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Sample records for ascariasis histopathological aspects

  1. Ascariasis

    MedlinePlus

    Ascariasis is an infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides . ... People get ascariasis by consuming food or drink that is contaminated with roundworm eggs. Ascariasis is the most common intestinal worm ...

  2. Ascariasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... both temperate and tropical areas where sanitation and hygiene are poor. In those areas, everyone may be ... more than any other parasitic disease, inadequate personal hygiene leads to ascariasis. Human feces found in fields, ...

  3. Ascariasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... roundworm eggs. Ascariasis is the most common intestinal worm infection. It is related to poor personal hygiene ... small intestine, they mature into adult roundworms. Adult worms live in the small intestine, where they lay ...

  4. Pulmonary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, C M; Thompson, J E

    1979-07-28

    A case of pulmonary ascariasis is reported for the first time in Australia. Because of increasing immigration from countries which have a high incidence of ascariasis (especially those of South-East Asia), and increasing travel to Asian countries, the awareness of this infestation as a cause of respiratory disease may be of great importance. PMID:40103

  5. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis. PMID:27151697

  6. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  7. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety. PMID:24574660

  8. Medico-legal aspects of histopathology practice.

    PubMed

    Ong, B B; Looi, L M

    2001-06-01

    Medico-legal problems experienced by histopathologists differ from those of other clinicians as they are rarely in direct contact with patients. Nevertheless, the pathologist owes a duty of care to the patient and is liable for medical negligence. In the absence of local guidelines, it is prudent to follow guidelines published by learned Colleges elsewhere. This is also true when delegating duties to non-pathologists, technical and other support staff. Errors in diagnosis and documentation pose the most common problems in histopathology. In this, liability also depends on many factors including the provision of adequate clinical information by clinicians and competence of laboratory staff. Clinicopathological discussions, participation in quality assurance programmes and adherence to standard operating procedures are important audit activities to minimize and detect errors as well as prevent grievous outcome to patients. Issues also arise over the retention of specimens and reports. In general, wet, formalin-fixed tissues should be kept until histopathological assessment is finalized and preferably after clinicopathological sessions, and even longer if there is potential litigation. Reports should be archival. Paraffin blocks should be kept for at least the lifetime of the patient, and histology slides for at least 10 years, to facilitate review and reassessment. Despite adverse publicity in the foreign press over the use of human organs and tissues for research and education, it is accepted that processed tissues can be used for research and educational purposes provided the patient's identity is kept confidential. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to revise consent forms for surgery and autopsies to include the possibility that tissues removed can be stored or used for research and education. Good medical practice in pathology encourages a willingness to consult colleagues when in doubt, but advises that the treating clinician be informed if histopathological

  9. Hepatic and Biliary Ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anup K

    2014-01-01

    Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA) is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number. PMID:24926166

  10. Digital processing of histopathological aspects in renal transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; de Andrade, Marcos C.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; dos Santos, A. M. M.

    1993-07-01

    We describe here our initial experience with the digital image processing of histopathological aspects from multiple renal biopsies of transplanted kidney in a patient treated with Cyclosporine (CsA), a powerful immunosupressor drug whose use has improved the chances of a successful vascularized organ transplantation (Tx). Unfortunately, CsA promotes morphological alterations to the glomerular structure of the kidneys. To characterize this process, glomeruli, tufts, and lumen areas distributions are measured. The results are presented in form of graphics.

  11. Histopathological aspects described in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Florin; Petrescu, Octavia Ileana; Taisescu, Citto Iulian; Comănescu, Maria Victoria; Forţofoiu, Mircea Cătălin; Predescu, Ion Octavian; Roşu, Alexandra Floriana; Gheonea, Cristian; Biciuşcă, Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C affects an estimated 170 million people worldwide and causes approximately 350 000 deaths each year. The current antiviral therapy allows the virus eradication or the permanent inhibition of the virus replication (sustained virological response, SVR), the reduction of the inflammation, and the prevention or the reduction of liver fibrogenesis (histological response). We studied the histopathological aspects found during percutaneous liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection who were treated and monitored over a period of two years. The assessment of the histological activity index through Ishak score determined the presence of: mild chronic hepatitis in 12 (23.1%) patients, moderate chronic hepatitis in 21 (40.4%) patients, and severe chronic hepatitis in 19 (36.5%) patients. The percutaneous liver biopsy performed on the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C showed a series of histological alterations, the most frequent being: portal inflammation, periportal necrosis, lobular inflammation, focal necrosis, and hepatic fibrosis (scarring). The severity degree of this histopathological aspect was correlated with the hepatitis activity index. The association of piecemeal with bridging necrosis is the deadline at which the antiviral treatment can still be effective. Evidence of early fibrosis represent the important moment for the antiviral treatment start. The specific histopathological aspects, but not pathognomonic, of chronic hepatitis C (hepatic steatosis, portal lymphoid infiltrates and bile duct damage) had a reduced incidence, occurring in only half (hepatic steatosis), a quarter (portal lymphoid infiltrates) and a fifth (destruction of biliary ducts) of all the patients with chronic viral hepatitis C, and these patterns was correlated with advanced degree of necroinflammatory process of the liver, particularly in the portal tracts. PMID:26193211

  12. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  13. Cutaneous field cancerization: clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Torezan, Luís Antônio Ribeiro; Festa-Neto, Cyro

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "field cancerization" was first introduced by Slaughter in 1953 when studying the presence of histologically abnormal tissue surrounding oral squamous cell carcinoma. It was proposed to explain the development of multiple primary tumors and locally recurrent cancer. Organ systems in which field cancerization has been described since then are: head and neck (oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx), lung, vulva, esophagus, cervix, breast, skin, colon, and bladder. Recent molecular studies support the carcinogenesis model in which the development of a field with genetically altered cells plays a central role. An important clinical implication is that fields often remain after the surgery for the primary tumor and may lead to new cancers, designated presently as "a second primary tumor" or "local recurrence," depending on the exact site and time interval. In conclusion, the development of an expanding pre-neoplastic field appears to be a critical step in epithelial carcinogenesis with important clinical consequences. Diagnosis and treatment of epithelial cancers should not only be focused on the tumor but also on the field from which it developed. The most important etiopathogenetic, clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects of field cancerization are reviewed in this article. PMID:24173184

  14. Ascariasis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common human infection caused by worms, ascariasis is rare in the United States. Most ... for intestinal blockage. The greater the number of worms involved, the more severe the symptoms are likely ...

  15. Pharmacotherapy of ascariasis.

    PubMed

    St Georgiev, V

    2001-02-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent human intestinal nematode, is the causative agent of ascariasis, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of over one billion people, especially in moist tropical and subtropical regions, but also in cooler climates. Although characterised with low morbidity and mortality rates, the global prevalence of ascariasis still results in approximately 20,000 deaths annually, primarily as a consequence of intestinal obstruction. In humans, transmission usually occurs by hand-to-mouth route by way of contaminated agricultural products and food, or from dirty hands. Three phases of ascariasis may be present, namely, the pulmonary, intestinal and the complications stage. Although generally asymptomatic, heavy infestation may cause serious pulmonary disease, or partial or complete obstruction of biliary or intestinal tracts. Anthelminthic chemotherapy is required to eradicate the parasites and prevent potentially serious complications. Mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel pamoate are the most widely used agents to treat ascariasis. Preventive chemotherapy delivered to communities in endemic regions may serve as an affordable and cost-effective strategy to reduce the prevalence and morbidity in endemic regions. Under unusual circumstances, Ascaris suum, the cause of helminthic infection in pigs, may also cause disease in humans. PMID:11336582

  16. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs. PMID:8560608

  17. Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis: overview of histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Ranganathan, Kannan; Chattopadhyay, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), first described in 1952, is a potentially malignant disorder associated with betel quid and areca nut chewing, mostly prevalent in the population of the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. Malignant transformation of OSF to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been estimated to be between 2% and 8%. Our study aimed to review the histopathologic changes that contribute to the understanding of the malignant transformation of OSF. Changes in epithelial thickness and dysplasia characterized by micronuclei, altered AgNOR counts and distribution, keratin protein alteration, and alteration of P63 and E-cadherin characterize the epithelial changes during the transformation of OSF to SCC. Common mechanisms have been proposed to be involved in OSF and SCC, through collagen maturation and their interaction with myofibroblasts and mast cells. Fibrosis-driven vascular constriction that results in epithelial hypoxia has also been proposed as an important mechanism for the malignant transformation of OSF. However, reassessment of the classical view is required, because with demonstration of large blood vasculature in the connective tissue stroma of OSF, the hypothesis associated with tissue hypoxia-induced malignant transformation of OSF can be questioned. PMID:27422418

  18. Clinical and histopathological aspects in two cases of ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Carmen LuminiŢa; Mănescu, Maria Rodica; Deca, Andreea Gabriela; CrăiŢoiu, Ştefania; Jurja, Sanda

    2016-01-01

    Ligneous conjunctivitis represents a very rare form of chronic membranous conjunctivitis, with unknown etiology; less than 200 cases have been reported in the literature, most of them in infants and children. After 40 years, this condition appears in exceptional circumstances. We present, in this study, two patients (of 55 and 64 years old) with very severe forms of ligneous conjunctivitis, certified by histopathological examination, one of them being previously diagnosed with Lyell's syndrome. The histological examination in ligneous conjunctivitis is important for diagnostic but also to elucidate the etiopathological context. A discontinued hyperplastic conjunctiva with numerous nuclear abnormalities and marked intra- and inter-cellular edema was characteristic for both cases. The epithelium layer presents large area of extension into the connective tissue, in the form of cysts and gland-like structures, or creating deep epithelial lacunas, with goblet cells. The connective subepithelial tissue presents diffuse inflammatory infiltration, with round cells, especially near vessels. Inside the conjunctival tissue, big hyaline areas with rare cellularity are detected. The amorphous deposits containing fibrillar material are also present. At the level of pseudo-membranes, we recorded a massive exudation of fibrin with an inflammatory cellular infiltration, and large areas containing an amorphous eosinophilic hyaline material. The association of ligneous conjunctivitis with Lyell's syndrome in one of our patients suggests its immuno-allergic etiology. PMID:27516042

  19. Biliary ascariasis: radiological clue to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Bansal, Satish; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Navneet

    2015-03-01

    Ascariasis is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is the most common helminthic infection seen worldwide. Ascariasis is an endemic disease in our country. This is due to the prevailing poor sanitary conditions and low level of education. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We report a case of biliary ascariasis in a young labourer who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:26634136

  20. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole. PMID:26374772

  1. Histopathologic aspects in Plagioscion squamosissimus (HECKEL, 1940) induced by Neoechinorhynchus veropesoi, metacestodes and anisakidae juveniles.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Rodrigues, Rogério Antonio Ribeiro; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Gardner, Scott Lyell; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2014-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840), a fish endemic to the Amazon Basin and commonly known as the "silver croaker", plays an important role in the ecology and economy of Pará State, Brazil. Knowledge of host-parasite relationships is important to understanding the role of parasites in the control of natural host populations. This work describes histopathological aspects caused by several common intestinal parasites found during a helminthological survey of fish in northern Brazil. We observed a high prevalence of helminth infection, especially by J3 nematode juveniles of the family Anisakidae and metacestodes of the family Protocephalidae (both with 100% prevalence). An external capsule surrounded each juvenile with numerous juveniles inside sac-like structures formed of connective tissue. Inflammation was observed to be caused by infection of metacestodes, reaching the intestinal muscularis mucosa. Neoechinorhynchus veropesoi (38% prevalence) was found in the small intestine of P. squamosissimus, invading the mucosa, submucosa, and internal muscularis of the intestine causing intense inflammation. Histopathology of host-parasite relationships in fish has been rare, and the pathology of parasites in P. squamosissimus is described herein. PMID:25054502

  2. Pulmonary ascariasis in tropical communities.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, R K

    1975-09-01

    To determine the incidence of Loeffler's syndrome in a tropical region, a survey was conducted over a 1-year period in two locations in Colombia, South America, one inland and urban (Cali), the other rural and coastal (Guapi). Among 700 hospitalized patients, 12,000 patients coming to health centers, and 44 families with 328 members, 4 cases of Loeffler's syndrome were found--3 during the survey and 1 before it began. Only one was typical and of some severity. None of the family members developed a perceptible reaction to larvae, though surveillance was close and 83 new intestinal infections were documented. Infection rates for intestinal ascariasis were 25% to 30% in Cali, and 80% to 90% in Guapi. When infections in 30 families were eliminated, previous levels of infection were reached within 10 months. When undisturbed by treatment, the levels of intestinal infection remained stable or showed fluctuations which were not linked to climatic changes. In view of the high prevalence of infection and year-round transmission, which was assumed to occur frequently in the population, it is noteworthy that symptomatic pulmonary ascariasis appeared to be rare and complications from adult worms in heavy infections were uncommon. The findings suggest that frequent and uninterrupted contact between Ascaris lumbricoides and its host results in a high degree of natural tolerance and control. PMID:1238026

  3. Molecular Characterization and Biochemical and Histopathological Aspects of the Parasitism of Haemoproteus spp. in Southern Caracaras (Caracara plancus).

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raquel; Martinele, Isabel; Vashist, Usha; Castañon, Maria C M N; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Daemon, Erik; D'Agosto, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Haemoproteid species have a wide global distribution, and they have been described in falcon species in several parts of the world. However, few studies in South America have focused on these birds. Haemoproteus spp. infections have been reported as the causative agents of serious histopathological changes, which can lead to the death of the host. Thus, this study aimed to molecularly and phylogenetically characterize Haemoproteus spp. in Caracara plancus, to characterize aspects of parasitism through clinical analysis and biochemical parameters, and to describe the histopathology of infection. To examine these aspects, 5 southern caracaras were examined clinically, and blood samples were collected. Blood smears were subsequently utilized in parasitemia calculations, PCR amplification, and serum biochemical investigations. Histological sections of the liver, kidneys, spleen, and heart were examined to check for possible histopathological changes. The birds showed clinical signs such as pallor and prostration that are consistent with Haemoproteus spp. infection. Moreover, the examination of the blood smears revealed 0.07% parasitemia in young gametocytes only. The PCR and sequencing results confirmed that the parasites belonged to Haemoproteus spp. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes, albumin, total serum proteins, and enzymatic urea were first described in C. plancus and serve as reference for future studies of bird species parasitized by Haemoproteus spp. Histopathology results showed signs of injury that were consistent with haemosporidian infection in the tissues of the analyzed organs. The present study is preliminary, and additional studies of Haemoproteus spp. infections in other bird species are needed to better understand the relationship between parasites and hosts, because despite the low parasitemia recorded, biochemical and histopathological changes in various organs were observed. PMID:26200719

  4. Spatial ascariasis risk estimation using socioeconomic variables.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method. PMID:16506435

  5. Ascariasis and malnutrition. A study in urban Ethiopian children.

    PubMed

    Freij, L; Meeuwisse, G W; Berg, N O; Wall, S; Gebre-Medhin, M

    1979-07-01

    Treatment of 13 urban Ethiopian children with mild ascariasis did not produce any evidence of improved intestinal morphology and absorption or nutritional status. Ascariasis treatment had no impact on anthropometric measures in an additional study group of 84 children. A review of the literature reveals that the nutritional consequences of ascariasis are uncertain. PMID:453069

  6. ASCARIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, J. H.; Feder, B. H.; Myers, G. G.

    1961-01-01

    Ascaris infestations may be found in California, particularly in patients who have migrated from endemic regions. Clinical manifestations include vague abdominal pains, unexplained fever, anemia, malaise and upper respiratory tract infections. Intestinal obstruction and infections are among the severe complications that can occur. Diagnosis is made by the observation of worms or ova in the feces, and occasionally by roentgenographic manifestations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:18732434

  7. Complex histopathological and surgical aspects in a case of giant malignant gastric perforation

    PubMed Central

    Serban, D; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Tudor, C; Nica, A; Kraft, A; Dascalu, AM

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old male patient, hospitalized on an emergency basis in the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, after being diagnosed with pneumoperitoneum acute abdomen, for which emergency surgery was mandatory. A 3,5-4 cm malignant gastric perforation, ascitis and peritoneal carcinomatosis were found. The histopathological exam revealed infiltrative mucinous gastric carcinoma with epiploic metastasis. Due to the lack of available gastric material, an atypical surgical solution was performed: gastric packing with epiploic material by means of transgastric traction. The solution proved to be successful for short-term recovery. The underlying condition was not focused on, the patient being directed to the Oncology Department. Acute gastric perforation is a rare complication of gastric cancer, and the association with gastric linitis is uncommon. This specific histopathological condition made the classical surgical repair techniques unsuitable for the presented case and an atypical solution had to be performed. PMID:27453758

  8. Complex histopathological and surgical aspects in a case of giant malignant gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Serban, D; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Tudor, C; Nica, A; Kraft, A; Dascalu, A M

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old male patient, hospitalized on an emergency basis in the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, after being diagnosed with pneumoperitoneum acute abdomen, for which emergency surgery was mandatory. A 3,5-4 cm malignant gastric perforation, ascitis and peritoneal carcinomatosis were found. The histopathological exam revealed infiltrative mucinous gastric carcinoma with epiploic metastasis. Due to the lack of available gastric material, an atypical surgical solution was performed: gastric packing with epiploic material by means of transgastric traction. The solution proved to be successful for short-term recovery. The underlying condition was not focused on, the patient being directed to the Oncology Department. Acute gastric perforation is a rare complication of gastric cancer, and the association with gastric linitis is uncommon. This specific histopathological condition made the classical surgical repair techniques unsuitable for the presented case and an atypical solution had to be performed. PMID:27453758

  9. Endoscopic evaluation of celiac disease severity and its correlation with histopathological aspects of the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Mauro W.; Kotze, Luiz; Orlandoski, Marcia; Tsuchyia, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Carlos A.; Lima, Doryane; Kurachi, Gustavo; Orso, Ivan R.B.; Kotze, Lorete

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals, triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten. Triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten, celiac disease is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals. Persistent related inflammation of the duodenal mucosa causes atrophy architecture detectable on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology. We investigated the association between endoscopic features and histopathological findings (Marsh) for duodenal mucosa in celiac disease patients and propose an endoscopic classification of severity. Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and March 2010, an electronic database containing 34,540 EDGs of patients aged > 14 years was searched for cases of CD. Out of 109 cases, 85 met the inclusion criteria: conventional EGD combined with chromoendoscopy, zoom and biopsy. EGD types 0, I and II corresponds to Marsh grades 0, 1 and 2, respectively, while EGD type III corresponds to Marsh grade 3 and 4. Results: Five patients (5.8 %) were EGD I but not Marsh grade 1; 25 patients (29.4 %) were EGD II, 4 of whom (16 %) were classified as Marsh grade 2; and 55 patients (64.7 %) were EGD III, 51 (92.7 %) of whom were classified as Marsh grades 3 and 4. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.33) revealed a significant association between the methods (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Changes in the duodenal mucosa detected on EGD were significantly and positively associated with histopathologic findings. The use of chromoendoscopy in addition to conventional EGD enhances changes in the duodenal mucosa and permits diagnosis of CD, even in routine examinations. The proposed endoscopic classification is practical and easily reproducible and provides valuable information regarding disease extension. PMID:27556094

  10. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: additional clinical, radiologic, surgical, and histopathologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Young, L W; Yunis, E J; Girdany, B R; Sieber, W K

    1981-10-01

    Four newborn infants with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) were identified at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. These cases provide additional insight into the syndrome and broaden its spectrum. This report includes MMIHS in an infant boy, one long-term survivor, an apparently related complication of neonatal obstructive volvulus, evidence of small intestinal hypoperistalsis, and histopathologic findings as follows: (1) apparently increased numbers of ganglion cells in early biopsies and normal or even decreased numbers of ganglion cells in later biopsies probably due to bowel dilatation; and (2) in two of three infants at autopsy, there were many nerve trunks (a neuromalike layer in one), and there was elastosis of the urinary bladder. PMID:6974971

  11. The importance of histopathologic aspects in the diagnosis of dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Molodoi, Andreea; Ciobanu, Delia; Bădescu, Aida; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Brănişteanu, D; Tolea, I

    2009-01-01

    Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp or dissecting folliculitis also known as "perifoliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens" (PCAS), is a rare, severe and distinct dermatological disease. It most probably occurs because of follicular occlusion via hyperkeratosis, having the same mechanism of acnea conglobata and hidradenitis suppurativa. These dermatoses may be associated or may have an isolated evolution. PCAS is one of the primitive cicatricial alopecia of neutrophilic type (with pustules). What is characteristic for the histopathologic picture of the disease is the deep inflammatory infiltrate, placed at the reticular derm or hypoderm level. The initial perifolliculitis evolves towards forming profound abscesses and the destruction of polysebaceous follicles because of granuloma, usually lymphoplasmocitary and with gigantic cells. Here is the case of a 24-year-old male with records of acne conglobata and cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, with relapsed inflammatory nodular lesions on the surface of the alopecic plaques and follicular pustules on their margin. The patient had followed before hospitalizing a systemic treatment with antibiotics (azithromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, in therapeutic schemes that the patient cannot mention, but anyway of short time) and after that a treatment with retinoids (isotretinoin, 20-30 mg/day, in two successive therapies of one month each). The evolution of the disease under these treatments was with outbreaks and short times of remission of the acne lesions and nodular lesions of the scalp. The clinical diagnosis of PCAS is difficult, especially in the initial stage of the disease, as it was the case of the patient presented here. We underline the importance of a correct history of the disease, of the complete clinical exams and the need of paraclinical investigations (histopathologic exam from the lesional biopsy - microscopy and immunohistochemistry) in order to come with a positive diagnosis of PCAS and a

  12. Damage of collagen and elastic fibres by borrelia burgdorferi - known and new clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kurt E

    2012-01-01

    Lyme Borreliosis, or Lyme's disease, manifests itself in numerous skin conditions. Therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans is made. The histopathology of some of the skin conditions associated with Lyme Borreliosis is characterised by structural changes to collagen, and sometimes also elastic fibres. These conditions include morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. More recently, further skin conditions have been identified by the new microscopic investigation technique of focus floating microscopy: granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, erythema annulare centrifugum, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, cutaneous sarcoidosis and lymphocytic infiltration; these conditions also sometimes cause changes in the connective tissue. In the case of ligaments and tendons, collagen and elastic fibres predominate structurally. They are also the structures that are targeted by Borrelia. The resultant functional disorders have previously only rarely been associated with Borreliosis in clinical practice. Ligamentopathies and tendinopathies, spontaneous ruptures of tendons after slight strain, dislocation of vertebrae and an accumulation of prolapsed intervertebral discs as well as ossification of tendon insertions can be viewed in this light. PMID:23986790

  13. Etiopathogenic, therapeutic and histopathological aspects upon the anterior vaginal wall prolapse.

    PubMed

    Badi, Sabin Sorin; Foarfă, Maria Camelia; Rîcă, Nicolae; Grosu, Florin; Stănescu, Casiana

    2015-01-01

    The pelvine organ prolapse (POP) is a condition affecting million of women, with a major impact upon the social and professional life of the patients. According to various studies, it affects approximately 40% of the women aged over 50 years. About 10% of women with POP require a surgical procedure for POP or urinary incontinence. Our study comprised a number of 14 patients, aged between 55 and 70 years, hospitalized and treated in the Clinic of Urology within the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, Romania, between 2011 and 2013, for second-degree cystocele. Of these, 11 (78.57%) patients had more than two natural deliveries, 10 suffered more than three abortions, and eight (57.14%) women suffered from obesity. The increase of abdominal pressure, induced by chronic coughing, constipation or hard physical work, was identified in more patients. Thus, six (42.8%) patients presented chronic bronchitis, four (28.57%) patients were smokers, eight (57.14%) patients presented chronic constipation, and 10 (71.42%) patients stated that they had performed hard physical work. The presence of effort urinary incontinence, associated to the cystocele, was found in eight (57.14%) cases. The surgical intervention consisted in the performance of a direct cystopexia with a synthetic tent, placed in a transobturatory way, in a "tension free" manner (Perigee System). The post-operatory evolution was a good one; the results after six months showed that 12 (85.71%) women were cured, two (14.29%) cases of cystocele relapsed, while in two patients there maintained the effort urinary incontinence. The histopathological examination of the anterior vaginal wall fragments, harvested during the surgical intervention, showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria of the uterine mucosa, which may cause the post-operatory relapses. We consider that the reduction of the inflammatory process through the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs could reduce the

  14. Cytotoxicity, histopathological, microbiological and clinical aspects of an endodontic iodoform-based paste used in pediatric dentistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Elaine Marcílio; Guedes-Pinto, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This review aims at describing and comparing materials commonly used in root canal therapy, the cytotoxicity, histopathological, microbiological and clinical aspects ofa iodoform-based paste (Guedes-Pinto Paste-GPP) used in endodontic treatment of primary teeth. GPP has shown excellent biocompatibility to pulp fibroblasts and mild inflammatory reactions, having been well-tolerated by the periapical and connective tissues. Moreover, GPP bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects against many oral microorganisms were also demonstrated. Regarding clinical trials, the GPP technique has achieved success rates when considering clinical and radiographic examinations. In the face of all the above mentioned results, this paper would like to propose the use of this endodontic material as a root canal filling for primary teeth. PMID:18389674

  15. Biliary Ascariasis Mimicking Colonic Tumor Infiltration of the Biliary System.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Mittal, Gyanendra; Kumar, Sushil; Manjunath, Suraj; Sharma, Navneet; Gupta, Mahesh

    2015-09-01

    Ascariasis is a common problem in developing countries with poor hygiene and sanitation. It is endemic in India and usually seen in the northern states. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We present a case of carcinoma of hepatic flexure of colon in which the patient developed biliary ascariasis and posed a diagnostic challenge as it mimicked tumor infiltration of the biliary system. PMID:27217679

  16. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination. These included enterobiasis, schistosomiasis, mucocele, trichuriasis, tuberculosis, ascariasis, endometriosis, mucinous cystadenoma, granuloma, carcinoid tumour, neuroma, clonorchiasis, primary adenocarcinoma and secondary carcinoma. PMID:3584486

  17. Acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis: a sonographic pictorial essay on four cases.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Thangkhiew, R S; Laloo, Demitrost; Hek, M D; Marbaniang, Evarisalin; Tariang, Satisfy

    2016-06-01

    Ascariasis is the commonest helminthic disease to infect humans. Due to their wandering nature, the roundworms from the second part of the duodenum migrate through the biliary opening into the hepatobiliary and pancreatic ducts. Ascariasis is the most common parasitic cause of pancreatitis in endemic region. Pancreatitis can result due to pancreatic ascariasis, biliary ascariasis or both. Pancreatitis due to ascariasis can be severe and life-threatening. We present a pictorial essay of acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis on four cases. PMID:27059341

  18. Biliary ascariasis after Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Braga, L H; Tatsuo, E S; Guimarães, J T; Miranda, M E; Paixão, R M; Teixeira, C R; Piçarro, C; Lanna, J C

    2000-09-01

    The authors report on a 6-year-old girl with biliary ascariasis after surgical treatment of a choledochal cyst and biliary-digestive tract reconstruction by Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. A precise diagnosis can be obtained by ultrasonography. Surgical treatment is required when clinical and endoscopic treatments fail. In countries in which this disease is endemic, biliary ascariasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cholangitis after surgery for hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:10999711

  19. [Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses].

    PubMed

    Rakotonaivo, A; Ranoharison, H D; Razarimahefa, S H; Rakotozafindrabe, R; Rabenjanahary, T H; Ramanampamonjy, R M

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis is rare and occurs mainly in areas of high endemicity. The clinical presentation is non-specific, sometimes complicated by liver abscess. Abdominal ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis and therapeutic surveillance. We report the case of a 35-year-old Malagasy woman with an acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses and its course to full recovery under medical treatment. PMID:26742557

  20. Absorption of vitamin A in children with ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, B; Reddy, V

    1975-05-01

    Absorption of labelled vitamin A was studied in normal children and in children with round-worm infestation. Absorption of the vitamin was significantly low in children with ascariasis. In two subjects, in whom the studies were repeated, absorption of vitamin A was significantly increased after antihelminthic treatment. These results suggest that ascariasis may aggravate vitamin A deficiency by interfering with the absorption of the vitamin. PMID:1152102

  1. [Audit of histopathological activities in the laboratories of 7 general hospitals. 1. Types of resources and quantitative aspects of the workload].

    PubMed

    Andrion, A; Feyles, E; Langè, A; Giudici, M; Grasso, G; Amore, M; Bondi, A; Cristofori, E; Pezzotta, M G; Bellomi, A; Anghinoni, E; Barbazza, R; Magnani, C; Ciccone, G

    1996-02-01

    Following a major reorganization of the National Health Service, competition for resources will depend to a great extent on the quality of the service offered, and audit will be of increasing importance. The present investigation deals with the quantitative aspects of the histopathology workload. A retrospective analysis of the biopsy handling of 1,000 consecutive cases was conducted in each histopathology lab of seven general hospitals. The data collected included information on specimen type, diagnosis, block/section/stain details for each specimen, as well as information about human resources, total workload and technical equipment. Among the seven labs, the histopathology workload ranged between 6,600 and 15,600 cases/year. The workload per person/year ranged between 1,400 and 2,600 (mean 1,900) for pathologists, between 800 and 3,000 (mean 1,500) for technicians, and between 2,200 and 8,300 (mean 4,400) for secretarial staff. The prevalence of biopsy fragments (endoscopic, endometrial curettage , etc.), "small" surgery (skin, appendix, gallbladder, etc.) and surgery was, respectively, between 42 and 50%, 34 and 47%, 9 and 21%. In all labs but one, 80% of cases were within 1-3 blocks; the seven labs had a mean of blocks/case ranging from 1.8 to 4.0 (total mean = 2.8). Differences in performing special stains were astonishing: one lab performed special stains in about 40%, and another in only 0.6% of cases (mean of the seven labs = 15%). Finally, the labs performed immunohistochemical stains within a range of 2.7-8% of cases (mean of the seven labs = 4.6%). The data we have collected provided baseline information on the laboratory running, and this is likely to be an integral part of laboratory administration in the near future. PMID:8767388

  2. Damage of Collagen and Elastic Fibres by Borrelia Burgdorferi – Known and New Clinical and Histopathological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Kurt E

    2012-01-01

    Lyme Borreliosis, or Lyme’s disease, manifests itself in numerous skin conditions. Therapeutic intervention should be initiated as soon as a clinical diagnosis of erythema migrans is made. The histopathology of some of the skin conditions associated with Lyme Borreliosis is characterised by structural changes to collagen, and sometimes also elastic fibres. These conditions include morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. More recently, further skin conditions have been identified by the new microscopic investigation technique of focus floating microscopy: granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, erythema annulare centrifugum, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, cutaneous sarcoidosis and lymphocytic infiltration; these conditions also sometimes cause changes in the connective tissue. In the case of ligaments and tendons, collagen and elastic fibres predominate structurally. They are also the structures that are targeted by Borrelia. The resultant functional disorders have previously only rarely been associated with Borreliosis in clinical practice. Ligamentopathies and tendinopathies, spontaneous ruptures of tendons after slight strain, dislocation of vertebrae and an accumulation of prolapsed intervertebral discs as well as ossification of tendon insertions can be viewed in this light. PMID:23986790

  3. Ascariasis as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Gerly Edson; Teves, Pedro Montes; Monge, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in developing countries. It may cause chronic abdominal pain, tenderness and bloating. Our aim is to report a case of acute episodic abdominal pain and pancreatitis associated with ascariasis. We report a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute abdominal pain, having had several previous similar events before one of them was diagnosed as acute idiopathic pancreatitis. On admission, her physical exam was normal. Laboratory results showed hemoglobin 12.2 g/dL, white blood cell count 11 900 cells/mm(3), eosinophils 420 cells/mm(3), serum amylase 84 IU/mL, lipase 22 IU/mL and normal liver function tests. Abdominal ultrasound and a plain abdominal X-ray were also normal. An upper endoscopy showed round white worms in the duodenum and the stomach, some of them with bile in their intestines. The intestinal parasites were diagnosed as Ascaris lumbricoides, and the patient was started on albendazole, with full recovery within a week. We believe that ascariasis should be considered in patients with recurrent abdominal pain and idiopathic pancreatitis. PMID:20447214

  4. Sonographic features of intestinal and biliary ascariasis in childhood: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Koumanidou, Chris; Manoli, Eleni; Anagnostara, Athina; Polyviou, Petros; Vakaki, Marina

    2004-12-01

    Despite the fact that Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the commonest intestinal infections in developing countries, there are very few reports in the literature about the sonographic findings of intestinal and biliary ascariasis in childhood. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and imaging appearance of intestinal and biliary ascariasis in two patients are discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:15720890

  5. [Three recent cases of ascariasis in northern Kyushu].

    PubMed

    Makiya, K; Tsukamoto, M; Unoki, H; Sujita, K; Mori, N; Miki, T; Yokoyama, M

    1988-03-01

    Ascariasis is considered to be one of the rare infectious diseases in Japan, but recently it has been slightly increasing. This paper reports three ascariasis cases who seemed to be infected recently in the Kitakyushu area, Japan. Case 1: A 59-year-old woman in Kitakyushu City passed a round worm after continuous abdominal pain. The patient was discharged from the hospital because of no further abnormal intestinal symptoms and findings. Case 2: An 85-year-old woman in Nakama City, who suffered from cerebral infarction, vomited a round worm before hospitalization. Many ascarid eggs were detected after admission, and after treatment with pyrantel pamoate (Combantrin) two round worms were passed and egg detection became negative. Case 3: A 77-year-old man in Saikawa Town vomited 3 round worms after gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer. Many unfertilized eggs were also detected from the stool together with hook worm eggs, but no eggs were found after administration of pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination was made by a scanning electron microscope on the denticles on the dentigerous lip ridges of the worms to differentiate from possible infection with a pig parasite, Ascaris suum. The three cases were diagnosed as ascariasis due to human Ascaris lumbricoides based on the following evidences that the expelled worms had 1) less pointed tips of the denticles and shallower or wider interdenticle notches, and 2) far more denticles of smaller size along the dentigerous ridges, compared with Ascaris suum. The necessity of differentiating pig- from human-ascarids, when considering human infection with Ascaris suum, is discussed. PMID:3368668

  6. Gastro-intestinal ascariasis--an unusual autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Wasti, Harihar; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworms' propensity to produce large number of eggs that are resistant to extremes of environmental conditions have made them one of the highly prevalent and geographically well distributed nematodes among poor socio-economic regions throughout the world. We present an unusual case of fatal gastro-intestinal ascariasis where general neglect, and firm and prolonged reliance on traditional healing methods led to aggregation of roundworms to such an extent that otherwise seems improbable in modern times and, hence, is worth reporting. PMID:25748290

  7. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis. PMID:25320546

  8. Ascariasis as a cause of hepatic abscess: A report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, V; Thakur, S; Rana, B

    2015-01-01

    We receive around 60 cases of hepatic abscess in a year. The commonest diagnosis reached at the time of discharge is amoebic liver abscess. The diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess is mostly presumptive and thus the patients are usually given a mixed treatment with injection ceftriaxone and tablet metronidazole. Here we report three cases of hepatic abscess diagnosed recently, where ascariasis was the probable etiology. Ascariasis may be a much commoner cause of hepatic abscesses in this region than we think. PMID:26068350

  9. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  10. Life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan-yue; Zhao, Dong-hai; Qu, Hai-yan; Zhou, Chuan-nong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascariasis is one of the most common human parasitic infections worldwide. In some rare cases, ascariasis may cause serious consequences even sudden death. This study was undertaken to review the life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients reported in the literature. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles about ascariasis and trauma were searched from Pubmed, Google scholar, Scirus, and Wanfang databases. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with ascariasis were collected from 21 articles searched. Most of these patients were from tropical and subtropical countries. Of the 24 patients, 12 were children. Their major complications occurred in the airway passage and digestive tract. There were 3 fatal cases in these patients. Twelve of the 24 patients described in 10 articles were reported in the last 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and prompt intervention are essential to minimize the high morbidity and mortality of these serious complications in trauma patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of Ascaris infection in a trauma patient from endemic area of ascariasis. History of Ascaris infection and routine examination of feces for Ascaris eggs may be helpful to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:25225578

  11. Ascariasis of the gall bladder. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Dantas, W; Salles, C G

    1976-01-01

    A radiological diagnosis of ascariasis of the gallbladder was made in two middle-aged women with high abdominal pain having biliary colic characteristics. In one case round worm was demonstrated by means of the intravenous cholangiography, but in the other the procedure was negative only the common bile duct being contrasted. Oral cholangiography made some days later permitted the visualization of the parasite in the gallbladder. The patients were treated by cholecistectomy and choledocostomy and the diagnosis was confirmed. The post-operative course was uneventful. There was Ascaris lumbricoides ova in the feces and the histological examination of the removed gallbladder showed large eosinophilic infiltration in both cases. The patients received levamisole some days after surgery. PMID:829874

  12. [Ascariasis of the gallbladder. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gómez, N A; Ortíz, O; León, C J; Iñíguez, S

    1992-01-01

    Two patients who complained of a clinical picture compatible with cholelithiasis; and in whom the diagnosis of ascariasis of the gallbladder was made sonographically, are reported. In the first patient, cholecystectomy was curative and corroborated the presence of the roundworm. In the second patient, piperazine citrate was given. A second sonogram performed after therapy showed no roundworm within the gallbladder; and the patient remains asymptomatic until now. The usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gallbladder ascariasis, and during surveillance in those patients who are managed with medical therapy only, is emphasized. PMID:1300850

  13. Ascariasis in humans and pigs on small-scale farms, Maine, USA, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Dasilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010-2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene. PMID:25626125

  14. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones. For the latter studies, the median reduction in morbidity for diarrhoea, trachoma, and ascariasis induced by water supplies and/or sanitation was 26%, 27%, and 29%, respectively; the median reduction for schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis was higher, at 77% and 78%, respectively. All studies of hookworm infection were flawed apart from one, which reported a 4% reduction in incidence. For hookworm infection, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis, the reduction in disease severity, as measured in egg counts, was greater than that in incidence or prevalence. Child mortality fell by 55%, which suggests that water and sanitation have a substantial impact on child survival. Water for personal and domestic hygiene was important in reducing the rates of ascariasis, diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Sanitation facilities decreased diarrhoea morbidity and mortality and the severity of hookworm infection. Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene. PMID:1835675

  15. Histopathology reconstruction on digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Lieberman, Rich W.; Nie, Sixiang; Xie, Yihua; Eldred, Michael; Oyama, Jody

    2009-02-01

    Diagnosing cervical cancer in a woman is a multi-step procedure involving examination of the cervix, possible biopsy and follow-up. It is open to subjective interpretation and highly dependent upon the skills of cytologists, colposcopists, and pathologists. In an effort to reduce the subjectiveness of the colposcopist-directed biopsy and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, we have developed new colposcopic imaging systems with accompanying computer aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to guide a colposcopist in deciding if and where to biopsy. If the biopsy's histopathology, the identification of the disease state at the cellular and near-cellular level, is to be used as the gold standard for CAD, then the location of the histopathologic analysis must match exactly to the location of the biopsy tissue in the digital image. Otherwise, no matter how perfect the histopathology and the quality of the digital imagery, the two data sets cannot be matched and the true sensitivity and specificity of the CAD cannot be ascertained. We report here on new approaches to preserving, continuously, the location and orientation of a biopsy sample with respect to its location in the digital image of the cervix so as to preserve the exact spatial relationship throughout the mechanical aspects of the histopathologic analysis. This new approach will allow CAD to produce a linear diagnosis and pinpoint the location of the tissue under examination.

  16. Histopathology and the future

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    A plea is made for a revolution in diagnostic histopathology. In the present account a brief analysis is given of the drawbacks to existing methods used in the histopathological laboratory and suggestions are made for research in those methods which could lead to progress in the speed and sensitivity of diagnosis and to great economies in histopathological practice. The abolition or replacement of certain techniques used at present is proposed. PMID:4912667

  17. Orientation of histopathology specimens.

    PubMed

    Burns, A; Adams, J; Endersby, S

    2004-02-01

    We present a simple way of orientating large specimens being sent to the laboratory for histopathological examination by supplementing the pinning of the specimen on a cork board with Polaroid photographs of the specimen and numbered tags. PMID:14706306

  18. Evaluation of two years of mass chemotherapy against ascariasis in Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Mohammad; Mirarab, Akbar; Jamalian, Farzad; Ghaderi, Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mass treatment of ascariasis in rural areas of Hamadan Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. METHODS: A control programme in rural areas of Hamadan Province, which began in November 1997, involved giving all persons a single dose of 400 mg albendazole at intervals of three months. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by the formalin-ether concentration technique for stool examination and by the Stoll quantitative method. FINDINGS: The average rate of infection with Ascaris before treatment was 53.3%, ranging from 40% in Hamadan district to 75% in Toysercan. Two areas, Malayer and Nahavand, were excluded from the programme because the infection rates were only 13% and 4%, respectively. After two years of mass treatment the infection rate had decreased to 6%. The proportion of positive cases excreting only unfertilized eggs increased to 32%. No side-effects of mass treatment were observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic mass treatment giving high coverage proved to be very effective in the control of ascariasis, notwithstanding a lack of other preventive measures. PMID:12077616

  19. Artefacts in histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Histopathology is the science of slide analysis for the diagnostic and research purposes. However, sometimes the presence of certain artefacts in a microscopic section can result in misinterpretations leading to diagnostic pitfalls that can result in increased patient morbidity. This article reviews the common artefacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artefact and tissue constituent. PMID:25364159

  20. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    PubMed

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana. PMID:11818981

  1. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  2. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  3. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects. PMID:26743286

  4. Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Drummond, Sandra C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. PMID:22041638

  5. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    PubMed

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  6. Enhanced Histopathology of the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The spleen is the largest secondary lymphoid organ, is considered the draining site for compounds that are administered intravenously, and is therefore considered an important organ to evaluate for treatment-related lesions. Due to the presence of B and T lymphocytes, the immunotoxic effects of xenobiotics or their metabolites on these cell populations may be reflected in the spleen. Therefore it is one of the recommended organs to evaluate for enhanced histopathology of the immune system. The two major functional zones of the spleen are the hematogenous red pulp and the lymphoid white pulp (periarteriolar sheaths, follicles and marginal zones). For enhanced histopathology, these splenic compartments should be evaluated separately for changes in size and cellularity, and descriptive rather than interpretive terminology should be used to characterize any changes (Haley et al., 2005). Moreover, germinal center development within the lymphoid follicles should be noted as increased or decreased. PMID:17067950

  7. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up. PMID:25766437

  8. Histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Sperling, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis for any form of alopecia can be challenging. Adding to the diagnostic complexity is the fact that many patients have more than one form of alopecia contributing to their hair loss. We conducted a review of 1360 consecutive scalp biopsy specimens submitted for the evaluation of scalp hair loss over a 16-month period, demonstrating that 12.5% of cases had a combination of diagnoses (multifactorial alopecia) accounting for their hair loss. An approach to the histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia, particularly multiple forms of alopecia found in a single biopsy, is here presented. PMID:26956781

  9. Spectral topography of histopathological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Jeremy M.; Lu, Thomas T.; Vari, Sandor G.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of imaging spectroscopy is to obtain independent spectra from individual objects in a field-of-view. In the case of biological materials, such as histopathology samples, it has been well established that spectral characteristic can be indicative of specific diseases including cancer. Diagnosis can be enhanced by the use of probes and stains to indicate the presence of individual genome or other biologically active cell components or substances. To assess a specimen through a microscope is directly analogous to serving the Earth from space to assess natural features. This paper describes a simple and inexpensive imaging spectrometer, with an origin in remote sensing, that demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly identify evidence of disease in histopathology samples using spatially resolved spectral data. The PARISS imaging spectrometer enables a researcher to acquire multi-spectral images that yield functional maps, showing what and where biological molecules are located within a structure. It is the powerful combination of imaging and spectroscopy that provides the tools not readily available to the Life Sciences. The PARISS system incorporates a powerful hybrid neural network analysis to break the data logjam that is often associated with the acquisition and processing of multiple spectra.

  10. Co-existent Ascariasis and Multiloculated Tuberculous Pleurisy Treated with Intrapleural Streptokinase.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Talha; Naeem, Omer Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    This case describes a young male with pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis having one-week history of fever and hemoptysis along with a multiloculated right sided exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. His pulmonary diagnostic confusion was due to passage of adult Ascaris lumbricoides per orally but that was found to be of intestinal origin. Pleural tissue histopathology revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and right upper lobe bronchial washings were positive for acid fast bacilli. His multiloculated pleural effusion was successfully resolved with intrapleural streptokinase injections via a 10 French pleural catheter. Treatment with class-I anti-tuberculous drugs led to complete clearance of remaining pleuro-pulmonary shadowing. PMID:26522189

  11. Histopathology of a wavy medaka

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Kota; Kuroda, Yusuke; Mimori, Norihiko; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naho; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Furukawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Wavy medakas are medakas that exhibit spinal curvature characterized by dorsoventrally curved vertebrae. We found a spontaneous wavy medaka in our experimental stock and subjected it to a histopathological examination. Macroscopically, the wavy medaka’s spine formed an M shape, and its vertebrae displayed a dorsoventral curvature that started at the third vertebral bone. Microscopically, the vertebral cavities were filled with fibrous tissue, which was similar to that seen in the central parts of the intervertebral discs of a normal medaka. The vertebral joints were composed of vacuolated notochord cells without intervertebral disc formation. These changes were also observed in the caudal region, which exhibited less curvature. In the normal medaka, the intervertebral discs form via the regression of the notochord that plays a key role in the development of vertebrae and disc formation. We concluded that notochordal subinvolution had induced intervertebral disc dysplasia, leading to lordokyphosis, in the wavy medaka. PMID:27182116

  12. Statistical analysis of histopathological endpoints.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Saulnier, Amy N; Swintek, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Histopathological assessments of fish from aquatic ecotoxicology studies are being performed with increasing frequency. Aquatic ecotoxicology studies performed for submission to regulatory agencies are usually conducted with multiple subjects (e.g., fish) in each of multiple vessels (replicates) within a water control and within each of several concentrations of a test substance. A number of histopathological endpoints are evaluated in each fish, and a severity score is generally recorded for each endpoint. The severity scores are often recorded using a nonquantitative scale of 0 to 4, with 0 indicating no effect, 1 indicating minimal effect, through 4 for severe effect. Statistical methods often used to analyze these scores suffer from several shortcomings: computing average scores as though scores were quantitative values, considering only the frequency of abnormality while ignoring severity, ignoring any concentration-response trend, and ignoring the possible correlation between responses of individuals within test vessels. A new test, the Rao-Scott Cochran-Armitage by Slices (RSCABS), is proposed that incorporates the replicate vessel experimental design and the biological expectation that the severity of the effect tends to increase with increasing doses or concentrations, while retaining the individual subject scores and taking into account the severity as well as frequency of scores. A power simulation and examples demonstrate the performance of the test. R-based software has been developed to carry out this test and is available free of charge at www.epa.gov/med/Prods_Pubs/rscabs.htm. The SAS-based RSCABS software is available from the first and third authors. PMID:24464649

  13. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  14. Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs. PMID:23346552

  15. Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs. PMID:23346552

  16. Melanoma--clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Buljan, Marija; Kolić, Maja; Vučić, Majda

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant skin tumors with constantly rising incidence worldwide, especially in fair-skinned populations. Melanoma is usually diagnosed at the average age 50, but, nowadays is also diagnosed more frequently in younger adults, and very rarely in childhood. There is no unique or specific clinical presentation of a melanoma. The clinical presentation of melanomas varies depending on the anatomic localization and the type of growth, i.e., the histopathological type of the cancer. There are four major histopathological types of melanoma--superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma. Although dermatoscopy is a very useful tool in early melanoma detection, dermatoscopical features of melanomas are also variable. Therefore, experience and education in dermatoscopy is crucial in the evaluation of skin tumors. Differential diagnosis of melanomas includes a wide range of benign and malignant skin lesions, due to their clinical presentation and resemblance to various dermatological entities. In this review we present the most important aspects of clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological features of melanomas. PMID:24813835

  17. Cutaneous Phototoxicity: Clinical Observations versus Histopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Learn, Douglas B; Elliott, Michelle W

    2016-06-01

    Determination of test material-induced cutaneous phototoxicity for risk assessment has traditionally been based on visually observed skin reactions such as erythema, edema, and flaking. Because of its role in determining a toxic effect, the use of histopathological evaluation in this determination arises from time to time. However, there is little published information regarding the time course and types of histopathologic changes in the skin after test material-induced phototoxic insult nor any regulatory requirement or precedent for its use. This work evaluated both the visual and histopathological time course of the phototoxic response of the skin of the Long-Evans rat after oral administration of the phototoxins sparfloxacin and 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP) followed by a single exposure to solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation. Both sparfloxacin and 8-MOP elicited visual cutaneous reactions and microscopic changes consistent with a phototoxic response. The visually observed cutaneous time course and elicited histopathologic changes differed in response and extent for each phototoxin, but in both instances, microscopic evaluation did not alter the determination of a phototoxic response based on visual observations. These results indicate that, though histopathologic evaluations may have value for investigating mechanisms of phototoxicity, histopathologic evaluation of the skin is not warranted for determination of phototoxic potential in safety assessment intended for regulatory submission. PMID:27073086

  18. Genes associated with histopathologic features of triple negative breast tumors predict molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Purrington, Kristen S; Visscher, Daniel W; Wang, Chen; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Cox, Angela; Giles, Graham G; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Lakis, Sotiris; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Fountzilas, George; Kabisch, Maria; Rüdiger, Thomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Cross, Simon S; Southey, Melissa C; Olson, Janet E; Gilbert, Judy; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Clarke, Christine; Scott, Rodney; Jones, J Louise; Zheng, Wei; Mannermaa, Arto; Eccles, Diana M; Vachon, Celine M; Couch, Fergus J

    2016-05-01

    Distinct subtypes of triple negative (TN) breast cancer have been identified by tumor expression profiling. However, little is known about the relationship between histopathologic features of TN tumors, which reflect aspects of both tumor behavior and tumor microenvironment, and molecular TN subtypes. The histopathologic features of TN tumors were assessed by central review and 593 TN tumors were subjected to whole genome expression profiling using the Illumina Whole Genome DASL array. TN molecular subtypes were defined based on gene expression data associated with histopathologic features of TN tumors. Gene expression analysis yielded signatures for four TN subtypes (basal-like, androgen receptor positive, immune, and stromal) consistent with previous studies. Expression analysis also identified genes significantly associated with the 12 histological features of TN tumors. Development of signatures using these markers of histopathological features resulted in six distinct TN subtype signatures, including an additional basal-like and stromal signature. The additional basal-like subtype was distinguished by elevated expression of cell motility and glucose metabolism genes and reduced expression of immune signaling genes, whereas the additional stromal subtype was distinguished by elevated expression of immunomodulatory pathway genes. Histopathologic features that reflect heterogeneity in tumor architecture, cell structure, and tumor microenvironment are related to TN subtype. Accounting for histopathologic features in the development of gene expression signatures, six major subtypes of TN breast cancer were identified. PMID:27083182

  19. Histopathological Features of Tungiasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Tantalean, Manuel E.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by Tunga penetrans and Tunga trimamillata. There is a lack of histopathological studies that evaluate the recognition of this flea in tissues. We describe the ex vivo dermoscopic and the histopathological patterns of six cases and relate the findings to the developmental stage of the parasite as defined by the Fortaleza classification: two were classified as Fortaleza 3b, 3 as 4a, and 1 as 4b. Two dermoscopic patterns were observed: a brown pigmented ring and a radial crown with a central pore. The most common histopathological findings were an eosinophilic cuticle, eggs in different stages of development, tracheal rings (parasite), and basal hyperplasia (host). The eosinophilic cuticle, eggs in different stages of evolution, and tracheal rings can help to establish the diagnosis when other parts of the parasite are lacking. The Fortaleza staging may represent a tool for pathology reporting purposes. PMID:23478579

  20. Clinical and Histopathological Investigation of Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Nam Kyung; Hahn, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2016-01-01

    Background Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common epidermal tumors of the skin. However, only a few large-scale clinicohistopathological investigations have been conducted on SK or on the possible correlation between histopathological SK subtype and location. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and histopathological features of a relatively large number of cases of diagnosed SK. Methods Two hundred and seventy-one pathology slides of skin tissue from patients with clinically diagnosed SK and 206 cases of biopsy-proven SK were analyzed. The biopsy-proven cases of SK were assessed for histopathological subclassification. The demographic, clinical, and histopathological data of the patients were collected for analysis of associated factors. Results The most frequent histopathological subtype was the acanthotic type, followed by mixed, hyperkeratotic, melanoacanthoma, clonal, irritated, and adenoid types; an unexpectedly high percentage (9.2%) of the melanoacanthoma variant was observed. The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites than in sun-protected sites (p=0.028). Premalignant and malignant entities together represented almost one-quarter (24.2%) of the clinicopathological mismatch cases (i.e., mismatch between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses). Regarding the location of SK development, the frequency of mismatch for the sun-exposed areas was significantly higher than that for sun-protected areas (p=0.043). Conclusion The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites. Biopsy sampling should be performed for lesions situated in sun-exposed areas to exclude other premalignant or malignant diseases. PMID:27081260

  1. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Ichhpujani, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juxtacanalicular (JXT) trabecular meshwork and endothelial lining of Schlemm’s canal have been cited as the loci of aqueous outflow resistance, both in a normal as well as a glaucomatous eye. In this review, we attempt to understand the currently available surgical modalities in light of the available histopathological evidence, regarding localization of outflow resistance. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P, Shaarawy T. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(2):51-61. PMID:26997835

  2. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  3. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91 %). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22 %) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15 %) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08 %) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  4. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  5. Teaching Veterinary Histopathology: A Comparison of Microscopy and Digital Slides.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter J; Fews, Debra; Bell, Nick J

    2016-01-01

    Virtual microscopy using digitized slides has become more widespread in teaching in recent years. There have been no direct comparisons of the use of virtual microscopy and the use of microscopes and glass slides. Third-year veterinary students from two different schools completed a simple objective test, covering aspects of histology and histopathology, before and after a practical class covering relevant material presented as either glass slides viewed with a microscope or as digital slides. There was an overall improvement in performance by students at both veterinary schools using both practical formats. Neither format was consistently better than the other, and neither school consistently outperformed the other. In a comparison of student appraisal of use of digital slides and microscopes, the digital technology was identified as having many advantages. PMID:26752020

  6. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  7. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:24759275

  8. Prostate cancer progression. Implications of histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This review examines selected areas of contemporary prostate cancer research in terms of the impact of prostatic cellular and histopathological heterogeneity. Prostate tumor progression is accompanied by dysregulation of multiple growth factor networks as well as disruption of normal patterns of cell-cell interactions. Molecular and cytogenetic studies demonstrate that prostate cancer results from the accumulation of several different genetic defects. No single event predominates, but modifications in tumor suppressor genes or functional elimination of the suppressor gene product are more common than activation of known oncogenes. Intratumor heterogeneity is also detectable at the genetic level. This further complicates efforts to correlate modifications at specific loci with progression or outcome. The development of new in vitro and in vivo systems for the study of human prostate cancer should increase our understanding of this complex disease. In each approach, knowledge of the histopathology of the normal and neoplastic prostate is essential. PMID:7977655

  9. Regulated cell death in diagnostic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir; Damjanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Regulated cell death (RCD) is a controlled cellular process, essential for normal development, tissue integrity and homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions including developmental and immunological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In this review, we briefly discuss the historical perspective and conceptual development of RCD, we overview recent classifications and some of the key players in RCD; finally we focus on current applications of RCD in diagnostic histopathology. PMID:26009238

  10. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nate; Voznesensky, Maria; VerLee, Graham

    2015-09-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance. PMID:26793536

  11. Penile dermatoses: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; Walker, M M; Harris, J R; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the spectrum of genital dermatological conditions affecting men and compare the clinical and histopathological diagnoses. DESIGN--Prospective study over a one year period. SETTING--A central London teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Seventy one patients with unresponsive penile dermatoses attending a specific internal referral clinic within the department of genitourinary medicine and 36 patients undergoing penile biopsy following attendance at other departments within the same hospital. METHODS--Full dermatological assessment of patients attending the specific clinic. Standard histopathological methods were used in the diagnosis of biopsy specimens. OUTCOME MEASURED--Clinico-pathological diagnosis of cutaneous penile abnormalities. RESULTS--Description of the range and relative frequency of penile dermatological conditions. The most common histopathological diagnosis was of non specific dermatitis. Twenty seven percent (16 of 61) of patients attending the specific clinic and 33% (12 of 36) of men attending other departments had conditions requiring long term follow up. CONCLUSIONS--The ranges of penile dermatoses presenting to the different departments were broadly similar. Penile biopsy was shown to be a safe and clinically informative procedure. In the genitourinary clinic setting, clinical diagnosis prior to biopsy was found frequently to be inaccurate. Images PMID:1607192

  12. Efficient nucleus detector in histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Vink, J P; Van Leeuwen, M B; Van Deurzen, C H M; De Haan, G

    2013-02-01

    In traditional cancer diagnosis, (histo)pathological images of biopsy samples are visually analysed by pathologists. However, this judgment is subjective and leads to variability among pathologists. Digital scanners may enable automated objective assessment, improved quality and reduced throughput time. Nucleus detection is seen as the corner stone for a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. In this paper, we propose an efficient nucleus detector designed with machine learning. We applied colour deconvolution to reconstruct each applied stain. Next, we constructed a large feature set and modified AdaBoost to create two detectors, focused on different characteristics in appearance of nuclei. The proposed modification of AdaBoost enables inclusion of the computational cost of each feature during selection, thus improving the computational efficiency of the resulting detectors. The outputs of the two detectors are merged by a globally optimal active contour algorithm to refine the border of the detected nuclei. With a detection rate of 95% (on average 58 incorrectly found objects per field-of-view) based on 51 field-of-view images of Her2 immunohistochemistry stained breast tissue and a complete analysis in 1 s per field-of-view, our nucleus detector shows good performance and could enable a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. PMID:23252774

  13. Variants of dermatofibroma - a histopathological study*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, João Vítor Pina; Matos, Diogo Miguel; Barreiros, Hugo Frederico; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Several variants of dermatofibroma have been described. They are essentially distinguished by their clinical and histopathological features. To review the mainfeaturesof these variants, a retrospective study of skin biopsies and tissue excisions of dermatofibromasperformed in the dermatology and venereology service at the Hospital Garcia de Orta between May 2007 and April 2012 was carried out. During that period, 192 dermatofibromas were diagnosed in 181 patients, the lesions being more common in women. Median age of the study population was 48 years. The most common lesion site was the limbs (74% of patients). The histopathological types found were common fibrous histiocytoma (80%) and the aneurysmal (5.7%),hemosiderotic (5.7%), epithelioid (2.6%), cellular (2.1%), lipidized (2.1%), atrophic (1.0) and clear cell (0.5%) variants. Based on these findings, this review focuses on the clinical and histological features of the various variants of dermatofibroma in terms of their clinical presentation, distinct histopathological features, differential diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24937822

  14. The post-analytical phase of histopathology practice: Storage, retention and use of human tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kapila, Supriya Nikita; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    There are several aspects to a histopathology practice besides the acquisition of biopsy specimens and histopathological diagnosis. Pathology Departments are home to an abundant source of knowledge in the form of stored specimens and slides. We attempt to highlight the importance of regulation of storage, retention, and appropriate use of human tissue material in research and ownership rights to the same. We also discuss requirement and waiver of informed consent for scientific work involving the use of such tissues, which in the absence of defined laws come under the purview of Institution Review Boards. Pathology Departments, under the binding of the parent institution, are conceded the responsibility of maintenance and retention of pathology specimens. This communication highlights some of the important aspects in human tissue material handling and research, underscoring the necessity for established regulations regarding the same. PMID:26958513

  15. The post-analytical phase of histopathology practice: Storage, retention and use of human tissue specimens.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Supriya Nikita; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    There are several aspects to a histopathology practice besides the acquisition of biopsy specimens and histopathological diagnosis. Pathology Departments are home to an abundant source of knowledge in the form of stored specimens and slides. We attempt to highlight the importance of regulation of storage, retention, and appropriate use of human tissue material in research and ownership rights to the same. We also discuss requirement and waiver of informed consent for scientific work involving the use of such tissues, which in the absence of defined laws come under the purview of Institution Review Boards. Pathology Departments, under the binding of the parent institution, are conceded the responsibility of maintenance and retention of pathology specimens. This communication highlights some of the important aspects in human tissue material handling and research, underscoring the necessity for established regulations regarding the same. PMID:26958513

  16. Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical review and update*

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Thamy; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the diagnostic and classificatory concepts of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome in light of the latest normative publications. It describes the great variability of the clinical expression of mycosis fungoides in its early stages as well as the histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects that help with diagnosis. The diagnostic criteria required for characterizing Sézary syndrome and the staging system used for both mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are described. PMID:23197199

  17. Histopathologic patterns associated with external agents.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz

    2012-10-01

    A large number of foreign substances may penetrate the skin for both voluntary and involuntary reasons. The voluntary group includes the particulate materials used in tattoos and cosmetic fillers, whereas the involuntary group is almost always caused by accidental inclusion of external substances secondary to cutaneous trauma. This article focuses on the histopathologic findings seen in cutaneous reactions to exogenous agents, with special emphasis on the microscopic morphology of the external particles in recognizing specifically the involved substance (something that is becoming increasingly important in the event of litigation). PMID:23021056

  18. Pachydermodactyly: A Case Report Including Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Rancy, Schneider K; Granstein, Richard D; Bansal, Manjula; Barley, Christopher L; Fields, Theodore R; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-08-01

    Pachydermodactyly (PDD) is a rare form of digital fibromatosis characterized by painless soft tissue swelling, primarily about the proximal interphalangeal joints. The skin at the metacarpophalangeal joints, the palm, and the dorsum of the hand may also be involved. Because swelling can occur over the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, PDD may be confused with juvenile inflammatory arthropathy and may even occur concurrently. We present the clinical and histopathologic findings of a case of PDD characterized by bilateral proximal phalangeal involvement of the index through little fingers. PMID:27180953

  19. Subcutaneous sacral ependymoma--a histopathological challenge.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous myxopapillary or sacral ependymoma are rare tumors mostly developing in children or adolescents. The majority occurs in the sacrococcygeal region. There are numerous clinical and histopathological differential diagnoses. Owing to the fact that there have been rare reported cases that followed an aggressive course and in which the patient succumbed to metastatic disease, long term follow-up is necessary despite complete excision. We describe here a 25-year-old male patient with a histological unusual subcutaneous sacral ependymoma and discuss the differential diagnosis as well as treatment options. PMID:26289839

  20. Methanol optic neuropathy: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, J A; Hostovsky, M; Bilbao, J M; Rewcastle, N B

    1982-10-01

    The histopathologic effects of methanol on the optic nerve were studied in four patients. Circumscribed myelin damage occurred behind the lamina cribrosa in each nerve. Axons were preserved. Demyelination also occurred in cerebral hemispheric white matter in one patient. This selective myelinoclastic effect of methanol metabolism is probably caused by histotoxic anoxia in watershed areas of the cerebral and distal optic nerve circulations. Juxtabulbar demyelination may cause optic disk edema in methanol poisoning by compressive obstruction of orthograde axoplasmic flow. Visual loss may be due to disruption of saltatory conduction. Retrolaminar demyelinating optic neuropathy is an early morphologic correlate of visual loss in methanol intoxication. PMID:6889696

  1. Chronic Histopathological and Behavioral Outcomes of Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Male Animals.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole D; Carlson, Shaun W; DeSana, Anthony; Dixon, C Edward

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the use of experimental animal models for studying the chronic histopathological and behavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The strategies employed to study the long-term consequences of TBI are described, along with a summary of the evidence available to date from common experimental TBI models: fluid percussion injury; controlled cortical impact; blast TBI; and closed-head injury. For each model, evidence is organized according to outcome. Histopathological outcomes included are gross changes in morphology/histology, ventricular enlargement, gray/white matter shrinkage, axonal injury, cerebrovascular histopathology, inflammation, and neurogenesis. Behavioral outcomes included are overall neurological function, motor function, cognitive function, frontal lobe function, and stress-related outcomes. A brief discussion is provided comparing the most common experimental models of TBI and highlighting the utility of each model in understanding specific aspects of TBI pathology. The majority of experimental TBI studies collect data in the acute postinjury period, but few continue into the chronic period. Available evidence from long-term studies suggests that many of the experimental TBI models can lead to progressive changes in histopathology and behavior. The studies described in this review contribute to our understanding of chronic TBI pathology. PMID:25490251

  2. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  3. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  4. Information and observer disagreement in histopathology.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A

    1994-08-01

    Concepts from information theory are used to assess the process of ordinal classification of histopathological continua such as degree of dysplasia or degree of differentiation. A working model is used to show that reducing the number of categories leads to an increase in inter-observer agreement, as measured by kappa statistics, but a decrease in information transmitted. It is argued that the prime role of histopathologists is to pass information, obtained from visual patterns, to the clinician and therefore more categories, rather than fewer, should be used. It is suggested that judgements of continua should be made on 100 point scales and quoted together with 95% confidence limits; and that the judgements of different observers should be averaged to form a reference range. PMID:7982674

  5. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  6. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Elizabeth M; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2010-01-01

    Histological analysis of liver biopsies remains a standard against which other methods of assessment for the presence and amount of hepatic injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are measured. Histological evaluation remains the sole method of distinguishing steatosis from advanced forms of NAFLD, i.e. nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Included in the lesions of NAFLD are steatosis, lobular and portal inflammation, hepatocyte injury in the forms of ballooning and apoptosis, and fibrosis. However, patterns of these lesions are as distinguishing as the lesions themselves. Liver injury in adults and children due to NAFLD may have different histological patterns. In this review, the rationale for liver biopsy, as well as the histopathological lesions, the microscopically observable patterns of injury, and the differential diagnoses of NAFLD and NASH are discussed. PMID:21072891

  7. Histopathological evolution of a cutaneous myxofibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Rhonda A; Kossard, Steven

    2008-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of a tender and swollen plaque appearing as a panniculitis affecting the left pretibial area. The initial histopathology revealed dermal and subcutaneous inflammation with interstitial histiocytes and mucinosis suggestive of either granuloma annulare or necrobiosis lipoidica. Over the subsequent 6 months the plaque grew progressively, despite treatment with topical corticosteroids under occlusion. Distal to the plaque reduced sensation developed in the limb. Biopsies of the nodular areas now revealed a dense dermal infiltrate of atypical spindle cells within a prominent myxoid stroma and a pleomorphic multinucleated epithelioid cell component. These features were those of an intermediate grade myxofibrosarcoma. This soft-tissue sarcoma may initially masquerade clinically as a panniculitis and a granulomatous process on biopsy as in our patient, leading to a delay in surgical therapy. PMID:18638228

  8. [Histopathology of central nervous system cavernomas].

    PubMed

    Mosnier, J-F; Brunon, J; Nuti, C

    2007-06-01

    Central nervous system cavernomas are vascular malformations, which occur in two circumstances: sporadic forms and familial autosomal dominant forms. The lesion consists of enlarged, closely packed vessels without interposition of brain parenchyma, surrounded by hemosiderin and gliosis, calcified in few cases. In 80% of sporadic forms the lesion is unique, multiple lesions are rare (median: 4). In familial forms the lesions are always multiple. Cavernomas are often associated with other vascular malformations, especially with venous developmental anomalies. The size of cavernomas is variable from 1 mm to several centimeters. About 70% of cases are supratentorial and 30% in the posterior fossa, particularly in the brain stem. Macroscopic and histopathological findings are typical and the diagnostic is generally easy. PMID:17498756

  9. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  10. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia: clinical, histopathological, and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Farronato, Giampietro; Benedicenti, Stefano; Vinci, Raffaele; Farronato, Davide; Magistro, Sarah; Stefani, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a rare disorder characterized by an increased volume of the condyle, ramus, and mandibular body leading to facial asymmetry. We present three cases of condylar hyperplasia: two women and one man, age range 27 to 34. Clinically, all three patients showed a deviation of the mandible to the opposite side and a protruded position of the chin, hypertrophy of the lower border of the mandible, combined with an elongation of the mandibular ramus, open-bite on the deformed side, and cross-bite on the opposite side. In all three cases, scintigraphy showed an increased uptake. Radiography and CT scanning confirmed the clinical diagnosis and patients were subjected to surgery, comprising high condylectomy on the affected side with access in the pre-tragus area. The surgical piece sent to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy for histological examination revealed a nonuniform picture, in terms of both the depth of cartilage islands and the thickness of the fibrous layer covering the joint surface. Common to all three cases, however, was the apparent evolution of fibrous tissue to cartilage, and of this to compact bone tissue. At two-four years, all cases have maintained a good occlusal response. The asymmetric deformity of the mandible resulting from the rare condition of hemimandibular hyperplasia is presented and the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects discussed. PMID:19241796

  11. The use of histopathology in the practice of necropsy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J O; Goddard, M J; Gresham, G A; Wyatt, B A

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To examine current practice and to establish criteria for the use of histopathology in necropsy practice. METHODS: During an audit of necropsy reporting, consensus could not be reached about the use of routine histopathology. Therefore local guidelines were formulated and current practice was compared with these guidelines. Fifteen consecutive necropsies undertaken by each consultant were reviewed and the use of histopathology noted. RESULTS: In general, the standard of necropsy reporting was reasonably high. Tissue was retained for histopathology in 25% of necropsies and 72% of these necropsy reports included a histopathology report. Using the guidelines, the assessors judged that histopathology might have been valuable in a further 19%. It was felt that routine histopathology would not have been helpful in determining the cause of death in the remaining 56%. The importance of the pathologist's clinical judgement in individual cases was stressed. At reaudit, nearly two years later, there was no significant change in practice, reflecting the lack of consensus. CONCLUSIONS: Even when histopathology might contribute to finding the cause of death, it was not always done. However, the assumption that histology is invariably helpful in determining the cause of death is challenged. PMID:9301557

  12. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology is an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of exposure to stressors at the level of the individual. Even though the histopathological approach is somewhat qualitative, it is very valuable because the observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  13. Immature mediastinal teratoma with unusual histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Osama M.; Mohammed, Shamayel F.; Aljubran, Ali; Saleh, Waleed N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a well-recognized group of heterogeneous neoplasms with diverse clinical, histopathological, diagnostic, and prognostic characteristics. We present a rare case of a locally aggressive, chemotherapy-resistant immature mediastinal teratoma with a peculiar histological finding of a multilineage somatic-type malignant degeneration. A 21-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of persistent, blood-tinged productive cough and shortness of breath. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a heterogeneous mass occupying the right hemithorax and abutting on adjacent structures. CT-guided biopsy was consistent with immature teratoma. Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was initiated, albeit without success; the mass showed interval progression in size, and surgical resection through clamshell incision was performed. Histological assessment of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma and revealed an extensive multilineage malignant differentiation into sarcomatous, carcinomatous, and melanomatous components. The patient underwent an uneventful recovery but presented 2 months later with extensive liver and bone melanomatous metastases. In this report, relevant findings from the literature are also highlighted. Despite being exceptionally rare, such tumors carry poor prognosis. Understanding the clinicopathological characteristics and biological behavior of such tumors may provide an insight into interventions tailored to improve the otherwise dismal disease outlook. PMID:27367976

  14. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  15. Histopathological changes in selenium-exposed fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, E.M.; Bell, J.S.; Harlan, C.W.

    1983-06-01

    Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) were collected from Martin Lake in east Texas. For at least 8 months, 1 year earlier, aqueous selenium-laden effluent from man-made sources was released into this 5,000-acre reservoir (unpublished data). Redear sunfish from a reference lake, 8 km upstream, were collected for comparison to Martin Lake fish. The hepatopancreas (i.e., liver and associated, disseminated exocrine pancrease), mesonephros (i.e., kidney), gonads, heart, spleen, stomach, and gill arches were preserved for histopathological examination using optical and/or transmission electron microscopy. Livers from Martin Lake redear sunfish (which had accumulated approximately 20 ppm selenium in the liver) showed central necrosis, reduced quantities of rough endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen particles, and increased numbers of lysosome-like structures. Kidneys showed proliferative glomerulonephritis, and exocrine pancreas showed marked hypertrophy at the optical level. Ultrastructurally, architectural disorganization, reduced rough endoplasmic reticulum, increased cisternal space, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum were evident. The stomach, spleen, gill, heart, and gonads showed no abnormalities.

  16. Reporting Tumor Molecular Heterogeneity in Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Antonello, Davide; Vicentini, Caterina; Scardoni, Maria; Bersani, Samantha; Gottardi, Marisa; Rusev, Borislav; Malpeli, Giorgio; Corbo, Vincenzo; Barbi, Stefano; Sikora, Katarzyna O.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS) in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity. Methods 35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing. Results TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57%) tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis. Conclusions TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25127237

  17. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis. Definition--classification--histopathology--immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Dienes, H P

    1996-09-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a distinct form of acute and chronic inflammatory liver disease in which immune reactions against host antigens are found to be the major pathological mechanism. If left untreated it carries an unfavourable prognosis, and the diagnosis should be made as soon as possible. The diagnostic approach has been greatly facilitated by the establishment of a panel of marker autoantibodies, which do not define distinct therapeutic groups of AIH, but do allow a subgrouping based on differences in patient populations, some clinical features and prognosis. The characterization of organ-specific components of the liver cell surface as targets of cellular and humoral autoimmune reactions give new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease, even though the primary event triggering the disease remains to be defined. The most important disease-promoting factor seems to be a genetically determined background for autoimmunity. Without this different environmental factors, including viruses, toxins, cytokines and drugs, are only able to induce transient autoimmune phenomena and not autoimmune disease. The histopathology of AIH is in keeping with the present pathogenetic concept. Although there is no pathognomonic feature distinguishing this type of hepatitis from virus-induced forms, some distinct morphological lesions are regarded as characteristic. Clinical research on AIH has benefited greatly from observations of experimental AIH in mice. Recognition of the critical role of autoreactive T-lymphocytes in the pathogenesis and the observation of spontaneous recovery from AIH in the animal model associated with antigen-specific and antigen-non-specific T-cell suppression have made basic contributions to our improved understanding of the natural course of AIH in humans. PMID:8865847

  19. Histopathological review of 667 cases of oral mucoceles with emphasis on uncommon histopathological variations.

    PubMed

    de Brito Monteiro, Bárbara Vanessa; Bezerra, Thâmara Manoela Marinho; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; da Costa Miguel, Márcia Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Mucoceles can occur in the oral cavity, appendix, bladder, paranasal sinuses, and lacrimal sac. In the oral cavity, mucoceles arise from pathological alterations in the minor salivary gland ducts. In this study, we aimed to histologically reevaluate cases of oral mucoceles to identify possible variants. A total of 667 slides containing tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin diagnosed as a phenomenon of mucus extravasation were analyzed under light microscopy by 4 previously trained examiners. In 128 cases (19.1%), 1 or more histopathological changes were identified. Twenty cases (2.9%) exhibited collagenous globular structures compatible with myxoglobulosis. In 30 cases (4.49%), dissociation of collagen fibers after mucin extravasation was observed. Fifty-four cases (8.09%) exhibited papillary synovial metaplasia-like change, and 32 (4.79%) showed a significant reduction in the lumen of the cavity due to large papillae. Twenty cases (2.9%) were compatible with superficial mucoceles, and in 11 cases (1.64%), the foamy macrophages showed an unusual solid arrangement, known as clear cell change. It is essential to recognize the possible histopathological changes in oral mucoceles to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27040930

  20. [Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus. Clinical and histopathological aspects of 7 cases].

    PubMed

    Kuri, R; Ruíz Maldonado, R; Tamayo, L

    1978-01-01

    The inflammatory linear verrucous nevus is a recently described variety of epidermal nevus clinically and histologically characterized by an inflammatory component. The lesion stars at birth or at early age, pruritus is constant. Histologically the picture is psoriasiform. The therapeutic response is poor. Seven cases are presented. Associated extracutaneous alterations were presented in four of them. PMID:398930

  1. Potassium chloride as a euthanasia agent in psittacine birds: Clinical aspects and consequences for histopathologic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Guincho, Mark; Smith, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Twelve parrots anesthetized with isoflurane were euthanized intravenously (IV) with 3 or 10 mEq/kg body weight (BW) of potassium chloride (KCl) resulting in ventricular asystole at 68.0 s and 32.8 s, respectively. Mild vocalization (1/6 birds, 3 mEq/kg BW) and involuntary muscle tremors (5/6 birds, 10 mEq/kg BW) were noted. Unlike barbiturates or T-61 no histologic artefacts resulted from this technique. PMID:21629426

  2. Effects of Noscarna™ on hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model: histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Ku, Sae Kwang; Cho, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Hiep, Tran Tuan; Han, Sang Duk; Kim, Bo Gyun; Kang, Min Kyung; Do, Eui Seon; Jun, Joon Ho; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Sohn, Young Taek; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of silicone-based gel on the healing of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model. After 4-week application of silicone-based gel containing allantoin, dexpanthenol and heparin (Noscarna™) to scars in a rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring, significant improvements in hypertrophic scar healing and a great loss of skin pigment were observed compared to the non-treated control, base or silicone control-treated scars. Furthermore, histological analysis of Noscarna™-treated scars revealed a significant reduction in scar elevation index (SEI), anterior skin and epithelial thicknesses, inflammatory cells, vessels, collagen disorganization and fibroblasts compared to all control hypertrophic scars. Furthermore, Noscarna™ showed more favorable effects on hypertrophic scars than a commercial product, Contractubex®. Therefore, these results clearly demonstrated that the newly developed silicone-based gel, Noscarna™, could be a promising formulation as an effective therapeutic agent for hypertrophic scars. PMID:23212642

  3. The role of histochemistry in increasing objectivity in histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques of microscopic histochemistry, successfully applied to problems in histopathology, necessarily result in increased objectivity. Combined with procedures for quantification the increase may be such as to remove subjective judgment altogether. Extended to the ultrastructural level the quality of the information derived is greatly enhanced in terms of localization but there is usually no increase in objectivity. Of all branches of technology capable of conferring on histopathology an increase in objectivity, histochemistry must take first place. PMID:1105505

  4. Histopathological and Digital Morphometrical Evaluation of Uterine Leiomyoma in Brazilian Women

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Paula Fernandes; Mello, Luciano de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Erlene Roberta Ribeiro; Paz, Silvania Tavares; Cavalcanti, Carmelita Lima Bezerra; de Melo-Junior, Mario Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate histopathological and digital morphometrical aspects associated with uterine leiomyomas in one hundred and fifty (150) patients diagnosed with leiomyoma. Uterine tissues were subjected to the histopathological and digital morphometric analyses of the interstitial collagen distribution. The analysis of medical records indicates that most of the women diagnosed with uterine leiomyomas (68.7%) are between 37 and 48 years old. As for the anatomic location of the tumors, approximately 61.4% of the patients had intramural and subserosal lesions. In 50% of the studied cases, the patients developed uterine leiomyomatosis (with more than eight tumors). As for the morphometric study, the average size of the interstitial collagen distribution held approximately 28.53% of the capture area, whereas it was of 7.43% in the normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. Another important aspect observed in the current study was the high rate of young women subjected to total hysterectomy, a fact that resulted in early and definitive sterility. PMID:27293441

  5. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  6. Comparison between histopathologic features of leprosy in reaction lesions in HIV coinfected and non-coinfected patients*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy and HIV are diseases that have a major impact on public health in Brazil. Patients coinfected with both diseases, appear to be at higher risk to develop leprosy reactions. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to describe the histopathological aspects of cutaneous lesions during reactional states in a group of patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection, compared to patients with leprosy, without coinfection. METHODS Two groups were established: group 1 comprised of 40 patients coinfected with HIV-leprosy; group 2, comprised of 107 patients with leprosy only. Patients presenting reactional states of leprosy had their lesions biopsied and comparatively evaluated. RESULTS Reversal reaction was the most frequent feature in both groups, with dermis edema as the most common histopathological finding. Giant cells were seen in all group 1 histopathological examinations. Dermis edema was the most common finding in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. CONCLUSION Few histopathological differences were found in both groups, with reversal reaction as the most significant one, although this fact should be analyzed considering the predominant BT clinical form in the coinfected group and BB form in the group without HIV. Larger prospective studies in patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection are needed to confirm and broaden these results. PMID:25672296

  7. Correlations Between Histopathologic Changes and Clinical Features in Pterygia

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Hamid; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Molaei, Saber; Hashemi, Hassan; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlations between clinical findings and histopathologic changes in eyes with pterygium. Methods: This prospective study included 70 eyes with primary pterygia undergoing surgical excision. Prior to surgery, clinical features of the pterygia including extension over the cornea, redness, fleshiness (based on obscuration of the underlying episcleral vessels), and obliteration of the plica semilunaris were determined. Postoperatively, pterygium specimens were examined by hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining to evaluate histopathologic characteristics including vascular density, leukocytic infiltration, stromal elastosis, stromal fibrosis and subepithelial fibrosis. Correlations between clinical findings and histopathologic changes were then investigated. Results: There was a marginally significant correlation between the redness and the fleshiness of pterygium (P = 0.06). Both redness and fleshiness of the pterygium had significant positive correlation with dimensions of the lesion over the cornea. Moreover, larger pterygia were associated with obliteration of the plica semilunaris. Pterygium redness showed a significant correlation with vascular density (P = 0.04), and pterygium fleshiness had a significant correlation with stromal fibrosis (P = 0.04). Pterygium dimensions over the cornea demonstrated a positive correlation with vascular density and a negative correlation with stromal elastosis. Conclusion: Redness and fleshiness of pterygium were only marginally correlated with each other, and each one showed a correlation with different histopathologic features. Larger pterygia were associated with more significant changes at the clinical and histopathologic levels.

  8. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  9. Efficient segmentation of skin epidermis in whole slide histopathological images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongming; Mandal, Mrinal

    2015-08-01

    Segmentation of epidermis areas is an important step towards automatic analysis of skin histopathological images. This paper presents a robust technique for epidermis segmentation in whole slide skin histopathological images. The proposed technique first performs a coarse epidermis segmentation using global thresholding and shape analysis. The epidermis thickness is then estimated by a series of line segments perpendicular to the main axis of the initially segmented epidermis mask. If the segmented epidermis mask has a thickness greater than a predefined threshold, the segmentation is suspected to be inaccurate. A second pass of fine segmentation using k-means algorithm is then carried out over these coarsely segmented result to enhance the performance. Experimental results on 64 different skin histopathological images show that the proposed technique provides a superior performance compared to the existing techniques. PMID:26737135

  10. Neuroradiology and Histopathology in Two Cases of Adult Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Raju, Sharat; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Summary Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common central nervous system neoplasm in children and only rarely presents in the adult population. Recent molecular biology findings have characterized MB as a heterogeneous neoplasm distinguished by well-defined tumour subsets each with specific histologic and molecular features. Available immunohistochemical stains can now be used to differentiate the distinct molecular types of MB. This report analyzed the histopathologic and neuroradiologic features of two new cases of adult MB. Imaging studies in these patients revealed the morphological appearance of high-grade, well-circumscribed heterogeneous tumours with necrosis, located laterally within the posterior cranial fossa. Histopathology of resected samples demonstrated high-grade tumours (WHO grade IV) containing sheets of undifferentiated neural cells with high mitotic activity and evidence of necrosis. The histopathologic and molecular characteristics of these cases of MB are reviewed for potential applications in new molecular methods of imaging. PMID:24750703

  11. HISTOPATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Howard M.; Cardona, Diana M.; Greenson, Joel K.; Hingorani, Sangeeta; Horn, Thomas; Huber, Elisabeth; Kreft, Andreas; Longerich, Thomas; Morton, Thomas; Myerson, David; Prieto, Victor G.; Rosenberg, Avi; Treister, Nathaniel; Washington, Kay; Ziemer, Mirjana; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Schultz, Kirk R.; Jagasia, Madan; Martin, Paul J.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Kleiner, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2005 National Institute of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference outlined histopathological diagnostic criteria for the major organ systems affected by both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The 2014 Consensus Conference led to this updated document with new information from histopathological studies of GVHD in the gut, liver, skin and oral mucosa and expanded discussion of GVHD in the lungs and kidneys. The recommendations for final histological diagnostic categories have been simplified from 4 categories to 3: no GVHD, possible, and likely GVHD based on better reproducibility achieved by combining the previous categories of consistent with and definite GVHD into the single category of likely GVHD. Issues remain in the histopathological characterization of GVHD, particularly with respect to the threshold of histological changes required for diagnostic certainty. Guidance is provided for the incorporation of biopsy information into prospective clinical studies of GVHD, particularly with respect to biomarker validation. PMID:25639770

  12. Nuclei extraction from histopathological images using a marked point process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, Maria; Veillard, Antoine; Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Morphology of cell nuclei is a central aspect in many histopathological studies, in particular in breast cancer grading. Therefore, the automatic detection and extraction of cell nuclei from microscopic images obtained from cancer tissue slides is one of the most important problems in digital histopathology. We propose to tackle the problem using a model based on marked point processes (MPP), a methodology for extraction of multiple objects from images. The advantage of MPP based models is their ability to take into account the geometry of objects; and the information about their spatial repartition in the image. Previously, the MPP models have been applied for the extraction of objects of simple geometrical shapes. For histological grading, a morphological criterion known as nuclear pleomorphism corresponding to fine morphological differences between the nuclei is assessed by pathologists. Therefore, the accurate delineation of nuclei became an issue of even greater importance than optimal nuclei detection. Recently, the MPP framework has been defined on the space of arbitrarily-shaped objects allowing more accurate extraction of complex-shaped objects. The nuclei often appear joint or even overlap in histopathological images. The model still allows to extract them as individual joint or overlapping objects without discarding the overlapping parts and therefore without significant loss in delineation precision. We aim to compare the MPP model with two state-of-the-art methods selected from a comprehensive review of the available methods. The experiments are performed using a database of H&E stained breast cancer images covering a wide range of histological grades.

  13. Chromium induced biochemical, genotoxic and histopathologic effects in liver and kidney of Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Fish constitute an excellent model to understand the mechanistic aspects of metal toxicity vis-à-vis oxidative stress in aquatic ecosystems. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), due to its redox potential can induce oxidative stress (OS) in fish and impair their health. In the present investigation, we hypothesize that OS plays a key role in chromium induced toxicity in goldfish; leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O· 2, H2O2, OH·, and subsequent modulation of the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), metallothioneins (MT), glutathione proxidase (GPx), genotoxicity and histopathology. To test this hypothesis, antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histopathology assays were performed in liver and kidney tissues of goldfish exposed to different concentrations of Cr (VI) (LC12.5, LC25 and LC50) following 96h static renewal bioassay. The results of this study clearly show that the fish experienced OS as characterized by significant modulation of enzyme activities, induction of DNA damage and microscopic morphological changes in the liver and kidney. In both tissues, CAT activity was decreased whereas SOD activity and hydroperoxide levels were increased. In addition, GPx activity also increased significantly in higher test concentrations, especially in the kidney. MT induction and DNA damage were observed in both tissues in a concentration dependent manner. Microscopic examination of organ morphology indicated degeneration of liver tissue and necrosis of central vein. Necrosis of kidney tubular epithelial cells and tubules was observed at higher Cr (VI) concentrations. Taking together the findings of this study are helpful in organ-specific risk assessment of Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histopathology in fish. PMID:20348018

  14. Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms: a discussion on histopathology and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Shia, Jinru; Holck, Susanne; Depetris, Giovanni; Greenson, Joel K; Klimstra, David S

    2013-06-01

    It was a century ago that Warthin, a pathologist, first described the clinical condition now known as Lynch syndrome. One hundred years later, our understanding of this syndrome has advanced significantly. Much of the progress took place over the last 25 years and was marked by a series of interacting developments from the disciplines of clinical oncology, pathology, and molecular genetics, with each development serving to guide or enhance the next. The advancement of our understanding about the pathology of Lynch syndrome associated tumors exemplifies such intimate interplay among disciplines. Today, accumulative knowledge has enabled surgical pathologists to detect tumors that are likely to be associated with Lynch syndrome, and the pathologist is playing an increasingly more important role in the care of these patients. The pathologist's ability is afforded primarily by information gained from tumor histopathology and by DNA mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry. It is therefore pertinent both for the pathologists to accurately ascertain this morphologic information, and for all that are involved in the care of these patients to thoroughly understand the implications of such information. This article provides an overview of the development of histopathology and immunohistochemistry in Lynch syndrome-associated tumors, particularly in colorectal and endometrial cancers, and outlines the issues and current status of these specific pathologic aspects in not only the major tumors but also those less commonly seen or only newly reported in Lynch syndrome patients. PMID:23435936

  15. Variable histopathology of discovertebral lesion (spondylodiscitis) of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Reidbord, H E; Kraus, D R; Eisenbeis, C H

    1990-01-01

    Extensive discovertebral lesion is an infrequent complication of long-standing ankylosing spondylitis. Reported histopathological descriptions vary from predominantly inflammatory to fibrous granulation with reactive bone formation. We report variable histological findings in four symptomatic patients with extensive discovertebral lesions who required spinal fusion. PMID:2347137

  16. Quality Measures in Pre-Analytical Phase of Tissue Processing: Understanding Its Value in Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Suresh; Sundaram, Sandhya; Duvuru, Prathiba; Swaminathan, Rajendiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quality monitoring in histopathology unit is categorized into three phases, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical, to cover various steps in the entire test cycle. Review of literature on quality evaluation studies pertaining to histopathology revealed that earlier reports were mainly focused on analytical aspects with limited studies on assessment of pre-analytical phase. Pre-analytical phase encompasses several processing steps and handling of specimen/sample by multiple individuals, thus allowing enough scope for errors. Due to its critical nature and limited studies in the past to assess quality in pre-analytical phase, it deserves more attention. Aim This study was undertaken to analyse and assess the quality parameters in pre-analytical phase in a histopathology laboratory. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study done on pre-analytical parameters in histopathology laboratory of a tertiary care centre on 18,626 tissue specimens received in 34 months. Registers and records were checked for efficiency and errors for pre-analytical quality variables: specimen identification, specimen in appropriate fixatives, lost specimens, daily internal quality control performance on staining, performance in inter-laboratory quality assessment program {External quality assurance program (EQAS)} and evaluation of internal non-conformities (NC) for other errors. Results The study revealed incorrect specimen labelling in 0.04%, 0.01% and 0.01% in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. About 0.04%, 0.07% and 0.18% specimens were not sent in fixatives in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. There was no incidence of specimen lost. A total of 113 non-conformities were identified out of which 92.9% belonged to the pre-analytical phase. The predominant NC (any deviation from normal standard which may generate an error and result in compromising with quality standards) identified was wrong labelling of slides. Performance in EQAS for pre-analytical phase was

  17. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Verweij, Wim; van Diest, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8%) and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%). Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6%) were indeed benign and 2 (2.4%) were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology. PMID:17257417

  18. Histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in the aorta in experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning.

    PubMed

    De Barros, S; Tabone, E; Dos Santos, M; Andujar, M; Grimaud, J A

    1981-01-01

    A histopathological and electron microscopic study of the aortic wall of rabbits intoxicated with Solanum malacoxylon was performed. Histological examination showed local loss of the normal waviness of the elastic fibers and calcium deposits. Electron microscopic study of the corresponding areas showed a modified aspect of the smooth muscle cells with loss of some of their differential characteristics, especially their intracytoplasmic fibrils and densifications. The neighbouring elastic fibers showed an electron-dense peripheral band and sometimes a crystal deposit. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of a large amount of calcium in these crystals. Collagen fibers played no apparent role in this calcification. These findings support the idea that a local cellular alteration is necessary prior to elastic calcification. Two hypothetical mechanisms are proposed. PMID:6112815

  19. HEPATOBILIARY ASCARIASIS COMPLICATED BY PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Muhammad; Sheikh, Ali Sibtain Farooq; Khan, Asim; Mustafa, Saqib; Shah, Imran Ali; Hameed, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the commonest organism causing soil-transmitted helminth infection. It is particularly common in poor sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, involvement of the gallbladder by Ascaris is a rare entity. A lady presented to us with long-standing history of vague abdominal symptoms suggesting dyspepsia. Ultrasound showed a tube like structure invading the biliary channels. Serum amylase was elevated and the patient was managed conservatively, as for acute pancreatitis. She improved clinically, but subsequent imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed worm in the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done and Ascaris lumbricoides was removed. Ascaris infestation is an important differential diagnosis of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and screening with stool examination and ultrasound is warranted in high-risk population. PMID:26411145

  20. Histopathological Characterization of the Lesions of Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis and Immunolabelling of Treponema-like Organisms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Blundell, R

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep and the three Treponema phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis have been associated with clinical disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the histopathological changes associated with each previously established grade of clinical lesion, and (2) to investigate immunohistochemically the association of the Treponema-like organisms with the observed histopathological changes. Early lesions were characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the distal digital skin, with suppurative coronitis and intracorneal pustules. In more advanced stages of the disease there was complete separation of the dorsal wall of the hoof with a necrotizing and fibrinosuppurative exudate and dermatitis. The later lesions were mostly resolved, but with milder suppurative changes remaining within the cornified layer and periosteal reaction of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx. Large numbers of Treponema-like organisms were identified within early grade lesions (as well as later, more advanced grade lesions) and were specifically associated with the observed histopathological changes. The results of this study provide some evidence in support of the hypothesis that the three CODD-associated Treponema phylogroups are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26597022

  1. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology can be an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of chemical exposure in fish at the level of the individual. Although somewhat qualitative, the histopathological approach is especially valuable because observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  2. Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Prekshi; Agarwal, Rashi; Srinivasan, Shashank; Singh, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date. PMID:27453661

  3. The gingival Stillman’s clefts: histopathology and cellular characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cassini, Maria Antonietta; Cerroni, Loredana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Orlandi, Augusto; Pilloni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study Stillman’s cleft is a mucogingival triangular-shaped defect on the buccal surface of a root with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the Stillman’s cleft obtained from excision during root coverage surgical procedures at an histopathological level. Materials and method Harvesting of cleft was obtained from two periodontally healthy patients with a scalpel and a bevel incision and then placed in a test tube with buffered solution to be processed for light microscopy. Results Microscopic analysis has shown that Stillman’s cleft presented a lichenoid hand-like inflammatory infiltration, while in the periodontal patient an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia was identified. Conclusion Stillman’s cleft remains to be investigated as for the possible causes of such lesion of the gingival margin, although an inflammatory response seems to be evident and active from a strictly histopathological standpoint. PMID:26941897

  4. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  5. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Novotny, Ladislav; Meteyer, Carol U; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, Nancy R; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. PMID:22247393

  6. Functional and histopathologic changes in the liver during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Caruana, J A; Montes, M; Camara, D S; Ummer, A; Potmesil, S H; Gage, A A

    1982-05-01

    Although liver failure from sepsis is a frequent occurrence in serious ill, hospitalized patients, little information is available on the histologic changes of the liver. We examined the histopathology of the liver of 19 patients who died of clinical sepsis and attempted to relate certain features of the illness or treatment to the observed histopathologic changes. The most striking finding was midzonal and peripheral necrosis of a moderate to marked degree in 11 of 19 patients. Other important changes were acute inflammation and cholestasis. The severity of hepatocellular necrosis did not appear to be influenced by the premortem circulating pathogen, by the nutritional support administered or by the arterial blood pressure. It is suggested that hepatocellular necrosis is characteristic of sepsis and may be caused by loss of specific factors which normally maintain liver function and structure. PMID:6803371

  7. Histopathological changes in relation to cadmium concentration in horse kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Jonsson, L.; Piscator, M.; Rahnster, B.

    1981-10-01

    Histopathological changes in kidney cortex, as observed by light microscopy, are related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex from 69 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in kidney ranged from 11 to 186 ..mu..g Cd/g wet wt with an average of 60 ..mu..g Cd/g, which is considerably higher than those normally found in humans. The microscopical changes were rated and related to cadmium concentrations in kidneys by dose-response curves. A relationship existed between frequency of morphological changes and cadmium concentration in the renal cortex. There was no obvious relationship between age and frequency of histopathological changes. This indicates that in horse kidneys morphological changes occur at cadmium concentrations which are lower than the tentative critical level for humans of 200 ..mu..g Cd/g. It is concluded that horses constitute a population at risk for environmental cadmium contamination.

  8. Autograft ossicle selection in cholesteatomatous ear disease: histopathological considerations.

    PubMed

    Rupa, V; Krishnaswami, H; Job, A

    1997-09-01

    In order to determine whether selection of autograft ossicles in cholesteatomatous ear disease should be based upon their appearance under the surgical operating microscope, we studied the histopathological features of 113 such ossicles. We attempted to correlate the extent of erosion of the ossicle, as noted under the surgical operating microscope, with their histopathological appearance. There were 60 mallei and 53 includes. Seventy-nine ossicles were eroded and 34 were intact. The commonest abnormality noted was erosion of the long process of the incus (75 per cent). Both intact and eroded ossicles had similar histological features. There was no evidence of intra-ossicular cholesteatoma. The results suggest that the extent of erosion of these ossicles as seen under the surgical operating microscope should in no way prejudice their use as autografts when required. PMID:9373543

  9. Leiomyosarcoma of the prostate-an unexpected histopathological outcome.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dinesh Harvey; Dash, Prafulla Kumar; Mohanty, Jayashree; Sarangi, Pradosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Prostate leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive neoplasm that accounts for >0.1% of all primary prostate malignancies. We report a case of a patient, presenting with recurrent episodes of dysuria, who had been diagnosed and operated for benign prostatic hyperplasia 1 month earlier, and now presented with similar symptoms postoperatively. Trans-rectal biopsy of the prostate was carried out and histopathology revealed leiomyosarcoma of the prostate. PMID:27284101

  10. Small renal tumor with lymph nodal enlargement: A histopathological surprise

    PubMed Central

    Thottathil, Mujeeburahiman; Verma, Ashish; D’souza, Nischith; Khan, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Renal cancer with lymph nodal mass on the investigation is clinically suggestive of an advanced tumor. Small renal cancers are not commonly associated with lymph nodal metastasis. Association of renal cell carcinoma with renal tuberculosis (TB) in the same kidney is also rare. We report here a case of small renal cancer with multiple hilar and paraaortic lymph nodes who underwent radical nephrectomy, and histopathology report showed renal and lymph nodal TB too. PMID:27453671

  11. Electrocorticographic–Histopathologic Correlations Implying Epileptogenicity of Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Arihiro, Koji; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Based on intracranial-video electroencephalography (EEG), histopathological features, and postoperative seizure outcome, we elucidated the epileptogenicity in patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Five patients (P1–P5) pathologically diagnosed with DNT underwent intracranial-video EEG to identify the ictal onset zone and irritative zone. We evaluated the correlations of ictal onset zone and irritative zone with the magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion (MRI-lesion) and their histopatho-logical features. Intracranial-video EEG located the ictal onset zone adjacent to the MRI-lesion margin in four patients with complex/simple forms of DNT subcategory, and on the MRI-lesion in P3 with a nonspecific DNT form. The irritative zone extended to surrounding regions of the ictal onset zone in all patients. Histopathologically, MRI-lesions were characterized by specific glioneuronal elements, whereas the ictal onset zone and irritative zone were represented with dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells in four (P1, P2, P4, and P5) of five patients. Cortical dysplasia was identified with typical histopathologic features in the irritative zone remote from the MRI-lesion in P5. P3, with a nonspecific form, indicated prominent component of dysplastic cortex with oligodendroglia-like cells scattered in the MRI-lesion. Lesionectomy of MRI-lesion with additional cortical resections (including the ictal onset zone and irritative zone) yielded postoperative seizure freedom (Engel Class I) in P3, P4, and P5, while P1 and P2 (with only lesionectomy) experienced postoperative residual seizure (Class II and III in each patient). Our results suggest the intrinsic epileptogenicity of DNT. The topographical correlation indicated that the dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells was more epileptogenic than the specific glioneuronal elements itself. Meticulous intracranial-video EEG analysis delineating the MRI nonvisible ictal

  12. Electrocorticographic-histopathologic correlations implying epileptogenicity of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Arihiro, Koji; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Based on intracranial-video electroencephalography (EEG), histopathological features, and postoperative seizure outcome, we elucidated the epileptogenicity in patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Five patients (P1-P5) pathologically diagnosed with DNT underwent intracranial-video EEG to identify the ictal onset zone and irritative zone. We evaluated the correlations of ictal onset zone and irritative zone with the magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion (MRI-lesion) and their histopathological features. Intracranial-video EEG located the ictal onset zone adjacent to the MRI-lesion margin in four patients with complex/simple forms of DNT subcategory, and on the MRI-lesion in P3 with a nonspecific DNT form. The irritative zone extended to surrounding regions of the ictal onset zone in all patients. Histopathologically, MRI-lesions were characterized by specific glioneuronal elements, whereas the ictal onset zone and irritative zone were represented with dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells in four (P1, P2, P4, and P5) of five patients. Cortical dysplasia was identified with typical histopathologic features in the irritative zone remote from the MRI-lesion in P5. P3, with a nonspecific form, indicated prominent component of dysplastic cortex with oligodendroglia-like cells scattered in the MRI-lesion. Lesionectomy of MRI-lesion with additional cortical resections (including the ictal onset zone and irritative zone) yielded postoperative seizure freedom (Engel Class I) in P3, P4, and P5, while P1 and P2 (with only lesionectomy) experienced postoperative residual seizure (Class II and III in each patient). Our results suggest the intrinsic epileptogenicity of DNT. The topographical correlation indicated that the dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells was more epileptogenic than the specific glioneuronal elements itself. Meticulous intracranial-video EEG analysis delineating the MRI nonvisible ictal onset

  13. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  14. Cutaneous angiosarcoma mimicking xanthoma: a challenging histopathologic diagnosis with important consequences.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma may show protean histopathologic features. Rare or uncommon variants include epithelioid, clear cell, granular cell, verrucous, pseudolymphomatous and signet-ring cell types. Perhaps the rarest type consists of cutaneous angiosarcoma with xanthomization of neoplastic cells. We report an extraordinary case with almost all neoplastic cells exhibiting a xanthomatous appearance that was studied both histopathologically and immunohistochemically. We discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis of foamy cell angiosarcoma with other neoplasms that may show similar histopathology. PMID:27220541

  15. Histopathologic aid to diagnosis of sarcoidosis: report of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Manonukul, Jane; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Thirapote, Panitta

    2006-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. The disease is common in blacks and is very rare in Thailand. It presents as one of the most variable manifestations usually affecting the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. Other organs such as liver, spleen, joints and eyes including skin are also involved The common cutaneous lesions are maculopapular, erythematous plaque, subcutaneous nodule, scar and lupus pernio. No reliable indicator is useful for diagnosis except the histopathologic change which is the only way for approaching this disease. Sarcoidosis is the disease of exclusion. Various infections producing granulomas should be excluded histologically. The ultimate diagnosis requires clinical correlation, laboratory investigations, chest X-ray as well as available tissue culture. Herein, the authors reported eight cases of sarcoidosis by retrospective study primarily diagnosed by histopathological findings at Siriraj Hospital from January, 1997 to December, 2004 with many different clinical presentations. Despite the diverse clinical pictures, interestingly, the presented patients almost had the same histopathologic findings as small, uniform, discrete naked granulomas usually without necrosis. These findings act as a hallmark for diagnosis of this disease. PMID:16850689

  16. The Histopathological Spectrum of Pyogenic Granuloma: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sajeev

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive tumor-like lesion commonly affecting the oral cavity. These lesions usually appear as localized solitary nodule with a sessile or pedunculated base and colour varying from red, purplish, or pink, depending on the vascularity of the lesion. Pyogenic granuloma shows predilection for gingiva and is usually slow growing, but at times it shows rapid growth. The natural course of this lesion can be categorized into three distinct phases, namely, (i) cellular phase, (ii) capillary phase/vascular phase, and (iii) involutionary phase. Histopathologically, pyogenic granuloma is classified into lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) and non-lobular capillary hemangioma (non-LCH). Case Presentation. In this series, four cases (varied age groups and both genders) of pyogenic granuloma showing varying histopathological presentation in relation to its clinical course have been described. The lesion in its early phase reveals diffuse endothelial cells, with few budding into capillaries. Among the capillary phase, the LCH type shows numerous blood vessels organized into lobular aggregates whereas the non-LCH type does not show any such organization and resembles granulation tissue. The involutionary phase shows healing of the lesion and is characterized by extensive fibrosis in the connective tissue. Conclusion. In conclusion, knowledge of the various histopathological presentation of this lesion is necessary for proper identification. PMID:27382492

  17. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5–1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  18. A histopathological outlook on nephrotic syndrome: A pediatric perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M. K.; Arif, M.; Amjad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The developing world is observing changing histopathological patterns of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, the true burden of non-minimal change disease (non-MCD) presenting as INS remains unestimated owing to a paucity of data on renal biopsies. Data were collected from January 2006 to June 2014 on 75 children up to 16 years of age who underwent renal biopsies for INS. Mean age at biopsy was 11.2 ± 3.7 years. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. A total of 25 (33.3%) children were steroid sensitive, 36 (48%) were steroid resistant, 10 (13.3%) were steroid dependent and 4 (5.3%) came with relapse of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histopathological subtype observed in 35 (46.8%) children followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) in 11 (14.7%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MSGN) in 4 (5.3%) each and IgA nephropathy in one (1.3%). MCD was the histological lesion in 19 (25.3%) children. The histopathology established FSGS as the main underlying cause of steroid resistant NS. The study highlights the emergence of non-MCD as the common cause of INS in the pediatric population and signifies the importance of renal biopsies in children with INS. PMID:27194833

  19. Lipomatous Change in Uveal Melanoma: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical and Cytogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzyigitoglu, Serdar; Kilic, Emine; Vaarwater, Jolanda; de Klein, Annelies; Paridaens, Dion; Verdijk, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe a case of lipomatous change in uveal melanoma. Procedures The patient presented with a 2-year history of blurry vision. A full examination of the right eye revealed a dome-shaped pigmented subretinal mass in the choroid with a thickness of 9 mm and a diameter of 15 mm. The eye was enucleated and prepared for histopathologic, genetic and molecular investigation. Results Histopathology revealed a small circumscribed area consisting of mature adipocytic appearing cells with abundant clear cytoplasm and small peripheral flattened nuclei within a spindle-cell melanoma of the uvea. The cytoplasm of the adipocytic cells stained negative for periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue and positive for Melan-A, HMB-45 and tyrosinase, confirming melanocytic lineage. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed trisomy of chromosome 6p22 and disomy of chromosome 3p13 in the nuclei of both the tumor spindle type B cells and in the nuclei of lipomatous tumor cells. Conclusions Lipomatous change can be added to the many histopathologic faces of uveal melanoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lipomatous change in uveal melanoma performed with cytogenetic investigations. PMID:27239451

  20. Histopathological Image Classification Using Discriminative Feature-Oriented Dictionary Learning.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, U K Arvind

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available. PMID:26513781

  1. Chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A survey of surgical and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Aström, M; Rausing, A

    1995-07-01

    The surgical findings and the histopathology are reported for 163 patients (134 males, 29 females; mean age, 38 years; range, 13-72 years; 75% athletes) with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Biopsy specimens from symptomatic (155 cases) and nonsymptomatic (90 cases) parts of the tendon and from the paratenon (97 cases) were obtained. Surgical reports were reviewed and histopathology was evaluated according to a standardized protocol. Eighteen tendons also were analyzed by immunofluorescence for fibrinogen, immunoglobulins, and complement. Degenerative changes (tendinosis) characterized by abnormal fiber structure, focal hypercellularity, and vascular proliferation were noted in 90% of biopsy specimens from symptomatic parts of the tendons and, to a lesser degree, in 20% from nonsymptomatic parts. Fibrinogen could be identified in most lesion biopsy specimens. Partial tendon ruptures were present in 19% of the patients and always occurred in areas afflicted with tendinosis. The paratenon was mostly normal or revealed only slight changes. Increasing age and male gender were associated with more pronounced histopathologic changes. Tendinosis, sometimes complicated by partial rupture, appears to be the major lesion in chronic Achilles tendinopathy; the paratenon is rarely involved. Important features are a lack of inflammatory cells and a poor healing response. PMID:7634699

  2. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  3. Value of histopathologic analysis of skin excisions by GPs

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Chorus, Rob MH; van Diest, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The clinical diagnoses of skin lesions in general practice may sometimes not be very accurate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus final histopathological diagnosis status (benign, pre-malignant/malignant) in 4595 consecutive submissions by GPs. The final diagnosis was pre-malignant or malignant in 215 cases (4.7%). From the 4436 lesions clinically diagnosed as benign, 134 (3.0%) were pre-malignant or malignant on final histological diagnosis. From the 159 lesions clinically diagnosed as pre-malignant or malignant, 78 (49.1%) were in fact benign, and 81 (50.9%) were indeed pre-malignant or malignant on final diagnosis. The sensitivity for a malignant diagnosis was 38%, and the specificity 98%. The proportion of pre-malignancies or malignancies was 0.9% below and 9.2% above the age of 40 years. In conclusion, histopathological investigation of skin excisions by GPs yields a high percentage of unexpected pre-malignancies and malignancies. The number of misdiagnoses was age dependent, with a proportion of 1% and 9% of pre-malignancies/malignancies in patients below and above the age of 40 years, respectively. This indicates that all skin excisions by GPs must undergo routine histopathological investigation to ensure that serious malignancies are not missed. PMID:15970070

  4. Histopathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Guarner, Jeannette; Brandt, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Fungal infections are becoming more frequent because of expansion of at-risk populations and the use of treatment modalities that permit longer survival of these patients. Because histopathologic examination of tissues detects fungal invasion of tissues and vessels as well as the host reaction to the fungus, it is and will remain an important tool to define the diagnostic significance of positive culture isolates or results from PCR testing. However, there are very few instances where the morphological characteristics of fungi are specific. Therefore, histopathologic diagnosis should be primarily descriptive of the fungus and should include the presence or absence of tissue invasion and the host reaction to the infection. The pathology report should also include a comment stating the most frequent fungi associated with that morphology as well as other possible fungi and parasites that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alternate techniques have been used to determine the specific agent present in the histopathologic specimen, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR. In addition, techniques such as laser microdissection will be useful to detect the now more frequently recognized dual fungal infections and the local environment in which this phenomenon occurs. PMID:21482725

  5. The Japanese Viewpoint on the Histopathology of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Jansen, Marnix; Kushima, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Japanese histopathologists have traditionally had greater opportunity to study the histology and clinical course of early gastric cancer because of technological developments including double contrast radiography and endoscopy systems, combined with the higher incidence of gastric cancer in the general population in Japan. Endoscopic resection is now considered best practice for treatment of early gastric cancers with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Histopathologic evaluation plays a critical role in assessing the likelihood of lymph node metastasis on endoscopically resected specimens. There remains disparity between Western and Japanese histopathologists in the conceptual approach to the histopathologic evaluation of neoplastic lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, in particular regarding lesions straddling the borderline between noninvasive and invasive disease. Although in routine practice, the clinical impact of these conceptual differences is small, this disparity does complicate international exchange of datasets and the development of globally applicable formal definitions. Here we review the current practice in histological diagnosis of early gastric cancer in Japan and discuss some of the conceptual differences between Japanese and Western histopathological assessment of lesions in the neoplastic stomach. PMID:27573779

  6. Histopathology of Ossicular Grafts and Implants in Chronic Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Bahmad, Fayez; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We describe the histopathology of ossicular grafts and implants so as to provide insight into factors that may influence functional results after surgery for chronic otitis media. Methods Histopathologic observations were made on 56 cases: 50 surgical specimens and 6 temporal bone cases in which the graft was sectioned in situ. Results and Conclusions Autogenous malleus, incus, and cortical bone grafts behaved in a similar manner and maintained their morphological size, shape, and contour for extended periods of time, at least up to 30 years. These histopathologic observations support the continued use of autograft ossicular and cortical bone grafts for middle ear reconstruction. Cartilage grafts developed chondromalacia with resulting loss of stiffness and showed a tendency to undergo resorption. Synthetic prostheses made of porous plastic (Plastipore, Polycel) elicited foreign body giant cell reactions with various degrees of biodegradation of the implants. Prostheses made of hydroxyapatite and Bioglass were enveloped by a lining of connective tissue and mucosal epithelium. The Bioglass material was broken down into small fragments and partially resorbed by a host response within the middle ear. These results warrant caution in the use of prostheses made of porous plastic or Bioglass. PMID:17419521

  7. Comparison of optical coherence tomography imaging of cataracts with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Roach, William P.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) captured cataract images to subsequent histopathological examination of the lenticular opacities. OCT imaging was performed on anesthetized Rhesus monkeys, known as the delayed effects colony (DEC), with documented cataracts. These monkeys were exposed to several types of radiation during the mid and late 1960s. The radiation and age related cataracts in these animals were closely monitored using a unique grading system developed specifically for the DEC. In addition to this system, a modified version of a common cataract grading scheme for use in humans was applied. Of the original 18 monkeys imaged, lenses were collected at necropsy from seven of these animals, processed, and compared to OCT images. Results showed a direct correlation between the vertical OCT images and the cataractous lesions seen on corresponding histopathological sections of the lenses. Based on the images obtained and their corresponding documented comparison to histopathology, OCT showed tremendous potential to aid identification and characterization of cataracts. There can be artifactual problems with the images related to movement and shadows produced by opacities. However, with the advent of increased speed in imaging and multiplanar imaging, these disadvantages may easily be overcome.

  8. A histopathological outlook on nephrotic syndrome: A pediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Arif, M K; Arif, M; Amjad, N

    2016-01-01

    The developing world is observing changing histopathological patterns of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, the true burden of non-minimal change disease (non-MCD) presenting as INS remains unestimated owing to a paucity of data on renal biopsies. Data were collected from January 2006 to June 2014 on 75 children up to 16 years of age who underwent renal biopsies for INS. Mean age at biopsy was 11.2 ± 3.7 years. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. A total of 25 (33.3%) children were steroid sensitive, 36 (48%) were steroid resistant, 10 (13.3%) were steroid dependent and 4 (5.3%) came with relapse of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histopathological subtype observed in 35 (46.8%) children followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) in 11 (14.7%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MSGN) in 4 (5.3%) each and IgA nephropathy in one (1.3%). MCD was the histological lesion in 19 (25.3%) children. The histopathology established FSGS as the main underlying cause of steroid resistant NS. The study highlights the emergence of non-MCD as the common cause of INS in the pediatric population and signifies the importance of renal biopsies in children with INS. PMID:27194833

  9. Histopathological baseline levels and confounding factors in common sole (Solea solea) for marine environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, N; Zorita, I; Costa, P M; Larreta, J; Franco, J

    2015-09-01

    Liver and gonad histopathology, biometric parameters and hepatic metal bioaccumulation were assessed monthly over a one-year period in common soles from the Basque continental shelf, in order to determine baseline levels and confounding factors within biomonitoring studies. Biometric parameters and hepatic metal bioaccumulation varied according to season and gender. Accordingly, hepatic histopathological traits presented seasonal variations related to the reproductive cycle. However, the hepatic histopathological index showed that seasonality and gender were not significant confounding factors. Conversely, the gonad histopathological index was modulated by season and gender. As for organ comparison, the liver endured more severe histopathological damage than the gonad. In brief, the sampling period and gender may not affect the estimation of hepatic histopathological indices for biomonitoring purposes. Nonetheless, due to different sensitivities to environmental 'noise' variables, the sampling period and gender differentiation should be thoroughly considered for the assessment of gonad histopathology, biometrics and metal bioaccumulation. PMID:26364682

  10. Evaluation of the hematoma consequences, neurobehavioral profiles, and histopathology in a rat model of pontine hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Rolland, William; Manaenko, Anatol; Krafft, Paul R.; Kamper, Joel E.; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hartman, Richard E.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Object Primary pontine hemorrhage (PPH) represents approximately 7% of all intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and is a clinical condition of which little is known. The aim of this study was to characterize the early brain injury, neurobehavioral outcome, and long-term histopathology in a novel preclinical rat model of PPH. Methods The authors stereotactically infused collagenase (Type VII) into the ventral pontine tegmentum of the rats, in accordance with the most commonly affected clinical region. Measures of cerebrovascular permeability (brain water content, hemoglobin assay, Evans blue, collagen Type IV, ZO-1, and MMP-2 and MMP-9) and neurological deficit were quantified at 24 hours postinfusion (Experiment 1). Functional outcome was measured over a 30-day period using a vertebrobasilar scale (the modified Voetsch score), open field, wire suspension, beam balance, and inclined-plane tests (Experiment 2). Neurocognitive ability was determined at Week 3 using the rotarod (motor learning), T-maze (working memory), and water maze (spatial learning and memory) (Experiment 3), followed by histopathological analysis 1 week later (Experiment 4). Results Stereotactic collagenase infusion caused dose-dependent elevations in hematoma volume, brain edema, neurological deficit, and blood-brain barrier rupture, while physiological variables remained stable. Functional outcomes mostly normalized by Week 3, whereas neurocognitive deficits paralleled the cystic cavitary lesion at 30 days. Obstructive hydrocephalus did not develop despite a clinically relevant 30-day mortality rate (approximately 54%). Conclusions These results suggest that the model can mimic several translational aspects of pontine hemorrhage in humans and can be used in the evaluation of potential preclinical therapeutic interventions. PMID:23198805

  11. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Ansari, Hena A.; Sherwani, Rana K.; Rahman, Khaliqur; Akhtar, Nishat

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified) are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified). A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup. PMID:21436872

  12. Cutaneous porphyrias part I: epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Horner, Mary E; Alikhan, Ali; Tintle, Suzanne; Tortorelli, Silvia; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Hand, Jennifer L

    2013-12-01

    The porphyrias are a group of disorders characterized by defects in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Many present with skin findings including photosensitivity, bullae, hypertrichosis, and scarring. Systemic symptoms may include abdominal pain, neuropsychiatric changes, anemia, and liver disease. With advances in DNA analysis, researchers are discovering the underlying genetic causes of the porphyrias, enabling family members to be tested for genetic mutations. Here we present a comprehensive review of porphyria focusing on those with cutaneous manifestations. In Part I, we have included the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and histopathology. Treatment and management options will be discussed in Part II. PMID:24261722

  13. Practical use of a word processor in a histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, J C; Ibrahim, N B; Mackintosh, I; Norris, D

    1982-01-01

    Some of the facilities available with a commercially purchased word processing program, linked to a DEC PDP 11/23 computer are described, together with an account of the practical histopathological use. The system is based on a share of the computer with a Clinical Chemistry Department. Development was time-consuming and required the constant availability of the Department of Physics. However, once working, considerable saving in secretarial time has resulted and a number of projects have been started which would not have been contemplated without the use of the word processor and its linked computer. Images PMID:7068906

  14. Happenings in histopathology - a post-World War II perspective.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2007-08-01

    There have been several important developments in the practice of histopathology since World War II; those reviewed in this lecture are grouped under 4 headings: new techniques (cytopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology), organisational issues (recruitment, training and certification, subspecialties, quality control and consultations), ethical and legal issues (service costs, and the ownership and uses of biopsy tissues) and globalisation (international associations, standardised classification and nomenclature, and telepathology). Advances in the fields of molecular pathology and telepathology are expected to have the greatest impact on the practice of pathology in the next decade. PMID:17767342

  15. Alien hand sign in association with Alzheimer's histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, J A; Lantos, P L; Jackson, M; Marsden, C D; Scadding, J W; Rossor, M N

    1993-01-01

    A 68 year old man is described with an alien left hand, cortical myoclonus, bilateral parietal lobe dysfunction and memory impairment but preserved language skills. The clinical diagnosis was of corticobasal degeneration but at necropsy, four years after the onset of symptoms, the pathology was of Alzheimer's disease together with some scattered chromatolytic pale neurons in the cerebral cortex. The alien hand sign has not previously been described in Alzheimer's dementia and is an illustration of the clinical heterogeneity that may occur in association with Alzheimer histopathology. Images PMID:8410026

  16. Histopathological changes in sheep experimentally infected with Babesia ovis.

    PubMed

    Habela, M A; Reina, D; Navarrete, I; Redondo, E; Hernández, S

    1991-01-01

    Histopathological study was made of 12 Merino sheep - five splenectomized and seven intact - experimentally infected with Babesia ovis. Non-purulent encephalitis; initially exudative and subsequently interstitial pneumonia; pericarditis, myocarditis and haemorrhagic endocarditis; centrilobular necrotic hepatitis; hyperplasia of the lymphoreticular system; necrosis and vascular changes in adrenal glands were observed. The kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute tubular necrosis typical of kidney shock syndrome. The lesions observed were suggestive of hypovolemic shock culminating in haemorrhagic diathesis owing to consumptive coagulopathy. Additionally, the massive release of catabolites from lysis and necrosis apparently produced endotoxic shock. PMID:2024425

  17. Histopathologic features in a case of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pace, Sarah; Bingham, Jonathan; Royer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We describe a case of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) also known as Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D Syndrome (HIDS) presenting as a Sweet-like syndrome in a 5-week-old with multiple erythematous plaques, fever, aseptic meningitis, and bronchiolitis. The locations of the predominant plaques were periumbilical and periocular, which originally prompted concern for omphalitis and preseptal cellulitis. Histopathology demonstrated a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis with prominent squamous syringometaplasia and leukocytoclasis in the absence of a vasculitis. This case is reported here due to the unique findings of a prominent histiocytic component in addition to the typically described neutrophilic infiltrate. PMID:26904447

  18. Contrast improvement of terahertz images of thin histopathologic sections

    PubMed Central

    Formanek, Florian; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Yasuda, Akio

    2011-01-01

    We present terahertz images of 10 μm thick histopathologic sections obtained in reflection geometry with a time-domain spectrometer, and demonstrate improved contrast for sections measured in paraffin with water. Automated segmentation is applied to the complex refractive index data to generate clustered terahertz images distinguishing cancer from healthy tissues. The degree of classification of pixels is then evaluated using registered visible microscope images. Principal component analysis and propagation simulations are employed to investigate the origin and the gain of image contrast. PMID:21326635

  19. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  20. Natural Unusual Myeloblastosis in a Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): Histopathologic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Khordadmehr, M; Ashrafi-Helana, J; Madadi, M S; Jarolmasjed, S H

    2016-03-01

    The subgroup J avian leukosis virus favors the myelocytic series cells and causes myeloid leukosis (myeloblastosis and myelocytomatosis). Natural cases of myeloblastosis (myeloblastic myeloid leukosis) are uncommon and usually occur in adult chickens. This paper describes clinical signs and gross and histopathologic features of myeloblastosis in an adult female budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) that was infected naturally. At necropsy, the spleen was greatly enlarged (enlarged seven or eight times normal) while the other visceral organs were normal. Histologic examination of the spleen indicated a massive intravascular and extravascular accumulation of myeloblasts with a variable proportion of promyelocytes and myelocytes in the red pulp of the spleen. PMID:26953949

  1. Histopathological spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Surya, Varun; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Verma, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA) are distinctive salivary gland neoplasms, with an almost exclusive propensity to arise from the minor salivary glands. PLGA frequently manifests as an asymptomatic, slow-growing mass within the oral cavity, which must be separated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign mixed tumor for therapeutic and prognostic considerations. We report a case of a 67-year-old male, who presented with a long-standing mass in the palate. This lesion was diagnosed as PLGA based on histopathological findings, which was further confirmed by the immunohistochemical marker. PMID:26604510

  2. Histopathologic features in a case of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Sarah; Bingham, Jonathan; Royer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD) also known as Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D Syndrome (HIDS) presenting as a Sweet-like syndrome in a 5-week-old with multiple erythematous plaques, fever, aseptic meningitis, and bronchiolitis. The locations of the predominant plaques were periumbilical and periocular, which originally prompted concern for omphalitis and preseptal cellulitis. Histopathology demonstrated a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis with prominent squamous syringometaplasia and leukocytoclasis in the absence of a vasculitis. This case is reported here due to the unique findings of a prominent histiocytic component in addition to the typically described neutrophilic infiltrate. PMID:26904447

  3. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  4. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  5. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  6. Histopathological and genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in rats.

    PubMed

    Ezzi, Lobna; Belhadj Salah, Imen; Haouas, Zohra; Sakly, Amina; Grissa, Intissar; Chakroun, Sana; Kerkeni, Emna; Hassine, Mohsen; Mehdi, Meriem; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos's sub-acute exposure on male rats. Two groups with six animals each were orally treated, respectively, with 3.1 mg/kg b w and 6.2 mg/kg b w of chlorpyrifos during 4 weeks. The genotoxic effect of chlopyrifos was investigated using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Some hematological and liver's histopathological changes were also evaluated. Results revealed that chlorpyrifos induced histopathological alterations in liver parenchyma. The lymphoid infiltration observed in liver sections and the increase in white blood cells parameter are signs of inflammation. A significant increase in the platelet' count and in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio was observed in chlorpyrifos-treated groups which could be due to the stimulatory effect of chlorpyrifos on cell formation in the bone marrow at lower doses. In addition, the increase of bone marrow micronucleus percentage and the comet tail length revealed a genotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos in vivo. PMID:26545888

  7. [Histopathology of strobilocercosis found in the livers of white mouse.].

    PubMed

    Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Miman, Ozlem; Gül, Mehmet; Daldal, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    The adult form of Taenia taeniaeformis is found in the intestine of the cat and cheetah. The larva form is called Strobilocercus fasciolaris and is found in rodents such as mice and rats. Our objective was to draw attention to that rare zoonosis, since it has already been reported in the literature as strobilocercosis in humans. During an experimental animal study conducted at Inonu University, some unexpected cystic formations were found in the livers of nine 6-8-month-old healthy white mice, which affected the conducted study negatively. These cystic formations were examined histopathologically. Prepared sections were stained with haemotoxylin eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Masson trichrome stains, and examined by light microscopy. Strobilocercus fasciolaris larvae that curled towards cyst cavity and their hooks were seen. Plasma cells, macrophage, focus of eosinophilic infiltration and fibroblastic connective tissue were simultaneous found. In this paper, histopathological changes in intermediate hosts caused by Strobilocercus fasciolaris and other cestod larvae have been discussed. PMID:20340085

  8. Histopathologic ear findings of syphilis: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Hızlı, Ömer; Hızlı, Pelin; Kaya, Serdar; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, histopathologic studies of syphilitic ears have generally focused on hydropic changes; so far, no such studies have investigated peripheral vestibular otopathology using differential interference contrast microscopy, in patients with syphilis. For this study, we examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with a history of syphilis. Using conventional light microscopy, we performed qualitative histopathologic assessment. In addition, using differential interference contrast microscopy, we performed type I and type II vestibular hair cell counts on each vestibular sense organ with minimal autolysis; in which the neuroepithelium was oriented perpendicular to the plane of section. We then compared vestibular hair cell densities (cells per 0.01 mm² surface area) in the syphilis group vs. the control group. In the syphilis group, we observed precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces in 1 (7.7 %) of the samples and endolymphatic hydrops in eight (61.5 %) of the samples. Hydrops involved the cochlea (four samples) and/or saccule (four samples). In addition, the syphilis group experienced a significant loss of type II vestibular hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule, and in the cristae of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals, as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). PMID:26573155

  9. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Elshama, Said Said; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  10. Oral mucoceles: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Jamile Gomes; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; De Aquino Xavier, Flávia Caló; Schlaepfer-Sales, Caroline Brandi; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of oral mucoceles and the immunohistochemical expression of cellular and extracellular matrix components in these lesions. One hundred cases of oral mucoceles were examined for clinicopathological features. The expression of mast cell tryptase, CD68, MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and CD34 was investigated immunohistochemically in 32 cases. The lesions arose as nodules or blisters of variable color. The mean age was 23.2 years and a higher male frequency was observed. The most common locations were the lower lip (92%), followed by the floor of the mouth (7%), and palate (1%). The lesion size ranged from 0.4 to 3.0cm. Unusual histopathological findings as superficial mucoceles (n=16, 16%), pseudopapillary projections (n=3, 3%), epithelioid histiocytes (n=4, 4%), multinucleated giant cells (n=1, 1%) and myxoglobulosis (n=9, 9%) were also seen. Mast cells and CD68-positive macrophages, MMP-1, MMP-9 and CD34-positive blood vessels were seen in all cases. A significant association was seen between mast cells and MMP-1 (p=0.03) and between macrophages and MMP-1 (p=0.01). This study provided important insight into the demographic and histopathological occurrence of oral mucoceles. The tissue remodeling seen in these lesions mainly involved the migration and interaction of mast cells, macrophages and MMP-1. PMID:23726142

  11. Vascular leg ulcers: histopathologic study of 293 patients.

    PubMed

    Misciali, Cosimo; Dika, Emi; Baraldi, Carlotta; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Mirelli, Michele; Stella, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:25072681

  12. Histopathology after Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Meniere’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Woo; Fayad, Jose; Linthicum, Fred; Ishiyama, Akira; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The putative goal of sac surgery in Meniere’s syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac, and thereby relieving hydrops. There is scant published histopathological data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal. Objective To determine if sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Meniere’s syndrome. Methods Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data was collected on presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo. Results The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in two cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases. Conclusion Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Meniere’s syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown. PMID:21436748

  13. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Griffel, B.; Liban, E.; Modan, B.

    1986-03-01

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons.

  14. Bag-of-visual-ngrams for histopathology image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Monroy, A. Pastor; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Escalante, Hugo Jair; Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes an extension of the Bag-of-Visual-Words (BoVW) representation for image categorization (IC) of histophatology images. This representation is one of the most used approaches in several high-level computer vision tasks. However, the BoVW representation has an important limitation: the disregarding of spatial information among visual words. This information may be useful to capture discriminative visual-patterns in specific computer vision tasks. In order to overcome this problem we propose the use of visual n-grams. N-grams based-representations are very popular in the field of natural language processing (NLP), in particular within text mining and information retrieval. We propose building a codebook of n-grams and then representing images by histograms of visual n-grams. We evaluate our proposal in the challenging task of classifying histopathology images. The novelty of our proposal lies in the fact that we use n-grams as attributes for a classification model (together with visual-words, i.e., 1-grams). This is common practice within NLP, although, to the best of our knowledge, this idea has not been explored yet within computer vision. We report experimental results in a database of histopathology images where our proposed method outperforms the traditional BoVWs formulation.

  15. Hidradenoma Papilliferum With Oncocytic Metaplasia: A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Elbendary, Amira; Cochran, Eric; Xie, Qiang; Kabigting, Filamer; Pereira, Leanne; Elston, Dirk M; Heilman, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum is a benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm, commonly occurring in the vulva and perianal region of adult women. It has characteristic histopathological features composed of anastomosing and branching tubules, lined by columnar cells, and a basal layer of myoepithelial cells. A 39-year-old woman was evaluated for 2 asymptomatic labial masses. The histopathological examination revealed a Bartholin's cyst and a hidradenoma papilliferum. The latter contains a distinct area of oncocytic/oxyphilic metaplasia. Immunohistochemical stains revealed positive staining for gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP)-15 and androgen receptor. GATA-3, a protein expressed in sweat glands, highlights a similar positive staining pattern with weaker staining in areas of oncocytic metaplasia. P63 highlighted the myoepithelial differentiation. In situ hybridization for Human Papilloma Virus 6, 11, 16, and 18 was negative. P53 was negative and Ki-67 was low, confirming its benign nature. Oncocytes are enlarged epithelial cells with voluminous eosinophilic granular cytoplasm resulting from staining of nonribosomal cytoplasmic components. Few reports documented it in hidradenoma papilliferum. Our case demonstrated a florid distinct appearance of this metaplasia. The immunoprofiles of this oncocytic metaplasia such as p53 negativity and positivity for androgen receptor and GCDFP-15 demonstrates similarity to apocrine metaplasia in the breast. The authors' case demonstrates the benign nature of oncocytic metaplasia and supports the common origin of oncocytic cells and columnar cells in hidradenoma papilliferum. PMID:27097337

  16. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; EL-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  17. Histopathological examination of spine tumors after treatment with radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zwagerman, Nathan T; McDowell, Michael M; Hamilton, Ronald L; Monaco, Edward A; Flickinger, John C; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased survival time after diagnosis of neoplastic disease has resulted in a gradual increase in spine tumor incidence. Radiosurgery is frequently a viable alternative to operative management in a population with severe medical comorbidities. The authors sought to assess the histopathological consequences of radiosurgery in the subset of patients progressing to operative intervention. METHODS Eighteen patients who underwent radiosurgery for spine tumors between 2008 and 2014 subsequently progressed to surgical treatment. A histopathological examination of these cases was performed. Indications for surgery included symptomatic compression fractures, radiographic instability, and symptoms of cord or cauda equina compression. Biopsy samples were obtained from the tumor within the radiosurgical zone in all cases and were permanently fixated. Viable tumor samples were stained for Ki 67. RESULTS Fifteen patients had metastatic lesions and 3 patients had neurofibromas. The mean patient age was 57 years. The operative indication was symptomatic compression in 10 cases (67%). The most frequent metastatic lesions were breast cancer (4 cases), renal cell carcinoma (3), prostate cancer (2), and endometrial cancer (2). In 9 (60%) of the 15 metastatic cases, histological examination of the lesions showed minimal evidence of inflammation. Viable tumor at the margins of the radiosurgery was seen in 9 (60%) of the metastatic cases. Necrosis in the tumor bed was frequent, as was fibrotic bone marrow. Vascular ectasia was seen in 2 of 15 metastatic cases, but sclerosis with ectasia was frequent. No evidence of malignant conversion was seen in the periphery of the lesions in the 3 neurofibroma cases. In 1 case of neurofibroma, the lesion demonstrated some small areas of remnant tumor in the radiosurgical target zone. CONCLUSIONS This case series demonstrates important histopathological characteristics of spinal lesions treated by SRS. Regions with the highest exposure to

  18. Histopathological and imaging modifications in chronic ethanolic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Folescu, Roxana; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara; Sişu, Alina Maria; Motoc, Andrei Gheorghe Marius; Ilie, Adrian Cosmin; Moise, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Chronic abuse of alcohol triggers different types of brain damage. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome gets together Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome. Another type of encephalopathy associated with chronic ethanol consumption is represented by the Marchiafava-Bignami malady or syndrome, an extremely rare neurological disorder, which is characterized by a demielinization of corpus callosum, extending as far as a necrosis. Because the frequency of ethanolic encephalopathy is increased and plays a major role in the sudden death of ethanolic patients, we have studied the chronic ethanolic encephalopathy both in deceased and in living patients, presenting different pathologies related to the chronic ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effects of chronic ethanolic encephalopathy on the central nervous system based both on the histopathological exam of the tissular samples and the imaging investigation, such as MRI and CT. PMID:25329105

  19. Micro-structural tissue analysis for automatic histopathological image annotation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gloria; Romero, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    This article presents a new approach for extracting high level semantic concepts from digital histopathological images. This strategy provides not only annotation of several biological concepts, but also a coarse location of these concepts. The proposed approach is composed of five main steps: (1) a stain decomposition stage, which separates the contribution of hematoxylin and eosin dyes, (2) a color standardization that corrects color image differences, (3) a part-based representation, which describes the image in terms of the conditional probability of relevant local patches, selected by their stain contributions, (4) a discriminative classification model, which bridges out the found patterns and the biological concepts, (5) a block-based annotation strategy that identifies the multiple biological concepts within an image. A set of 655 skin images, containing 10 biological concepts of skin tissues were used for assessing the proposed approach, obtaining a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 67% when annotating images with multiple concepts. PMID:21997952

  20. Delay in the histopathologic diagnosis of mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Skov, Anne G; Gniadecki, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult in early stages and is based on a combination of clinical findings and histopathologic criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic delay in MF and to investigate the rationale for multiple biopsies in a single-centre, retrospective study of 157 patients with MF. The first biopsy was diagnostic for MF in 25% of cases. The median diagnostic delay was 2.3 years and depended on whether the diagnosis was established after one or multiple biopsies. The chance of a biopsy resulting in a diagnosis of MF was 25% irrespective of the number of the biopsy in the sequence. There was a significant diagnostic delay, especially in patients in whom the initial biopsy was not specific. Sampling error and unnecessary postponement of subsequent biopsies are likely factors and therefore multiple biopsies should be considered in patients with skin lesions suggesting MF. PMID:25228392

  1. Blepharopigmentation: histopathologic observations and X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.B.; Payne, C.M.; Heyde, R.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Blepharopigmentation or permanent eyeliner is a popular cosmetic procedure currently performed by a variety of methods. All methods attempt to implant ferrous oxide pigment into the dermis. We performed histopathologic studies on a series of three eyelid specimens, including two by a previously undescribed multi-needle pigment delivery system. Light microscopy revealed the epidermis to be pigment-free and the dermis to contain pigment in clumps. Transmission electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the pigment was largely in macrophages. Energy-dispersive x-ray micro-analysis showed that in addition to iron and talc, titanium particles were also present. These findings suggest that the pigment is tolerated by the eyelid despite the fact that current pigments are contaminated.

  2. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Rajanna, Dayananda Kumar; Reddy, Anjani; Srinivas, Naren Satya; Aneja, Ankur

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23814685

  3. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring. PMID:26209126

  4. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  5. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  6. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  7. [Histopathologic study of melanoma of the choroid after proton therapy].

    PubMed

    Devouassoux Shishe Boran, M; Grange, J D; Patricot, L M; Adeleine, P; Chauvel, P; Chiquet, C; Vitrey, D; Thivolet Béjui, F

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate irradiation effects on choroidal melanomas, histopathologic findings of 18 eyes whose primary treatment was enucleation were compared to 15 eyes enucleated after proton beam irradiation. Irradiated tumors showed more likely necrosis (p = 0.01) had balloon cells (p = 0.01), and inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.05). In the irradiated group, the prevalence of tumor blood vessel damage was higher (p = 0.0002) and mitotic figures were fewer (p = 0.01). These findings suggest that proton beam irradiation damages tumor cells and alters the tumor's capacity for cellular reproduction. It damages blood vessels leading to tumor necrosis. It induces an inflammatory response of unknown effects. Radiosensitivity of choroidal melanomas cannot be assessed using conventional histologic methods. However, tumor necrosis, mitotic activity and rate of balloon cells can help to establish tumoral sensitivity to irradiation. PMID:9296578

  8. Histopathological Features of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Japanese Patients.

    PubMed

    Hermanto, Yulius; Takagi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Ishii, Akira; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Funaki, Takeshi; Mineharu, Yohei; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-06-15

    Clinical features of high risk brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are well characterized. However, pathological evidences about the differences that are possessed by high risk patients are still lacking. We reviewed archived routine hematoxylin-eosin specimens from a total of 54 surgical treated BAVMs. The histopathological features in nidus were semi-quantitatively analyzed. We obtained the pathological differences of BAVMs nidus between several clinical features. Among the analyzed pathological features, the significant differences were observed in degree of venous enlargement and intimal hyperplasia. Juvenile, female, diffuse nidus, high Spetzler-Martin grade, and low flow patients had a lesser degree of those parameters compared to adult, male, compact nidus, low Spetzler-Martin grade and high flow patients. High risk profiles of BAVMs patients were well-reflected in the nidus pathology. Therefore, juvenile, female, diffuse nidus, and low flow in Japanese BAVMs patients might have different vascular remodeling process that predispose to higher tendency of hemorrhage. PMID:27053330

  9. An on-line computer system for histopathology reporting.

    PubMed

    Codling, B W; Macartney, J C; Curran, R C

    1977-12-01

    An on-line computer system was developed for issuing histopathology reports as part of an integrated hospital information system. Input is through a Cossor visual display unit with a typewriter keyboard to a Univac 418 III computer. Stored information is available to authorised hospital staff via similar visual display units located in the wards and laboratories. Existing programs and computer staff were used to provide the new service. It has resulted in better method, speedier communication, and saving of laboratory staff time. The system has yet to be fully tested but initial reactions are favourable and indicate that the investment in computer staff time and extra laboratory equipment will be cost effective. PMID:604358

  10. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390

  11. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  12. Ultrasound, x-ray mammography, and histopathology of cystosarcoma phylloides.

    PubMed

    Cole-Beuglet, C; Soriano, R; Kurtz, A B; Meyer, J E; Kopans, D B; Goldberg, B B

    1983-02-01

    Ultrasound and x-ray mammograms were obtained in 8 patients with palpable breast masses, which were subsequently proven to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Histopathologic examination of the 8 tumors showed benign cystosarcoma phylloides in 5, recurrent benign tumor in 1, coexistent invasive papillary carcinoma in 1, and coexistent in situ duct cancer and in situ lobular cancer in 1. A retrospective review of the B-scan images was undertaken to list the descriptive ultrasound features of cystosarcoma phylloides. The ultrasound findings included low-level internal echoes, smooth walls, and good through transmission. The carcinomas were indistinguishable from the benign lesions, although ultrasound was able to distinguish the cystosarcoma phylloides lesions as predominantly solid lobulated masses. PMID:6294737

  13. Histopathology of drug eruptions – general criteria, common patterns, and differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Weyers, Wolfgang; Metze, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Drug eruptions are among the most common inflammatory diseases of the skin and also among those biopsied most often. Yet, the value of histopathologic examination of drug eruptions has often been disputed. One reason is that the spectrum of histopathologic changes in drug eruptions is broad. Nevertheless, each histopathologic pattern assumed by drug eruptions has a limited number of differential diagnoses, and numerous criteria and clues are available to distinguish drug eruptions from other diseases associated with those patterns. By recognition of common patterns, consideration of differential diagnoses, and attention to distinct clues, a histopathologic diagnosis of drug eruption can usually be made with confidence. PMID:24396718

  14. Stain Specific Standardization of Whole-Slide Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Bejnordi, Babak Ehteshami; Litjens, Geert; Timofeeva, Nadya; Otte-Höller, Irene; Homeyer, André; Karssemeijer, Nico; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M

    2016-02-01

    Variations in the color and intensity of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological slides can potentially hamper the effectiveness of quantitative image analysis. This paper presents a fully automated algorithm for standardization of whole-slide histopathological images to reduce the effect of these variations. The proposed algorithm, called whole-slide image color standardizer (WSICS), utilizes color and spatial information to classify the image pixels into different stain components. The chromatic and density distributions for each of the stain components in the hue-saturation-density color model are aligned to match the corresponding distributions from a template whole-slide image (WSI). The performance of the WSICS algorithm was evaluated on two datasets. The first originated from 125 H&E stained WSIs of lymph nodes, sampled from 3 patients, and stained in 5 different laboratories on different days of the week. The second comprised 30 H&E stained WSIs of rat liver sections. The result of qualitative and quantitative evaluations using the first dataset demonstrate that the WSICS algorithm outperforms competing methods in terms of achieving color constancy. The WSICS algorithm consistently yields the smallest standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the normalized median intensity measure. Using the second dataset, we evaluated the impact of our algorithm on the performance of an already published necrosis quantification system. The performance of this system was significantly improved by utilizing the WSICS algorithm. The results of the empirical evaluations collectively demonstrate the potential contribution of the proposed standardization algorithm to improved diagnostic accuracy and consistency in computer-aided diagnosis for histopathology data. PMID:26353368

  15. Experimental venous thrombi: MRI characteristics with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Ichiki, M; Sakai, Y; Nango, M; Nakamura, K; Matsui, H; Cho, H; Kitayama, T; Sahara, T; Otani, N; Inoue, Y; Miki, Y

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MRI characteristics of venous thrombus over set time thresholds with histopathological correlation in a porcine model. Methods Inferior vena cava thrombi were induced in 12 pigs. MRI was performed in three pigs 2 h, 1 day, 3 days and 2 weeks after thrombus induction. Results The MRI characteristics were analysed in correlation with histopathological findings. The thrombi after 2 hours, which consisted of red blood cells (RBCs), showed isointensity on T1 weighted images (T1WIs) and hyperintensity on both T2 weighted images (T2WIs) and diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was 1.93×10−3 mm2 s−1. The thrombi after Day 1, which consisted of RBCs and migrating neutrophils at the periphery, showed isointensity on T1WIs, slight hyperintensity on T2WIs and hypointensity on DWIs. The mean ADC value was 1.62×10−3 mm/s−2. The thrombi after Day 3, which consisted of RBCs and peripheral inflammatory cells including macrophages, showed isointensity with peripheral hyperintense regions on T1WIs and hypointensity on both T2WIs and DWIs. The mean ADC value was 1.67×10−3 mm2 s−1. After 2 weeks, the thrombi, which revealed RBC lysis surrounded by granulation tissues, showed isointensity on T1WIs and hyperintensity on T2WIs and DWIs. The mean ADC value was 2.48×10−3 mm2 s−1. Conclusion The temporal MRI characteristics seemed to be related to chemical and physical changes in RBC and organisation of granulation tissues. Free radicals generated by macrophages might also be related to some extent. PMID:22457401

  16. Learning semantic histopathological representation for basal cell carcinoma classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Rueda, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of a histopathology glass slide is a complex process that involves accurate recognition of several structures, their function in the tissue and their relation with other structures. The way in which the pathologist represents the image content and the relations between those objects yields a better and accurate diagnoses. Therefore, an appropriate semantic representation of the image content will be useful in several analysis tasks such as cancer classification, tissue retrieval and histopahological image analysis, among others. Nevertheless, to automatically recognize those structures and extract their inner semantic meaning are still very challenging tasks. In this paper we introduce a new semantic representation that allows to describe histopathological concepts suitable for classification. The approach herein identify local concepts using a dictionary learning approach, i.e., the algorithm learns the most representative atoms from a set of random sampled patches, and then models the spatial relations among them by counting the co-occurrence between atoms, while penalizing the spatial distance. The proposed approach was compared with a bag-of-features representation in a tissue classification task. For this purpose, 240 histological microscopical fields of view, 24 per tissue class, were collected. Those images fed a Support Vector Machine classifier per class, using 120 images as train set and the remaining ones for testing, maintaining the same proportion of each concept in the train and test sets. The obtained classification results, averaged from 100 random partitions of training and test sets, shows that our approach is more sensitive in average than the bag-of-features representation in almost 6%.

  17. Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Danielle L; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Tawa, Gregory J; Baer, Christine E; Permenter, Matthew G; McDyre, Bonna C; Dennis, William E; Boyle, Molly H; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Streicker, Michael A; Snowden, Bobbi S; Lewis, John A; Wallqvist, Anders; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals induce liver injury, which is difficult to diagnose without invasive procedures. Identifying indicators of end organ injury can complement exposure-based assays and improve predictive power. A multiplexed approach was used to experimentally evaluate a panel of 67 genes predicted to be associated with the fibrosis pathology by computationally mining DrugMatrix, a publicly available repository of gene microarray data. Five-day oral gavage studies in male Sprague Dawley rats dosed with varying concentrations of 3 fibrogenic compounds (allyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, and 4,4'-methylenedianiline) and 2 nonfibrogenic compounds (bromobenzene and dexamethasone) were conducted. Fibrosis was definitively diagnosed by histopathology. The 67-plex gene panel accurately diagnosed fibrosis in both microarray and multiplexed-gene expression assays. Necrosis and inflammatory infiltration were comorbid with fibrosis. ANOVA with contrasts identified that 51 of the 67 predicted genes were significantly associated with the fibrosis phenotype, with 24 of these specific to fibrosis alone. The protein product of the gene most strongly correlated with the fibrosis phenotype PCOLCE (Procollagen C-Endopeptidase Enhancer) was dose-dependently elevated in plasma from animals administered fibrogenic chemicals (P < .05). Semiquantitative global mass spectrometry analysis of the plasma identified an additional 5 protein products of the gene panel which increased after fibrogenic toxicant administration: fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, vitronectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, and α2-macroglobulin. These results support the data mining approach for identifying gene and/or protein panels for assessing liver injury and may suggest bridging biomarkers for molecular mediators linked to histopathology. PMID:26396155

  18. Histopathology of the inner ear in unoperated acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mohd Ridzo; Khan, Aayesha M; Nadol, Joseph B

    2003-11-01

    Although hearing loss is the most common presenting symptom in patients with acoustic neuroma, the pathophysiology of hearing loss associated with acoustic neuroma is unknown. Although primary dysfunction of the auditory nerve is intuitively logical, available histopathologic and clinical data suggest that although neural degeneration is common, it alone does not adequately account for hearing loss in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 11 cases of unoperated unilateral acoustic neuromas. Temporal bones were identified by means of a search mechanism provided by the National Temporal Bone, Hearing, and Balance Pathology Resource Registry and were prepared for light microscopy by standard techniques. Quantification of spiral ganglion cells, hair cells, stria vascularis, and spiral ligament was accomplished for each specimen. In addition, the maximum diameter and volume of each tumor were calculated from histopathologic sections. Increasing tumor size did predict a reduced spiral ganglion count. However, although there was a tendency for decreasing spiral ganglion cell count and for increasing tumor size to predict a higher pure tone average and lower speech discrimination score, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. In tumor ears in which the speech discrimination score was 50% or less, there was always significant degeneration of other structures of the inner ear in addition to neurons, including hair cells, the stria vascularis, and the spiral ligament. Endolymphatic hydrops and eosinophilic precipitate in the perilymphatic spaces were found in 2 of 3 such cases. It is concluded that acoustic neuromas appear to cause hearing loss, not only by causing degeneration of the auditory nerve, but also by inducing degenerative changes in the inner ear. It is hypothesized that the proteinaceous material seen histologically may represent the products of up-regulated genes in acoustic neuroma, some of which may interfere with normal

  19. Histopathological study of the outer membrane of the dura mater in chronic sub dural hematoma: Its clinical and radiological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Trivedi, Adarsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: A chronic subdural hematoma is an old clot of blood on the surface of the brain between dura and arachnoid membranes. These liquefied clots most often occur in patients aged 60 and older with brain atrophy. When the brain shrinks inside the skull over time, minor head trauma can cause tearing of blood vessels over the brain surface, resulting in a slow accumulation of blood over several days to weeks. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the role of membrane in hematoma evaluation and to correlate its histopathology with clinic-radiological aspects of the condition and overall prognosis of patients. Material and Methods: The study incorporated all cases of chronic SDH admitted to the Neurosurgery department of JLN Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, between November 2011 and November 2013. All such cases were analyzed clinically, radiologically like site, size, thickness in computed tomography, the attenuation value, midline shift and histopathological features were recorded. Criteria for Inclusion: All cases of chronic subdural haematoma irrespective of age and sex were incorporated into the study. Criteria for Exclusion: All cases of acute subdural haematoma and cases of chronic sub dural hematoma which were managed conservatively irrespective of age and sex were excluded from the study Results: In our series of cases, the most common histopathological type of membrane was the inflammatory membrane (Type II) seen in 42.30% of cases followed by hemorrhagic inflammatory membrane (Type III) seen in 34.62% of cases while scar inflammatory type of membrane (Type IV) was seen in 23.08% of cases. No case with noninflammatory type (Type I) was encountered. PMID:26889276

  20. Comparison of gross and histopathologic findings with quantitative computed tomographic bone density in the distal third metacarpal bone of racehorses.

    PubMed

    Drum, Martha G; Kawcak, Christopher E; Norrdin, Robert W; Park, Richard D; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Les, Clifford M

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of subchondral bone density determined by quantitative computed tomography (CT) with gross and histopathologic changes have not been made in horses. The goal of this study was to determine if mean quantitative CT density and mean voxel standard deviation are associated with the presence and severity of osteochondral lesions in the palmar aspect of the distal third metacarpal bone in racing horses. Metacarpophalangeal joints from nine racehorses were imaged using CT and scored for gross damage. Four-millimeter-thick sagittal and 30 degrees palmar dorsal plane sections were cut, decalcified and stained with hematoxylin and eosin from the distal third metacarpal bone. Microscopic osteochondral lesions and subchondral remodeling were scored on a scale of 0-3. Percent subchondral bone, expressed as the ratio of bone volume to tissue volume, was also measured. Mean quantitative CT density and mean voxel standard deviation were measured from three-dimensional models of CT images comparable with histologic sections. Mean quantitative CT density was not associated with lesion severity or number of lesions. A weak correlation between mean quantitative CT density and gross score was found, but mean quantitative CT density was not predictive for gross score. Mean voxel standard deviation was not correlated with gross or histopathologic measures, but was predictive of mild osteochondral lesions. Results support the association of subchondral remodeling with the development of palmar metacarpal lesions. However, there was not a strong correlation between mean quantitative CT density or mean voxel standard deviation and histopathologic lesions of the distal third metacarpal bone. PMID:18018722

  1. Repair of bone defect by nano-modified white mineral trioxide aggregates in rabbit: A histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Tanideh, Nader; Asatourian, Armen; Janghorban, Kamal; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Background Many researchers have tried to enhance materials functions in different aspects of science using nano-modification method, and in many cases the results have been encouraging. To evaluate the histopathological responses of the micro-/nano-size cement-type biomaterials derived from calcium silicate-based composition with addition of nano tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3) on bone healing response. Material and Methods Ninety mature male rabbits were anesthetized and a bone defect was created in the right mandible. The rabbits were divided into three groups, which were in turn subdivided into five subgroups with six animals each based on the defect filled by: white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), Nano-WMTA, WMTA without 3CaO.Al2O3, Nano-WMTA with 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3, and empty as control. Twenty, forty and sixty days postoperatively the animals were sacrificed and the right mandibles were removed for histopathological evaluations. Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc comparisons based on the LSMeans procedure was used for data analysis. Results All the experimental materials provoked a moderate to severe inflammatory reaction, which significantly differed from the control group (p< 0.05). Statistical analysis of bone formation and bone regeneration data showed significant differences between groups at 40- and 60- day intervals in all groups. Absence of 3CaO.Al2O3 leads to more inflammation and foreign body reaction than other groups in all time intervals. Conclusions Both powder nano-modification and addition of 2% Nano-3CaO.Al2O3 to calcium silicate-based cement enhanced the favorable tissue response and osteogenesis properties of WMTA based materials. Key words:Bone regeneration, cement, endodontics, histopathology, nano-wmta, tricalcium aluminate. PMID:26034924

  2. Histopathology of a well-functioning hydroxyapatite-coated femoral prosthesis after 52 months.

    PubMed

    Hardy, D C; Frayssinet, P; Krallis, P; Descamps, P Y; Fabeck, L; Delplancke, J L; Delince, P E

    1999-03-01

    A fully hydroxyapatite-coated femoral implant was retrieved during autopsy. This component, provided with a bipolar femoral head, had been inserted for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck 52 months before. Osseointegration of the implant was evident, without any formation of fibrous tissue :39.9% of the perimeter of the prosthesis at the level of its proximal third was interfaced with bone (62.8% at the mid-third and 65.2% at the distal third). Remodeling of bone had ensued. Deposition of bone was most prominent in the calcar zone, along the medial and lateral aspects and around the tip. Proximally, cortical porosity was found to be increased by 73%, whereas medullary bone porosity was increased by a factor of 2. Cell-mediated resorption of the coating was systematically present in these bone remodeling areas. The average thickness of the coating was respectively 10.8, 50.2 and 151.2 microns in the proximal, mid- and distal thirds of the implant. Formation of new bone was often coupled with resorption. No debris from the coating was found in the joint tissues or in the articulating surface of the polyethylene insert. These overall histopathological features support mechanical stability of the implant and active remodelling of bone along with focal removal of HA coating associated with osteoclastic activity. No side effects from coating degradation could be demonstrated. PMID:10217005

  3. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  4. Diagnosing porokeratosis of Mibelli every time: a novel biopsy technique to maximize histopathologic confirmation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Caitlyn; Reddy, Raveena; Brodell, Robert T

    2016-03-01

    Porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM) is a rare condition with the potential for malignant transformation that presents a clinical and pathologic diagnostic challenge. An improperly oriented biopsy may lead to the wrong histopathologic diagnosis. We report a case of PM that was previously misdiagnosed and describe a biopsy technique for suspected PM that maximizes the potential for histopathologic confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:27023081

  5. Histopathological effects of radiosurgery on a human trigeminal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Alhindi, Hindi; Alhebshi, Adnan; Albloushi, Monirah; Baeesa, Saleh; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiosurgery is a well-established treatment modality for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. The exact mechanism of pain relief after radiosurgery is not clearly understood. Histopathology examination of the trigeminal nerve in humans after radiosurgery is rarely performed and has produced controversial results. Case Description: We report on a 45-year-old female who received radiosurgery treatment for trigeminal neuralgia by Cyberknife. A 6-mm portion of the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerve received a dose of 60 Gy. The clinical benefit started 10 days after therapy and continued for 8 months prior to a recurrence of her previous symptoms associated with mild background pain. She underwent microvascular decompression and partial sensory root sectioning. Atrophied trigeminal nerve rootlets were grossly noted intraoperatively under surgical microscope associated with changes in trigeminal nerve color to gray. A biopsy from the inferolateral surface of the nerve proximal to the midcisternal segment showed histological changes in the form of fibrosis and axonal degeneration. Conclusion: This case study supports the evidence of histological damage of the trigeminal nerve fibers after radiosurgery therapy. Whether or not the presence and degree of nerve damage correlate with the degree of clinical benefit and side effects are not revealed by this study and need to be explored in future studies. PMID:24605252

  6. Experimental model of myocardial infarction: Histopathology and reperfusion damage revisited.

    PubMed

    Kren, Leos; Meluzin, Jaroslav; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Mayer, Jiri; Kala, Petr; Groch, Ladislav; Hornacek, Ivan; Rauser, Petr; Vlasin, Michal

    2010-09-15

    The goal of this pilot study was to create an experimental model of myocardial infarction (for subsequent evaluation of the effectiveness of an alternative way of stem cell application - intracoronary cell infusion in the management of acute myocardial infarction). Four experimental animals, female pigs weighing between 30 and 40 kg, were used in the initial phase of this study to create an experimental model of acute myocardial infarction. An experimental myocardial infarction was performed via occlusion of the interventricular arm of the left coronary artery for 90 min. The hearts were examined 1 h, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after the procedure. Macroscopically, red infarction characteristic of reperfusion was found. Microscopically, the healing process with granulation tissue production/collagen deposition was remarkably accelerated compared to literature data. Repair processes in reperfused experimental myocardial infarction and/or reperfused autopsy specimens should not be evaluated on the basis of literature data only. Large collections of extracellular calcium were present. This phenomenon is not well described in the literature and probably has the potential for significantly interfering with the repair process. The histopathology of reperfused acute myoardial infarction deserves to be studied in further investigations. PMID:20451332

  7. Exclusive facial porokeratosis: histopathologically showing follicular cornoid lamellae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Porokeratosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders that are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It has a wide variety of clinical manifestations with a characteristic histological finding of cornoid lamella. Porokeratosis usually affects the trunk or the extremities. Exclusive facial lesions are rare, although 15% of patients with disseminated, superficial, actinic porokeratosis do have facial lesions. Herein, we discuss the case of a 25-year-old woman who noticed the appearance of well-defined, brownish, macular lesions located on both cheeks. She had no other symptoms. A skin examination showed well-demarcated, multiple, brownish macules with raised hyperkeratotic borders on both cheeks and a half-palm-sized, arcuate-shaped lesion formed by grouped macules on the right cheek. No other parts of the body were affected. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the hyperkeratotic margin gave a diagnosis of porokeratosis with follicular involvement of the cornoid lamellae. Topical pimecrolimus was applied twice a day to the lesions, although little improvement was achieved after 2 months. PMID:21933257

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF TUMOR HISTOPATHOLOGY VIA SPARSE FEATURE LEARNING.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nandita; Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-04-01

    Our goal is to decompose whole slide images (WSI) of histology sections into distinct patches (e.g., viable tumor, necrosis) so that statistics of distinct histopathology can be linked with the outcome. Such an analysis requires a large cohort of histology sections that may originate from different laboratories, which may not use the same protocol in sample preparation. We have evaluated a method based on a variation of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that learns intrinsic features of the image signature in an unsupervised fashion. Computed code, from the learned representation, is then utilized to classify patches from a curated library of images. The system has been evaluated against a dataset of small image blocks of 1k-by-1k that have been extracted from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and clear cell kidney carcinoma (KIRC) from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) archive. The learned model is then projected on each whole slide image (e.g., of size 20k-by-20k pixels or larger) for characterizing and visualizing tumor architecture. In the case of GBM, each WSI is decomposed into necrotic, transition into necrosis, and viable. In the case of the KIRC, each WSI is decomposed into tumor types, stroma, normal, and others. Evaluation of 1400 and 2500 samples of GBM and KIRC indicates a performance of 84% and 81%, respectively. PMID:24319533

  9. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings. PMID:26077784

  10. Redescription of Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) with histopathological observations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerca lupi is a dog parasite of increasing zoonotic concern, with new human cases diagnosed in Turkey, Tunisia, Iran, and the United States. Information about the morphology of this nematode is scant and a detailed re-description of this species is overdue. In addition, histopathological data of potential usefulness for the identification of O. lupi infections are provided. Methods Male and female nematodes, collected from the connective tissue of a dog, were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and an histological evaluation was performed on biopsy samples from periocular tissues. Results The morphological identification was confirmed by molecular amplification and partial sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. This study provides the first comprehensive morphological and morphometric description of O. lupi from a dog based on light microscopy, SEM, molecular characterization, and histological observations. Conclusions Data herein presented contribute to a better understanding of this little known parasitic zoonosis, whose impact on human and animal health is still underestimated. The presence of granulomatous reactions only around the female adult suggests that the release of microfilariae from the uterus might be the cause of the inflammatory reaction observed. PMID:24499611

  11. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application. PMID:26540668

  12. Histopathological features of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in horse.

    PubMed

    Amininajafi, Fatemeh; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Arman; Fattahi, Rooholla; Taghizadeh, Mehdi; Hasanzadeh, Sardar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of study was to describe clinico histopathological manifestations of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in horse. The adult worms live on the wall of the stomach and cutaneous of the host without internal migration. A 5 year old 700 kg warm-blood, cross gelding was referred to the Tehran School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The horse presented skin lesions around. In our survey, several raised granulomatous nodules with a cystic space and parasites within the cysts were observed. Also gastric rupture at greater curvature due to abscess and perforation through the serosa causing diffused peritonitis and subsequent death. Eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were present in large numbers. Furthermore, cutaneous lesions were characterized by single or multiple ulcerated timorous masses with eosinophil epithelioid cell infiltration and scattered necrotic debris. Granulation tissue and neutrophils were observed along the ulcerated area. In this report a case of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in a horse in Iran is described with special attention to confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. PMID:27605815

  13. Aceruloplasminemia: Retinal Histopathology and Iron-mediated Melanosome Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Natalie; Song, Ying; Wu, Ting-Di; Qian, Jiang; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present, for the first time, the retinal histopathology of aceruloplasminemia, an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation of the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin resulting in tissue iron overload. Methods Morphology of the human aceruloplasminemia retina was studied with light and electron microscopy. Retinal iron accumulation was assessed with Perls’ Prussian blue staining, immunohistochemistry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Results Light and electron microscopic analysis revealed several ocular pathologic findings that resembled age-related macular degeneration, including retinal pigment epithelium depigmentation, atrophy and hypertrophy, nodular and diffuse drusen, lipofuscin and melanolipofuscin granules. Complement deposition was detected in drusen. The retinal pigment epithelial cells and neural retina had increased levels of iron. Two major types of retinal pigment epithelial cells were observed: melanosome-rich and melanosome-poor. Melanosome-rich cells had increased levels of iron and melanolipofuscin. The melanolipofuscin granules were observed in large aggregates where some of the melanosomes were degrading. Melanosome-poor cells lacked melanosomes, melanolipofuscin and lipofuscin, but contained electron dense aggregates high in iron, phosphorus and sulfur. Conclusion The findings in the aceruloplasminemia retina resemble some of those found in age-related macular degeneration. Also, they suggest that retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes can be degraded via iron-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Clinical Relevance Mechanisms underlying the pathology found in aceruloplasminemia may also be important in age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22084216

  14. Mitochondrial gene expression, antioxidant responses, and histopathology after cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Al Kaddissi, Simone; Legeay, Alexia; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Gonzalez, Patrice; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Simon, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cadmium effects on the transcription of mitochondrial genes of Procambarus clarkii after acute (0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg Cd/L; 4-10 days) and chronic exposures (10 μg Cd/L; 30-60 days). Transcriptional responses of cox1, atp6, and 12S using quantitative real-time RT-PCR were assessed in gills and hepatopancreas. Additionally, the expression levels of genes involved in detoxification and/or oxidative stress responses [mt, sod(Mn)] and enzymatic activities of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPX, and GST) were analyzed. The histopathological effects in hepatopancreas of crayfish were evaluated by light microscopy. Relationships between endpoints at different levels of biological organization and Cd bioaccumulation were also examined. Cd induced high levels of bioaccumulation, which was followed by mitochondrial dysfunction and histological alterations in both experiments. Moreover, perturbations in the defence mechanisms against oxidative stress tended to increase with time. Results also showed that molecular responses can vary depending on the intensity and duration of the chemical stress applied to the organisms and that the study of mt gene expression levels seemed to be the best tool to assess Cd intoxication. PMID:23065898

  15. Hepatoprotective Role of Caesalpinia bonduc: A Histopathological and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumalatha, Suhani; Pai, K Shridhar R; Kumar, Nitesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatotoxicity is one of the inevitable side effects of long term use of medicines in many different disorders, chronic use of alcohol and in certain infectious disorders. Even though there are few effective drugs to treat such hepatotoxicity, mortality due to hepatotoxicity is increasing day by day. Therefore, in search of alternative and more effective medicine we found that Caesalpinia bonduc (CB), a shrub grows in hotter places of south Asia has been effectively used to treat such hepatotoxicity in folk medicine. Aim: Aim of the study is to scientifically evaluate the hepatoprotective nature of aqueous extract of CB using Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxic rat model. Materials and Methods and Result: Elevated levels of blood ALT, AST and ALT enzymes were found in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rat models. Treating these animals with CB either prior or after the induction of hepatotoxicity, shows significant decrease in the levels of ALP, AST, and ALT in their blood in comparison with the untreated hepatotoxic group. Additionally, histologically, hepatotoxic rats show necrotic changes & vacuolation in their hepatocytes, altered hepatic architecture and congested hepatic sinusoids. However, such histopathological adverse changes were minimized when these animals treated with CB. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that CB acts as both preventive and curative hepatoprotector PMID:25584245

  16. Histopathological features of Capillaria hepatica infection in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Vasanthi; Turton, John; Stewart, Jacqui; Lui, Kai Chiu; Pilling, Andrew M

    2009-08-01

    Capillaria hepatica is a nematode parasite of wild rodents and other mammals. Adult worms inhabit the liver. Recently, during the necropsy examination of a group of 160 rabbits from a commercial supplier, firm pale or cystic areas (1-5 mm) were noted on the liver in thirteen animals. On further investigation, these animals were found to be infected with C. hepatica. The histopathological features of the infection in the rabbit are described for the first time and diagnostic features recorded. Lesions were identified predominantly in portal tracts consisting of dilated bile ducts with luminal debris, peribiliary inflammatory cell infiltrates, and fibrosis. Large granulomas (macrogranulomas) were evident in portal areas and involved the bile ducts. Macrogranulomas contained collections of characteristic C. hepatica eggs, macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Small granulomas (microgranulomas), characterized by epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and eosinophils, were also identified. C. hepatica eggs were also observed in the lumina of the bile ducts and gall bladder. No adult C. hepatica worms were identified. Oocysts of Eimeria stiedae were also evident in the biliary epithelium in some animals. The unique characteristics of the C. hepatica life cycle are described, and the differential diagnosis of hepatic capillariasis is discussed. PMID:19581239

  17. Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751 PMID:22978603

  18. Clinical, histopathologic & immunologic features of cutaneous lesions in acute meningococcaemia.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Mukherjee, A; Chandra, M; Sehgal, S K; Saxena, U; Jain, A K; Wadhwa, A

    1990-01-01

    Fifty children with culture proven acute meningococcaemia were studied during the winter outbreak of the disease in 1986-87. Purpuric lesions were seen in 60 per cent, erythematous papules in 32 per cent, faint pink macules in 28 per cent, conjunctival petechiae in 10 per cent and herpes labialis in 20 per cent. Histopathology of skin lesions showed that the primary damage was to the dermal vessels, the extent of damage depending on the type of skin involvement. Diplococci in Gram's stained sections were seen frequently in purpuric as compared to the other skin lesions. They were located in degenerating neutrophils, endothelial cells, fibrin clots or freely in the vascular lumen. Electron microscopic study showed vascular changes accompanied by a perivascular phagocytic response. Both light and electronmicroscopy indicated the involvement of the coagulative mechanism in the pathogenesis of meningococcaemia. However, clinical parameters of clotting were often within normal limits. In the case of a child (who died eventually), a low platelet count and prolonged coagulation indices were observed. Sera from some of the children were tested for the presence of antibodies against meningococci by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibodies were detected in the sera and they may have a role in regulating the severity and course of the illness. The significance of immunoglobulin deposits in the skin lesions is not clear. PMID:2111800

  19. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers

    SciTech Connect

    Mikami, H.

    1982-09-01

    There have been many reports on lung cancer among chromate workers. Chromate compounds are thought to be a carcinogen and lung cancer among chromate workers is considered one of the occupational lung cancers. Recently, it is debated that metaplastic and hyperplastic changes of bronchial epithelium are revealed or not to the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers was performed in order to clarify the effect of chromate compounds to bronchial epithelium. The subjects were 14 cases of lung cancer among chromate workers. As a control, 18 cases of non cancer among chromate workers. Lung tissue which was obtained at necropsy or surgery was fixed by formalin and was produced cross-sections and was stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin. The results were as follows. 1. Of examined 235 cross-sections, basal cell hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium was found in 13 per cent. Squamous metaplasia was found in 29 per cent, on the contrary, atypical metaplastic changes were observed in 34 per cent. 2. Of four cases of carcinoma in situ and two cases of small invasive carcinoma, four cases revealed development from atypical squamous metaplasia to precancerous changes. 3. These cases developed invasive carcinoma from atypical squamous metaplasia for a long period, of which were found by successive exfoliative cytology of sputum. From these findings, it was concluded that inhalation of chromate dust affected bronchial epithelium and caused highly atypical squamous metaplasia which developed to carcinoma in situ and finally to invasive carcinoma.

  20. Changing Histopathological Diagnostics by Genome-Based Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Michael; Buettner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, tumors are classified by histopathological criteria, i.e., based on their specific morphological appearances. Consequently, current therapeutic decisions in oncology are strongly influenced by histology rather than underlying molecular or genomic aberrations. The increase of information on molecular changes however, enabled by the Human Genome Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium as well as the manifold advances in molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing techniques, inaugurated the integration of genomic information into disease classification. Furthermore, in some cases it became evident that former classifications needed major revision and adaption. Such adaptations are often required by understanding the pathogenesis of a disease from a specific molecular alteration, using this molecular driver for targeted and highly effective therapies. Altogether, reclassifications should lead to higher information content of the underlying diagnoses, reflecting their molecular pathogenesis and resulting in optimized and individual therapeutic decisions. The objective of this article is to summarize some particularly important examples of genome-based classification approaches and associated therapeutic concepts. In addition to reviewing disease specific markers, we focus on potentially therapeutic or predictive markers and the relevance of molecular diagnostics in disease monitoring. PMID:24879454

  1. Mechanism of cystogenesis in nephrotic kidneys: a histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is pathological condition characterized by heavy proteinuria. Our study investigates hypothesis that change in cell proliferation of proximal tubules influences primary cilia structure and function and promotes cystogenesis in congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Methods CNF kidneys were analyzed genetically. Proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (caspase-3), and primary cilia (α-tubulin) length and structure were analyzed immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally in healthy, CNF and FSGS kidneys. Cyst diameters were measured and correlated with proliferation index. Results Proximal tubules cells of healthy kidneys did not proliferate. In nephrotic kidneys, tubules with apparently normal diameter covered by cuboidal/columnar epithelium (PTNC) contained 81.54% of proliferating cells in CNF and 36.18% in FSGS, while cysts covered with columnar epithelium (CC) contained 37.52% of proliferating cells in CNF and 45.23% in FSGS. The largest cysts, covered with squamous epithelium (CS) had 11.54% of proliferating cells in CNF and 13.76% in FSGS. Increase in cysts diameter correlated with changes in proliferation index, tubular cells shape, primary cilia formation and appearance of apoptotic cells. Conclusions We present a novel histopathological data on the structure and possible changes in function of tubular cell in NS kidneys during cystogenesis. We suggest existence of common principles of cystogenesis in CNF and FSGS kidneys, including serious disturbances of tubular cells proliferation and apoptosis, and faulty primary cilia signaling leading to deterioration of proteinuria in NS kidneys. PMID:24397250

  2. Histopathological changes induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, Mojgan; Ennaifer, Emna; Ahari, Hamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Borchani, Lamia; Khalili, Ghader; Amini, Hossein; Anvar, Amir Ali; Boubaker, Samir; El-Ayeb, Mohamed; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2012-03-01

    Envenomation by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) is associated with local necrosis, followed by systemic manifestations. In this work the LD₅₀ of H. lepturus venom were determined by subcutaneous (SC) injection in white Balb/c mice (5 mg/kg). Histopathological alterations in organs such as kidney, heart, liver, lungs, stomach and intestine were determined in 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following experimental (SC) envenoming injection of one LD ₅₀ of the venom in Balb/c mice. Histological studies showed degenerative changes in the kidney with disorganized glomeruli and necrotic tubular in 3 h and reached to its climax in 6 h. Myocardium showed massive myocytolysis with interstitial necrosis in 3 h and reached to its peak after 6 h past envenoming. Bowels showed edema of lamina propria and slight villous necrosis. The enzymatic activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in the serum in 9 h. No necrotic lesion observed in lungs and liver. The results indicate that the venom of H. lepturus is a highly cytotoxic, and induces massive tissue damages in specific organs, starting from the heart and kidney as the first target in 3 h and ends to the bowels in 6 h post envenomation. PMID:22230352

  3. Histopathology of the alarm reaction in small odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D F; Curry, B E

    2008-07-01

    Pathological changes in the organs and tissues of beach-stranded, net-caught or captive small odontocete cetaceans (whales and dolphins) are reported. These changes include contraction band necrosis of cardiac and smooth muscles, smooth muscle spasm, ischemic injury to the intestinal mucosa (especially the mucosa of the small intestine) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) of the proximal tubules of the nephron. Spastic contraction of terminal bronchiolar muscular sphincters was also observed. The changes are consistent with multi-systemic injury caused by massive release of endogenous catecholamines or vasospasm leading to ischemic injury, followed by reperfusion and reperfusion injury. The histopathological findings suggest that the reflex response of an odontocete to any major perceived threat (the "alarm reaction") is to activate the physiological adaptations to diving or escape to an extreme or pathological level, resulting, if greatly prolonged, in widespread ischemic injury to tissues. These observations may explain why these species die abruptly from handling or transportation and why the mortality of highly stressed beach-stranded animals is very high. PMID:18555267

  4. Poor correlation between spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis and histopathology in melanoma and nonmelanoma lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terstappen, Karin; Suurküla, Mart; Hallberg, Håkan; Ericson, Marica B.; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2013-06-01

    Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy) is an imaging technique developed for diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions. By image analysis, the displayed images indicate the potential distribution and position of melanin, blood, and collagen within the lesion. A topographic comparison was performed between SIAscopic findings and histopathology. In total, 60 patients with suspicious pigmented skin lesions were included. The lesions were SIAscopically imaged and documented before excision and histopathological preparation. Topographical comparisons between SIAscopy findings and histopathology were made. A sensitivity and specificity of 24% and 84%, respectively, were obtained for invasive melanomas. The positive and negative predicted values were 58% and 54%, respectively. The features indicating dermal melanin, blood displacement and collagen holes did only show "no" to "slight" agreement with histopathology, i.e., κ≤0.21. It was concluded that (i) SIAscopy-based diagnosis has low diagnostic accuracy for melanoma, (ii) single SIAscopic features do not provide reliable diagnostic information relating to the lesions internal structure on histopathology examination and (iii) SIAscopy cannot be used as a guide for localizing the maximum tumor thickness when performing the histopathological examination. The importance of validating new optical tools for tumor diagnostics with histopathological findings was demonstrated.

  5. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  6. Validation of diagnostic accuracy using digital slides in routine histopathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Robust hardware and software tools have been developed in digital microscopy during the past years for pathologists. Reports have been advocated the reliability of digital slides in routine diagnostics. We have designed a retrospective, comparative study to evaluate the scanning properties and digital slide based diagnostic accuracy. Methods 8 pathologists reevaluated 306 randomly selected cases from our archives. The slides were scanned with a 20× Plan-Apochromat objective, using a 3-chip Hitachi camera, resulting 0.465 μm/pixel resolution. Slide management was supported with dedicated Data Base and Viewer software tools. Pathologists used their office PCs for evaluation and reached the digital slides via intranet connection. The diagnostic coherency and uncertainty related to digital slides and scanning quality were analyzed. Results Good to excellent image quality of slides was recorded in 96%. In half of the critical 61 digital slides, poor image quality was related to section folds or floatings. In 88.2% of the studied cases the digital diagnoses were in full agreement with the consensus. Out of the overall 36 incoherent cases, 7 (2.3%) were graded relevant without any recorded uncertainty by the pathologist. Excluding the non-field specific cases from each pathologist's record this ratio was 1.76% of all cases. Conclusions Our results revealed that: 1) digital slide based histopathological diagnoses can be highly coherent with those using optical microscopy; 2) the competency of pathologists is a factor more important than the quality of digital slide; 3) poor digital slide quality do not endanger patient safety as these errors are recognizable by the pathologist and further actions for correction could be taken. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1913324336747310. PMID:22463804

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 alleviates alcoholic liver steatosis: histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Palipoch, Sarawoot; Koomhin, Phanit; Punsawad, Chuchard; Na-Ek, Prasit; Sattayakhom, Apsorn; Suwannalert, Prasit

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important causes of hepatic steatosis, which involves oxidative stress. In particular, increased oxidative stress has been strongly linked to stimulation of the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study aimed to investigate whether HO-1 could alleviates alcoholic steatosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) the control group, 2) the EtOH group, 3) the EtOH + ZnPP-IX group and 4) the EtOH + Hemin group. Liver histopathology was investigated in weeks 1 and 4 after the start of the treatment period. Alcohol treatment significantly increased the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, an oxidative stress marker. In addition, it increased the triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in both weeks. Gross examination demonstrated a yellowish and slightly enlarged liver in the alcohol-treated rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining indicated hepatic steatosis, which was characterized by diffuse, extensive fatty accumulation and discrete lipid droplets of variable size in hepatocytes of the alcohol-treated rats. Administration of the HO-1 inducer hemin resulted in upregulation of hepatic HO-1 gene expression, reduced the MDA, triglyceride, ALT and AST levels and alleviated alcoholic hepatic steatosis, whereas administration of the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) resulted in downregulation of hepatic HO-1 gene expression and could not alleviate alcoholic hepatic steatosis either week. In conclusion, HO-1 could alleviate alcoholic hepatic steatosis in male Wistar rats and may be useful in development of a new therapeutic approach. PMID:26989297

  8. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  9. Histopathology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunocompetent laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    KIM, HYUN-SOO; DO, SUNG-IM; KIM, YOUN WHA

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of idiopathic pulmonary lesions in laboratory rats, characterized by lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia with dense perivascular lymphoid cuffs, has been reported over the past decade. Although the term rat respiratory virus (RRV) was adopted to confer a putative viral etiology to the idiopathic pulmonary lesions, the etiology of this disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, inflammatory lesions have been observed in the lungs of immunocompetent laboratory rats similar to those previously described. Based on the latest evidence indicating that Pneumocystis carinii (P. carinii), and not putative RRV, causes infectious interstitial pneumonia in laboratory rats, the present study investigated whether the pulmonary lesions observed were caused by P. carinii infection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, free of known pathogens, were introduced into a rat colony positive for RRV-type lesions. Routine histopathological examinations were performed on the rat lung tissues following exposure. The presence of Pneumocystis organisms was confirmed using Grocott’s methenamine silver (GMS) staining. At week 3 following introduction, a few small lymphoid aggregates were located adjacent to the edematous vascular sheath. By week 5, foci of dense perivascular lymphoid cuffing were observed. Multifocal lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia and prominent lymphoid perivascular cuffs were observed between week 7 and 10. GMS staining confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis cysts. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrated that P. carinii caused lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia in a group of laboratory rats. The observations strongly support the conclusion that P. carinii infection in immunocompetent laboratory rats causes the lung lesions that were previously attributed to RRV. PMID:25009598

  10. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Buckles, E.L.; Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Gargas, A.; Behr, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.