR 427.20 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement sheet subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement sheet subcategory. 427.20 Section 427.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet Subcategory § 427.20 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  9. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  10. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement...

  11. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile...

  12. Relative effects of asbestos and wollastonite on alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Pailes, W.H.; Judy, D.J.; Resnick, H.; Castranova, V.

    1984-01-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages were exposed in culture to chrysotile asbestos, wollastonite, or latex, and the effects on various biochemical and physiological parameters related to cellular viability and fibrogenicity were determined. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to asbestos, wollastonite, or latex for 3 d has no effect on oxygen consumption or cellular volume. However, treatment of alveolar macrophages with as little as 25 ..mu..g asbestos/ml for 1 d increases lysosomal enzyme release and decreases membrane integrity, i.e., decreases trypan blue exclusion and increases leakage of cytosolic enzymes. In contrast, exposure of alveolar macrophages to wollastonite or latex at 250 ..mu..g/ml does not induce lysosomal enzyme release or alter membrane integrity even after 3 d of exposure in culture. These data suggest that chrysotile asbestos damages rabbit alveolar macrophages, while wollastonite, a potential substitute for asbestos, is far less cyctotoxic. 35 references, 8 figures.

  13. Detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, N; Kashimura, K; Hashiguchi, M; Sato, M; Horikoshi, S; Mitani, T; Shinohara, N

    2015-03-01

    The detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was investigated through simulations and experiments. The permittivities of pure CaO and Mg3Si4O12, as quasi-asbestos materials, were measured using the cavity perturbation method. The real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity (ɛr' and ɛr″) of CaO are functions of temperature, and numerical simulations revealed the thermal distributions in an electromagnetic field with respect to both asbestos shape and material configuration based on permittivity. Optical microscopic observation revealed that the thickness of chrysotile fibers decreased as a result of CaO heating. The heating mechanism of asbestos materials has been determined using CaO phase, and the detoxification mechanism of asbestos materials was discussed based on the heating mechanism. PMID:25463234

  14. [Asbestos at the time of the First World War].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Bianchi, T

    2015-01-01

    Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy. PMID:26621063

  15. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of brake lining and asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Strauss, P; Yernault, J C

    1990-01-01

    Asbestos body (AB) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 15 brake lining (BL) workers exposed only to chrysotile have been determined and compared with those from 44 asbestos cement (AC) workers extensively exposed to amphiboles. The mean AB concentrations (263 +/- 802 and 842 +/- 2086 AB/ml respectively) for those groups did not differ significantly but were much higher than those found in control groups. Analytical electron microscopy of asbestos body cores showed that in the BL group 95.6% were chrysotile fibres whereas in the AC group amphiboles accounted for 93.1%. The size characteristics of the central fibres differed for chrysotile and amphibole AB, the former being shorter and thinner. Examination of repeated bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed that the mechanisms of clearance of chrysotile fibres do not affect AB concentration for at least 10 months after cessation of exposure. It thus appears that routine counting of ABs in BAL allows the assessment of current or recent occupational exposures to asbestos. Exposures to chrysotile lead to AB concentrations comparable with those encountered in exposures to amphiboles. Images PMID:2155652

  16. Asbestos in Schools: Evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA): A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently completed an evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulatory program in schools. The purpose of the fact sheet is to inform schools of their initial AHERA successes, note areas for improvement, and provide additional guidance. Major findings pertaining to school building…

  17. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET: DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. he carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally conta...

  18. Assessment of asbestos exposure during a simulated agricultural activity in the proximity of the former asbestos mine of Balangero, Italy.

    PubMed

    Turci, Francesco; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Gazzano, Claudia; Tomatis, Maura; Gentile-Garofalo, Laura; Bergamini, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in rural areas is a serious concern for human health and the dispersion route of asbestos in the proximity of natural asbestos-rich settings has been marginally evaluated so far. NOA may affect air, but also water and soil quality. In rural areas population may be exposed to asbestos with a largely unknown impact on human health. This work investigates the potential exposure of a farmer cultivating a field nearby the largest former asbestos mine of Western Europe (Balangero, Italy). The concentration of waterborne asbestos in the stream used to water the field was measured (ca. 2×10(5) fibers per liter, ff/L) and the cultivated ultramafic topsoil characterized, evidencing a remarkable occurrence of chrysotile. The worker's personal exposure and the environmental fiber dispersion during a simulated agricultural activity (tillage) were quantified in two independent trials. During the trials, the worker was exposed to average concentrations of 16 and 26 ff/L, with a peak of 40 ff/L. These data inform about the possible exposure of an agricultural worker to asbestos concentration higher than the accepted threshold of 2 ff/L. The release of asbestos fibers into the environment was negligible (0-2 ff/L). PMID:26852207

  19. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS STRUCTURES DURING THE REMOVAL OF VINYL ASBESTOS TILES AND MASTIC ADHESIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was conducted by the Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Tulsa District to determine potential release of asbestos during the removal of vinyl floor tiles (VAT) and mastic adhesive, both of which contained asbestos. ests were conducted during July and A...

  20. Comparison of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method and the NESHAP Method for Demolition of Asbestos-Containing Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asbestos NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires the removal of all Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) prior to the demolition of the buildings that fall under the auspices of the NESHAP. This removal process can be a costly and ti...

  1. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  2. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  3. Asbestos remediation, removal, and containment. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the cleanup of asbestos pollution and asbestos construction remediation. Articles discuss cleanup of asbestos-polluted water, removal of asbestos insulation from public and private buildings, and control of air pollution during removal. Asbestos containment by impervious coatings, exposure control in industrial workplaces, and removal from drinking water are also covered. Analysis, monitoring, and control techniques for asbestos abatement are included. Toxicity and effects on health from asbestos exposure are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during dry vacuuming and wet cleaning of asbestos-contaminated carpet. Report for January 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for asbestos fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. Two types of carpet cleaning equipment were evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  5. Assessment of airborne asbestos exposure at an asbestos cement sheet and pipe factory in Iran.

    PubMed

    Marioryad, Hossein; Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Yunesian, Masud; Azam, Kamal

    2011-07-01

    Iran imports nearly 55,000 metric tons of asbestos per year, and asbestos cement (AC) plants contribute nearly 94% of the total national usage. In the present study, asbestos fiber concentrations during AC sheet and pipe manufacturing were measured by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) in 98 personal air samples. The fiber type and its chemical composition were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Personal monitoring of fiber levels indicated a range from 0.02 to 0.55PCM f/ml (0.02-0.69PLM f/ml). The AC workers' geometric mean asbestos exposure was 0.09 PCM f/ml (0.11 PLM f/ml), with arithmetic mean of 0.13 PCM f/ml (0.16 PLM f/ml). The observed fiber concentrations in many processes were higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. Based on these findings, the PLM values were approximately 25% higher than PCM values. The SEM data demonstrate that fibrous particles contained chrysotile. The thinnest fiber recognized by SEM had a diameter of 0.2μm. Mean exposure exceeded the TLV for asbestos in pipe molding and finishing (100%) as well as sheet molding and finishing (45.5-83.3%). In conclusion exposure control may be needed to be in compliance with the ACGIH TLV and other guidance levels. Also, with regard to PCM limitations for airborne fiber analysis, the use of microscopic methods other than PCM can be used to improve the techniques used presently. PMID:21420461

  6. Direct enhancement by cigarette smoke of asbestos fiber penetration and asbestos-induced epithelial proliferation in rat tracheal explants

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, J.; Gilks, B.; Wright, J.; Churg, A.

    1988-06-01

    Tracheal explants from Sprague-Dawley rats were briefly exposed to cigarette smoke or air (control) and then to amosite asbestos. Asbestos fibers in or under the tracheal epithelium were counted and extent of hyperplastic lesions was ascertained at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week after exposure. Smoke-exposed cultures showed significantly greater numbers of fibers in the epithelium and greater proliferative activity compared to findings in cultures not exposed to smoke. These observations indicate that very short exposure to cigarette smoke can directly affect the response of the epithelium to asbestos fibers and that smoke exposure need not be concurrent with asbestos exposure for such event to occur. These reactions may play a role in the greater incidences of lung cancer and asbestosis seen in asbestos-exposed workers who smoke.

  7. Review of carcinogenicity of asbestos and proposal of approval standards of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sanghyuk; Youn, Kan-Woo; Shin, Donghee; Lee, Myeoung-Jun; Choi, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards in most advanced countries based on a number of studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. In this study, we proposed the approval standards of an occupational cancer due to asbestos through intensive review on the Helsinki Criteria, post-Helsinki studies, job exposure matrix (JEM) based on the analysis of domestic reports and recognized occupational lung cancer cases in Korea. The main contents of proposed approval standards are as follows; ① In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT. In addition, initial findings of asbestosis on CT should be considered. ② High Exposure industries and occupations to asbestos should be also taken into account in Korea ③ An expert's determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the asbestos exposure duration is less than 10 years. ④ Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert's judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque or pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed. ⑤ Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner. PMID:26719804

  8. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  9. Identification and quantitation of asbestos in talc

    PubMed Central

    Rohl, Arthur N.; Langer, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    The currently used analytical methods for identification, characterization and quantitation of asbestos fiber in consumer talcum products include polarized light microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction and electron microprobe techniques. Light microscope methods have severe limitations imposed by the ultimate size resolution of the light-optical system. Small particles go unresolved; those marginally resolved may possess optical properties different from those properties cited in the literature; most optical properties, e.g., indices of refraction, are difficult to measure on small particles. In addition to these difficulties, talc fibers often possess optical properties different from those of talc plates, which further confound analysis. Light microscopy is recommended for use only as a preliminary tool on limited, large-sized, samples. Transmission electron microscopy is a good standard technique for visualization of contaminant asbestos fibers. Together with selected area electron diffraction, talc fibers may be easily differentiated from amphibole asbestos fibers on the basis of both morphological and structural characterization. Chrysotile fibers are easily distinguished on this basis as well. The amphibole asbestos minerals require chemical characterization to differentiate among the different fiber types. Probe analysis is mandatory for such fibers. The major drawbacks to electron beam instrumentation for the mineralogical characterization of talcum products are the time and effort required for data acquisition. These techniques do not lend themselves to routine study. X-ray diffraction analysis, utilizing the step-scan method, offers a relatively rapid, quantitative technique for gross fiber analysis. Based on comparison with standard specimens the fiber content of talcs may be quantitatively determined. It is essential to employ a specimen preparation technique which yields

  10. Inspecting Pipe Radiographically Through Asbestos Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianettino, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Welds between sections of insulated steampipe located and inspected radiographically. Unless need to repair defective weld, one avoids cost, time, and hazard of removing asbestos insulation. Enables inspectors to locate and evaluate nondestructively any weld in pipe system, without shutting down steam. Hidden weld joints first located by use of low-power fluoroscope, moved along pipe while technician observes fluoroscopic image. Low-energy x rays from fluoroscope penetrate insulation but not pipe. Weld bead appears in silhouette on fluoroscope screen. Technician then accurately marks weld sites on insulation for later inspection.

  11. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-12-31

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  12. The role of free radicals in asbestos-induced diseases.

    PubMed

    Kamp, D W; Graceffa, P; Pryor, W A; Weitzman, S A

    1992-01-01

    Asbestos exposure causes pulmonary fibrosis and malignant neoplasms by mechanisms that remain uncertain. In this review, we explore the evidence supporting the hypothesis that free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important mechanism by which asbestos mediates tissue damage. There appears to be at least two principal mechanisms by which asbestos can induce ROS production; one operates in cell-free systems and the other involves mediation by phagocytic cells. Asbestos and other synthetic mineral fibers can generate free radicals in cell-free systems containing atmospheric oxygen. In particular, the hydroxyl radical often appears to be involved, and the iron content of the fibers has an important role in the generation of this reactive radical. However, asbestos also appears to catalyze electron transfer reactions that do not require iron. Iron chelators either inhibit or augment asbestos-catalyzed generation of the hydroxyl radical and/or pathological changes, depending on the chelator and the nature of the asbestos sample used. The second principal mechanism for asbestos-induced ROS generation involves the activation of phagocytic cells. A variety of mineral fibers have been shown to augment the release of reactive oxygen intermediates from phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved are unclear but may involve incomplete phagocytosis with subsequent oxidant release, stimulation of the phospholipase C pathway, and/or IgG-fragment receptor activation. Reactive oxygen species are important mediators of asbestos-induced toxicity to a number of pulmonary cells including alveolar macrophages, epithelial cells, mesothelial cells, and endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species may contribute to the well-known synergistic effects of asbestos and cigarette smoke on the lung, and the reasons for this synergy are discussed. We conclude that there is strong evidence supporting the premise that reactive

  13. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2007-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 48 natural asbestos occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Rocky Mountain States. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/) and the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  14. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free... into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material shall: (a) Obtain the prior written approval of...

  15. Lichens on asbestos-cement roofs: bioweathering and biocovering effects.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, S E; Castelli, D; Fubini, B; Piervittori, R

    2009-03-15

    Asbestos-cement roofs, the most widespread sources of airborne, toxic and carcinogenic asbestos fibres, are often colonized by lichens. Since these latter are physical and chemical weathering agents, they have been often considered as significant responsible of disaggregation processes increasing fibre dispersion. Consequently, official guidelines for the management of asbestos often suggest their removal. Weathering and/or covering effects of lichens on asbestos-cement, however, have never been deeply investigated and available procedures to evaluate asbestos-cement aging do not take the biological colonization into account. In this study we show that a 25% lichen cover modifies physical and chemical properties of asbestos-cement sheets containing chrysotile and crocidolite fibres. By innovatively coupling pull up tests and image analysis of linear structures, we show that fibre loss is significantly lower ( approximately 30%) where lichens develop and offer a physical barrier to the fibre detachment. Below the most covering lichens (Acarospora cervina, Candelariella ssp.), chrysotile and crocidolite undergo a partial incongruent dissolution, which in laboratory assays generally determined a reduction of their surface reactivity. Because of their biocovering and bioweathering effects, lichens on asbestos-cement play a role which differs from the current public opinion and the assumptions of some official regulations, acting as effective spontaneous bioattenuation agents. PMID:18692312

  16. [Risk of developing mesothelioma due to neighborhood exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2007-05-01

    Routes of asbestos exposure consist of occupational and non-occupational exposures, and furthermore the latter is classified as para-occupational, neighborhood or true general environmental exposure. Consequently, in order to evaluate health risk caused by neighborhood exposure to asbestos, it is necessary to exclude risk due to the other exposure routes from overall risk. We reviewed epidemiological studies on the relationship between neighborhood asbestos exposure and risk of mesothelioma. In studies on a crocidolite mine in South Africa and a chrysotile mine in Canada, occupational exposure was not excluded. In studies on a crocidolite mine in Australia and an asbestos manufacturing factory in U.S.A., risk caused by non-occupational exposure was evaluated, but the risk was not classified as para-occupational and neighborhood exposures. In a study on an asbestos cement factory in Italy, first, occupational and para-occupational exposures were excluded, and next, the incidence rate of mesothelioma in neighborhood residents was calculated, so that risk caused by neighborhood exposure could be evaluated. In case-control studies in Italy, South Africa, three European countries and the U.K., risks caused by occupational, para-occupational and neighborhood exposures were evaluated separately. As a whole, relative risk (RR) of neighborhood exposure in crocidolite and amosite mines was about 10 to 30 and RR in major asbestos factories was about 5 to 20. On the other hand, statistically significant RR of neighborhood exposure was not observed in chrysotile mines and some asbestos facilities. PMID:17575406

  17. Laboratory plant study on the melting process of asbestos waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shinichi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takatsuki, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    The melting process was studied as a method of changing asbestos into non-hazardous waste and recovering it as a reusable resource. In an initial effort, the thermal behaviors of asbestos waste in terms of physical and chemical structure have been studied. Then, 10 kg/h-scale laboratory plant experiments were carried out. By X-ray diffraction analysis, the thermal behaviors of sprayed-on asbestos waste revealed that chrysotile asbestos waste change in crystal structure at around 800 C, and becomes melted slag, mainly composed of magnesium silicate, at around 1,500 C. Laboratory plant experiments on the melting process of sprayed-on asbestos have shown that melted slag can be obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis of the melted slag revealed crystal structure change, and SEM analysis showed the slag to have a non-fibrous form. And more, TEM analysis proved the very high treatment efficiency of the process, that is, reduction of the asbestos content to 1/10{sup 6} as a weight basis. These analytical results indicate the effectiveness of the melting process for asbestos waste treatment.

  18. Cameron Station remedial investigation: Final asbestos survey report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-01

    Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) conducted a comprehensive asbestos survey of the facilities at Cameron Station as part of its contract with the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) to perform a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) at the base. The purpose of the survey which was initiated August 23, 1990 in response to the Base Realignment And Closure Environmental Restoration Strategy (BRAC), was to identify friable and non-friable asbestos-containing material (ACM), provide options for abatement of asbestos, provide cost estimates for both abatement and operations and maintenance costs, and identifying actions requiring immediate action in Cameron Station`s 24 buildings. BRAC states that only friable asbestos which presents a threat to health and safety shall be removed; non-friable asbestos or friable asbestos which is encapsulated or in good repair shall be left in place and identified to the buyer per GSA agreement. The investigation followed protocols that met or exceeded the requirements of 40 CFR 763, the EPA regulations promulgated under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).

  19. A common-sense approach to asbestos in roofing

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, W.R. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The word asbestos carries an ominous connotation to many plant engineers and building owners. Many are caught up in the hype surrounding asbestos abatement. Others are confused about how to face the questions surrounding this mysterious, dangerous, and often misunderstood substance. Asbestos issues cast a particularly perplexing spell over decisions about how to deal with the material in the removal of roofing systems. The product is an excellent roofing choice because it is fire-resistant, durable, and nonrotting. And most significantly on the other hand, asbestos causes three deadly diseases: lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma (cancer of the lung lining and always fatal). This danger prompted enactment of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) in the early 1980s. The regulation required every K-12 school in the US to develop a management plant for dealing with asbestos. Since then, much has been done to raise awareness of the issues surrounding this material. The standard`s earliest form based removal requirements primarily on exposure levels. A 1994 revision, however, extended stringent removal requirements to all roof removal work involving asbestos, regardless of exposure level. This paper looks at the regulations, concerns, considerations, and procedures for dealing with the problem.

  20. Mortality from lung cancer and population risk attributable to asbestos in an asbestos cement manufacturing town in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C.; Leporati, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from lung cancer and the risk attributable to asbestos separately for asbestos cement workers and for the general (non-occupationally exposed) population in the town of Casale Monferrato, where the largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been in operation in 1907-86. According to cancer registry data, in the same town the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in the general population is about 10 times higher than in comparable Italian provinces. METHOD: Decedents from lung cancer in 1989-95 were nominally identified in the list of decedents kept at the Local Health Authority of Casale Monferrato. Workers in the asbestos cement factory have been identified with a search in the nominal list of workers and the same was done for the wives of asbestos cement workers. These lists have already been used in cohort studies. Sensitivity and specificity of the linkage procedure with occupational activity in asbestos cement production have been evaluated in a previous study. Population at risk was estimated on the basis of official figures and on the results of the cohort study of asbestos cement workers. RESULTS: 227 deaths from lung cancer were included (184 men and 43 women). Among the asbestos cement workers mortalities were 234.0 x 100,000 person-years among men and 35.5 among women. Corresponding figures in the general (non- occupationally exposed) population in Casale Monferrato were 80.6 and 18.7. The rates in the general population were not higher than in the rest of the region. Attributable risk (AR) among the asbestos cement workers (and wives) is 67.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 56.8 to 78.2) for men and 51.3% (95% CI 14.9 to 87.8) among women. Population AR to occupational or paraoccupational exposure in the asbestos cement production is 18.3% (95% CI 11.1 to 25.6) among men and 10.1% (95% CI 0 to 24.6) among women. CONCLUSION: This work did not show an increase in mortality from lung cancer for the population not exposed

  1. Health effects of asbestos and nonasbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Osinubi, O Y; Gochfeld, M; Kipen, H M

    2000-01-01

    Exposures to asbestos and synthetic fibers remain areas of great concern in the field of occupational lung disease. Despite extensive study, the health effects associated with fibers remains an area of substantial controversy. In particular, effects of fibers at relatively low doses, particularly for mesothelioma, remain a matter of evolving opinion, especially when integrated with the divergence of opinion on relative pathogenicity of different fiber types. Mechanistic studies continue to provide a window into pathogenesis and some hope for understanding dose-response relationships at the lower levels seen in contemporary Western workplaces and the general environment. Changes in clinical assessment based on use of new chest imaging techniques beyond the traditional plain film are also an area of evolution and begin to challenge B-reading as the definitive tool for noninvasive assessment of disease. Public health concerns have to a great extent been transported to the developing world where there is a strong trend toward increased use of asbestos, although it has been virtually eliminated from commerce in most developed countries. For nonasbestos fibers, the major unsettled issues are their relative potencies as carcinogens for the human lung and mesothelium and the need to sort out the relation between physical and chemical properties of these fibers and their pathogenicity. The recent discovery of "flock worker's lung" due to synthetic fibers once again alerts us to emerging diseases associated with new technologies. PMID:10931785

  2. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  3. Asbestos penetration test system for clothing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.D.; Stampfer, J.F.; Sandoval, A.N.; Heath, C.A.; Cooper, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    For hazardous work such as asbestos abatement, there is a need to assess protective clothing fabrics and seam constructions to assure an adequate barrier against hazardous material. The penetration of aerosols through fabrics usually is measured by challenging fabric samples with an aerosol stream at a constant specified airflow. To produce the specified airflow, pressure differentials across the samples often are higher than exist in a work environment. This higher airflow results in higher aerosol velocities through the fabric and, possibly, measured penetration values not representative of those actually experienced in the field. The objective of the reported work was to develop a test method that does not require these higher airflows. The authors have designed and fabricated a new system that tests fabric samples under a low, constant, specified pressure differential across the samples. This differential is adjustable from tenths of a mm Water Gauge (hundredths of an in WG) to over 25-mm WG (1-in WG). The system operates at a pressure slightly lower than its surroundings. Although designed primarily for asbestos, the system is equally applicable to the testing of other aerosols by changing the aerosol generator and detector. Through simple modification of the sample holders, the test apparatus would be capable of evaluating seam and closure constructions.

  4. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1984-01-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

  5. Effects of Asbestos in Dockyard Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sheers, Geoffrey; Templeton, Ann R.

    1968-01-01

    The prevalence of pleural and pulmonary abnormalities attributed to asbestos among 15,000 workers in a naval dockyard has been studied by means of a one-in-ten sample. Ninety-four per cent. of the men in the sample were examined. Of these, 3% had experienced continuous occupational exposure to asbestos and half of the remainder (representing approximately 6,800 men) had been exposed intermittently. The prevalence of pleural fibrosis ranged from 28% in continuously exposed workers to 1.9% in those with least exposure. Most cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurred in laggers and sprayers who had been continuously exposed for between 15 and 20 years. Pulmonary fibrosis was also seen in a variety of intermittently exposed trades, and had been preceded by extensive pleural thickening in some cases. Ten cases of pleural mesothelioma have occurred in the last three years and a large number of men appear to be potentially at risk. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5667990

  6. Asbestos poisons World Trade Organization atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kazan-Allen, L

    2001-01-01

    In September 2000, a World Trade Organization (WTO) panel published its findings in the dispute between Canada and the European Union/France over France's ban on the import and use of chrysotile (white asbestos). The panel upheld the French ban, established that the use of chrysotile is a health risk and the idea of "controlled use" a fallacy, and used (for the first time) an exception clause in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that permits trade-restrictive measures to protect human life or health. At the same time, the panel concluded that the French ban violated international trade laws by treating chrysotile products less favorably than domestically produced alternatives. Some WTO watchers believe that with asbestos as the precedent for bans on toxic substances, the regulation of other, much less well-established, toxic exposures could prove much more difficult. Now the French ban has been upheld, chrysotile producers will increasingly target developing countries. Canada is appealing the WTO decision. PMID:11562001

  7. Origin and the mechanical properties of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hanley, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Dual networks and chemographic analysis are used to investigate the stability of lizardite and chrysotile in the simplest multisystem that describes serpentinization. Phase diagrams for Mg serpentinites described by MgO-SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O are constructed for systems of five, six and seven phases using dual networks. The seven-phase system brucite, forsterite, lizardite, chrysotile, antigorite, enstatite, and talc describes the serpentinization of Mg peridotites. The chrysotile asbestos deposits of southeastern Quebec occur in serpentinized peridotites of Ordovician ophiolites. The asbestos is localized in veins within blocks of partly serpentinized peridotite bounded by zones containing schistose serpentinite and granitic masses. A simple, rapid microscopic test was designed to obtain semi-quantitative measurements of the bending strength of acicular or fibrous crystals. The instrument was tested on samples of asbestiform tremolite from Baltimore, Maryland, and non-asbestiform tremolite from the Warren Head mine in New Hampshire. The samples ranged in size from 0.3 to 0.8 mm in length and 0.9 to 15 ..mu..m in diameter. The asbestiform tremolite was stronger than the non-asbestiform tremolite at every diameter, with an order of magnitude higher strength at small diameters. This indicates that asbestiform tremolite behaves as a whisker, whereas non-asbestiform tremolite does not.

  8. [Benign pleural effusion in a carpenter exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rolf; Pedersen, Carsten Franck; Munch, Erik Peter

    2010-10-25

    A 55-year-old carpenter developed pleurisy with pleural effusion on the right side in 2000 and on the left side in 2003. No known causes of pleurisy were found. He had been occupationally exposed to asbestos during a 6-month-period in 1971 while working with roof sheets made of asbestos cement. In the literature there is evidence of asbestos being a cause of benign pleural effusion. We found it likely that the pleurisy with pleural effusion found in this patient was an occupational condition and it should therefore be notified as industrial injury. PMID:21040677

  9. Variable feed rate mechanism for fluidized bed asbestos generators

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.G.; Gearhart, J.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive dust feed mechanism has been designed for use with a two-phase fluidized bed generator (FBG). The mechanism is especially useful for generating asbestos aerosols, but may be used with other dusts as well. Using this system, a steady state concentration (39.1 fibers/cc > 5 ..mu..m in length +/- 6.2%) of asbestos aerosol was maintained in an inhalation chamber for five hours. In addition, FBG output concentration was easily adjusted and quickly equilibrated (within 10 minutes). The system provides a good technique for generating asbestos aerosols for day-long animal exposures.

  10. STATUS REPORT ON THE EVALUATION OF THE ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD – A COMPARISON TO THE NESHAP METHOD OF DEMOLITION OF ASBESTOS CONTAINING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings. This abstract and presentation are based, at least in part, on preliminary data and conclusions. The Alternative Asbestos...

  11. Mineral fibres, fibrosis, and asbestos bodies in lung tissue from deceased asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Johansson, L; Pooley, F D; Jakobsson, K; Attewell, R; Mitha, R

    1990-01-01

    Lung tissue from 76 deceased asbestos cement workers (seven with mesothelioma) exposed to chrysotile asbestos and small amounts of amphiboles, has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, together with lung tissue from 96 controls. The exposed workers with mesothelioma had a significantly higher total content of asbestos fibre in the lungs than those without mesothelioma, who in turn, had higher concentrations than the controls (medians 189, 50, and 29 x 10(6) fibres/g (f/g]. Chrysotile was the major type of fibre. The differences were most pronounced for the amphibole fibres (62, 4.7, and 0.15 f/g), especially crocidolite (54, 1.8 and less than 0.001 f/g), but were evident also for tremolite (2.9, less than 0.001, and less than 0.001 f/g) and anthophyllite (1.7, less than 0.001, and less than 0.001 f/g). For amosite, there was no statistically significant difference between lungs from workers with and without mesothelioma; the lungs of workers had, however, higher concentrations than the controls. Strong correlations were found between duration of exposure and content of amphibole fibres in the lungs. Asbestos bodies, counted by light microscopy, were significantly correlated with the amphibole but not with the chrysotile contents. Fibrosis was correlated with the tremolite but not the chrysotile content in lungs from both exposed workers and controls. Overall, similar results were obtained using fibre counts and estimates of mass. PMID:2173948

  12. EPA/ORD/RTP (Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park) asbestos program support for the OTS (Office of Toxic Substances) asbestos-in-schools program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    An overview of the EPA/ORD/RTP Asbestos program support for the OTS Asbestos-in-Schools Program is given. The program includes (1) a bulk sample asbestos analysis audit program, (2) an intercomparison of three measurement methods for airborne asbestos, (3) the development of audit materials for airborne asbestos measurement methods, and (4) the development of guidance for post-abatement asbestos air monitoring.

  13. Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

    1990-01-01

    A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry. PMID:2169860

  14. Studies on genotoxicity of orally administered crocidolite asbestos in rats: implications for ingested asbestos induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Varga, C; Pocsai, Z; Horváth, G; Timbrell, V

    1996-01-01

    The early genotoxic action of oral exposure to UICC crocidolite asbestos fibres was studied in different short-term tests. Fischer-344 rats were gavaged with 50 mg/b.w.kg untreated asbestos fibres and fibres which had been allowed to adsorb benzo(a)pyrene molecules from extremely low concentration (0.25-2.5 microg/ml) aqueous solutions. This system can be considered a model for the drinking of potable water contaminated by asbestos fibres together with biologically active organic micro-pollutants. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay was performed on concentrated urine and serum samples of treated animals. The formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges was also studied in the bone marrow of the exposed rats. The micronucleus analysis indicated marginal genotoxic activity only upon treatment with crocidolite prepared from the solution of 1 microg/ml. A dose-dependent increase was, however, demonstrated in the sister chromatid exchange frequency upon treatment with benzo(a)pyrene coated fibres. These experiments suggest the acute cogenotoxic activity of such fibres in orally exposed animals. PMID:8687133

  15. Environmental projects. Volume 12: Friable asbestos abatement, GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of the NASA Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to a variety of environmental hazards, particularly the danger of exposure of GDSCC personnel to asbestos fibers that have been shown to be responsible for such serious ailments as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials (ACM's) were used in the construction of many of the approximately 100 buildings and structures that were built at the GDSCC during a 30-year period from the 1950s through 1980s. The friable asbestos-abatement program at the GDSCC is presented which consists of text, illustrations, and tables that describe the friable asbestos abatement carried out at the GDSCC from December 21, 1988 through May 11, 1989.

  16. Chrysotile asbestos exposure in the manufacturing of thermal insulating boards.

    PubMed

    Bhagia, L J; Vyas, J B; Shaikh, M I; Dodia, S L

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to asbestos fibers has been extensively studied in milling, mining of asbestos fibers, and in industries manufacturing asbestos-cement sheets, pipes, etc. However, very few studies have been reported in asbestos textiles, brake lining workers, and insulation products. In the present investigation, chrysotile exposure monitoring was carried out in a small thermal insulating boards manufacturing facility. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed from various locations like feeding of raw materials, weighing, pressing, machine grinding, and hand finishing of final products. Twenty-five percent of the samples were found to be above ACGIH TLV of 0.1 fibers per milliliter. However, mean fiber concentrations were found to be lower than 0.1 fibers per milliliter, except for the process of feeding of raw materials where the mean fiber concentration was 0.1087+/-0.0631 fibers per milliliter. PMID:19626449

  17. Circulating natural killer cells in retired asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Lahat, N; Kristal-Boneh, E; Cohen, C; Lerman, Y; Ribak, J

    2000-01-01

    The effect of past exposure to asbestos on natural killer (NK) cell number and activity is uncertain. We measured NK cell number and activity in 1052 retired asbestos workers without symptomatic lung disease, lung cancer, or mesothelioma and with a long latency period from exposure; results were compared with those for 100 healthy age-matched controls. The exposed workers showed a decreased NK cell activity and increased NK cell number, yielding a 10.8 higher odds ratio for low NK activity per cell compared with controls (95% confidence interval 6.4 to 18.4), which was due to both a decrease in NK cell activity and an increase in NK cell number. Asbestos exposure of 10 years or more increased the risk of low NK activity per cell. We conclude that exposure to asbestos is associated with diminished effectiveness of NK cells and a concomitant increase in the number of NK circulating cells. PMID:10652684

  18. EVALUATING AND OPTIMIZING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of EM methods for measuring airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and size distributions was carried out by studying a large number of variables and subprocedures in a five-phase program using elaborate statistically designed experiments. Observations were analyzed by...

  19. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE RESEARCH - AIR, SOIL AND BULK MATERIAL SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently, asbestos and other mineral fibers are monitored in the workplace and in the environment using several basic analytical techniques, based primarily upon observing the fiber by either optical or electron microscopy. EPA is conducting research to determine which sampling ...

  20. Control of incidental asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Koustas, R N

    1991-07-01

    This paper discusses asbestos regulations that are not part of Superfund and examines how these regulations can help to identify, evaluate and manage the risk associated with Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) at hazardous waste cleanup sites. Unless one knows where to look for ACM at hazardous waste sites, it may go undetected even after all the traditional sampling is done. Although EPA is currently developing a policy for evaluating risk from asbestos exposure at certain Superfund sites, information from existing regulations can be used to manage hazards associated with asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites. This paper also identifies where to find governmental agency personnel and consultants who may be retained for site-specific help. PMID:1930954

  1. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated? No treatments can reverse the effects ... then draw out the excess fluid. Treatments for Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma If you have lung cancer ...

  2. Chronic occupational exposure to asbestos: more than medical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lebovits, A.H.; Byrne, M.; Bernstein, J.; Strain, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine workers chronically exposed to asbestos were interviewed regarding their perceived health status and concerns, their health behaviors, particularly their smoking behavior, and their psychologic well-being. In contrast to a non-exposed comparison group of postal workers, asbestos workers exhibited significantly elevated levels of somatic concern (P less than .03), and significantly lower levels of mental health functioning only when experiencing high levels of stress (P less than .01). Despite feeling significantly more susceptible to developing cancer (P less than .0001), 34% of asbestos workers were cigarette smokers (compared to 32% of the postal group) and long-term mask usage was minimal. Asbestos workers' increased sensitivity to stress and changes in health status along with the lack of adaptation of health-promotive behaviors indicate the need for interventions to attend to the psychologic effects of increased risk status.

  3. ASBESTOS AND GASTRO-INTESTINAL CANCER: CELL CULTURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three forms of asbestos: amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile, were assayed for their cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in cell clture. Using embjryonic human intestine derived and adult rat liver derived epitelial cells, the order of toxicity was chrysotile > amosite = crocidolite. ...

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Libby Amphibole Asbestos that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  5. Regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. The performance of these activities may generate asbestos-containing waste because asbestos was formerly used in many building materials, including floor tile, sealants, plastics, cement pipe, cement sheets, insulating boards, and insulating cements. The regulatory requirements governing the disposal of these wastes depend on: (1) the percentage of asbestos in the waste and whether the waste is friable (easily crumbled or pulverized); (2) other physical and chemical characteristics of the waste; and (3) the State in which the waste is generated. This Information Brief provides an overview of the environment regulatory requirements affecting disposal of asbestos-containing waste. It does not address regulatory requirements applicable to worker protection promulgated under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct), the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA), or the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  6. EPA's Program for Asbestos Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    1979-01-01

    Comments from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning three recommendations (in an article in a previous issue of this journal about inspecting schools for asbestos-containing materials) that are in direct conflict with those offered by EPA. (MLF)

  7. Geologic sources of asbestos in Seattle's tolt reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, M.E.; Craven, G.

    1996-01-01

    Water from Seattle's South Fork Tolt Reservoir contains chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers, derived from natural sources. Using optical petrographic techniques, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, we identified the geologic source of these asbestiform minerals within the watershed. No asbestos was found in the bedrock underlying the watershed, while both chrysotile and amphibole fibers were found in sediments transported by Puget-lobe glacial processes. These materials, widely distributed throughout the lower watershed, would be difficult to separate from the reservoir sediments. The probable source of this asbestos is in pods of ultramafic rock occurring north of the watershed. Because asbestos is contained in widespread Pugetlobe glacial materials, it may be naturally distributed in other watersheds in the Puget Sound area.

  8. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  9. Predicting the mortality from asbestos-related diseases based on the amount of asbestos used and the effects of slate buildings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Young; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Yongku; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2016-01-15

    Asbestos has been used since ancient times, owing to its heat-resistant, rot-proof, and insulating qualities, and its usage rapidly increased after the industrial revolution. In Korea, all slates were previously manufactured in a mixture of about 90% cement and 10% chrysotile (white asbestos). This study used a Generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model after creating databases of the mortality from asbestos-related diseases and of the amount of asbestos used in Korea as a means to predict the future mortality of asbestos-related diseases and mesothelioma in Korea. Moreover, to predict the future mortality according to the effects of slate buildings, a comparative analysis based on the result of the GPR model was conducted after creating databases of the amount of asbestos used in Korea and of the amount of asbestos used in making slates. We predicted the mortality from asbestos-related diseases by year, from 2014 to 2036, according to the amount of asbestos used. As a result, it was predicted that a total of 1942 people (maximum, 3476) will die by 2036. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis according to the influence index, it was predicted that a maximum of 555 people will die from asbestos-related diseases by 2031 as a result of the effects of asbestos-containing slate buildings, and the mortality was predicted to peak in 2021, with 53 cases. Although mesothelioma and pulmonary asbestosis were considered as asbestos-related diseases, these are not the only two diseases caused by asbestos. However the results of this study are highly important and relevant, as, for the first time in Korea, the future mortality from asbestos-related diseases was predicted. These findings are expected to contribute greatly to the Korean government's policies related to the compensation for asbestos victims. PMID:26513124

  10. Nature, structure, and properties of asbestos cement dust

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, J; Helsen, J; Deruyttere, A

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT Total dust samples produced by machining three commercial asbestos-cement products (autoclaved sheet, non-autoclaved sheet, pipe) were examined for their dimensional, surface, and physicochemical characteristics. Microscopic inspection of dust fractions with different settling characteristics in air allowed determination of the simple dimensional features that apply to respirable fibres—that is, the true diameter, length, and aspect ratio and the coil diameter, coil length, and coil aspect ratio. The respirable fraction as a percentage of the total dust varied with the type of machined product: 8·5% for non-autoclaved sheet, 10·5% for autoclaved sheet, and 35% for pipe. Quantitative x-ray diffraction of different granulometric fractions showed that the asbestos content decreases with fraction size (thus the asbestos content will change with distance from the dust source). Electron microscopic examination of fine dust (aerodynamic diameter < 7 μm) showed that only about 10% of the inspected particles were optically virgin. From these observations it has been calculated that the threshold limit value of 2 fibres per cm3 of air corresponds to a total dust concentration of 1·2, 0·6, and 0·1 mg/m3 and to a maximum admissible respirable dust content of 0·1, 0·06, and 0·04 mg/m3 for non-autoclaved sheet, autoclaved sheet, and pipe respectively. The surface of optically virgin fibres may still be contaminated by calcium containing particles, as shown by analytical transmission and scanning electron microscope. Dust from the autoclaved product contains fewer calcium coated fibres. The physicochemical behaviour of dust, as shown by dissolution kinetics and absorption of carcinogens from tobacco smoke, is comparable to the behaviour of cement rather than of pure asbestos. In general, asbestos cement dust differs consistently from pure asbestos. Conclusions, drawn from studies on pure asbestos, cannot be applied as such to asbestos cement dust. Images PMID

  11. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  12. Assessment of potential exposure to friable insulation materials containing asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos and the procedures for assessing potential exposure hazards are discussed. Assessment includes testing a bulk sample of the suspected material for the presence of asbestos, and monitoring the air, if necessary. Based on field inspections and laboratory analyses, the health hazard is evaluated, and abatement measures are taken if a potential hazard exists. Throughout the assessment and abatement program, all applicable regulations are administered as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  13. [Improving system of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related broncho-pulmonary diseases in workers].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    To improve a system of prevention and rehabilitation for broncho-pulmonary diseases among workers engaged into extraction and utilization of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified major criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to asbestos-containing dust, with definition of risk groups for broncho-pulmonary diseases. The authors formulated main concepts of prevention and rehabilitation for asbestos-related pulmonary diseases in workers engaged into asbestos industry. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed to prevention and liquidation of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:21789804

  14. Asbestos-fiber reentrainment during vacuuming and wet cleaning of carpet at a captive research site

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freybery, R.W.; Cain, W.C.; Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.

    1989-03-31

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of alternative carpet-cleaning techniques and to evaluate the potential for asbestos-fiber reentrainment during cleaning of carpet contaminated with asbestos. The equipment was evaluated at two carpet contamination levels. Airborne asbestos concentrations were determined before and during carpet cleaning. Overall, airborne asbestos concentrations were two to four times greater during the carpet-cleaning activity. The level of asbestos contamination and the type of cleaning method had no statistically significant effect on the relative increase of airborne asbestos concentrations during carpet cleaning.

  15. Asbestos exposure: Health effects. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the health effects of exposure to asbestos in the workplace, at home, and in public sites. Exposure, during procurement of asbestos, removal of asbestos materials, manufacture of materials, and while living and working with materials containing asbestos, is considered. Mortality patterns and clinical studies of exposure, risk, and resulting diseases are presented as well as analytical techniques used to study asbestos health effects. Asbestos removal and abatement questions, and equipment used in these operations are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. [Estimation of asbestos exposure among workers repairing asbestos cement pipes used for conduits].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Nakachi, S; Kurumatani, N; Nakagiri, S; Kataoka, A

    1993-05-01

    Asbestos cement pipes (ACPs) containing 15 to 20% chrysotile or crocidolite have been used for underground conduits. Even today 16.2% of all conduits in Japan are ACPs, though the production of ACPs was suspended in 1985. When such a conduit is accidentally damaged the workers belonging to the Waterworks Bureau of a local government cut off the damaged conduit using a high-speed disk cutter and replace it with a new conduit. This operation develops a cloud of dust and the workers involved run the risk of asbestos exposure. It was the aim of the present study to estimate asbestos exposure levels among these workers. First, in the experiment, we established the typical working conditions and requested an experienced worker to cut an ACP using a high-speed disc cutter in a hole dug in the ground as he routinely does. The experiment was repeated three times. During a bout of each experiment, dust was sampled at several points both inside and outside the hole. Second, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain information from the workers regarding their working conditions in cutting ACPs. The subjects of the survey were 1,048 men belonging to conduit repair sections of the Waterworks Bureau of 119 local governments. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. 1) Each bout of cutting ACPs required about five minutes. The concentration of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns with 3:1 aspect ratio ranged from 48 to 170 fibers/ml (92 fibers/ml on an average) inside and 1.7 to 15 fibers/ml outside the hole. The concentration inside the hole exceeded the ceiling limit (10 fibers/ml) recommended for asbestos by the Japanese Association of Industrial Health. A concentration of 92 fibers/ml is equivalent to 0.96 fibers/ml as 8-h time-weighted average. 2) The number of subjects with experience of cutting ACPs was 849 (81.0%). The average length of service in conduit repair section was 14.2 yr. Based on the information obtained from each subject

  17. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. PMID:22401880

  18. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further. PMID:27180335

  19. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa after exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Kambic, V; Radsel, Z; Gale, N

    1989-01-01

    The laryngeal mucosa of 195 workers in an asbestos cement factory (Salonit Anhovo, Yugoslavia) and in a control group was examined. The factory manufactures asbestos cement products containing about 13% of asbestos (8% amosite, 12% crocidolite, and 80% chrysotile) of different provenance. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa were more frequent in the factory workers than in the control group. The changes, mostly consistent with chronic laryngitis, were closely related to the degree of workplace pollution and less so to the duration of employment Ten workers exhibiting the most severe clinical changes underwent biopsy, the results of which showed histomorphological changes characteristic of hyperplastic chronic laryngitis. Four tissue specimens were examined also by scanning electron microscopy and in three of them asbestos fibres were found on the epithelial surface. No case of laryngeal carcinoma was identified. On the basis of our results it is thought that asbestos related changes of the larynx should receive more attention and that the use of the term "laryngeal asbestosis" is justified. The clinical picture is non-specific but in view of their frequency such changes should be considered a consequence of exposure to asbestos. Images PMID:2489023

  20. Pulmonary asbestos and dust content in East Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Stovin, P G; Partridge, P

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the asbestos fibre and dust content of samples from 96 surgically excised lungs; 42 necropsies on patients with lung cancer, 11 necropsies on patients with non-pulmonary malignancies, and 59 necropsies on patients without any malignant disease. The patients' ages ranged from 45 to 74 years at the time of study. None of the patients had asbestosis. The distribution of fibres and dust content of the lungs showed a log-normal distribution. There was no significant difference in fibre counts or dust content between men and women, and between lung cancer and non-cancer patients. The only group with an association with a high asbestos fibre count was four necropsy cases of pleural mesothelioma. There was no significant relationship between asbestos fibre count and dust content of the lung. The present data suggest that asbestos fibre counts below 100,000 per gram of dried lung are not related to specific asbestos disease, although in the surgical cases who were closely questioned on their residential and occupational histories most of those with fibre counts above 30,000 per gram dried lung had had occasions of definite or very likely asbestos exposure. PMID:7101223

  1. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  2. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Vaux, W.; Ulerich, N.; Nocito, T.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of this three-phase program is to develop an integrated process for treating asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The integrated process will attempt to minimize processing and disposal costs. The objectives of Phase 1 were to establish the technical feasibility of asbestos decomposition, inorganic radionuclide nd heavy metal removal, and organic volatilization. Phase 1 resulted in the successful bench-scale demonstration of the elements required to develop a mixed waste treatment process for asbestos-containing material (ACM) contaminated with radioactive metals, heavy metals, and organics. Using the Phase 1 data, a conceptual process was developed. The Phase 2 program, currently in progress, is developing an integrated system design for ACM waste processing. The Phase 3 program will target demonstration of the mixed waste processing system at a DOE facility. The electromagnetic mixed waste processing system employs patented technologies to convert DOE asbestos to a non-hazardous, radionuclide-free, stable waste. The dry, contaminated asbestos is initially heated with radiofrequency energy to remove organic volatiles. Second,the radionuclides are removed by solvent extraction coupled with ion exchange solution treatment. Third, the ABCOV method converts the asbestos to an amorphous silica suspension at low temperature (100{degrees}C). Finally the amorphous silica is solidified for disposal.

  3. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents data on cancer risk, especially pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, among the workers of asbestos cement plant who living in the vicinity of the plant, were also environmentally exposed to asbestos. In 1959 an asbestos cement factory was founded in the rural area of south-eastern Poland. Apart from chrysotile asbestos, crocidolite was used till 1985 chiefly for the manufacture of pressure pipes. The blue asbestos made up 15% of the mean annual tonnage of the processed asbestos. It was found that soon after asbestos production had started the process wastes were made available to local community, particularly to the workers of that factory. For over twenty years asbestos wastes of all kinds, both wet (process sludge) and dry (from pipe and sheet grinding) were exploited for the hardening of roads, paths, farmyards and sports fields and as construction material components. For the evaluation of cancer risk due to occupational exposure to asbestos a cohort of 1,526 workers employed in this factory was observed till the end of 1996. The cohort availability was 95.6%. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using the man-years method. The reference population was the general population of Poland. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of a) pleural mesothelioma--over an 80-fold excess among males and over a 200-fold one among females; b) lung cancer in females--over a 6-fold excess; c) colon cancer in males--over a 3-fold excess. In the 1990 ten new cases of pleural mesothelioma in the cohort were reported. As compared to other asbestos-cement cohorts in Poland, observed at the same time, this cohort presented a very high risk of pleural mesothelioma. The analysis of 16 cases of pleural mesothelioma found in the cohort from 1987 to 1997 revealed 4 cases with very short employment period (3.5 months-5 years) including two cases with relatively short latency period (11-12 years). In order to

  4. Mineral Carbonation Using Asbestos-Containing Cement Board Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral carbonation appears to be one of the plausible methods for the practical fixation of CO2. Carbon consumption and sequestration by carbonation reactions involving alkaline elements such as Ca and Mg have been developed. Suitable feedstocks for CO2 sequestration are mineral carbonation using Ca/Mg-silicates. Asbestos-containing cement board waste consists of chrysotile asbestos which is one of the Mg-silicate and cement. Chrysotile is one of the raw materials to form carbonate mineral for CO2 fixation in previous studies and cement contains a quantity of calcium which is able to react with CO2. Generally, asbestos-containing cement board waste is dumped in controlled waste sites in South Korea. However, this cannot be regarded as an ultimate solution because dispersion of asbestos fibers in the air is an intrinsic risk during dumping operations and in the long-term management. An alternative solution is thermal transformation of asbestos-containing material into non-hazardous phase. Therefore, the aims of the study were to sequester CO2 using asbestos-containing cement board waste via mineral carbonation and to detoxify chrysotile asbestos in cement board waste via heat treatment. Two steps of experiments were designed: (1) synthesis of a carbonate mineral (i.e., calcite and magnesite), via the physicochemical reactions of fragmented cement board with CO2 and (2) transformation of fibrous asbestos into non-fibrous material through heat treatment. Physicochemical and mineralogical properties of cement board waste were investigated by TG-DTA , XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses. XRD analysis showed that the calcite (CaCO3) was formed after reaction of fragmented cement board with CO2. Mineralogical characteristics showed minerals such as chrysotile [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4] and calcite (CaCO3) in the reactions of fragmented cement board with CO2 were transformed into calcite (CaCO3), calcium oxide (CaO), and quartz (SiO2) by heat treatment. SEM-EDS analyses showed that

  5. IDENTIFYING HIGH PRIORITY EXPOSURE RESEARCH SUPPORTING THE EPA ASBESTOS ACTION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Asbestos Action Plan outlines areas, including two exposure assessment areas, where research is needed to reduce uncertainties in current asbestos risk assessments. Scientists from the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) recently conducted survey and literature ...

  6. Comptational comparison of asbestos fibers: Dosimetry model simulations to characterize variabilty and potency (Presentation poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled asbestos fibers result in respiratory diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma, but different asbestos fibers exhibit different potency. We applied a recently developed dosimetry model (Asgharian et al., Poster # 104) that describes th...

  7. Determination of Micro-Quantities of Chrysotile Asbestos by Dye Adsorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, M. Clare; Wosczyna, Karen

    1976-01-01

    Airborne asbestos is analyzed by differential dye adsorption. Quantities can be estimated down to 100 mg. For industrial use, asbestos samples must be separated from interfering minerals by density flotation. (Author/BT)

  8. Asbestos: The Clock Is Ticking in Your Schools, and Inaction Could Prove to Be Devastating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    This article urges districts to meet federal regulations and protect students and staff from hazardous asbestos and reviews medical risks, compliance procedures, costs of asbestos removal, consequences of noncompliance, legal ramifications, and contacts for further information. (MJL)

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transport and Disposal of Asbestos Waste D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Pt. 763, Subpt. E, App. C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part...

  11. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  12. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  13. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  14. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  15. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  16. Asbestos-in-Schools: A Guide to New Federal Requirements for Local Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    In 1986, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law requiring the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations which provide a comprehensive framework for addressing asbestos problems in secondary and elementary schools. The new rule, The Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule, requires all…

  17. Public Law 99-519: Title II--Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency's rule on local educational agency inspection for, and notification of, the presence of friable asbestos-containing material in school buildings included neither standards for the proper identification of asbestos-containing material and appropriate response actions with respect to friable asbestos-containing…

  18. Novel selective dyeing method for chrysotile asbestos detection in concrete materials.

    PubMed

    Oke, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Amamoto, Go Y; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Maeta, Naomi; Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2008-03-01

    There are a tremendous number of asbestos-containing buildings without any surveys on the presence of asbestos because of the difficulty to detect asbestos in building materials simply and quickly, although a great deal of worldwide effort was put into removing asbestos of which inhalation causes serious diseases. In this study, we newly developed a simple dyeing method to detect chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type of asbestos, in asbestos-cement composite materials using magnesium-chelating organic dyes. As an essential process for selective dyeing of chrysotile asbestos, special pretreatment with a calcium-chelating agent was developed to prevent the dyes from reacting with calcium, which is the major component of concrete materials. Our developed selective dyeing method was shown to possess sufficient sensitivity for detecting chrysotile asbestos in an amount greater than 0.1 mass% in concrete specimens, and there was an approximately linear relationship between the area fraction of dyed spots and the mass fraction of chrysotile asbestos. Our results may provide a basis for further development of a simple on-site detection method for chrysotile asbestos in building materials and may facilitate the progress of control and removal of asbestos in the environment. PMID:18441814

  19. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler and a Breathing Zone Model for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for asbestos structures to become airborne when the source is disturbed. The source can be naturally occurring asbestos in soil, mine tailings in the soil at brownfield sites, vermiculite attic insulation in indoor envi...

  20. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 1: SPRAY-BUFFING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to ealuate airborne asbestos concentrations during spray-uffing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing residient floor tile under three levels of floor conditions (poor, medium, and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by transmission e...

  1. A Guide to Performing Reinspections under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires each elementary and secondary school to perform an inspection for asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) and to prepare an asbestos management plan. The AHERA regulations further require a reinspection of the ACBM at…

  2. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm3 in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  3. EVALUATION OF A COMMERCIAL VACUUM SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a brief field study that included measurement of personal, area, and environmental asbestos exposures resulting from wet and dry asbestos removal using a commercial vacuum system. Personal and area (indoor) asbestos concentrations during dry removal we...

  4. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos... available for public comment entitled ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other..., ``NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin--Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of...

  5. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. Overview On Alternate Asbestos Control Method Research And NESHAP Comparison - Nashville, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  7. Overview On Alternative Asbestos Control Method Research: Alternative Methods To Demolition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  8. EVALUATION OF AEROSOLIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND RELATED FIBERS FROM BULK MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Status Report on the Evaluation of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method – A Comparison to the NESHAP Method of Demolition of Asbestos Containing Buildings; and, 2. Update on the Evaluation of Aerosolization of Asbestos and Related Fibers from Bulk Materials. This abstract a...

  9. ENGINEERING CONTROL PRACTICES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS DURING DRILLING OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING FLOORING MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the implementation and testing of control measures to reduce airborne asbestos generated by the drilling of asbestos-containing flooring materials, an OSHA Class III asbestos maintenance activity. Bosch 11224 and 11222 rotary drills were fitted with shrouds ...

  10. ASBESTOS/ASBESTIFORM RESEARCH IN EPA OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA asbestos/asbestiform research program encompasses a wide range of activity directed toward the control and management of mining, milling, processing, fabricating, and end uses of asbestos. Widespread applications of asbestos in the past have exposed large segments of the ...

  11. How To Manage Asbestos in School Buildings: AHERA Designated Person's Self-Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires schools to appoint an asbestos management coordinator called the "AHERA (Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act) designated person" (DP) who is responsible for a number of asbestos-related activities. This manual presents some recommendations designed to help those persons appointed to this…

  12. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Other Asbestos Regulations Agency CFR citation Comment EPA 40 CFR part 763, subpart E Requires... CFR part 427 Effluent standards for asbestos manufacturing source categories. 40 CFR part 763, subpart... asbestos standard. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1001 Worker protection measures-engineering controls, worker...

  13. 40 CFR 436.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. 436.70 Section 436.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos and Wollastonite Subcategory § 436.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing...

  14. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80...

  15. 40 CFR 436.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. 436.70 Section 436.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos and Wollastonite Subcategory § 436.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing...

  16. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80...

  17. 75 FR 59261 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule and Revised Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan Rule; EPA ICR No. 1365.09... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR, entitled: ``Asbestos-Containing Materials...

  18. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80...

  19. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to Other Asbestos Regulations Agency CFR citation Comment EPA 40 CFR part 763, subpart E Requires... CFR part 427 Effluent standards for asbestos manufacturing source categories. 40 CFR part 763, subpart... asbestos standard. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1001 Worker protection measures-engineering controls, worker...

  20. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to Other Asbestos Regulations Agency CFR citation Comment EPA 40 CFR part 763, subpart E Requires... CFR part 427 Effluent standards for asbestos manufacturing source categories. 40 CFR part 763, subpart... asbestos standard. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1001 Worker protection measures-engineering controls, worker...

  1. 77 FR 30528 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Libby Amphibole Asbestos... teleconference of the SAB Libby Amphibole Asbestos Panel to discuss the Panel's revised draft review report of EPA's Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (August 2011 Draft). DATES: The...

  2. Asbestos in drinking water. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the occurrence and problems associated with drinking water contaminated by asbestos fibers. Water supply contamination by asbestos cement pipes and factors involved in the release of asbestos fibers are discussed. Topics also include distribution data, epidemiology studies, health effects, detection, and measurement methods. (Contains a minimum of 114 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Other Asbestos Regulations Agency CFR citation Comment EPA 40 CFR part 763, subpart E Requires... CFR part 427 Effluent standards for asbestos manufacturing source categories. 40 CFR part 763, subpart... asbestos standard. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1001 Worker protection measures-engineering controls, worker...

  4. 40 CFR 436.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. 436.70 Section 436.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos and Wollastonite Subcategory § 436.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos and wollastonite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing...

  5. 40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory. 427.80 Section 427.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.80 Applicability;...

  6. 40 CFR 61.156 - Cross-reference to other asbestos regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Other Asbestos Regulations Agency CFR citation Comment EPA 40 CFR part 763, subpart E Requires... CFR part 427 Effluent standards for asbestos manufacturing source categories. 40 CFR part 763, subpart... asbestos standard. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1001 Worker protection measures-engineering controls, worker...

  7. Performance of membrane filters used for TEM analysis of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Webber, James S; Czuhanich, Alex G; Carhart, Laurie J

    2007-10-01

    This article presents findings related to characteristics of membrane filters that can affect the recovery of asbestos and the quality of preparations for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Certain applications and preparation steps can lead to unacceptable performance of membrane filters used in analysis of asbestos by TEM. Unless substantial care is used in the collapsing of mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters with an acetone hot block, grid preparations can suffer and fiber recoveries can be compromised. Calibration of the etching depth of MCE filters, especially at differing locations in an asher's chamber, is critical for reliable fiber recovery. Excessive etching of MCE filters with aerosol-deposited asbestos can lead to loss of short fibers, while insufficient etching of MCE filters with aqueous-deposited asbestos can, paradoxically, also lead to loss of short fibers. Interlaboratory precision on MCE filters is improved by aerosol-deposited asbestos, as opposed to aqueous deposition. In comparison, straightforward preparation, improved solvents, and reduced contamination make PC filters an increasingly acceptable alternative. Variations in the geometric configuration during application of carbon films can lead to fiber loss and unacceptable grid quality for either type of filter. PMID:17763069

  8. Inspection of deteriorating asbestos cement force mains with georadar technique.

    PubMed

    Smolders, S; Verhoest, L; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2009-01-01

    Several breaks on asbestos cement force mains indicated a problem with these kind of force mains. An inspection technique that could give a good idea about the state of asbestos cement pipes was searched for. A georadar technique already existed to inspect drinking water mains and gravity sewers. The technique measures the wall thickness of cement containing materials and it can differentiate between 'healthy' and deteriorated material. The technique was applied on four wastewater force mains in Flanders. The results indicated a rapid deterioration of the asbestos cement. A deterioration mechanism called 'calcium leaching' was known from asbestos cement drinking water mains. Further it was known that H(2)S is produced in force mains and that it can attack concrete containing materials by mains of biogenic sulphuric acid attack. This research checked if both deterioration mechanisms cause the measured rapid deterioration of the asbestos cement force mains. Finally deterioration speeds and minimum required wall thickness were calculated. With the results the residual lifetimes of the force mains were calculated and these could be applied in an asset management program. PMID:19700838

  9. [Critical in demolition and removal of asbestos cement materials].

    PubMed

    Brunelli, E; Garattini, S; Borghetti, F; Barbieri, P G

    2012-01-01

    Those involved in the asbestos removal is the main category of workers currently exposed to asbestos in the province of Brescia. Although Italy, since 1991, has special rules for the protection of workers exposed to asbestos, improved further by D. Lgs. n. 81 of 2008, the working conditions found in shipyards are still far from a satisfactory degree of protection of workers. Sanitary facilities are largely lacking, management of work clothing is left to chance, use of filtering face masks is often incorrect, wetting of surfaces with encapsulant is frequently inadequate, daily cleaning of work areas and areas of construction that may have been contaminated by asbestos fibers with extractors absolute filters is shortly implemented. Little attention is also paid to the protection of workers from the premises concerned to the replacement of the cover, as well as to the dispersion in the external environment of asbestos fibers that contaminate the gutters removed and sent for disposal. Finally, it is still very high risk of falling from, documented by the tribute of serious and fatal accidents that occur in these sites. Increased surveillance of Health Prevention Services of ASL is required to achieve higher levels of prevention. PMID:23405714

  10. Asbestos in public hospitals: are employees at risk?

    PubMed

    Scarlett, Henroy P; Postlethwait, Edward; Delzell, Elizabeth; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Oestenstad, R Kent

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is an established human carcinogen. Asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) are used in surfacing materials, thermal system insulation (TSI), and miscellaneous materials, and they have been used in buildings in Jamaica in the past. The objective of the study described here was to identify ACBM, its characteristics, and its determinants in Jamaican hospitals. A walk-through survey of all hospitals was undertaken and 152 bulk samples were collected from 26 public and private hospitals. The samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Sixteen (61.5%) hospitals had ACBM used mainly as TSI. The ACBM in most cases was friable and in a poor condition indicative of fiber release and contained the fibers chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. The age of hospitals was not associated with the presence of ACBM. Results indicated potential risk of asbestos exposure in hospitals. The hospital authorities should formulate and implement an asbestos policy for hospitals and undertake proper management of asbestos in all hospitals. PMID:22329205

  11. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  12. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.; Nocito, T.; Vaux, W.G.; Snyder, T.

    1994-12-31

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the US nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCBs, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay, and fission products of DOE operations. To allow disposal, the asbestos must be converted chemically, followed by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives. An attempt was made to apply techniques that have already proved successful in the mining, oil, and metals processing industries to the development of a multi-stage process to remove and separate hazardous chemical radioactive materials from asbestos. This process uses three methods: ABCOV chemicals which converts the asbestos to a sanitary waste; dielectric heating to volatilize the organic materials; and electrochemical processing for the removal of heavy metals, RCRA wastes and radionuclides. This process will result in the destruction of over 99% of the asbestos; limit radioactive metal contamination to 0.2 Bq alpha per gram and 1 Bq beta and gamma per gram; reduce hazardous organics to levels compatible with current EPA policy for RCRA delisting; and achieve TCLP limits for all solidified waste.

  13. Multiple pathway asbestos exposure assessment for a Superfund community.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Conway, Kathrene; Landguth, Erin L; McNew, Tracy; Linker, Laura; Pfau, Jean; Black, Brad; Szeinuk, Jaime; Flores, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Libby, MT, USA, was the home to workers at a historical vermiculite mining facility and served as the processing and distribution center for this industrial product that was contaminated with amphibole asbestos. Several pathways of environmental asbestos exposure to the general population have been identified. The local clinic and health screening program collects data from participants on past occupational and environmental exposures to vermiculite and asbestos. Health studies among this population have demonstrated associations between amphibole exposure and health outcomes, but critical questions regarding the nature and level of exposure associated with specific outcomes remain unanswered. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive exposure assessment approach that integrates information on individuals' contact frequency with multiple exposure pathways. For 3031 participants, we describe cumulative exposure metrics for environmental exposures, occupational exposures, and residents' contact with carry-home asbestos from household workers. As expected, cumulative exposures for all three occupational categories were higher among men compared with women, and cumulative exposures for household contact and environmental pathways were higher among women. The comprehensive exposure assessment strategies will advance health studies and risk assessment approaches in this population with a complex history of both occupational and environmental asbestos exposure. PMID:24756101

  14. The clinical relevance of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.A. )

    1991-12-31

    Asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is the most common radiographic abnormality among asbestos-exposed persons. Circumscribed pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening account for more than 90% of the asbestos-induced chest wall abnormalities, and their prevalence is expected to increase for the next 15 to 20 years. Several investigators have recently found that pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening independently contribute to the development of restrictive lung function. The work presented in this paper indicates that asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis is also associated with evidence of interstitial lung abnormalities, even among those with normal parenchyma on chest X-ray film. These parenchymal abnormalities include an increased percentage of lymphocytes on bronchoalveolar lavage and an increase in the interstitial changes observed on high-resolution chest computerized tomography (HRCT) scan. However, neither a lymphocytic alveolitis nor an interstitial parenchymal fibrosis influenced the relationship between pleural fibrosis and restrictive lung function. We conclude that asbestos-induced pleural disease contributes to the development of restrictive lung function and identify a group of exposed individuals who are at excess risk of asbestosis.

  15. Asbestos substitutes: A closer look at potential health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that, with the possible exception of some relatively minor, specialized uses, the need for asbestos in industrial and consumer products has come to an end. Although there are apparent cost or performance penalties in some applications, adequate substitute materials have been found. It seems likely that these penalties will diminish with time. The existence of asbestos materials in older structures, however, will require continued vigilance. Although no material is completely safe under all conditions of exposure, the health hazards of many asbestos substitutes are relatively minor. Mica and perlite are low hazard materials, unless the perlite has >1% free silica. Vermiculite is presumed to be of low hazard potential, unless it is contaminated with asbestos fibers. Ordinary fibrous glass is one of the most common substitute materials, and it is of low inhalation hazard. Ultrafine glass fibers may be hazardous, but their use is thus far limited to special applications. Mineral wools are considered to be of low hazard by an acknowledged authority, ACGIH; however, some mineral wools have a high fraction of thin fibers, and these may be of higher hazard potential. Thin ceramic fiber material is presumed by many to be as hazardous as the asbestos it replaces, but a recently-completed animal study found no excess cancers. The uses of carbon fiber material are highly specialized, and there is little information on health effects as yet. Organic fibers appear to be of very low hazard potential. 8 refs.

  16. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G M

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the United States and Canada were reviewed and evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. One or more studies found male or female associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality (or incidence) due to neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain, and thyroid, and also due to leukemia. Several methodologic weaknesses and limitations were found in each study, leading to the determination that no individual study or aggregation of studies exist that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. A binomial probability analysis of the eight independent studies suggested that, while the level of male-female agreement was generally low, the number of observed positive associations in males and females for neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, and prostate was unlikely to have been generated by chance factors alone, and thus, may have a biological basis related to ingested asbestos. Cancers of the small intestine and leukemia were implicated to a lesser degree in this analysis. The patterns of integrated findings for most gastrointestinal cancers were somewhat consistent with patterns observed among asbestos-exposed occupational groups, whereas the patterns found for pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, and leukemia were not consistent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6662094

  17. The schoolroom asbestos abatement program: a public policy debacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.

    1995-10-01

    It is estimated that nearly 100 billion has been spent on removal of asbestos-bearing materials from schoolrooms, public and commercial buildings, and homes. This removal continues to this day despite the publication of an advisory document in 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency that states most removal is unnecessary and is even counterproductive both in terms health protection and costs. Concern over low exposure to substances that are designated as carcinogens is based on the false concept that even the smallest exposure to such substances can increase cancer risk. The expression “one molecule of a chemical or one asbestos fiber can possibly produce a tumor” is repeated over and over until it is accepted as a truth. Over 1400 air samples taken in 219 North American school buildings show the average fiber level to be 0.00022 fibers per milliliter of air. Using the most pessimistic models and attendance in the school for 6 h a day, five days a week, for 14 years, the calculated risk is one excess cancer death per million lifetimes. In contrast, the risk of dying from a lightning strike is 35 deaths per million lifetimes. Ambient air asbestos concentrations measured in the chrysotile asbestos mining towns of Quebec are 220 to 2200 times greater than that measured in the average schoolroom, yet the women living their entire lives in these towns show no increased cancer risk. The asbestos abatement program in the United States is a public policy debacle.

  18. Past exposure to asbestos among active railroad workers

    SciTech Connect

    Garshick, E.; Schenker, M.B.; Woskie, S.R.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Before the transition from steam- to diesel-powered locomotives during the 1950s certain railroad workers had the opportunity for significant occupational exposure to asbestos. Past studies have demonstrated that older workers with jobs associated with the repair of steam locomotives had the most exposure. To determine the prevalence of currently employed railroad workers with past asbestos exposure we surveyed 514 white male employees of an active US railroad by mail questionnaire. Twenty-one percent (50/242) of the workers 50 years old or greater had likely asbestos exposure compared to 3% (9/275) of the workers 49 years old or less (p less than .001). Fifteen (30%) of the 50 older workers with likely asbestos exposure had current job titles no longer suggestive of past exposure. The duration of exposure of these older active workers was short, (median = 3 years; range, 6 months to 15 years). A history of past asbestos exposure may still be obtained among active railroad workers with past railroad shop employment.

  19. Cell signaling pathways elicited by asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, B T; Faux, S; Janssen, Y; Jimenez, L A; Timblin, C; Zanella, C; Goldberg, J; Walsh, E; Barchowsky, A; Driscoll, K

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that minerals can trigger alterations in gene expression by initiating signaling events upstream of gene transactivation. These cascades may be initiated at the cell surface after interaction of minerals with the plasma membrane either through receptorlike mechanisms or integrins. Alternatively, signaling pathways may be stimulated by active oxygen species generated both during phagocytosis of minerals and by redox reactions on the mineral surface. At least two signaling cascades linked to activation of transcription factors, i.e., DNA-binding proteins involved in modulating gene expression and DNA replication, are stimulated after exposure of lung cells to asbestos fibers in vitro. These include nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade important in regulation of the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1). Both NF kappa B and AP-1 bind to specific DNA sequences within the regulatory or promoter regions of genes that are critical to cell proliferation and inflammation. Unraveling the cell signaling cascades initiated by mineral dusts and pharmacologic inhibition of these events may be important for the control and treatment of mineral-associated occupational diseases. Images Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B PMID:9400710

  20. Some Biochemical Effects of Asbestos on Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Klara; Harington, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The in vitro effects of chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite asbestos, and silica and rutile dust, on hamster peritoneal macrophages were assessed by estimating the release of acid phosphatase into the culture medium and by changes in the composition of phospholipids in the cells. Chrysotile was as toxic as silica, while crocidolite, amosite and the control dust, rutile were inert. The toxicity of chrysotile and silica is evidently due to the surface interaction of the dusts with phagosomal membranes, leading to the release of lytic enzymes from the damaged phagosomes into the cytoplasm. Considerable amounts of acid phosphatase were released into the medium 28 hours after the phagocytosis of both dusts, whereas very little was found when crocidolite, amosite and rutile were used. Further evidence of cytopathic effects was seen by changes in lipid components of cells which had ingested silica and chrysotile. A decrease in total lipid content and an increase in lysolecithin apparently indicate specific, secondary and toxic effects following the release of lysosomal enzymes. ImagesFigs. 1-2 PMID:4341797

  1. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  2. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  3. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  4. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  5. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  6. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  8. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  9. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  10. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.335 - Where asbestos is identified, what information must the disposal agency incorporate into the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where asbestos is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Provisions Relating to Asbestos § 102-75.335 Where asbestos is... conveyance document? Where the existence of asbestos on the property has been brought to the attention of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.335 - Where asbestos is identified, what information must the disposal agency incorporate into the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where asbestos is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Provisions Relating to Asbestos § 102-75.335 Where asbestos is... conveyance document? Where the existence of asbestos on the property has been brought to the attention of...

  13. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  14. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  15. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  16. 40 CFR 61.155 - Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos (asbestos-free) material. 61.155 Section 61.155... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.155 Standard for operations that convert asbestos-containing waste material into nonasbestos...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.335 - Where asbestos is identified, what information must the disposal agency incorporate into the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where asbestos is... DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Provisions Relating to Asbestos § 102-75.335 Where asbestos is... conveyance document? Where the existence of asbestos on the property has been brought to the attention of...

  18. Asbestos lung burden and asbestosis after occupational and environmental exposure in an asbestos cement manufacturing area: a necropsy study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C.; Mollo, F.; Paoletti, L.; Bellis, D.; Bernardi, P.; Betta, P.; Botta, M.; Falchi, M.; Ivaldi, C.; Pavesi, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been active in Casale Monferrato until 1986: in previous studies a substantial increase in the incidence of pleural mesothelioma was found among residents without occupational exposure to asbestos. To estimate exposure to asbestos in the population, this study evaluated the presence of histological asbestosis and the lung burden of asbestos fibres (AFs) and asbestos bodies (ABs). METHODS: The study comprises the consecutive series of necropsies performed at the Hospital of Casale Monferrato between 1985 and 1988. A sample of lung parenchima was collected and stored for 48 out of 55 necropsies. The AF concentration was measured with a TEM electron microscope with x ray mineralogical analysis. The ABs were counted and fibrosis evaluated by optical microscopy. The nearest relative of each subject was interviewed on occupational and residential history. Mineralogical and histological analyses and interviews were conducted in 1993-4. RESULTS: Statistical analyses included 41 subjects with AF, AB count, and interview. Subjects without occupational exposure who ever lived in Casale Monferrato had an average concentration of 1500 AB/g dried weight (gdw); Seven of 18 presented with asbestosis or small airway lung disease (SAL). G2 asbestosis was diagnosed in two women with no occupational asbestos exposure. One of them had been teaching at a school close to the factory for 12 years. Ten subjects had experienced occupational asbestos exposure, seven in asbestos cement production: mean concentrations were 1.032 x 10(6) AF/gdw and 96,280 AB/gdw. Eight of the 10 had asbestosis or SAL. CONCLUSION: The high concentration of ABs and the new finding of environmental asbestosis confirm that high asbestos concentration was common in the proximity of the factory. Subjects not occupationally exposed and ever living in Casale Monferrato tended to have higher AB concentration than subjects never living in the town (difference not

  19. Asbestos: a chronology of its origins and health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, R

    1990-01-01

    The emotionalised subject of asbestos is treated in chronological terms: how the "magic mineral" known in ancient times in Europe and Asia became in the late nineteenth century an important industrial resource of particular interest to the navies of the world; and how its malign effects gradually became apparent during the present century. The media have made asbestos a notorious villain, but it still has properties and applications useful to society if they are properly controlled in the same way as other industrial hazards. One important application is the manufacture of asbestos cement pipes which are a convenient and cheap method of providing water supplies and sewage disposal for developing countries. An appeal is made for prudence and not hysteria in relation to the use of mineral fibres of all types. PMID:2088320

  20. Radiographic evidence of asbestos effects in American marine engineers.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N; Diem, J E; Ziskand, M M; Rodriguez, M; Weill, H

    1984-04-01

    Marine engineers undergoing routine annual chest roentgenography showed an unusual prevalence of pleural abnormalities including plaques suggestive of past asbestos exposure. A pilot survey, and a subsequent comprehensive study of the films of more than 5,000 men, showed an overall prevalence of 12% with pleural abnormality (typical calcification or plaque, or diffuse thickening). Prevalence of films classifiable for pneumoconiotic small opacities was negligible--1.2% in the pilot study. Prevalences of pleural abnormality were significantly higher among men with longer union membership, after controlling for age. Older merchant ships contain substantial amounts of asbestos-containing thermal insulation. Marine engineers often remove and reapply insulation, operations known to produce high airborne fiber concentrations. These roentgenographic survey results indicate significant past asbestos exposures of ships' engineering department personnel. PMID:6716195

  1. Exposure to asbestos: psychological responses of mesothelioma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lebovits, A.H.; Chahinian, A.P.; Holland, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma participated in a semi-structured interview to evaluate asbestos exposure, acquisition of increased risk information, and retrospective reporting of cognitive and behavioral reactions (particularly smoking behavior) to risk information. Twenty-eight patients (74%) had direct occupational contact with asbestos, and six patients (16%) reported indirect nonoccupational exposure to asbestos. Only two (10%) of the directly exposed patients acquired risk information from professional sources prior to diagnosis of mesothelioma. The most frequently reported reaction to learning of increased risk of cancer was a denial of the risk by minimizing personal exposure. Few patients reported being concerned about the information of increased risk. Smoking behavior did not change as a result of risk information, nor was there any increase in visits to physicians. Guidelines for psychosocial management of at-risk groups are recommended.

  2. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  3. Critical review of epidemiologic studies related to ingested asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    Thirteen epidemiologic studies of ingested asbestos conducted in five areas of the US and Canada were evaluated for the definitiveness and applicability regarding the development of ambient water quality standards. Associations between asbestos in water supplies and cancer mortality or incidence in humans were found in one or more studies dealing with neoplasms in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, gallbaldder, pancreas, peritoneum, lungs, pleura, prostate, kidneys, brain and thyroid as well as leukemia. However, no single study nor aggregate of studies existed that would establish risk levels from ingested asbestos. It is recommended that the integrated ecologic data to date be used to generate a rough priority of specific etiologic hypotheses that should be tested in the original settings or in independent study populations using studies designed at the more definitive individual level, such as case-control studies. 25 references, 7 tables.

  4. [Comparative carcinogenic properties of basalt fiber and chrysotile-asbestos].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, O V; Kogan, F M; Vanchugova, N N; Frash, V N

    1989-01-01

    In order to eliminate asbestos adverse effect on workers' health it was necessary to use mineral rayon, primarily basalt fibre, instead of asbestos. During a chronic experiment on animals the oncogenicity of 2 kinds of basalt fibre was studied compared to chrysotile asbestos. The dust dose of 25 mg was twice administered by intraperitonial route. All types of dust induced the onset of intraperitonial mesotheliomas but neoplasm rates were significantly lower in the groups exposed to basalt fibre. There was no credible data on the differences between the groups exposed to various types of basalt fibre. Since the latter produced some oncogenic effect, it was necessary to develop a complex of antidust measures, fully corresponding to the measures adopted for carcinogenic dusts. PMID:2545547

  5. Asbestos and silicate pollution: Public health. July 1976-March 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for July 1976-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurence and effects of asbestos and silicate pollution as a public health risk. This bibliography covers research on the epidemiological and medical studies involving exposure to asbestos and silicates, ingestion of asbestos, and methods to measure asbestos and silicate pollution. Topics include cancer risks, asbestos in drinking water, hazards of silica dust inahalation, and hazard management and abatement. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, and asbestos removal technology are found in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 104 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  7. Survival in cohorts of asbestos cement workers and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Horstmann, V; Jakobsson, K; Welinder, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact on survival of being exposed to asbestos cement dust. METHODS: Survival of 866 asbestos cement workers and 755 controls was studied with Cox's proportional hazards regression models with age as the basic time variable. The effect of cumulative exposure up to the age of 40 was investigated in an internal analysis of 635 asbestos cement workers who had dose estimates. RESULTS: The death risk was higher for the asbestos cement workers than for the controls with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.15 (95% confidence interval was 1.00 to 1.31). The increased risk found seemed to be confined to the period 20-40 years from start of employment. The estimates of the cohort effect were almost unaffected by adjustment for smoking habits. The estimates of the exposure effect rose with increasing dose (< 4 fibre-years/ml (f-y/ml): HR = 1.00, 4-9.9 f-y/ml: HR = 1.06, > or = 10 f-y/ml: HR = 1.35, for workers with at least five years of employment), and were higher when restricted only to deaths from malignant or non-malignant respiratory disease. However, none of the point estimates were significantly increased. Median age at death was two years lower in the high than in the low, exposure group. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that even a moderate asbestos exposure may shorten the median duration of life in an exposed population. Compared with the estimated effect on duration of life from ever being a smoker, that of ever being an asbestos cement worker was less, although that of having a high exposure was similar. PMID:8777456

  8. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  9. Alteration of fibroblast phenotype by asbestos-induced autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Jean C; Li, Sheng'ai; Holland, Sara; Sentissi, Jami J

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a relentlessly progressive disease for which the etiology can be idiopathic or associated with environmental or occupational exposures. There is not a clear explanation for the chronic and progressive nature of the disease, leaving treatment and prevention options limited. However, there is increasing evidence of an autoimmune component, since fibrotic diseases are often accompanied by production of autoantibodies. Because exposure to silicates such as silica and asbestos can lead to both autoantibodies and pulmonary/pleural fibrosis, these exposures provide an excellent tool for examining the relationship between these outcomes. This study explored the possibility that autoantibodies induced by asbestos exposure in mice would affect fibroblast phenotype. L929 fibroblasts and primary lung fibroblasts were treated with serum IgG from asbestos- or saline-treated mice, and tested for binding using cell-based ELISA, and for phenotypic changes using immunofluorescence, laser scanning cytometry and Sirius Red collagen assay. Autoantibodies in the serum of C57Bl/6 mice exposed to asbestos (but not sera from untreated mice) bound to mouse fibroblasts. The autoantibodies induced differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype, as demonstrated by increased expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA), which was lost when the serum was cleared of IgG. Cells treated with purified IgG of exposed mice produced excess collagen. Using ELISA, we tested serum antibody binding to DNA topoisomerase (Topo) I, vimentin, TGFβ-R, and PDGF-Rα. Antibodies to DNA Topo I and to PDGF-Rα were detected, both of which have been shown by others to be able to affect fibroblast phenotype. The anti-fibroblast antibodies (AFA) also induced STAT-1 activation, implicating the PDGF-R pathway as part of the response to AFA binding. These data support the hypothesis that asbestos induces AFA that modify fibroblast phenotype, and suggest a mechanism whereby autoantibodies may mediate

  10. Worldwide asbestos supply and consumption trends from 1900 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States has produced about 3.28 million metric tons of asbestos fiber and used approximately 31.5 million tons between 1900 and 2000. About half of this amount was used since 1960. Cumulative world production during that same time period was about 173 million tons. Assuming that unusually large stocks are not maintained and that world consumption roughly equals production, about half of the world production and consumption occurred since 1976. The United States and western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of States within the former Soviet Union by the 1970s. With the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, world production and consumption began to decline during the 1980s. In 2000, world consumption, estimated to be 1.48 million tons, was only 31% that of 1980. Countries in Asia, South America, and the former Soviet Union remain the largest users of asbestos. More specifically, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, and Thailand are the only countries that consumed more than 60,000 tons of asbestos in 2000. These six countries accounted for more than 80% of world?s apparent consumption in 2000.

  11. [Recycle of jute bags; asbestos in agriculture, exposure and pathology ].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Somigliana, A; Lombardi, S; Girelli, R; Rocco, A; Pezzotti, C; Silvestri, S

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years, a deeper examination of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred within non asbestos textile industry highlighted asbestos past exposure in several textile industrial divisions. In spite of that, poor information about recycled textile bags previously containing asbestos fibres is available to the National Mesothelioma Registry, although holding a remarkable data bank on more than 3500 work histories and sources of asbestos exposures. Besides the analysis of the exposure circumstances and the registered health effects of the past exposure within the recycling activity, the aim of this research was to relate the possible involvement of the agricultural sector, where the use of recycled jute bags was very diffused. The MM cases were collected from the Mesothelioma Registry of Brescia, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer cases were collected from the Occupational Diseases Archive of the Local Public Occupational Health Service of the Province of Brescia. During the 1977-2006 period, 8 cases of MM, 4 cases of pulmonary asbestosis, 4 of isolated bilateral pleural plaques and I of lung cancer in pulmonary asbestosis, were observed among workers employed in bags recycling activity in 4 small companies, one of them still operating, employing about 50 workers. Even more, among the 65 MM cases classified by the Registry with "unknown asbestos exposure" (UAE), the most relevant frequency of working histories concerned the agriculture sector. Confirming a past signalling, the investigations underlined the cross linkage between this working activity and the diffusion of recycled bags in the agriculture sector. In the Province of Brescia, the activities of these small jute bags recycling plants were linked, even geographically, to the asbestos cement manufacture plant using a huge number of bags, roughly until mid seventies. Therefore, a large number of these recycled bags, previously containing asbestos, were generally used for harvesting

  12. Analysis of municipal refuse incinerator ashes for asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Patel-Mandlik, K.J.; Manos, C.G.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The ash which results from incineration includes bottom ash (slag) and fly ash, the latter being trapped in electrostatic precipitators or fabric filtration systems (baghouses, etc.). These ashes are collected separately or mixed and usually disposed in secure landfills with or without prior recovery of reusable metals. Whereas many published surveys have dealt with the concentrations of heavy metals and toxic organics in such ashes, very little has been reported on the possible presence of asbestos in them. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted of the possible presence of asbestos in 20 such ashes from 18 incinerators in the United States.

  13. In vitro biologic responses to native and surface-modified asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N.; Vallyathan, V.; Booth, J.A.; Sepulveda, M.J.

    1986-04-01

    A comparative study was made of in vitro biologic responses to native chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite and corresponding asbestos fibers whose surfaces were modified by metal oxides. Interferon induction by influenza virus was depressed by approximately 50% by all native asbestos whereas corresponding surface modified asbestos minimally affected this nonspecific cellular defense mechanism. The release of the cytoplasmic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lysosomal enzymes, ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase (..beta..-NAG) and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-Gluc), by rat alveolar macrophages after exposure to either native or surface-modified asbestos (which is indicative of membrane damage) was monitored. Although both native and surface-modified asbestos induced significant leakage of LDH, generally, lesser amounts of the enzyme were released as a result of exposure to the latter than to native asbestos. Whereas all forms of native asbestos caused significant release of ..beta..-NAG and ..beta..-Gluc, leakage of these enzymes from macrophages exposed to surface-modified asbestos was minimal. In contrast to native asbestos which induced irritation of cell membranes, as indicated by hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, surface-modified asbestos exhibited minimal hemolytic activity. The findings indicate that surface modification of different asbestos by metal oxides generally lessened the adverse effect of the native mineral on the aforementioned biologic entities.

  14. Pleural plaques related to “take-home” exposure to asbestos: An international case series

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Alon; Van Hee, Victor C; Kramer, Mordechai R; Pitlik, Silvio; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-01-01

    Context: While a large number of studies indicate the risks of high-level exposures to asbestos in the workplace setting, a relatively small number of studies describe the risk of pleural disease related to “take-home” asbestos brought into the household by workers exposed to asbestos. Consequently, the risk of pleural disease in family members of asbestos-exposed workers is likely underappreciated. Case presentations: Two families of siblings, one in Israel and one in the US, were evaluated because of their significant exposures to asbestos brought into the home by family members with heavy occupational exposures. Two of the four children of an asbestos cement debagger in Petach Tikvah, Israel and two children of a pipe lagger in a naval shipyard near Seattle, Washington, manifested benign pleural disease without parenchymal disease, despite having no occupational exposure to asbestos. Discussion: These cases illustrate that “take-home” asbestos exposure may lead to pleural disease at higher rates than commonly realized. Relevance to clinical practice: Providers should recognize that due to the potential for “take-home” exposures, asbestos-related disease in a patient may be a marker for disease in household contacts. Patients with family members heavily exposed to asbestos should be strongly encouraged to quit smoking in an effort to reduce any further carcinogenic exposures. Additionally, workplace control and regulation of asbestos use should be emphasized to protect both workers and their families. PMID:20428401

  15. The association among ferruginous body, uncoated fibers, asbestos and non-asbestos fibers in lung tissue in terms of length.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Sakakibara, Yoko; Hisanaga, Naomi; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yu, Il-Je; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Seno, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fumio; Shibata, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the correlations between the concentrations of ferruginous body as well as uncoated fiber both of which can be observed with phase-contrast microscope and the concentration of various inorganic fibers including asbestos which requires the observation with TEM or SEM, we measured those indices among Japanese and Korean cases. Though the concentration of ferruginous body in lung tissue is an important index of asbestos exposure, uncoated fibers observed with phase-contrast microscope might be another index especially in such cases with relatively low exposure due to their history of living in a general environment. However, to establish the reliability of uncoated fibers as an index of asbestos exposure, analysis with more cases and from various backgrounds must be carried out. PMID:27021059

  16. The association among ferruginous body, uncoated fibers, asbestos and non-asbestos fibers in lung tissue in terms of length

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Takayoshi; SAKAKIBARA, Yoko; HISANAGA, Naomi; SAKAI, Kiyoshi; YU, Il-Je; LIM, Hyun-Sul; MIKAMO, Hiroshige; SENO, Hiroshi; KOBAYASHI, Fumio; SHIBATA, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the correlations between the concentrations of ferruginous body as well as uncoated fiber both of which can be observed with phase-contrast microscope and the concentration of various inorganic fibers including asbestos which requires the observation with TEM or SEM, we measured those indices among Japanese and Korean cases. Though the concentration of ferruginous body in lung tissue is an important index of asbestos exposure, uncoated fibers observed with phase-contrast microscope might be another index especially in such cases with relatively low exposure due to their history of living in a general environment. However, to establish the reliability of uncoated fibers as an index of asbestos exposure, analysis with more cases and from various backgrounds must be carried out. PMID:27021059

  17. Fibre type and concentration in the lungs of workers in an asbestos cement factory.

    PubMed Central

    Gylseth, B; Mowé, G; Wannag, A

    1983-01-01

    The predominant asbestos fibre type used in the production of asbestos cement is chrysotile. The use of asbestos in relation to fibre type in a Norwegian asbestos cement plant during 1942-80 was 91.7% chrysotile, 3.1% amosite, 4.1% crocidolite, and 1.1% anthophyllite respectively. Electron microscopy and x ray microanalysis of lung tissue samples of asbestos cement workers who had died of malignant pleural mesothelioma or bronchogenic carcinoma showed a completely inverse ratio with regard to fibre type. The percentage of chrysotile asbestos in lung tissue varied between 0% and 9% whereas the corresponding numbers for the amphiboles were 76% and 99%. These differences are discussed with respect to the behaviour of different fibre types in the human body and to the occurrence of malignant mesothelioma in this asbestos cement factory. Images PMID:6313034

  18. The global reorganization and revitalization of the asbestos industry, 1970-2007.

    PubMed

    Rice, James

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this essay is to highlight the global reorganization of the asbestos industry over the period 1970-2007. Descriptive analysis illustrates that asbestos consumption in the industrialized countries declined precipitously over this period, in juxtaposition to a notable increase in consumption in the developing countries. In 2007, asbestos consumption in the developing countries was more than two million metric tons but negligible elsewhere in the world economy. The author argues that as asbestos increasingly became the focus of government oversight in the industrialized countries, continued capital accumulation efforts necessitated displacement of risk to the developing countries. The global revitalization of asbestos production and consumption over the period 1970-2007 presents numerous challenges in terms of occupational and environmental health hazards in the developing countries. It has the potential, moreover, to prefigure a significant expansion of asbestos-related disease into the 21st century, absent a global ban on asbestos use. PMID:21563623

  19. A BASELINE PROFILE OF ASBESTOS IN THE US-AFFILIATED PACIFIC ISLANDS

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a recognized occupational and environmental hazard in the Asia-Pacific Region, yet information regarding asbestos consumption, exposure and asbestos-related diseases in the US affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is scarce and the situation regarding asbestos in these islands, particularly with regards to disease burden, surveillance and health care capacity, is not well understood. Searching through scientific and “grey” literature and interviews with local cancer registry personnel and health professionals yielded no published data but sufficient indirect evidence of past and ongoing asbestos exposure, documented cases of mesothelioma and asbestosis, and minimal capacity for preventing and recognizing asbestos-related illnesses. The relatively low levels of capacity and resources within the USAPIs can impede regional progress in asbestos prevention and highlight the need for an integrated regional approach to address these data and capacity gaps. A regional mechanism to share expertise and resources and facilitate technical assistance to the USAPIs is urgently needed. PMID:22550694

  20. [Treatment of asbestos-containing waste products to prevent harm to the lungs ].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Higashi, Toshiaki; Chiba, Osamu; Ishiwata, Hiroyuki; Takanami, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The amount of industrial wastes with asbestos such as dismantled construction materials has increased. We have reviewed the effect of asbestos-containing products subjected to harmless treatment on the lungs. Usually, the harmless treatment of asbestos is confirmed by the disappearance of fibrous materials and crystal structures by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. However, it is very important to perform animal studies and in vitro studies in order to examine the effect of the treated asbestos-containing products on the lungs. From previous treatments of asbestos using acids or high temperature, almost treated materials tended to show decreased toxicity in vitro and in vivo studies. There are some reports of the adverse effects of the treatment. If new harmless treatments of asbestos are developed, it is necessary to perform animal studies and in vitro studies of asbestos-containing products using new harmless treatments. PMID:19502767