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Sample records for ascaris suum infections

  1. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  2. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  4. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection.

    PubMed

    Uston, P I; Urban, J F; Ashraf, M; Lee, C M; Ampy, F R

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 10(3) Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anticoagulated whole blood of A. suum-infected and noninfected pigs by dextran (4.5%) sedimentation of erythrocytes or by the centrifugation of dextran-isolated leukocytes through discontinuous Percoll gradients. Results showed that 2.2% of the isolated leukocytes, stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa, were basophils. Each basophil from infected pigs contained 1.30 x 10(-2) to 1.20 x 10(-1) pg of histamine. Peripheral blood basophils (PBBs) from infected swine released 49% specific histamine when induced with A. suum-derived antigen (L3L4ES), 55% with anti-immunoglobulin G, and 62% with calcium ionophore A23l87. During A. suum infection, the number of isolated basophils and histamine levels peaked at 14 to 21 days postinfection and then showed a significant decrease. Percent-specific histamine released from PBBs by infected swine was significantly greater than that released by control pigs. The L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues effectively induced specific/nonspecific histamine release from PBBs and should facilitate future investigations of porcine basophils. PMID:17096138

  5. [Serological demonstration of experimental round worm infections-Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis--in swine by means of the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test].

    PubMed

    Buchwalder, R; Matthes, H F; Hiepe, T

    1981-11-01

    By means of indirect immunofluorescent antibody reaction (IFAR), using serum of experimentally infected pigs, various antigens were studied with regard to their usefulness for serological verification of prepatent Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis infections. Eggs, egg larvae, larvae received from livers, lungs and brains of experimentally infected white mice and sections of adult T. canis as well as eggs, egg larvae, liver larvae and sections of frozen adult A. suum proved to be not suitable for the reliable serum diagnosis of the infections. On the other hand, A. suum larvae, isolated from lungs of white mice or guinea pigs days after experimental infection, represent an antigen applicable to IFAR for the evidence of prepatent A. suum infections in pigs. The antigen, stored at -20 degree C, is durable without substantial impairment of its reactivity at least 7 months. PMID:7039425

  6. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B Has Potent Anthelmintic Activity against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melanie M.; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y.; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23818995

  8. Interactions between the nematode parasite of pigs, Ascaris suum, and the earthworm Aporrectodea longa.

    PubMed

    Kraglund, H O; Grønvold, J; Roepstorff, A; Rawat, H

    1998-01-01

    Pig faeces in which Ascaris suum eggs had been embryonating for 57 days were placed in buckets of soil containing either 30 or no earth-worms (Aporrectodea longa). When present, earthworms consumed the faeces and transported the eggs down into the soil, without inflicting any visible damage on the eggs. In later experiments 10 earthworms from the above experiment were fed to each of ten pigs, and another 40 earthworms were dissected. None of the 10 pigs became infected with A. suum through consumption of earthworms, and none of the dissected earthworms were found to contain A. suum larvae. This experiment indicates that A. longa did not act as a paratenic host for A. suum but shows that earthworms are very efficient in transporting A. suum eggs from faeces deposited on the soil surface into the soil. PMID:9926459

  9. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  10. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  11. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  12. Mass spectrometric map of neuropeptide expression in Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Yew, Joanne Y; Kutz, Kimberly K; Dikler, Sergei; Messinger, Lynn; Li, Lingjun; Stretton, Antony O

    2005-08-01

    A mass spectrometric method was used for the localization and sequence characterization of peptides in the nervous system of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Mass spectrometric techniques utilizing MALDI-TOF, MALDI-TOF/TOF, and MALDI-FT instruments were combined with in situ chemical derivatization to examine the expression of known and putative neuropeptides in the A. suum nervous system. This first attempt at peptidomic characterization in A. suum mapped the expression of 39 neuropeptides, 17 of which are considered to be novel and whose expression has not been previously reported. These analyses also revealed that the peptide expression profile is unique to each nervous structure and that the majority of peptides observed belong to the RFamide family of neuropeptides. In addition, four new peptide sequences with a shared C-terminal PNFLRFamide motif are proposed based on in situ sequencing with mass spectrometry. PMID:15973679

  13. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs. PMID:21796329

  14. Serological examination of fattening pigs reveals associations between Ascaris suum, lung pathogens and technical performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Düsseldorf, Simon; Heres, Lourens; Geldhof, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Diagnosing the presence of the highly prevalent and economically important pig parasite Ascaris suum on fattening farms has so far been challenging. Currently, only the number of livers affected at slaughter is routinely used to measure parasite exposure. However, recently, a new serological test was developed based on the detection of antibodies to the A. suum haemoglobin molecule. The test showed to be highly sensitive for the detection of exposure to A. suum in fattening pigs. In this study we first compared the performance of A. suum serology versus the percentage of affected livers at slaughter, subsequently we investigated potential associations between A. suum infection levels and exposure to important lung pathogens and finally we identified correlations between serological data and technical performance parameters (TPIs) from 20 Belgian and 20 German pig fattening farms. In both Belgian and German farms, a significant relationship was detected between elevated average Ascaris serology and percentages of affected livers (ρ=0.63 and ρ=0.75, respectively). On the Belgian farms, both Ascaris serology and the percentage of affected livers were negatively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) (ρ=-0.69 and ρ=-0.56, respectively). Using the German dataset, only a borderline negative association was detected between the percentage of affected livers and the ADG (ρ=-0.44, P=0.053). In contrast, only in the German farms, correlations between the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter and elevated presence of A. suum and several other airway pathogens were detected. To conclude, this study indicates that serological screening for A. suum on fattening farms is an attractive new diagnostic tool that can be used to indicate the presence of roundworm infection by measuring infection intensity. Furthermore the results of this study also add weight to the evidence that both roundworm infections as well as herd exposure to airway pathogens have a significant

  15. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides. PMID:24623893

  16. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides. PMID:24623893

  17. Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  18. Localized Th1-, Th2-, T Regulatory Cell-, and Inflammation-Associated Hepatic and Pulmonary Immune Responses in Ascaris suum-Infected Swine Are Increased by Retinoic Acid▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Harry; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Beal, Madeline; Beshah, Ethiopia; Vangimalla, Vandana; Jones, Eudora; Botero, Sebastian; Urban, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum or controls were given 100 μg (low-dose) or 1,000 μg (high-dose) all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/kg body weight in corn oil or corn oil alone per os on days after inoculation (DAI) −1, +1, and +3 with infective eggs. Treatment with ATRA increased interleukin 4 (IL4) and IL12p70 in plasma of infected pigs at 7 DAI and augmented bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia observed at 7 and 14 DAI. To explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR array was used to examine mRNA expression in tissue. Ascaris-infected pigs had increased levels of liver mRNA for T-helper-2 (Th2)-associated cytokines, mast cell markers, and T regulatory (Treg) cells, while infected pigs given ATRA had higher IL4, IL13, CCL11, CCL26, CCL17, CCL22, and TPSB1 expression. Gene expression for Th1-associated markers (IFNG, IL12B, and TBX21), the CXCR3 ligand (CXCL9), IL1B, and the putative Treg marker TNFRSF18 was also increased. Expression of IL4, IL13, IL1B, IL6, CCL11, and CCL26 was increased in the lungs of infected pigs treated with ATRA. To determine a putative cellular source of eosinophil chemoattractants, alveolar macrophages were treated with IL4 and/or ATRA in vitro. IL4 induced CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, and CCL26 mRNA, and ATRA increased the basal and IL4-stimulated expression of CCL17 and CCL22. Thus, ATRA augments a diverse Th1-, Th2-, Treg-, and inflammation-associated response in swine infected with A. suum, and the increased BAL eosinophilia may be related to enhanced induction of eosinophil chemokine activity by alveolar macrophages. PMID:19332534

  19. Early stages of Ascaris suum induce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Enobe, C S; Araújo, C A; Perini, A; Martins, M A; Macedo, M S; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2006-09-01

    The inflammatory and functional changes that occur in murine lung after infection with 2500 infective Ascaris suum eggs were studied in this work. A sequential influx of neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils occurred into airways concomitantly with migration of larvae from liver to the lungs. Histological analysis of the lung showed a severe intra-alveolar haemorrhage at the peak of larval migration (day 8) and the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate on day 14. Ascaris L3 were found in alveolar spaces and inside bronchioles on day 8. The number of eosinophils was elevated in the blood on days 8 and 14. The peak of eosinophil influx into the lung was at day 14, as indicated by the high levels of eosinophil peroxidase activity, followed by their migration into the airways. The antibody response against egg and larval antigens consisted mainly of IgG1 and IgM, and also of IgE and anaphylactic IgG1, that cross-reacted with adult worm antigens. Total IgE levels were substantially elevated during the infection. Measurement of lung mechanical parameters showed airway hyperreactivity in infected mice. In conclusion, the murine model of A. suum infection mimics the Th2-induced parameters observed in pigs and humans and can be used to analyse the immunoregulatory properties of this helminth. PMID:16916369

  20. Immunoblot for the detection of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in patients with visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Obwaller, Andreas; Auer, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome caused by Toxocara canis larvae was first described in the 1950s. The role of other nematode larvae, i.e. the pig roundworm Ascaris suum as a causative agent of visceral larva migrans-associated symptoms like general malaise, cough, liver dysfunction, hypereosinophilia with hepatomegaly and/or pneumonia, was discussed controversially during the last decades. Recent serological screening studies for specific A. suum antibodies carried out in the Netherlands and Sweden yielded remarkable high seroprevalences, while a number of case reports from Japan report pulmonal, hepatic and cerebral symptoms caused by A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected raw meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We present here a sensitive and specific larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen-based immunoblot (As-IB) for the serodiagnosis of A. suum-infected patients suffering from symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome. In total, 34 sera from patients with hypereosinophilia and other clinical symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome tested negative for Toxocara sp. antibodies but positive in our newly established As-IB, 30 sera from healthy volunteers, 53 sera from patients with clinically and serologically confirmed toxocarosis and other helminthoses as well as 3 sera from patients with intestinal ascariosis due to Ascaris lumbricoides were included in the study. When evaluated with 30 sera from healthy volunteers and 53 sera from patients suffering from different helminthoses, the calculated specificity of our new As-IB is 95%. Problems hampering the establishment of simple serological screening tests for specific A. suum antibodies, like extensive antigenic similarities between the nematodes Ascaris and Toxocara or the absence of suitable experimental animals, are discussed. We assume that specific serological testing for antibodies of A. suum is very important for the treatment of individual patients on one hand and seroepidemiological

  1. A TGF-B homologue identified from Ascaris suum 4th stage larvae (L4): Evidence for development-related transcription and incomplete gene splicing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris species represent the most prevalent parasitic worm infecting humans and swine worldwide. During the infection process, A. suum L4 establish in the jejunum and develop into adults. However, a large percentage of L4 spontaneously cure to the ileum at 14 to 21 days after inoculation (dpi), and...

  2. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were <21 years. These results are in accordance with a Dutch study suspecting different ways of transmission as cause for this interesting age distribution. Due to the fact that large amounts of untreated pig manure are used as fertilizer and that the expulsion of adult A. suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of

  3. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  4. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  5. Protective Effect of an Extract from Ascaris suum in Experimental Arthritis Models▿

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro; Leite, Ana Karine Rocha Melo; Pompeu, Margarida Maria Lima; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Soares, Fernanda Macedo; Castro, Rondinelle Ribeiro; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an extract from a helminth (Ascaris suum) in zymosan-induced arthritis (ZYA) or collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Rats and mice, respectively, received 1 mg and 0.1 mg zymosan intra-articularly (i.a.). Test groups received an A. suum extract either per os (p.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) 30 min prior to i.a. zymosan. Controls received saline. Hypernociception was measured using the articular incapacitation test. Cell influx, nitrite, and cytokine levels were assessed in joint exudates. The synovia and distal femoral extremities were used for histopathology. Cartilage damage was assessed through determining glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. DBA/1J mice were subjected to CIA. The test group received A. suum extract i.p. 1 day after CIA became clinically detectable. Clinical severity and hypernociception were assessed daily. Neutrophil influx was determined using myeloperoxidase activity. The A. suum extract, either i.p. or p.o., significantly and dose-dependently inhibited cell influx and hypernociception in ZYA in addition to reducing GAG loss and ameliorating synovitis. The A. suum extract reduced i.a. levels of NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 but not tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in rats subjected to ZYA while reducing i.a. IL-10, but not IL-1β or TNF-α, levels in mice. Clinically, mice subjected to CIA treated with the A. suum extract had less severe arthritis. Hypernociception, myeloperoxidase activity, and synovitis severity were significantly reduced. These data show that a helminth extract given p.o. protects from arthritis severity in two classical arthritis models. This A. suum effect is species independent and functions orally and parenterally. The results show clinical and structural benefits when A. suum extract is given either prophylactically or therapeutically. PMID:18411290

  6. Release of hyaluronidase during in vitro development of Ascaris suum from the third to fourth larval stage.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, M L; Fetterer, R H; Urban, J F

    2001-09-01

    An enzyme that degraded glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid was released during in vitro development of Ascaris suum L3 to L4. The enzyme did not hydrolyze glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate A. One molecular form of hyaluronidase was detected, with a molecular weight estimated at 47.8 +/- 8.6 kDa by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and at 55.0 +/- 1.3 kDa by substrate SDS-PAGE zymography. Activity of the enzyme was optimal between pH 5.0 and 6.0, and was present at neutral pH. Hyaluronidase activity was not affected by 5 mM concentrations of cupric sulfate, zinc chloride, calcium chloride, manganese chloride or EDTA. In addition, NaCl had no effect on enzyme activity at concentrations of 0.2-1.0 M. The highest level of hyaluronidase was present in culture fluid collected between days 4 and 6 of in vitro culture, and this period corresponded with that of the highest rate of increase in the percentage of L4. The presence or absence of hyaluronic acid plays a key role in basic developmental processes of vertebrates and is regulated, in part, by hyaluronidases. Developmental processes occurring during the transition of A. suum L3 to L4 may likewise depend on hyaluronidase. In addition, the infection process of a number of organisms, including some nematodes, depends on hyaluronidase. A. suum may likewise utilize hyaluronidase to facilitate larval migration within the host. PMID:11570551

  7. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  8. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity. PMID:27094225

  9. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, T M; Rafael, A; Enobe, C S; Fernandes, I; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2004-02-01

    The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10) M-1, 7.1 x 10(9) M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7) M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3) were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others. PMID:14762577

  10. Inactivation of Single-Celled Ascaris suum Eggs by Low-Pressure UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sarah A.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44- ± 0.20-log inactivation (mean ± 95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23- ± 0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80- ± 0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-μm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (∼20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone. PMID:16517669

  11. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  12. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode. PMID:26708339

  13. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Paulsrud, B; Gjerde, B; Lundar, A

    2004-01-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criterion, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain times. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. PMID:15259948

  14. Characterization of the major phosphofructokinase-dephosphorylating protein phosphatases from Ascaris suum muscle.

    PubMed

    Daum, G; Schmid, B; MacKintosh, C; Cohen, P; Hofer, H W

    1992-07-13

    In contrast to the mammalian enzyme, PFK from the nematode Ascaris suum is activated following phosphorylation (Daum et al. (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139, 215-221) catalyzed by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Thalhofer et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 952-957). In the present report, we describe the characterization of the major PFK dephosphorylating phosphatases from Ascaris muscle. Two of these phosphatases exhibit apparent M(r) values of 174,000 and 126,000, respectively, and are dissociated to active 33 kDa proteins by ethanol precipitation. Denaturing electrophoresis of each of the enzyme preparations showed two bands of M(r) 33,000 and 63,000. The enzymes are classified as type 2A phosphatases according to their inhibition by subnanomolar concentrations of okadaic acid, the lack of inhibition by heat-stable phosphatase inhibitors 1 and 2, and their preference for the alpha- rather than for the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase. Like other type 2A phosphatases, they exhibit broad substrate specificities, are activated by divalent cations and polycations, and inhibited by fluoride, inorganic phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In addition, we have found that PFK is also dephosphorylated by an unusual protein phosphatase. This exhibits kinetic properties similar to type 2A protein phosphatases, but has a distinctly lower sensitivity towards inhibition by okadaic acid (IC50 approx. 20 nM). Partial purification of the enzyme provided evidence that it is composed of a 30 kDa catalytic subunit and probably two other subunits (molecular masses 66 and 72 kDa). The dephosphorylation of PFK by protein phosphatases is strongly inhibited by heparin. This effect, however, is substrate-specific and does not occur with Ascaris phosphorylase a. PMID:1321672

  15. Cloning and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 subunits from Ascaris suum - a parasitic nematode highly adapted to changes of oxygen conditions during its life cycle.

    PubMed

    Goto, Miho; Amino, Hisako; Nakajima, Mikage; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris suum successfully adapts to a significant decrease in oxygen availability during its life cycle by altering its metabolic system dramatically. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxic environments in A. suum. In multicellular organisms, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, is a master regulator of genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia. In the present study, cDNAs encoding HIF-1α and HIF-1β were cloned from A. suum and characterized. The full-length A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β cDNAs contain open reading frames encoding proteins with 832 and 436 amino acids, respectively. In the deduced amino acid sequences of A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β, functional domains essential for DNA-binding, dimerization, and oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation were conserved. The interaction between A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Both A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β mRNAs were expressed at all stages examined (fertilized eggs, third-stage larvae, lung-stage larvae, young adult worms, and adult muscle tissue), and most abundantly in the aerobic free-living third-stage larvae, followed by a gradual decrease after infection of the host. hif-1 mRNA transcription was not sensitive to the oxygen environment in either third-stage larvae or adult worms (muscle tissue), and was regulated in a stage-specific manner. High expression of hif-1 mRNAs in third-stage larvae suggests its contribution to pre-adaptation to a hypoxic environment after infection of their host. Sequence analysis of 5'-upstream regions of mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase/quinol-fumarate reductase) genes, which show stage-specific expression and play an important role in oxygen adaptation during the life cycle, revealed that all subunits except for the adult-type flavoprotein subunit (Fp) possess putative hypoxia

  16. A Globin Domain in a Neuronal Transmembrane Receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P.; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. PMID:25666609

  17. Actions of cholinergic drugs in the nematode Ascaris suum. Complex pharmacology of muscle and motorneurons

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The cholinergic agonists acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine, and pilocarpine produced depolarizations and contractions of muscle of the nematode Ascaris suum. Dose-dependent depolarization and contraction by ACh were suppressed by about two orders of magnitude by 100 microM d- tubocurarine (dTC), a nicotinic antagonist, but only about fivefold by 100 microM N-methyl-scopolamine (NMS), a muscarinic antagonist. NMS itself depolarized both normal and synaptically isolated muscle cells. The muscle depolarizing action of pilocarpine was not consistently antagonized by either NMS or dTC. ACh receptors were detected on motorneuron classes DE1, DE2, DI, and VI as ACh-induced reductions in input resistance. These input resistance changes were reversed by washing in drug-free saline or by application of dTC. NMS applied alone lowered input resistance in DE1, but not in DE2, DI, or VI motorneurons. In contrast to the effect of ACh, the action of NMS in DE1 was not reversed by dTC, suggesting that NMS-sensitive sites may not respond to ACh. Excitatory synaptic responses in muscle evoked by depolarizing current injections into DE1 and DE2 motorneurons were antagonized by dTC; however, NMS antagonized the synaptic output of only the DE1 and DE3 classes of motorneurons, an effect that was more likely to have been produced by motorneuron conduction failure than by pharmacological blockade of receptor. The concentration of NMS required to produce these changes in muscle polarization and contraction, ACh antagonism, input resistance reduction, and synaptic antagonism was 100 microM, or more than five orders of magnitude higher than the binding affinity for [3H]NMS in larval Ascaris homogenates and adult Caenorhabditis elegans (Segerberg, M. A. 1989. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI). These results describe a nicotinic- like pharmacology, but muscle and motorneurons also have unusual responses to muscarinic agents. PMID:8455017

  18. High pressure processing treatment prevents embryonation of eggs of Trichuris vulpis and Ascaris suum and induces delay in development of eggs.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Zajac, Anne M; Flick, George J; Bowman, Dwight D; Lindsay, David S

    2011-09-27

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment used to inactivate pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms and protozoan's but has had limited study on metazoans. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and preventing embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs. We conducted experiments using eggs of the canine whipworm Trichuris vulpis collected from naturally infected dogs and A. suum eggs from naturally infected pigs. We observed a delay in development of eggs of T. vulpis in a preliminary experiment and conducted 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that appropriate HPP levels can induce a delay in embryonation of nematode eggs. In experiment 1, nonembryonated T. vulpis eggs in tap water were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 138-600 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. In a second experiment, nonembryonated eggs of A. suum were exposed to 138-600 MPa and treated for 60s in the same commercial HPP unit. Embyronation of T. vulpis eggs was delayed by 4 and 5 days for eggs treated with 207 and 241 MPa but eventually eggs developed and the numbers of embryonated eggs was similar to controls on day 55. Embryonation of T. vulpis eggs treated with 345 or 350 MPa was delayed by 9 days and never reached more than 5% of eggs embryonated. On day 55 post treatment, 95% of control nontreated T. vulpis eggs were embryonated, 100-65% of eggs treated with 138-276 MPa were embryonated, a maximum of 5% of eggs treated with 345-350 MPa were embryonated, and 0% of eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa were embryonated. T. vulpis eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa did not undergo cell division. Embryrnation of A. suum eggs was delayed by 4, 10, and 16 days for eggs treated with 207, 241, and 250MPa, respectively, compared to nontreated control eggs. A. suum eggs treated with 207 MPa eventually embryonated

  19. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation. PMID:26571414

  20. Crystallization of mitochondrial rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum with the specific inhibitor flutolanil

    PubMed Central

    Osanai, Arihiro; Harada, Shigeharu; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Shimizu, Hironari; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    In adult Ascaris suum (roundworm) mitochondrial membrane-bound complex II acts as a rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase, which is the reverse reaction to that of mammalian complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase). The adult A. suum rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase was crystallized in the presence of octaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether and n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside in a 3:2 weight ratio. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.75, b = 129.08, c = 221.12 Å, and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (120 kDa × 2) gives a crystal volume per protein mass (V M) of 3.6 Å3 Da−1. PMID:19724139

  1. The metabolism of foreign compounds in the cestode, Moniezia expansa, and the nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides var suum.

    PubMed

    Douch, P G; Blair, S S

    1975-05-01

    1. The ability of the cestode Moniezia expansa and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var suum to metabolize foreign compounds has been assessed. 2. Both species were unable to oxidase aldrin, aniline, biphenyl, butylbenzene and nitrobenzene or to demethylate aminopyrine, and 4-nitroanisole. 3. M. expansa and A. lumbricoides var suum readily induced 4-nitroanisole, nitrobenzene, 4-nitrobenzoic acid and 4-nitrophenol to the corresponding amines. Azobenzene, dimethylaminoazobenzene, and 1,2-dimethyl-4-(4-carboxyphenylazo)-5-hydroxybenzene were also reduced. 4. Hydrolysis of esters, acetanilide, acetylsalicylic acid, aryl sulphates and aryl phosphates took place readily. However, beta-glucuronides were not hydrolysed. 5. The following reactions were not detected in either species: phosphate, sulphate, beta-glucuronide or beta-glycoside conjugation of phenolic compounds; acetylation of amino compounds, or the formation of glycine conjugates with 4-aminobenzoic acid or benzoic acid. 6. Male nematodes showed a higher rate of drug metabolism than female nematodes. PMID:239489

  2. Localized Th1-, Th2-,and inflamation-associated hepatic and pulmonary immune responses in Ascaris-infected swine are increased by retinoic acid.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs infected with Ascaris suum were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on d–1, d+1, d+3 of infection. Control or infected pigs were given 100 (LD-ATRA) or 1,000 (HD-ATRA) µg/kg ATRA in corn oil, or corn oil alone, and sacrificed at 7 and 14 days after inoculation (DAI) with infective eggs...

  3. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P.; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  4. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  5. Derquantel and Abamectin: Effects and interactions on isolated tissues of Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Trailovic, Sasa M.; Robertson, Alan P.; Thompson, David P.; Woods, Debra J.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    StartectR is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin + derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin + derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration responses was statistically greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: 1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; 2) on L-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1 - 30 μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28 μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3 μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30 minutes with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and L-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI 0.13-1.36 μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur. PMID:23523993

  6. Derquantel and abamectin: effects and interactions on isolated tissues of Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Trailovic, Sasa M; Robertson, Alan P; Thompson, David P; Woods, Debra J; Martin, Richard J

    2013-04-01

    Startect(®) is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin+derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin+derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration response was greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: (1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; (2) on l-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1-30μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30min with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and l-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI 0.13-1.36μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur. PMID:23523993

  7. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  8. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-08-29

    Eggs of Ascaris suum from pigs are highly resistant and commonly used as a conservative indicator of pathogen inactivation during slurry storage. Eggs of Ascaridia galli, the poultry ascarid, are also known to be highly resistant but the suitability as an indicator of pathogen inactivation has never been tested. Pig slurry has to be stored for several months to inactivate pathogens but chemical treatment of slurry may reduce this time. The suitability of A. galli as an indicator of slurry sanitation was tested by comparing the survival of eggs of A. suum and A. galli in pig slurry. In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200 ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h at 40°C or 2h at 50°C. At all the temperatures in both slurry types, A. galli eggs were inactivated at a significantly faster rate (P<0.05) compared to A. suum eggs. For each 10°C raise in temperature from 20°C, T50 (time needed to inactivate 50% of eggs) for both types of eggs was reduced markedly. At all temperatures, viability of eggs of both species was significantly higher (P<0.05) in untreated slurry compared to urea-treated slurry except A. galli eggs at 20°C where no significant difference was detected. In untreated slurry, the levels of pH (6.33-9.08) and ammonia (0.01-1.74 mM) were lower (P<0.0001) compared to that of urea-treated slurry (pH: 8.33-9.28 and ammonia 1-13 mM). The study demonstrated that A. galli eggs are more sensitive to unfavourable conditions compared to A. suum eggs. The use of A. galli eggs as hygiene indicator may thus be suitable to assess inactivation of pathogens that are more sensitive than A. galli eggs. Addition of urea may markedly reduce the storage time of slurry needed to inactivate A. suum and A. galli eggs. PMID:24893691

  9. Carbohydrate cytochemistry of the intestinal epithelium of Ascaris suum. Nature of the microvilli glycocalyx and basal lamella.

    PubMed

    Trimble, J J; Thompson, S A

    1975-09-12

    Results of various cytochemical tests demonstrate large deposits of glycogen within the intestinal absorptive cells of Ascaris suum. Carbohydrate material is also associated with the microvilli surface and basal lamella. Staining produced by the periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium procedure was abolished by analine or m-aminophenol. Diastase digestion did not alter the staining on the microvilli surface. Similar results were seen using the silver methenamine procedure. A positive reaction was noted on the microvilli surface, vesicles in both the apical and basal cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, and basal lamella. Lanthanum nitrate stained the microvilli surface and intercellular spaces between absorptive cells. Alcian blue or cetylpyridinium chloride in combination with lanthanum enhanced the staining produced by lanthanum alone. These results suggest the presence of acidic glycans on both the microvilli surface and basal lamella. PMID:1189579

  10. Different Neuropeptides are Expressed in Different Functional Subsets of Cholinergic Excitatory Motorneurons in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are 2 subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and 6 novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the 6 afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for anti-parasitic drug development. PMID:25812635

  11. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    PubMed

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse. PMID:26370295

  12. Proteomic Analysis of the Excretory-Secretory Products from Larval Stages of Ascaris suum Reveals High Abundance of Glycosyl Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Van Steendam, Katleen; Dhaenens, Maarten; Vlaminck, Johnny; Deforce, Dieter; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES) molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4) by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. Conclusions/Significance The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine. PMID:24098821

  13. A globin domain in a neuronal transmembrane receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum: molecular modeling and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-04-17

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. PMID:25666609

  14. Potentiation of IgE responses to third-party antigens mediated by Ascaris suum soluble products.

    PubMed

    Lee, T D; McGibbon, A

    1993-01-01

    A reductive approach was used to examine the potentiation of IgE responses by nematode infection. Ascaris homogenized extract, Ascaris pseudocoelomic (body) fluid (ABF) and purified Ascaris allergen (ABA) were tested for their ability to act as protein carriers and as mediators of potentiated IgE responses to third-party (ovalbumin; OVA) responses. All three nematode products were excellent protein carriers for the hapten dinitrophenol and showed significantly better activity in this respect than OVA. Neither ABF nor ABA enhanced the level of the IgE response to the third-party antigen but both prolonged the response markedly. ABF, but not ABA, induced high levels of total circulating IgE when given at the same time as OVA with alum. The data suggest that the enhancement and prolongation of IgE responses by nematodes may be two separate but related activities. PMID:8400897

  15. Modification of the ATP inhibitory site of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase results in the stabilization of an inactive T state

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.S.J.; Cook, P.F.; Harris, B.G. )

    1991-10-15

    Treatment of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase (PFK) with 2{prime},3{prime}-dialdehyde ATP (oATP) results in an enzyme form that is inactive. The conformational integrity of the active site, however, is preserved, suggesting that oATP modification locks the PFK into an inactive T state that cannot be activated. A rapid, irreversible first-order inactivation of the PFK is observed in the presence of oATP. The rate of inactivation is saturable and gives a K{sub oATP} of 1.07 {plus minus} 0.27 mM. Complete protection against inactivation is afforded by high concentrations of ATP. This desensitized enzyme incorporates only 0.2-0.3 mol of ({sup 3}H)oATP/subunit, suggesting that in te native enzyme inactivation perhaps results from the modification of the ATP inhibitory site rather than the catalytic site. Modification of an active-site thiol by 4,4{prime}-dithiodipyridine is prevented yb ATP before and after oATP treatment. Finally, gel filtration HPLC studies show that the oATP-modified enzyme retains its tetrameric state and neither the tryptophan fluorescence nor the circular dichroic spectra of the modified enzyme are affected by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, suggesting that the enzyme is locked into a tetrameric inactive T state.

  16. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  17. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host’s homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris. PMID:26814713

  18. The pharmacology of the cholinoceptor in muscle preparations of Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum

    PubMed Central

    Natoff, I. L.

    1969-01-01

    1. The preparation of a muscle strip of Ascaris lumbricoides for the study of the effect of drugs in vitro is described. 2. Stimulant drugs which are classified as nicotine-like in mammalian pharmacology increased the isometric tension of this preparation. These drugs were, in descending order of potency: dimethylphenylpiperazinium, nicotine, acetylcholine, carbachol, decamethonium and pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide. 3. Muscarine-like drugs (oxotremorine, methacholine, pilocarpine) had no activity. 4. Potassium and barium ions stimulated the tissue, while the anti-cholinesterases, dichlorvos and eserine, increased the resting tension of the preparation and potentiated the responses to acetylcholine. 5. Adrenaline neither stimulated the tissue nor affected the responses to nicotine-like drugs. 6. The relative potency of several blocking agents which antagonize the responses to nicotine-like drugs was assayed. These blocking agents were, in descending order of potency: mecamylamine, (+)-tubocurarine, hexamethonium, atropine and piperazine. Acetylcholine, dimethylphenylpiperazinium and pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide apparently act on a common receptor, for each blocking agent had a similar molar inhibitory concentration against these stimulants. 7. It is concluded that the cholinoceptor in muscle preparations of Ascaris lumbricoides is pharmacologically similar to that of the mammalian autonomic ganglion. PMID:4390485

  19. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration.

    PubMed

    Jungersen, G; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P; Lind, P; Rasmussen, T; Meeusen, E N

    2001-04-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver, lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during larval migration. This was reflected in a transient enlargement of the stimulated lymph nodes, due to increases in numbers of B cells and CD4 T cells, and the production of A. suum-specific antibody by antibody secreting cell (ASC) cultures. Larval antigen recognition pattern of antibodies in serum, bile and draining lymph node ASC culture supernatant (ASC-probes) was examined by immunoblotting. This revealed distinct organ-specific recognition patterns of larval-specific antigens by the draining lymph nodes at different times after challenge. In particular, an early larval 42 kDa antigen was recognized specifically by ASC-probes of the liver lymph nodes at 7 but not 14 days postchallenge (pc) which was not detected in other lymph nodes, serum or bile of the same pig. Similarly, a late larval antigen of 34 kDa was uniquely detected by lung and jejunal ASC-probes at 14 days pc. These observations demonstrate how development of distinct regional immune responses in tissues with different antigen stimulation can be monitored with ASC-probes and flow cytometry. PMID:11298295

  20. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. PMID:24295958

  1. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection. PMID:27066982

  2. The metabolism of nitrophenolic and 5-arylazorhodanine anthelmintics by Ascaris suum, Moniezia expansa and by mouse- and sheep-liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Douch, P G; Buchanan, L L

    1979-08-01

    1. The anthelmintics disophenol (2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol), nitroxynil (3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzonitrile) and nitrodan (3-methyl-5-(4-nitrophenylazo)rhodanine) were reduced in vitro to the corresponding amines by intact Ascaris suum, Moniezia expansa, by enzymes prepared from these helminths, and by mouse- and sheep-liver homogenates. Helminth reductases required NADH2 and glutathione as cofactors and were inhibited about 50% by 2.0 x 10(-7) M allopurinol. Azo bonds of nitrodan and its analogues were not reduced by the helminths but were reduced by mouse- and sheep-liver enzymes. 2. Mouse- and sheep-liver enzymes, in addition to effecting nitro reduction, metabolized nitroxynil by hydrolysis to 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide and 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid. No hydroxylation products were found. Nitrodan was oxidized by the mammalian microsomal oxidation enzyme system to the thiazolidinedione derivative, but not by helminth enzymes. PMID:516789

  3. RNA interference in adult Ascaris suum – an opportunity for the development of a functional genomics platform that supports organism-, tissue- and cell-based biology in a nematode parasite

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Ciaran J.; Warnock, Neil D.; Atkinson, Louise E.; Atcheson, Erwan; Martin, Richard J.; Robertson, Alan P.; Maule, Aaron G.; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable control of animal parasitic nematodes requires the development of efficient functional genomics platforms to facilitate target validation and enhance anthelmintic discovery. Unfortunately, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for the validation of novel drug targets in nematode parasites remains problematic. Ascaris suum is an important veterinary parasite and a zoonotic pathogen. Here we show that adult A. suum is RNAi competent, and highlight the induction, spread and consistency of RNAi across multiple tissue types. This platform provides a new opportunity to undertake whole organism-, tissue- and cell-level gene function studies to enhance target validation processes for nematode parasites of veterinary/medical significance. PMID:26149642

  4. Genome-Wide Tissue-Specific Gene Expression, Co-expression and Regulation of Co-expressed Genes in Adult Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruce A.; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-01-01

    Background Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine) in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus). We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. Methodology/Principal Findings Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female. Conclusions/Significance The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis presented here are a

  5. In situ hybridization of neuropeptide-encoding transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in neurons of the nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O W

    2010-03-15

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929-935) encodes six different AF peptides (AF3, 4, 10, 13, 14, 20) which all share a -PGVLRFamide C-terminus but have different N-terminal sequences. By using in situ hybridization, gene transcript expression patterns of afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 (As-flp-18, As-flp-6, and As-flp-14, respectively, in the naming convention proposed by Blaxter et al. [1997] Parasitol Today 13:416-417) were determined in the adult A. suum anterior nervous system. Each gene transcript can be localized to a different subset of neurons. These subsets of neurons are different from the subsets of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons that were shown to express identical or similar peptides by the use of promoter GFP constructs (Kim and Li [2004] J Comp Neurol 475:540-550). PMID:20058230

  6. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Wruck, Colin D; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript (As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10(-9) M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26174364

  7. The PCome of Ascaris suum as a model system for intestinal nematodes: identification of phosphorylcholine-substituted proteins and first characterization of the PC-epitope structures.

    PubMed

    Timm, Thomas; Grabitzki, Julia; Severcan, Cinar; Muratoglu, Suzan; Ewald, Lisa; Yilmaz, Yavuz; Lochnit, Guenter

    2016-03-01

    In multicellular parasites (e.g., nematodes and protozoa), proteins and glycolipids have been found to be decorated with phosphorylcholine (PC). PC can provoke various effects on immune cells leading to an immunomodulation of the host's immune system. This immunomodulation allows long-term persistence but also prevents severe pathology due to downregulation of cellular immune responses. PC-containing antigens have been found to interfere with key proliferative signaling pathways in B and T cells, development of dendritic cells and macrophages, and mast cell degranulation. These effects contribute to the observed modulated cytokine levels and impairment of lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast to glycosphingolipids, little is known about the PC-epitopes of proteins. So far, only a limited number of PC-modified proteins from nematodes have been identified. In this project, PC-substituted proteins and glycolipids in Ascaris suum have been localized by immunohistochemistry in specific tissues of the body wall, intestine, and reproductive tract. Subsequently, we investigated the PCome of A. suum by 2D gel-based proteomics and detection by Western blotting using the PC-specific antibody TEPC-15. By peptide-mass-fingerprint matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we could identify 59 PC-substituted proteins, which are in involved multiple cellular processes. In addition to membrane proteins like vitellogenin-6, we found proteins with structural (e.g., tubulins) and metabolic (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase) functions or which can act in the defense against the host's immune response (e.g., serpins). Initial characterization of the PC-epitopes revealed a predominant linkage of PC to the proteins via N-glycans. Our data form the basis for more detailed investigations of the PC-epitope structures as a prerequisite for comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation. PMID:26728072

  8. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  9. IgE and IgG1 antibody production by a soluble product of Ascaris suum in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, B E

    1979-01-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ascaris suum cultured to the fourth stage in a chemically defined culture medium produced a substance, the 'ACF antigen', which was allergenic in the guinea-pig. When three different concentrations (3.1, 31 and 62 micrograms) of the ACF antigen were given intraperitoneally, only the highest concentration induced a primary IgE specific antibody response (1:100 titre) as determined with the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction. Upon secondary exposure all concentrations demonstrated a strong IgE response (1:50,000 peak titre) with very little IgG1 activity (1:100). The secondary IgE responses began to rise on the fourth day, peaked on the sixth day and returned to relatively low levels by the fourteenth day (1:100). The intramuscular administration of the ACF antigen did not induce the extremely high titres of IgE as found with the intraperitoneal injection, but rather a low level response (1:500 peak) which did not differ greatly from the IgG1 response. PMID:521052

  10. Methods to evaluate nutritional and economic implications of Ascaris infection.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, L S

    1984-01-01

    Ascaris infection has important economic implications for human populations, due to its negative effects on growth of undernourished children and its less common role in causing intestinal obstruction. The deleterious effects of Ascaris infection on growth of undernourished children have been demonstrated in studies conducted in India, Kenya and Tanzania; deworming has resulted in improved weight gains of 20-35% compared with uninfected children. However other studies in Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Guatemala have not found statistically significant improvements in growth of children after treatment for Ascaris infection, most likely due to inadequacies in choice of population, sample size, experimental design, data analysis and/or relative failure of drug treatment. Field studies which attempt to measure the magnitude of growth deficits due to Ascaris must take the following into account: (1) rapidly growing preschool age children from communities with a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition are the most important group to study. (2) A longitudinal design, preferably using randomly allocated treatment and placebo groups, is highly desirable. (3) A sufficient period of time for growth improvement must be allowed between the beginning of the intervention and final measurements. (4) The sample sizes necessary to test hypotheses adequately should be calculated in advance. (5) The drug chosen for treatment of Ascaris should produce high cure rates and reinfection rates should be determined. Possible effects of the drug on other diseases prevalent in the population should be considered in the data analysis. (6) Evaluation of worm loads are very important in interpretation of results. (7) The data analysis must be appropriate for the individual study and must be designed to consider confounding factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6441259

  11. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-14

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction.

  12. Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides infection using capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Eduardo Tomohissa; Takahashi, Wagner; Kuwashima, Daniel Yuiti; Langoni, Tiago Ribeiro; Costa-Genzini, Adriana

    2013-04-16

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) is the most common intestinal roundworm parasite, infecting approximately one quarter of the world's population. Infection can lead to various complications because it can spread along the gastrointestinal tract. Although A. lumbricoides infection is a serious healthcare issue in developing countries, it now also has a worldwide distribution as a result of increased immigration and travel. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication of A. lumbricoides infection, potentially leading to even more serious consequences such as small bowel perforation and peritonitis. Diagnosis is based primarily on stool samples and the patient's history. Early diagnosis, aided in part by knowledge of the local prevalence, can result in early treatment, thereby preventing surgical complications associated with intestinal obstruction. Further, delay in diagnosis may have fatal consequences. Capsule endoscopy can serve as a crucial, non-invasive diagnostic tool for A. lumbricoides infection, especially when other diagnostic methods have failed to detect the parasite. We report a case of A. lumbricoides infection that resulted in intestinal obstruction at the level of the ileum. Both stool sample examination and open surgery failed to indicate the presence of A. lumbricoides, and the cause of the obstruction was only revealed by capsule endoscopy. The patient was treated with anthelmintics. PMID:23596544

  13. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide. PMID:23509978

  14. Genes on chromosomes 1 and 13 have significant effects on Ascaris infection

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Blangero, Sarah; VandeBerg, John L.; Subedi, Janardan; Aivaliotis, Mary Jo; Rai, Dev Raj; Upadhayay, Ram Prasad; Jha, Bharat; Blangero, John

    2002-01-01

    Nematode parasites show a characteristic aggregated distribution among hosts. This observation has important implications for pathogenesis, immunology, and control of these infections, but the relative roles of environment and genetics in determining these patterns have remained uncertain. This paper presents the results of the first genome scan for susceptibility to infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides). Data on 375 genetic markers were generated for each of 444 members of a genetically isolated Nepalese population, the Jirels. Ascaris worm burden as assessed by egg counts was measured in these same individuals by using the Kato Katz thick smear method. The extensive genealogical data available for the population allowed assignment of all 444 individuals to a single pedigree that contained 6,209 pairs of relatives that were informative for genetic analysis. A variance components linkage analysis resulted in the unequivocal localization of two genes (one on chromosome 1 and another on chromosome 13) with clear, significant effects on susceptibility to Ascaris infection. This is the first evidence that individual quantitative trait loci influence variation in Ascaris burden in humans. PMID:11960011

  15. Characterization of identifiable neurones in the head ganglia of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: a comparison with central neurones of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, L; Walker, R J

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular recordings have been made from neurones in the head ganglia of Ascaris. The neurones had low resting membrane potentials of -21 +/- 9 mV (n = 78) and a relatively high input resistance (e.g. 25 M omega for a 100 microns cell). In all cases the intracellular location of the recording electrode was verified by injection of the fluorescent marker, 5,6-carboxyfluorescein (CBXF). To ascertain whether or not the low membrane potential was due to impalement damage, the same neurone was recorded from using two microelectrodes. The membrane potential following the first impalement by a 20 M omega 3 M KCl electrode was -38 mV and following the second impalement by a 80 M omega CBXF (for subsequent intracellular labelling) electrode was decreased to -34 mV. Input resistance of these cells was estimated using both single and two electrode intracellular recording techniques and in both cases yielded a relatively high value for the size of cell (e.g. 25 M omega for a 100 microns cell). Neurones labelled by intracellular injection of the fluorescent marker 5,6-carboxyfluorescein were morphologically simple and lacked extensive arborizations. The dorsal ganglion is a discrete structure consisting of only 3 neurones. Here we compare the morphological properties of these neurones to those described in the dorsal ganglion of Caenorhabditis elegans. The whole mount preparation of Ascaris ganglia thus provides a useful model to study the functional properties of neurones in nematode central nervous system and presents the possibility to assess central sites of action for anthelmintics. PMID:8152859

  16. Larva migrans syndrome caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworm infections in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A; Hombu, A; Wang, Z; Maruyama, H

    2016-09-01

    Larva migrans syndrome (LMS) caused by Toxocara and Ascaris roundworms is generally believed to be more common in children, while a report from Japan suggests that it is more common in adults. We conducted a large-scale retrospective study to confirm these findings and to clarify what caused the difference between Japan and other countries, to reveal overlooked aspects of this disease. The clinical information of 911 cases which we diagnosed as Toxocara or Ascaris LMS during 2001 and 2015 was analysed. Information used included age, sex, address (city or county), chief complaint, present history, dietary history, overseas travelling history, medical imaging findings and laboratory data (white blood cell count, peripheral blood eosinophil number and total IgE). The sex ratio of the disease was 2.37 (male/female = 641/270). The number of patients not younger than 20 years old were 97.8 and 95.1 % among males and females, respectively. Major disease types were visceral, ocular, neural and asymptomatic. The visceral type was more prevalent in older patients, while younger patients were more vulnerable to ocular symptoms. More than two-thirds of the patients whose dietary habits were recorded had a history of ingesting raw or undercooked animal meat. LMS caused by Toxocara or Ascaris is primarily a disease of adult males in Japan, who probably acquired infections by eating raw or undercooked animal meat/liver. Healthcare specialists should draw public attention to the risk of raw or undercooked animal meat in Europe as well. PMID:27272122

  17. Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis.

    PubMed

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of nematode infections that rarely involve the central nervous system. Ascaris lumbricoides and the pig nematode A. suum have been associated with encephalitis. Adult Dracunculus medinensis may invade the spinal cord resulting in epidural abscess and paralysis. Lagochiloascaris spp. are free-living nematodes reported mainly in Brazil. Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. PMID:23829917

  18. Individual Predisposition, Household Clustering and Risk Factors for Human Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: New Epidemiological Insights

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden) were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. Conclusions/Significance Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all emphasize and reiterate

  19. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  20. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5. PMID:27022269

  1. Trickle or clumped infection process? A stochastic model for the infection process of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the

  2. Modeling the die-off of E. coli and Ascaris in wastewater-irrigated vegetables: implications for microbial health risk reduction associated with irrigation cessation.

    PubMed

    Seidu, Razak; Sjølander, Ingrid; Abubakari, Amina; Amoah, Dennis; Larbi, John A; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the die-off of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Ascaris suum on lettuce (Great Lakes 118) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) in wastewater-irrigated fields using comparative mathematical die-off models. The study revealed that none of the survival curves of E. coli and A. suum was best fitted with the log-linear model, indicating that the classical first-order kinetic approach is inadequate in many cases. The biphasic die-off model best described the die-off of E. coli on lettuce (kmax1 = 2.62 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.22 day(-1)) and cabbage (kmax1 = 1.06 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.53 day(-1)). The die-off of A. suum on lettuce was best described by the biphasic model (kmax1 = 0.48 day(-1) and kmax2 = 0.01 day(-1)) and best described by log linear + tail (kmax = 0.44) on cabbage. A comparative health risk assessment associated with the consumption of lettuce showed significant underestimation of the number of days of irrigation cessation required to achieve E. coli O157:H7 and Ascaris tolerable annual infection risk when using biphasic die-off rates compared with other die-off rates. The study stresses the need to test different die-off models as inputs for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) particularly for interventions associated with health risk reduction. PMID:24037151

  3. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Chimpanzee- and Gibbon-Derived Ascaris Isolated from a Zoological Garden in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts. PMID:24358225

  4. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. PMID:25486916

  5. Feeding Probiotic Bacteria To Swine Enhances Immunity To Ascaris Suum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probiotic bacterial species are included in the diet to promote health. Probiotics purportedly protect the intestine against pathogenic microorganisms and can reduce inflammation; however, quantitative measurement of probiotic growth and related effects on intestinal function are often lacking. Asca...

  6. Socio-economic and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of Ascaris infection in a low-country tea plantation in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, G S A; Karunaweera, N D; Ismail, M M

    2004-09-01

    The identification of the factors that affect the prevalences of geohelminthiases should help to maximize the effectiveness of programmes for the control of these diseases. In the present study, the relationships between the prevalence and intensity of human infection with Ascaris and the availability of sanitary facilities, socio-economic status and personal health habits have been explored in Sri Lanka. The 176 subjects, who lived on a low-country tea plantation, were aged 2-50 years (median = 13 years) and were investigated between the July and December of 2000. When the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection were determined, using Kato-Katz smears, 50.0% of the subjects were found to be secreting the eggs of the parasite. Almost all (96.6%) of the subjects lived in terraces of one-room houses built by the plantation owners, and only 30.7% had access to a latrine. Most (90.3%) obtained their drinking water from common taps, and 48.8% boiled their drinking water. The subjects who only drank water that had been boiled and those who washed their hands before meals were relatively unlikely to be infected (P < 0.05 for each). In congested living conditions with poor sanitary facilities, the level of faecal contamination of the environment is invariably high. Even under these conditions, however, good hygiene and the boiling of all drinking water can reduce the risks of Ascaris infection. In the study setting and in similar environments, regular anthelmintic therapy, improvements in housing conditions and sanitary facilities, and health education, to promote risk-reducing patterns of behaviour, would all be beneficial. PMID:15324467

  7. [Acute necrotizing pancreatitis and complete atrioventricular block complicating the course of ascaris infection in an adult patient].

    PubMed

    Liozon, E; Périnet, I; Garou, A; Valyi, L; Théry, Y

    2011-06-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, a large round nematode, which causes human ascariasis, is the most prevalent helminth in the world. Ascariasis is usually asymptomatic but can cause serious complications, with a mortality rate of 5%. We report a 55-year-old woman from Comoros who presented with ascariasis complicated by occult cholangitis, severe acute pancreatitis, and transient complete heart-block. Cardiac damage due to migrating ascaris larvae was the likely explanation of the transient heart-block in this patient, although such a complication had never been described previously. PMID:21550700

  8. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (p<0.0001) and skin test positivity for A. lumbricoides (p<0.0001). The percentage of FEV1 predictive values correlated inversely (p<0.0001) with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (p<0.005 and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in urban children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with elevated anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE levels (p=0. 0089), skin hyper reactivity towards this aero allergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that the IgE response against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic

  9. Follow-up of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in children living in a community treated with ivermectin at 3-monthly intervals.

    PubMed

    Ranque, S; Chippaux, J P; Garcia, A; Boussinesq, M

    2001-06-01

    Ivermectin treatment was administered every 3 months over a 1-year period (April 1993-April 1994) to the whole eligible population of a village in South Cameroon where both Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were hyper-endemic. A parasitological stool examination was performed before each treatment. Thirty children, aged 5-15 years, were not only found egg-positive for A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura before the first treatment but were also each treated and examined in each treatment round. Among these children, the intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides decreased significantly following the first treatment but thereafter remained steady. In contrast, the repeated ivermectin treatments had no significant impact on the intensity of the T. trichiura infections or on the prevalence of infection with T. trichiura or A. lumbricoides among the 30 children. PMID:11454248

  10. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures.

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kihara, Jimmy H; Brooker, Simon J; Simiyu, Elses W; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  11. The risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children as an environmental health indicator to guide preventive activities in Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Cifuentes, Enrique; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Romieu, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an environmental health indicator for use as a basis for developing preventive measures against Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children from the rural municipalities of Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and September 1998 among 1171 children under 14 years of age living in 588 dwellings selected from 11 communities. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to identify risk factors for infection (socioeconomic, sanitation and hygiene variables) and collected stool samples from each child for parasitological tests. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 12.2%. The results showed the protective effects of availability of water in the washbasin and better hygiene, sanitation and socioeconomic status; the interactive effect of crowding was five times larger in households without water in the washbasin than in those having water. There was a statistically significant association between infection and children's age. CONCLUSION: The environmental health indicator, which incorporated the most significant biological, environmental and social factors associated with the risk of A. lumbricoides infection in children from these communities, should contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this population. PMID:11884972

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils' School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Garn, Joshua V.; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Nikolay, Birgit; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Simiyu, Elses W.; Okoyo, Collins; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) technologies and behaviors can prevent infection by soil-transmitted helminth species independently, but may also interact in complex ways. However, these interactions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize how school and home WaSH exposures were associated with Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to identify relevant interactions between separate WaSH technologies and behaviors. A study was conducted among 4,404 children attending 51 primary schools in western Kenya. We used multivariable mixed effects logistic regression to characterize how various WaSH exposures were associated with A. lumbricoides infection after annual school-based deworming. Few WaSH behaviors and technologies were independently associated with A. lumbricoides infection. However, by considering relevant interdependencies between variables, important associations were elucidated. The association between handwashing and A. lumbricoides depended largely upon the pupils' access to an improved water source. Among pupils who had access to improved water sources, A. lumbricoides prevalence was lower for those who handwashed both at school and home compared with neither place (odds ratio: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.18–0.83; P = 0.01). This study contributes to a further understanding of the impact of WaSH on A. lumbricoides infection and shows the importance of accounting for interactions between WaSH technologies and behaviors. PMID:26903608

  13. [Helminth infections in wild boars in enclosures in southern Germany: species spectrum and infection frequency].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D; Schoierer, R; Gothe, R

    1990-10-01

    To determine the helminth fauna of wild boars, stomachs and intestines of 124, lungs of 62, and livers of 39 animals from 5 enclosures in Southern Germany were examined. The evaluation of the species composition revealed at least 13 species: Metastrongylus apri, M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, Physocephalus sexalatus, Hyostrongylus rubidus, Globocephalus longemucronatus, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Oesophagostomum dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum, Fasciola hepatica, C. tenuicollis and Capillaria. The most frequently isolated species was M. salmi with 91.9%, followed by G. longemucronatus with 91.1%, M. apri with 88.7%, M. pudendotectus with 87.1%, P. sexalatus with 51.6%, O. dentatum with 46%, T. suis with 30.6%, H. rubidus with 14.5%, A. suum with 12.1% and O. quadrispinulatum with 8.1%. Differences in the prevalence of infection, determined for animals up to 1 year old, 1-2 year-old and adults, were minimal for Metastrongylus spp. and G. longemucronatus. P. sexalatus, T. suis and A. suum, however, occurred more often in 1 year old, whereas H. rubidus, O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum were isolated more often from adults. A correlation of the infection rate with the sex of the animals was not found. PMID:2264058

  14. Ascaris lumbricoides Infection and Its Relation to Environmental Factors in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania, a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Kowuor, Dickens O.; Nsojo, Anthony; Mangu, Chacha; Riess, Helene; Geldmacher, Christof; Laubender, Rüdiger Paul; Mhina, Seif; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Saathoff, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Background With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection. Methodology Cross-sectional survey data of 6,366 study participants in the Mbeya region of South-Western Tanzania were used to analyze associations between remotely sensed environmental data and A. lumbricoides infection. Non-linear associations were accounted for by using fractional polynomial regression, and socio-demographic and sanitary data were included as potential confounders. Principal Findings The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 6.8%. Our final multivariable model revealed a significant non-linear association between rainfall and A. lumbricoides infection with peak prevalences at 1740 mm of mean annual rainfall. Mean annual land surface temperature during the day was linearly modeled and negatively associated with A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78–0.97). Furthermore, age, which also showed a significant non-linear association (infection maximum at 7.7 years), socio-economic status (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.68–0.97), and latrine coverage around the house (OR = 0.80, CI = 0.67–0.96) remained in the final model. Conclusions A. lumbricoides infection was associated with environmental, socio-demographic and sanitary factors both in uni- and multivariable analysis. Non-linear analysis with fractional polynomials can improve model fit, resulting in a better understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and helminth infection, and more precise predictions of high prevalence areas

  15. Proper positioning of the nicotinamide ring is crucial for the Ascaris suum malic enzyme reaction.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Deniz F; Cook, Paul F

    2008-02-26

    The mitochondrial NAD-malic enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate and CO2. The role of the dinucleotide substrate in oxidative decarboxylation is probed in this study using site-directed mutagenesis to change key residues that line the dinucleotide binding site. Mutant enzymes were characterized using initial rate kinetics, and isotope effects were used to obtain information on the contribution of these residues to binding energy and catalysis. Results obtained for the N479 mutant enzymes indicate that the hydrogen bond donated by N479 to the carboxamide side chain of the nicotinamide ring is important for proper orientation in the hydride transfer step. The stepwise oxidative decarboxylation mechanism observed for the wt enzyme changed to a concerted one, which is totally rate limiting, for the N479Q mutant enzyme. In this case, it is likely that the longer glutamine side chain causes reorientation of malate such that it binds in a conformation that is optimal for concerted oxidative decarboxylation. Converting N479 to the shorter serine side chain gives very similar values of KNAD, Kmalate, and isotope effects relative to wt, but V/Et is decreased 2 000-fold. Data suggest an increased freedom of rotation, resulting in nonproductively bound cofactor. Changes were also made to two residues, S433 and N434, which interact with the nicotinamide ribose of NAD. In addition, N434 donates a hydrogen bond to the beta-carboxylate of malate. The KNAD for the S433A mutant enzyme increased by 80-fold, indicating that this residue provides significant binding affinity for the dinucleotide. With N434A, the interaction of the residue with malate is lost, causing the malate to reorient itself, leading to a slower decarboxylation step. The longer glutamine and methionine side chains stick into the active site and cause a change in the position of malate and/or NAD resulting in more than a 104-fold decrease in V/Et for these mutant enzymes. Overall, data indicate that subtle changes in the orientation of the cofactor and substrate dramatically influence the reaction rate. PMID:18215074

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Properties of Recombinant ASABF, an Antimicrobial Peptide Isolated from the Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Murakami, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Masato; Koganezawa, Nozomu; Matsuura, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro; Kawano, Keiichi; Nitta, Katsutoshi; Kato, Yusuke

    2000-01-01

    ASABF is a CSαβ-type antimicrobial peptide that contains four intramolecular disulfide bridges (Y. Kato and S. Komatsu, J. Biol. Chem. 271:30493–30498, 1996). In the present study, a recombinant ASABF was produced by using a yeast expression system, and its antimicrobial activity was characterized in detail. The recombinant ASABF was active against all gram-positive bacteria tested (7 of 7; minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC], 0.03 to 1 μg/ml) except Leuconostoc mesenteroides, some gram-negative bacteria (8 of 14; MBC, >0.5 μg/ml), and some yeasts (3 of 9; MBC >3 μg/ml). Slight hemolytic activity (4.2% at 100 μg/ml) against human erythrocytes was observed only under low-ionic-strength conditions. Less than 1 min of contact was enough to kill Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P. The bactericidal activity against S. aureus was inhibited by salts. PMID:10991847

  17. [Sonographic imaging of Ascaris lumbricoides].

    PubMed

    Barzilai, M; Khamaysi, N

    1996-10-01

    The round worm, Ascaris lumbricoides, is one of the largest of the parasites that infest the human bowel. The worms usually develop in the jejunum and can reach several thousand in number, causing bowel obstruction, volvulus, intussusception, appendicitis and even bowel perforation with penetration into the peritoneal cavity. They tend to invade the bile and pancreatic ducts and may cause acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis. Ascaris lumbricoides can be detected by sonography. This imaging modality can be helpful in diagnosing the presence of the worms and in evaluating response to treatment. We present an 18-month-old girl in whom bowel worms were detected by sonography. PMID:8940520

  18. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms. PMID:22509089

  19. Solution Structure of a Repeated Unit of the ABA-1 Nematode Polyprotein Allergen of Ascaris Reveals a Novel Fold and Two Discrete Lipid-Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Meenan, Nicola A. G.; Ball, Graeme; Bromek, Krystyna; Uhrín, Dušan; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Smith, Brian O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nematode polyprotein allergens (NPAs) are an unusual class of lipid-binding proteins found only in nematodes. They are synthesized as large, tandemly repetitive polyproteins that are post-translationally cleaved into multiple copies of small lipid binding proteins with virtually identical fatty acid and retinol (Vitamin A)-binding characteristics. They are probably central to transport and distribution of small hydrophobic compounds between the tissues of nematodes, and may play key roles in nutrient scavenging, immunomodulation, and IgE antibody-based responses in infection. In some species the repeating units are diverse in amino acid sequence, but, in ascarid and filarial nematodes, many of the units are identical or near-identical. ABA-1A is the most common repeating unit of the NPA of Ascaris suum, and is closely similar to that of Ascaris lumbricoides, the large intestinal roundworm of humans. Immune responses to NPAs have been associated with naturally-acquired resistance to infection in humans, and the immune repertoire to them is under strict genetic control. Methodology/Principal Findings The solution structure of ABA-1A was determined by protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The protein adopts a novel seven-helical fold comprising a long central helix that participates in two hollow four-helical bundles on either side. Discrete hydrophobic ligand-binding pockets are found in the N-terminal and C-terminal bundles, and the amino acid sidechains affected by ligand (fatty acid) binding were identified. Recombinant ABA-1A contains tightly-bound ligand(s) of bacterial culture origin in one of its binding sites. Conclusions/Significance This is the first mature, post-translationally processed, unit of a naturally-occurring tandemly-repetitive polyprotein to be structurally characterized from any source, and it belongs to a new structural class. NPAs have no counterparts in vertebrates, so represent potential targets for drug or

  20. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  1. [Helminth infections in wild boars kept in enclosures in southern Germany: severity of infections and fecal intensity].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D; Schoierer, R; Gothe, R

    1991-12-01

    To determine the intensity of helminth infection and egg output with regard to age and sex of wild boar, stomachs and intestines of 124, lungs of 62, and livers of 39 animals from 5 enclosures in Southern Germany were examined. The evaluation of the intensity of infection showed 579.4 worms per animal for Hyostrongylus rubidus, 510.4 for Globocephalus longemucronatus, 476.9 for Oesophagostomum dentatum, 476.9 for O. quadrispinulatum, 254.2 for Metastrongylus pudendotectus, 176.9 for M. salmi, 140 for Physocephalus sexalatus, 56.9 for M. apri, 45.4 for Trichuris suis, and 3.3 for Ascaris suum. 33.6 liver flukes per infected wild boar were also found. Additionally 2 metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena on the serous liver coat of an adult sow were found. The worm burden with respect to age of the animals showed no or only minimal age related differences, whereas a large number of O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum was found in adults compared to younger wild boars. The evaluation of the intensity of infection with regard to sex of the animals showed higher values only for H. rubidus, O. dentatum, O. quadrispinulatum and P. sexalatus in males compared to female wild boars. The egg output intensity in the samples taken from the rectum was in average 3300 EpG for A. suum, 450.4 EpG for Oesophagostomum, 445.9 EpG for Globocephalus, 220 EpG for Trichuris, 207.9 EpG for Metastrongylus, 190.8 EpG for Hyostrongylus and 67 EpG for Capillaris. The egg output with respect to age showed higher values in younger wild boars than in adults. PMID:1796467

  2. Role of posttranslational modifications in C. elegans and ascaris spermatogenesis and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Miao, Long; L'Hernault, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Generally, spermatogenesis and sperm function involve widespread posttranslational modification of regulatory proteins in many different species. Nematode spermatogenesis has been studied in detail, mostly by genetic/molecular genetic techniques in the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans and by biochemistry/cell biology in the pig parasite Ascaris suum. Like other nematodes, both of these species produce sperm that use a form of amoeboid motility termed crawling, and many aspects of spermatogenesis are likely to be similar in both species. Consequently, work in these two nematode species has been largely complementary. Work in C. elegans has identified a number of spermatogenesis-defective genes and, so far, 12 encode enzymes that are implicated as catalysts of posttranslational protein modification. Crawling motility involves extension of a single pseudopod and this process is powered by a unique cytoskeleton composed of Major Sperm Protein (MSP) and accessory proteins, instead of the more widely observed actin. In Ascaris, pseudopod extension and crawling motility can be reconstituted in vitro, and biochemical studies have begun to reveal how posttranslational protein modifications, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation and proteolysis, participate in these processes. PMID:25030766

  3. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar. PMID:26017334

  4. A Quantitative Assessment Method for Ascaris Eggs on Hands

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness. PMID:24802859

  5. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Supali, Taniawati; Geldhof, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb) has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal findings We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels. Conclusion/Significance IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission. PMID:26991326

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

  7. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using sequential solar driven photo-Fenton and free chlorine.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; González, Liliana; Sanchez-Salas, Jose Luis; Castillo, Jordana H

    2012-03-01

    Sequential helminth egg inactivation using a solar driven advanced oxidation process (AOP) followed by chlorine was achieved. The photo-assisted Fenton process was tested alone under different H(2)O(2) and/or Fe(II) concentrations to assess its ability to inactivate Ascaris suum eggs. The effect of free chlorine alone was also tested. The lowest egg inactivation results were found using Fe(II) or H(2)O(2) separately (5 and 140 mmol L(-1), respectively) in dark conditions, which showed about 28% inactivation of helminth eggs. By combining Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) at the same concentrations described earlier, 55% of helminth egg inactivation was achieved. By increasing the reagent's concentration two-fold, 83% egg inactivation was achieved after 120 min of reaction time. Process efficiency was enhanced by solar excitation. Using solar disinfection only, the A. suum eggs inactivation reached was the lowest observed (58% egg inactivation after 120 min (120 kJ L(-1))), compared with tests using the photo-Fenton process. The use of the photo-Fenton reaction enhanced the process up to over 99% of egg inactivation after 120 kJ L(-1) when the highest Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) concentration was tested. Practically no effect on the helminth eggs was observed with free chlorine alone after 550 mg min L(-1) was used. Egg inactivation in the range of 25-30% was obtained for sequential processes (AOP then chlorine) using about 150 mg min L(-1). PMID:22361699

  8. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

    PubMed Central

    Das, Koushik; Chowdhury, Punam; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis. PMID:26504510

  9. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Chowdhury, Punam; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1). Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis. PMID:26504510

  10. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode’s ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  11. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  12. Trichinella spiralis: monoclonal antibody against the muscular larvae for the detection of circulating and fecal antigens in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José-Lino; García-Juarez, Jazmín; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    In this work we search for antigens of Trichinella spiralis in sera and stool of rats experimentally infected. The kinetic of antibodies to excretory and secretory (ES) antigens of muscle larvae (ML) was also determined. Wistar rats were infected with 15 ML per gram of body weight and blood samples were collected weekly for 10 weeks. Antibodies were studied using an indirect ELISA. For detection of circulating antigens and coproantigens, a sandwich ELISA was developed with the use of polyclonal rabbit antibodies obtained against the total extract of ML and an IgM monoclonal antibody (Mab) against ES antigens of ML. No reactivity was observed between Mab and the total worm antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Ascaris suum, Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Toxocara canis and Trichuris trichiura. The IgM Mab recognized antigens of 45, 49, and 55 kDa in ES antigens and was unable to bind ES antigens deglycosylated with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid (TFMS) indicating that a glycan structure is present in the epitope recognized by this Mab. The sensitivity of sandwich ELISA was 1 ng/mL. Circulating antigens were detected in all infected rats between 3 and 8 weeks post infection and coproantigens were found during the first two days post infection. Antibodies were detected since the third week post infection through the end of experiment. These results suggested that antigen detection by our sandwich ELISA could be a useful complementary laboratory test for antibody detection. PMID:23026455

  13. 21 CFR 558.315 - Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Treatment of the following gastrointestinal worms and lung worm infections; stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum.... Treatment of the following nematode infections: large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular...

  14. Identification of an Ascaris G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor with atypical muscarinic pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Michael J; Sayegh, Laura; El-Shehabi, Fouad; Song, Chuanzhe; Zamanian, Mostafa; Woods, Debra J; Day, Tim A; Ribeiro, Paula

    2009-09-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the nematode nervous system and induces its effects through interaction with both ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The structure, pharmacology and physiological importance of LGICs have been appreciably elucidated in model nematodes, including parasitic species where they are targets for anthelmintic drugs. Significantly less, however, is understood about nematode ACh GPCRs, termed GARs (G protein-linked ACh receptors). What is known comes from the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans as no GARs have been characterized from parasitic species. Here we clone a putative GAR from the pig gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum with high structural homology to the C. elegans receptor GAR-1. Our GPCR, dubbed AsGAR-1, is alternatively spliced and expressed in the head and tail of adult worms but not in dorsal or ventral body wall muscle, or the ovijector. ACh activated AsGAR-1 in a concentration-dependent manner but the receptor was not activated by other small neurotransmitters. The classical muscarinic agonists carbachol, arecoline, oxotremorine M and bethanechol were also AsGAR-1 agonists but pilocarpine was ineffective. AsGAR-1 activation by ACh was partially antagonized by the muscarinic blocker atropine but pirenzepine and scopolamine were largely ineffective. Certain biogenic amine GPCR antagonists were also found to block AsGAR-1. Our conclusion is that Ascaris possesses G protein-coupled ACh receptors that are homologous in structure to those present in C. elegans, and that although they have some sequence homology to vertebrate muscarinic receptors, their pharmacology is atypically muscarinic. PMID:19327362

  15. Identification of an Ascaris G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor with atypical muscarinic pharmacology★

    PubMed Central

    Kimber, Michael J.; Sayegh, Laura; El-Shehabi, Fouad; Song, Chuanzhe; Zamanian, Mostafa; Woods, Debra J.; Day, Tim A.; Ribeiro, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the nematode nervous system and induces its effects through interaction with both ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The structure, pharmacology and physiological importance of LGICs have been appreciably elucidated in model nematodes, including parasitic species where they are targets for anthelmintic drugs. Significantly less, however, is understood about nematode ACh GPCRs, termed GARs (G protein-linked ACh receptors). What is known comes from the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans as no GARs have been characterized from parasitic species. Here we clone a putative GAR from the pig gastrointestinal nematode Ascaris suum with high structural homology to the C. elegans receptor GAR-1. Our GPCR, dubbed AsGAR-1, isalternatively spliced and expressed in the head and tail of adult worms but not in dorsal or ventralbody wall muscle, or the ovijector. ACh activated AsGAR-1 in a concentration-dependent manner but the receptor was not activated by other small neurotransmitters. The classical muscarinic agonists carbachol, arecoline, oxotremorine M and bethanechol were also AsGAR-1 agonists but pilocarpine was ineffective. AsGAR-1 activation by ACh was partially antagonized by the muscarinic blocker atropine but pirenzepine and scopolamine were largely ineffective. Certain biogenic amine GPCR antagonists were also found to block AsGAR-1. Our conclusion is that Ascaris possesses G protein-coupled ACh receptors that are homologous in structure to thosepresent in C. elegans, and that although they have some sequence homology to vertebrate muscarinic receptors, their pharmacology is atypically muscarinic. PMID:19327362

  16. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. )

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  17. Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alan P.; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype

  18. Destruction of Ascaris ova by accelerated electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capizzi, S.; Chevallier, A.; Schwartzbrod, J.

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the efficiency of radiation treatment to destroy Ascaris ova viability and found that no ova were viable after exposure to 0.75 kGy (D 90 at 0.39 kGy). Although the outer coat of the Ascaris ovum had a protective effect at low doses (0.20 kGy) no difference in ova viability was observed at 0.30 kGy. As the doses commonly used for sanitary treatment of wastewater are much higher, Ascaris ova should be effectively eliminated from sludge by the 10 kGy dose required by EPA regulations ( U.S. EPA, 1993 Federal Register 58, 9248-9415).

  19. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effective against the following nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia), intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum), and lungworms... with the following nematodes: Large roundworms (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum...

  4. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  5. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kanneganti, Kalyan; Makker, Jasbir S; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported. PMID:23853608

  7. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced. PMID:26302902

  8. Tube within tube: Ascaris in bowel and biliary-tract.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankur; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Sriram, Jaganathan

    2010-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common human helminthic diseases worldwide. On ultrasound, it is seen as linear non-shadowing echogenic structures with target appearance in cross section, and the live worm may show writhing movements in real time. On barium meal follow through, it appears as radiolucent tubular filling defects within the bowel lumen. Though not sensitive, direct real-time visualization of Ascaris on ultrasound is quick, non-invasive, and definitive. PMID:21036820

  9. Comparison of Kato-Katz, ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep® in the diagnosis of hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections in the context of an evaluation of rural sanitation in India.

    PubMed

    Funk, Anna L; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2013-06-01

    The Kato-Katz, conventional ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep(®) methods for diagnosing infection with soil-transmitted helminths were compared. The Kato-Katz technique gave the best overall diagnostic performance with the highest results in all measures (prevalence, faecal egg count, sensitivity) followed by the conventional ethyl-acetate and then the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The Kato-Katz technique showed a significantly higher faecal egg count and sensitivity for both hookworm and Trichuris as compared to the Midi Parasep(®) technique. The conventional ethyl-acetate technique produced smaller pellets and showed lower pellet mobility as compared to the Midi Parasep(®). PMID:23467010

  10. Immunoglobulin E in feces of children with intestinal Ascaris lumbricoides infestation.

    PubMed

    Kolmannskog, S

    1986-01-01

    Five of 6 fecal extracts from small children with intestinal Ascaris lumbricoides infection were IgE-positive before antiparasitic treatment with mebendazole was given. After treatment one patient still showed high fecal IgE level, but the samples from the remaining children showed either undetectable IgE values, or values just above the limit of detection. The serum IgE concentrations, however, decreased more slowly than the fecal IgE levels did. In the child with persistent high fecal IgE level after therapy, ova from Hymenolepis nana could still be found in feces, although the A. lumbricoides infection had been successfully treated. Gel filtration studies showed that fecal IgE from a patient with the parasitic infection was degraded to fragments corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 40,000 daltons, similar to that of fecal IgE from a patient with gastrointestinal allergy. The number of IgE-positive fecal extracts in those patients before antiparasitic treatment was given differed significantly from the number of positive fecal IgE extracts from healthy nonallergic children (p less than 0.01), but not from children with different kinds of allergy (p greater than 0.20). The fecal IgA concentrations were not different before and after antiparasitic therapy. The finding of IgE in feces from individuals with intestinal ascaris infection and nearly complete disappearance of IgE in feces after successful therapy is further evidence of local production of IgE in the gut mucosa. PMID:3733234

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides and its invasion of the accessory cystic duct: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Majid, Zain; Masood, Irfan; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi

    2015-04-01

    Around the world, Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common helminthic infection. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman, known to have had Ascaris infestation, presenting with abdominal pain, constipation and jaundice together with fever and tachycardia. There was tenderness in the right hypochondrium and liver function tests confirmed cholestatic jaundice. An abdominal ultrasound showed multiple linear echogenic foci in the distal small intestine along with cholelithiasis and a thick-walled gall bladder with a single stone compressing the common bile duct (Mirizzi syndrome). The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy; more than 100 worms were found inside the small intestine and they were removed by enterotomy and manual decompression. No worm could be palpated within the common bile duct (CBD). Cholecystectomy was performed, during which an accessory cystic duct was noted opening into the common bile duct superiorly to the main cystic duct. A 10 cm live worm was found coming out of it and was removed via forceps. Later on an endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram (ERCP) showed a widened ampulla, a mildly dilated common bile duct, but without any filling defects. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery being discharged on the ninth day. Worms in an accessory cystic duct have not been report in the medical literature so far. PMID:25430551

  12. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  13. Proteomic and Immunochemical Characterization of Glutathione Transferase as a New Allergen of the Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G.; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments. PMID:24223794

  14. Structural Basis for the Immunomodulatory Function of Cysteine Protease Inhibitor from Human Roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs. PMID:24781326

  15. Management of Accidental Finding of Ascaris Lumbricoides During Emergent Abdominal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Esfehani, Maryam Hassan; Jahanshahi, Abdolhadi; Karimi, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up. PMID:27604675

  16. Intensity of reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides and its implications for parasite control.

    PubMed

    Hall, A; Anwar, K S; Tomkins, A M

    1992-05-23

    Intestinal helminths are among the most common and widespread of human infections. Because it is typical to find that most worms are aggregated in a few potential hosts it has been suggested that some individuals are predisposed to heavy infections and that morbidity could be controlled by the treatment of heavily infected individuals only. We have studied the prevalence and intensity of reinfection with the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides among people living in Dhaka, Bangladesh. 880 people were treated with pyrantel pamoate three times at six month intervals, and on each occasion they collected all their stools for 48 h after treatment. Worms expelled by each subject were counted and weighed. The prevalence of infection at round 1 of treatment was 89% and the mean burden was 18.5 worms. Reinfection was rapid and at rounds 2 and 3 the prevalence was 82% and 80%, respectively, with mean burdens of 14.0 and 11.5 worms. The intensity of reinfection was not random: more subjects than expected became heavily reinfected (greater than or equal to 15 worms) and more subjects than expected remained lightly infected (less than or equal to 14 worms) (p less than 0.001). Worms were highly aggregated at each round of treatment but although just over 10% of all subjects were heavily infected at each and every round of treatment, over 60% of all subjects were heavily infected at least once. The findings show that some individuals seem to be susceptible to heavy infection whereas others are not, that deworming has a greater effect on the intensity of infection than on the prevalence, and that mass chemotherapy is likely to be a more effective means to control morbidity than is selective treatment of heavily infected individuals only. PMID:1349668

  17. A Real-Time PCR Method for Quantifying Viable Ascaris Eggs Using the First Internally Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Pecson, Brian M.; Barrios, José Antonio; Johnson, David R.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications. PMID:17056687

  18. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented. PMID:25129847

  19. Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Ascaris Eggs Discovered in Coprolites from Joseon Tomb

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples. PMID:25925186

  20. Ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of ascaris eggs discovered in coprolites from joseon tomb.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples. PMID:25925186

  1. Disorganized muscle protein-1 (DIM-1) of filarial parasite Brugia malayi: cDNA cloning, expression, purification, structural modeling and its potential as vaccine candidate for human filarial infection.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Vikas; Kumar, Vikash; Verma, Shiv K; Sharma, Rolee; Siddiqi, M I; Murthy, P K

    2014-03-26

    We have recently identified disorganized muscle protein-1 (DIM-1) in one of the proinflammatory fractions of the human filaria Brugia malayi adult worm. The present study was undertaken to characterize B. malayi DIM-1 (DIM-1bm) and explore its vaccine potential. In this study we cloned and expressed the DIM-1bm gene, investigated its sequence homology with other nematodes, constructed in silico structural model, purified the recombinant DIM-1bm (rDIM-1bm) protein, and studied the effect of immunization with rDIM-1bm on the establishment of B. malayi infection in Mastomys coucha. DIM-1bm showed similarity with DIM-1 of Caenorhabditis elegans, Ascaris suum and Loa loa. Structural modeling revealed three immunoglobulin domains in DIM-1bm indicating that it is a member of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and 'blastn' results showed that DIM-1bm coding sequence (CDS) have almost no homology with human and mouse nucleotide sequences. Immunization with rDIM-1bm partially protected M. coucha against establishment of infection as inferred by a low recovery of microfilariae (37-64%) and parasite burden (∼50%). The enhanced activity of macrophages, and IFN-γ and NO responses, and elevated levels of specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b correlated with parasitological findings. This is the first report on cloning, expression, structural modeling and purification of rDIM-1bm and its ability to partially prevent establishment of B. malayi infection. DIM-1bm's almost complete lack of homology with the human counterpart makes it an attractive protein for exploring its vaccine potential. PMID:24513011

  2. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications. PMID:26081893

  3. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  4. Ultrasonographic appearance of Ascaris lumbricoides in the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T; Mansoor, N; Quraishy, S; Ilyas, M; Hussain, S

    2001-03-01

    Roundworm infestation, one of the most common helminthic diseases worldwide, is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, one of the largest parasites that infests the human bowel. A lumbricoides is virtually universal at some stage of childhood in semitropical and tropical regions. This study describes our experience with the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal ascariasis in 84 patients, 2.5 to 42 years of age, examined over 2 years beginning October 1997. The patients' conditions ranged from acute intestinal obstruction to no clinical features pertaining to obstruction. Ultrasonographic examination was performed with an Echocee power Doppler real-time unit with a variable-frequency 3.7-MHz convex, 7.5-MHz linear probe. In longitudinal section the Ascaris worm presented as a linear intraluminal mass with 3 or 4 linear echogenic interfaces; in the cross section, it was round, sometimes appearing as a "target" sign. Some worms also showed serpentine movements. Sonographic examination of the patients in the left lateral decubitus position after ingestion of water improved detection and visualization of the worms in some cases. It is concluded that A lumbricoides in the small bowel has a sonographic appearance that can be recognized by the wary observer. PMID:11270532

  5. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  6. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times.

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2008-02-01

    Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp) target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America. PMID:18327505

  7. Electronic structures of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haoping

    2003-11-01

    The electronic structures of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in solution are obtained by the first-principles, all-electron, ab initio calculation using the self-consistent cluster-embedding (SCCE) method. The inhibitor, made up of 62 amino acid residues with 912 atoms, has two three-dimensional solution structures: 1ata and 1atb. The calculated ground-state energy of structure 1atb is lower than that of structure 1ata by 6.12 eV. The active sites are determined and explained: only structure 1atb has a N terminal at residue ARG+31. This shows that the structure 1atb is the stable and active form of the inhibitor, which is in agreement with the experimental results. The calculation reveals that some parts of the inhibitor can be easily changed while the inhibitor’s biological activity may be kept. This kind of information may be helpful in fighting viruses such as AIDS, SARS, and flu, since these viruses have higher variability. The calculation offers an independent theoretical estimate of the precision of structure determination.

  8. Genetic characterisation and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. from humans and pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Leles, Daniela; Jaeger, Lauren H; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-10-01

    The molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. of human and pig origin has been studied as a means to assess the potential of pigs as reservoirs for human ascariasis. In this study, human (H) and pig (P) Ascaris spp. haplotypes from two Brazilian regions were characterised based on two mitochondrial genes, nad1 and cox1. The results show six haplotypes of the cox1 gene, with two haplotypes (H9P9 and P3) corresponding to haplotypes previously characterised in China. Because P3 was found in humans in this study, it was designated as H14P3. Furthermore, five new Ascaris spp. nad1 haplotypes from humans (H12-H16) and five from pigs (P16-P20) were observed, with one being highly frequent and present in both hosts, here designated as H12P17. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that the molecular epidemiology of Ascaris spp. in Brazil is driven by the globally distributed haplotypes cox1 H14P3 and nad1 H12P17. In conclusion, in this study genetic characterisation of Ascaris spp. showed that humans and pigs share common haplotypes that are also present in two widely separated geographical regions of Brazil. PMID:22944771

  9. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  10. SjAPI, the First Functionally Characterized Ascaris-Type Protease Inhibitor from Animal Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    Background Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. Principal Findings Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI), Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2), Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI), and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI). The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues “AAV” and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of

  11. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  12. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R. M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50-70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application.

  13. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  14. 21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.), intestinal threadworms (Strongyloides ransomi), and swine kidney worms (Stephanurus dentatum). (3) Limitations. For...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.), intestinal threadworms (Strongyloides ransomi), and swine kidney worms (Stephanurus dentatum). (3) Limitations. For...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.), intestinal threadworms (Strongyloides ransomi), and swine kidney worms (Stephanurus dentatum). (3) Limitations. For...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.), intestinal threadworms (Strongyloides ransomi), and swine kidney worms (Stephanurus dentatum). (3) Limitations. For...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.), intestinal threadworms (Strongyloides ransomi), and swine kidney worms (Stephanurus dentatum). (3) Limitations. For...

  19. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M. A.

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae "inside the eggs" were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  20. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  1. Ascaris and Escherichia coli Inactivation in an Ecological Sanitation System in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Berendes, David; Levy, Karen; Knee, Jackie; Handzel, Thomas; Hill, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 – 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. viability. Center temperatures in compost bins were all above 58 °C, while corner temperatures were 10 – 20 °C lower. Moisture content was 67 ± 10% in all except the oldest compost. A 4-log reduction in E. coli was observed over the first sixteen weeks of composting at both locations and depths, after which E. coli was undetectable (LOD: 142 MPN g-1 dry weight). In new compost, 10.4% and 8.3% of Ascaris eggs were viable and fully embryonated, respectively. Percent viability dropped to zero in samples older than six weeks. These findings indicate that the Haitian EcoSan composting process was effective in inactivating E. coli and Ascaris spp. in latrine waste within sixteen weeks. This study is one of the first to document efficacy of an ecological sanitation system under field conditions and provides insight into composting methods and monitoring for other international settings. PMID:25932948

  2. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating. PMID:26143272

  3. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  4. A comparison of the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine alone or in combinations against Ascaris and Trichuris spp.

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, V. Y.; Amarillo, M. E.; de Leon, W. U.; de los Reyes, A. E.; Bugayong, M. G.; Macatangay, B. J. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of single doses of albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, and of the combinations albendazole + ivermectin and albendazole + diethylcarbamazine against common intestinal helminthiases caused by Ascaris and Trichuris spp. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, infected children were randomly assigned to treatment with albendazole + placebo, ivermectin + placebo, diethylcarbamazine + placebo, albendazole + ivermectin, or albendazole + diethylcarbamazine. The Kato-Katz method was used for qualitative and quantitative parasitological diagnosis. The chi2 test was used to determine the significance of cure rates, repeated measures analysis of variance for the comparison of mean log egg counts, the Newman-Keuls procedure for multiple comparison tests, and logistic regression for the comparison of infection rates at days 180 and 360 after treatment. FINDINGS: Albendazole, ivermectin and the drug combinations gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates for ascariasis than diethylcarbamazine. For trichuriasis, albendazole + ivermectin gave significantly higher cure and egg reduction rates than the other treatments: the infection rates were lower 180 and 360 days after treatment. CONCLUSION: Because of the superiority of albendazole + ivermectin against both lymphatic filariasis and trichuriasis, this combination appears to be a suitable tool for the integrated or combined control of both public health problems. PMID:12640474

  5. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis. PMID:24192626

  6. Investigation of the role of histamine in antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the ascaris-hypersensitive dog.

    PubMed Central

    Krell, R D

    1978-01-01

    1 Aerosol administration of ascaris antigen to the airways of ascaris-hypersensitive dogs provoked increases in pulmonary resistance (Rp) and decreases in dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn). These changes in pulmonary mechanics were not inhibited by the histamine H1-receptor antagonists, diphenhydramine or mepyramine. 2 Increases in Rp and decreases in Cdyn induced by a histamine aerosol were markedly or totally inhibited by comparable doses of these H1-antihistamines. 3 Doses of antigen which produced pathophysiological pulmonary responses failed to produce a detectable histamine release from the cardiopulmonary system in vivo. Aerosol antigen provocation, equivalent to 5 to 9 times greater than that which produced substantial pathophysiological pulmonary responses, did cause histamine release in vivo. 4 The canine cardiopulmonary system showed only a modest ability to remove and/or degrade circulating histamine. 5 It is concluded that histamine may not play a major role in mediating the acute antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the ascaris-hypersensitive dog. PMID:26444

  7. Ammonia inactivation of Ascaris ova in ecological compost by using urine and ash.

    PubMed

    McKinley, James W; Parzen, Rebecca E; Mercado Guzmán, Álvaro

    2012-08-01

    Viable ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, an indicator organism for pathogens, are frequently found in feces-derived compost produced from ecological toilets, demonstrating that threshold levels of time, temperature, pH, and moisture content for pathogen inactivation are not routinely met. Previous studies have determined that NH(3) has ovicidal properties for pathogens, including Ascaris ova. This research attempted to achieve Ascaris inactivation via NH(3) under environmental conditions commonly found in ecological toilets and using materials universally available in an ecological sanitation setting, including compost (feces and sawdust), urine, and ash. Compost mixed with stored urine and ash produced the most rapid inactivation, with significant inactivation observed after 2 weeks and with a time to 99% ovum inactivation (T(99)) of 8 weeks. Compost mixed with fresh urine and ash achieved a T(99) of 15 weeks, after a 4-week lag phase. Both matrices had relatively high total-ammonia concentrations and pH values of >9.24 (pK(a) of ammonia). In compost mixed with ash only, and in compost mixed with fresh urine only, inactivation was observed after an 11-week lag phase. These matrices contained NH(3) concentrations of 164 to 173 and 102 to 277 mg/liter, respectively, when inactivation occurred, which was below the previously hypothesized threshold for inactivation (280 mg/liter), suggesting that a lower threshold NH(3) concentration may be possible with a longer contact time. Other significant results include the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia between pH values of 10.4 and 11.6, above the literature threshold pH of 10. PMID:22582051

  8. Ammonia Inactivation of Ascaris Ova in Ecological Compost by Using Urine and Ash

    PubMed Central

    Parzen, Rebecca E.; Mercado Guzmán, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    Viable ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, an indicator organism for pathogens, are frequently found in feces-derived compost produced from ecological toilets, demonstrating that threshold levels of time, temperature, pH, and moisture content for pathogen inactivation are not routinely met. Previous studies have determined that NH3 has ovicidal properties for pathogens, including Ascaris ova. This research attempted to achieve Ascaris inactivation via NH3 under environmental conditions commonly found in ecological toilets and using materials universally available in an ecological sanitation setting, including compost (feces and sawdust), urine, and ash. Compost mixed with stored urine and ash produced the most rapid inactivation, with significant inactivation observed after 2 weeks and with a time to 99% ovum inactivation (T99) of 8 weeks. Compost mixed with fresh urine and ash achieved a T99 of 15 weeks, after a 4-week lag phase. Both matrices had relatively high total-ammonia concentrations and pH values of >9.24 (pKa of ammonia). In compost mixed with ash only, and in compost mixed with fresh urine only, inactivation was observed after an 11-week lag phase. These matrices contained NH3 concentrations of 164 to 173 and 102 to 277 mg/liter, respectively, when inactivation occurred, which was below the previously hypothesized threshold for inactivation (280 mg/liter), suggesting that a lower threshold NH3 concentration may be possible with a longer contact time. Other significant results include the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia between pH values of 10.4 and 11.6, above the literature threshold pH of 10. PMID:22582051

  9. A related moderately repetitive DNA family in the nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and Panagrellus silusiae.

    PubMed

    Warren, T; Pasternak, J J

    1988-11-25

    Digestion of genomic DNA from the nematodes Panagrellus silusiae and Ascaris lumbricoides with restriction endonuclease BamH1 releases a 0.7 kilobase (kb) fragment. The 0.7 kb fragment from both nematodes was cloned onto E. coli plasmid pUC19. Using representative clones as DNA hybridization probes, it was found that (i) the BamH1 fragments cross-hybridize; (ii) a ladder-effect with multiples of 0.7 kb was evident in both species after hybridization to genomic DNA and (iii) the genomic copy number of BamH1 elements is 150 and 195 for P. silusiae and A. lumbricoides respectively. DNA sequence analysis of the inserts, AL700-1 and PS700-1, revealed nucleotide blocks with over 85% similarity. No open reading frames are present in either DNA fragment. Neither fragment hybridizes to genomic DNA from Caenorhabditis elegans. Northern blot hybridization indicated that the 0.7 kb element is transcribed into poly(A)(-)-RNA in P. silusiae; but, is not transcribed in adult Ascaris muscle. Thus, P. silusiae and A. lumbricoides share a homologous, tandemly arrayed, moderately repetitive DNA family. PMID:3205722

  10. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Phuphisut, Orawan; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Komalamisra, Chalit; Adisakwattana, Poom

    2014-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas. PMID:24968666

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene. PMID:21698086

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides causing infarction of the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal gangrene in a child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhutia, Kincho Lhasong; Dey, Subhajeet; Singh, Varun; Gupta, Amlan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or round worm infestation is quite common in the developing world. It affects all age groups but is more common in children. Most of the cases remain asymptomatic. The usual presentation is an intestinal obstruction. The physicians should be aware of this condition and consider it in the differential diagnosis when faced with such a case. The rare fatal complications include bleeding, perforation and gangrene. PMID:21698086

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in Campalagian district, south Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Miyagi, I

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections were surveyed in the inhabitants of 3 coastal and 2 inland villages of Campalagian District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in July 1992. A total of 398 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, Harada-Mori culture and agar-plate culture techniques. Protozoan cysts were examined by formalin ether concentration technique on 380 fecal samples. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent with the overall positive rates as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 25.3%, Trichuris trichiura 59.3%, hookworm 68.3% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.3%. Eight species of protozoan were detected with the overall prevalence as follows: Entamoeba histolytica 10.9%, E. hartmanni 16.3%, E. coli 31.9%, Endolimax nana 12.5%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 5.4%, Giardia lamblia 4.6%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8% and Blastocystis hominis 18.0%. In the inland villages, prevalence of hookworm infection was higher than Ascaris and Trichuris infections, while in the coastal villages Trichuris infection was predominant. Egg count revealed that the infection level was light in most of the hookworm and Trichuris carriers. Prevalence of lavatories among houses appeared to be inversely proportional to the prevalence of hookworm infection. Meanwhile, the incomplete structure of the lavatories might result in contamination of environment with Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Harada-Mori culture was the most efficient method in the detection of hookworm infection compared to other techniques. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were found in all villages, but the former was the predominant species. An adult pinworm was detected by agar-plate culture of feces. Two types of pinworm males, corresponding to Enterobius vermicularis and E. gregorii, were observed. PMID:8266235

  14. [Three recent cases of ascariasis in northern Kyushu].

    PubMed

    Makiya, K; Tsukamoto, M; Unoki, H; Sujita, K; Mori, N; Miki, T; Yokoyama, M

    1988-03-01

    Ascariasis is considered to be one of the rare infectious diseases in Japan, but recently it has been slightly increasing. This paper reports three ascariasis cases who seemed to be infected recently in the Kitakyushu area, Japan. Case 1: A 59-year-old woman in Kitakyushu City passed a round worm after continuous abdominal pain. The patient was discharged from the hospital because of no further abnormal intestinal symptoms and findings. Case 2: An 85-year-old woman in Nakama City, who suffered from cerebral infarction, vomited a round worm before hospitalization. Many ascarid eggs were detected after admission, and after treatment with pyrantel pamoate (Combantrin) two round worms were passed and egg detection became negative. Case 3: A 77-year-old man in Saikawa Town vomited 3 round worms after gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer. Many unfertilized eggs were also detected from the stool together with hook worm eggs, but no eggs were found after administration of pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination was made by a scanning electron microscope on the denticles on the dentigerous lip ridges of the worms to differentiate from possible infection with a pig parasite, Ascaris suum. The three cases were diagnosed as ascariasis due to human Ascaris lumbricoides based on the following evidences that the expelled worms had 1) less pointed tips of the denticles and shallower or wider interdenticle notches, and 2) far more denticles of smaller size along the dentigerous ridges, compared with Ascaris suum. The necessity of differentiating pig- from human-ascarids, when considering human infection with Ascaris suum, is discussed. PMID:3368668

  15. Successful treatment of lipoid pneumonia associated with bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Azevedo Sias, Selma; Oliveira Caetano, Regina; Dutra Comarella, Júlia; de Oliveira, Elen; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-08-01

    Partial bowel obstruction is a serious complication of ascariasis infestation generally treated with mineral oil. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) as a therapeutic strategy for reducing lung inflammation of lipoid pneumonia associated with ascariasis. The study included five children (mean age 25 months) with partial small-bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides, who underwent diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage for assessment of refractory pneumonia. Routine biochemical, microbiological and cytological analysis were carried out in the BAL. Protein, lactate dehydrogenase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) cytokine levels were determined in the serum before and after treatment. At admission, children consistently had respiratory symptoms, altered hematological function, increased immunoglobulin E serum level and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Chest tomography showed consolidation with air bronchogram (4/4), ground-glass infiltration (3/4) and decreased attenuation in the consolidation areas (2/4). Presence of marked pleocytosis with Sudan positive foamy alveolar macrophages, high protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL indicated presence of mixed alveolitis. One child with extensive consolidation and air bronchogram in both lungs died before treatment. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages efficiently removed alveolar oil deposits, restored BAL cellularity, improved clinical symptoms, radiological parameters and further reduced inflammatory reaction evidenced by marked decrease of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α. This study presents a therapeutic strategy for management of lung complications caused by mineral oil administration to treat intestinal bowel obstruction associated with ascariasis. PMID:20026557

  16. SjAPI-2 is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with Ascaris-type fold and KCNQ1 inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chuangeng; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2015-08-01

    Peptides with Ascaris-type fold are a new kind of toxins founded from venomous animals recently. Functionally, these unique toxin peptides had been identified as potent protease inhibitors, which was similar to other known Ascaris-type peptides from non-venomous animals. Whether Ascaris-type peptides from venom animals have neurotoxin activities remains unclear. Here, a scorpion toxin SjAPI-2 with Ascaris-type fold was characterized to have a neurotoxin activity, which can selectively inhibit KCNQ1 potassium channel. SjAPI-2 had 62 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteine residues. Charged residue analyses showed that two acidic residues of SjAPI-2 were regionally distributed, and 10 basic residues were distributed widely throughout the whole peptide, which was similar to classical potassium channel toxins. Pharmacological studies confirmed that SjAPI-2 was a selective KCNQ1 potassium channel inhibitor with weak effects on other potassium channels, such as Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, SKCa2, SKCa3, and IKCa channels. Concentration-dependent studies showed that SjAPI-2 inhibited the KCNQ1 potassium channel with an IC50 of 771.5±169.9 nM. To the best of our knowledge, SjAPI-2 is the first neurotoxin with a unique Ascaris-type fold, providing novel insights into the divergent evolution of neurotoxins from venomous animals. PMID:26014142

  17. [Case report: Löffler's syndrome due to Ascaris lumbricoides mimicking acute bacterial community--acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Acar, Ali; Oncül, Oral; Cavuşlu, Saban; Okutan, Oğuzhan; Kartaloğlu, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a patient with Loeffler's syndrome caused by Ascaris lumbricoides who presented with the clinical findings of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our patient, who was twenty-five years old, and who had had symptoms such as coughing, expectorating, dyspnea and fever for approximately ten days, was hospitalized. We auscultated polyphonic rhonchuses at the both hemithoraxes. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral lower zone patch consolidation. Acute bacterial community acquired pneumonia (CAP) was diagnosed due to these findings and empirical antibiotic treatment was begun. Repeated sputum Gram stains were negative, and both sputum and blood cultures were sterile. A sputum smear was negative for acid-fast bacilli. The patient's fever and respiratory complaint did not respond to the empirical antibiotics therapy. During the course of advanced investigations, we measured peripheric eosinophilia, and high levels of total Eo and total IgE, and observed Ascaris lumbricoides eggs during stool examination. The patient was given a diagnosis of Loeffler's syndrome. Thereupon the patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazol 400 mg. In conclusion, we suggest that Loeffler's syndrome must be considered early in the differential diagnosis for CAP when peripheric eosinophilia is seen in patients if they live in an endemic area for parasitic disease. PMID:19851973

  18. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement.

    PubMed

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2015-02-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura , using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology. The identification of T. trichiura eggs indicates that human fecal material is present and, hence, that the Ascaris sp. haplotype 07 was most likely a human variant in Viking-age Denmark. The location of the F. hepatica finding suggests that sheep or cattle are the most likely hosts. Further, we sequenced the Ascaris sp. 18S rRNA gene in recent isolates from humans and pigs of global distribution and show that this is not a suited marker for species-specific identification. Finally, we discuss ancient parasitism in Denmark and the implementation of aDNA analysis methods in paleoparasitological studies. We argue that when employing species-specific identification, soil samples offer excellent opportunities for studies of human parasite infections and of human and animal interactions of the past. PMID:25357228

  19. Viability of Ascaris and other helminth genera non larval eggs in different conditions of temperature, lime (pH) and humidity.

    PubMed

    Maya, C; Ortiz, M; Jiménez, B

    2010-01-01

    Helminth eggs are the pathogens most resistant to inactivation during sludge and wastewater treatment. For this reason, in several regulations and the WHO guidelines for wastewater and excreta reuse for agriculture and aquaculture they are considered as indicators of the performance of the treatment process. Conditions required to inactivate helminth eggs, notably Ascaris lumbricoides, are recommended in the literature, but in practice these have not always proven effective, not only for Ascaris but also other genera of helminth eggs. The objective of this research was to study the inactivation of a high total content of non larval Ascaris and other genera of helminth eggs of medical importance to developing countries under controlled conditions of (a) temperature (30 °C to 80 °C) and humidity (80, 90 and 95%) and (b) lime doses (15 and 20% of CaO w/w dry basis) and humidity (90 and 80%), using different contact times in both cases. The inactivation data obtained for different genera of non larval helminth eggs is presented. Results showed that there is a combination of conditions (temperature, pH and humidity) that is optimal for inactivation. To completely inactivate any genera of non larval helminth eggs: (a) a temperature above 70 °C and 80% humidity for a duration of 120 min; and, (b) a 20% CaO dose (pH 12.5) and a humidity level of 80% for a duration of 8 months are needed. With regard to the resistance of different genera of helminth eggs, Ascaris, Toxocara and Taenia, in that order, were the most resistant, while the most sensitive were Trichuris and Hymenolepis. For most of the conditions tested Ascaris showed the highest resistance, probably due to the chemical arrangement of its membrane. PMID:21099049

  20. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  1. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Harter-Lailheugue, Stephanie; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; da Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Bouchet, Françoise

    2006-12-01

    Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements. PMID:17308808

  2. Evidence of Helminth Infection in Guanche Mummies: Integrating Paleoparasitological and Paleogenetic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Gijón-Botella, Herminia; Del Carmen Del Arco-Aguilar, María; Martín-Oval, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Maffiotte, Conrado; Del Arco-Aguilar, Mercedes; Araújo, Adauto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2016-04-01

    The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination. The results revealed the presence of well-preserved eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis , and hookworms. Ancient DNA was extracted from sediment samples to elucidate the ancestry of the mummies and for molecular detection of Ascaris sp. infection. Results of paleogenetic analysis demonstrated Ascaris sp. infection using 2 molecular targets, cytb and nad1. The mtDNA haplotypes U6b, U6b1, and HV were identified, which confirmed records of Guanche ancestry. The excellent preservation of Guanche mummies facilitated the paleoparasitological and paleogenetic study, the results of which contribute to our knowledge of Guanche culture and their health status. PMID:26641720

  3. Antagonism between two intestinal parasites in humans: the importance of co-infection for infection risk and recovery dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Aaron D.; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection may affect transmission and recovery from infection, but remains an understudied element of disease ecology, particularly with regard to antagonism between parasites sharing a host. Helminth and giardia infections are often endemic in the same populations and both occupy the small intestine; yet few studies have examined interactions between these parasites. We report on helminth–giardia co-infections in a panel study of forager–horticulturalists in the Bolivian lowlands. Parasites were identified in faecal samples from 3275 participants, collected during 5235 medical exams over 6 years. Longitudinal co-infection patterns were examined using logistic mixed and multi-state Markov models. The most prevalent infections were hookworm (56%), Giardia lamblia (30%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (15%). Cross-sectionally, hookworm and A. lumbricoides were negatively associated with G. lamblia (OR = 0.60; OR = 0.65, respectively). Longitudinally, giardia infection was less likely in helminth-infected individuals (HR: 0.46). Infection with helminths was also less likely for individuals infected with giardia (HR: 0.71). Finally, treatment with mebendazole reduced subsequent hookworm infections, but resulted in a marginal increase in the odds of G. lamblia infection. Our results provide evidence for an antagonistic relationship between helminths and giardia, and suggest that co-infection should be considered in disease transmission models and treatment decisions. PMID:23986108

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Stewart, Barclay T.; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole therapy. Results Of 1,541 HIV-1 seropositive individuals screened, 298 (19.3%) had detectable helminth infections. Among individuals with helminth infection, hookworm species were the most prevalent (56.3%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.1%), Trichuris trichiura (8.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (7.1%), and Stongyloides stercoralis (1.3%). Infection with multiple species occurred in 9.4% of infections. After CD4 count was controlled for, rural residence (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81), having no education (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.30), and higher CD4 count (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73) remained independently associated with risk of helminth infection. Twelve weeks following treatment with albendazole, 32% of helminth-infected individuals had detectable helminths on examination. Residence, education, and CD4 count were not associated with persistent helminth infection. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive adults with CD4 counts above 250 cells/mm3 in Kenya, traditional risk factors for helminth infection, including rural residence and lack of education, were associated with co-infection, while lower CD4 counts were not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00130910 PMID:20361031

  5. Parasitism in Children Aged Three Years and Under: Relationship between Infection and Growth in Rural Coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Maxim; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M.; McKibben, Elisabeth; Gildengorin, Ginny; Sutherland, Laura J.; King, Charles H.; King, Christopher L.; Malhotra, Indu

    2015-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections, which are among the most common infections worldwide, disproportionately affect children; however, little is known about the impact of parasitic disease on growth in very early childhood. Our objective was to document the prevalence of parasitic infections and examine their association with growth during the first three years of life among children in coastal Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings Children enrolled in a maternal-child cohort were tested for soil transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm, Strongyloides), protozoa (malaria, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia), filaria, and Schistosoma infection every six months from birth until age three years. Anthropometrics were measured at each visit. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to examine the relationship between parasitic infections experienced in the first three years of life and growth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference). Of 545 children, STHs were the most common infection with 106 infections (19%) by age three years. Malaria followed in period prevalence with 68 infections (12%) by three years of age. Filaria and Schistosoma infection occurred in 26 (4.8%) and 16 (2.9%) children, respectively. Seven percent were infected with multiple parasites by three years of age. Each infection type (when all STHs were combined) was documented by six months of age. Decreases in growth of weight, length and head circumference during the first 36 months of life were associated with hookworm, Ascaris, E. histolytica, malaria and Schistosoma infection. In a subset analysis of 180 children who followed up at every visit through 24 months, infection with any parasite was associated with decelerations in weight, length and head circumference growth velocity. Multiple infections were associated with greater impairment of linear growth. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate an under-recognized burden of parasitism in the first

  6. Migration behaviour and pathogenesis of five ascarid nematode species in the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Egami, M; Ohnuki, H; Saito, Y; Chinone, S; Shichinohe, K; Suganuma, M; Akao, N

    2007-03-01

    To understand the characteristic features of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, as an animal model of ascarid infections, the migration behaviour and pathogenesis of larvae were investigated in experimentally infected gerbils. Embryonated eggs from each of Toxocara canis, Baylisascaris procyonis, B. transfuga, Ascaris suum, and A. lumbricoides were orally inoculated into gerbils and larvae were recovered from various organs at designated periods. In T. canis-infected gerbils, larvae were present in the liver 3 days after infection and in the skeletal muscle and brain via the heart and lungs at a similar rate. In B. procyonis- and B. transfuga-infected gerbils, larvae were present in the lungs within 24 h after infection, with some having reached the brain by that time. After 24 h, larvae of B. procyonis tended to accumulate in the brain, while those of B. transfuga accumulated in skeletal muscles. In A. suum- and A. lumbricoides-infected gerbils, larvae remained in the liver on day 5 post-infection and elicited pulmonary haemorrhagic lesions, which disappeared 7 days after initial infection. Thereafter, no larvae of any type were recovered. Ocular manifestations were frequently observed in T. canis- and B. procyonis infected gerbils, but were rare in B. transfuga-infected gerbils. In the cases of A. suum and A. lumbricoides, migration to the central nervous system and eyes was extremely rare, and larvae had disappeared by 2 weeks post-infection. Fatal neurological disturbances were observed in B. procyonis-infected gerbils, whereas irreversible non-fatal neurological symptoms were observed in the case of B. transfuga. PMID:17381866

  7. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  8. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  9. [Anti-tumor effect of the whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jun-Ping; Huang, Yan-Qin; Liang, Hua; Yuan, Keng

    2013-12-01

    Forty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E). Group B and D served as the control group of A and C. Each mouse of group A was intraperitoneally injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of Ascaris lumbricoides every other day, and 10 days later injected with 0.1 ml Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells at right axillary subcutaneously region. Mice of group B were injected with normal saline and then developed tumor model. Each mouse of group C was injected with 0.1 ml LLC cells, and two days later, injected with 0.1 ml whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides every other day for 5 times. After the tumor model developed, mice in group D were injected with normal saline. Group E was the negative control group. Time intervals between implantation and active growth and tumor weight were recorded. Tumor inhibition rate was calculated. The average time interval between tumor implantation and measurable tumor growth for groups A, B, C and D was (7.0 +/-1.1), (6.0 +/- 0.7), (9.0 +/- 1.2) and (7.0 +/- 0.9) days. Tumor weight of [(338.9 +/- 282.2) mg] (P < 0.05). The tumor inhibition rate group A [(722.2 +/- 413.5) mg] was heavier than that of group B was the highest in group C (33.3%). Tumor weight of group C [(237.8 +/- 101.8) mg] was lighter than that of group D [(356.7 +/- 176.9) mg] (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the tumor formation is affected by the whole worm extract of A. lumbricoides which may have an inhibitory effect on tumour growth. PMID:24818416

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

  11. Environmental sanitation infection and nutritional status of infants in rural St. Lucia, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Henry, F J

    1981-01-01

    About 75 babies in each of three valleys were followed up for two years. The valleys had different levels of water supplies and latrine facilities, whereas socio-economic conditions and feeding patterns were similar. Results show that the prevalence of diarrhoea and intestinal helminths reduced as sanitation improved. Ascaris and Trichuris infections dropped 30 and 50% respectively after water supplies and latrines were installed. The growth of the children was significantly better in the improved areas. The possibility of malnutrition being secondary to illness, rather than primary, is included in the discussion. PMID:7324124

  12. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  13. The changing pattern of parasitic infection among Korean populations by paleoparasitological study of Joseon Dynasty mummies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jeong, Mi Sook; Hong, Sung Woo; Seo, Young-Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    In the coprolites of 4 recently discovered Joseon mummies of Korea, we found Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Metagonimus yokogawai , Paragonimus westermani , and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. The current finding was compared with previous paleoparasitological data, and with recent national survey data from Korea. For A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura , similar patterns of infection prevalence were observed between the national survey of 1961 and our current Joseon data. Some of the trematode species (C. sinenesis and P. westermani) showed much higher infection prevalences among the Joseon Koreans than among their 1960s descendants. The present results indicate that the decrease in trematode infection rates might have begun earlier than was the case for nematode infection. PMID:24011353

  14. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Hian, Y E; Lay-Hoon, C

    1991-12-01

    Parasitic infections adopt a rather low profile in the highly urbanized setting in Singapore. Very few food-borne parasitic infections are encountered. Apart from a few reports of infections with Clonorchis/Opisthorchis, Taenia spp. and hydatid disease, there are no other citations of such helminthic infections. Seroprevalence surveys have shown the presence of toxoplasmosis in local meat animals (sheep, pigs and cattle) and Toxoplasma strains have been isolated from the pig, tree shrew (Tupaia glis), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and guinea pigs. Human toxoplasmosis is prevalent in Singapore. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are found in the normal population as well as in clinical cases (cervical lymphadenopathy, ocular disease and congenital toxoplasmosis). Carcasses/organs from meat animals (sheep, pigs, cattle) slaughtered at local abattoirs were examined for parasites. The main parasites found were Ascaris suum, Dictyocaulus, Metastrongylus, Cysticercus ovis, Fasciola hepatica and Sarcocystis spp. Pigs were also examined for trichinosis and, thus far, these have all been negative. PMID:1822903

  15. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  16. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  17. Low risk for helminth infection in wastewater-fed rice cultivation in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, Do Thuy; van der Hoek, Wim; Cam, Phung Dac; Vinh, Khuong Thanh; Hoa, Nguyen Van; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2006-09-01

    This study was done to assess the risk of helminth infection in association with wastewater-fed rice cultivation in an agricultural setting of Nam Dinh city, Vietnam. In a cross sectional survey data were collected for 202 households in a commune where wastewater was used for irrigation and for 201 households in a commune that used river water. Parasitological examination was conducted on single stool samples obtained from 1,088 individuals aged -15 years from the households. The irrigation water used in both communes was enumerated for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. The prevalence of infection with Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., and hookworm was 42.2%, 19.9% and 10.5% respectively, with an overall prevalence of infection with any helminth of 53.4%. Surprisingly, the prevalence of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris was lower among people exposed to wastewater (containing 40-200 helminth eggs/l and 10(4) thermotolerant coliforms/100 ml) compared to people exposed to river water that contained lower worm egg and bacterial numbers. Poor sanitation and hygiene practices and not using protective measures were important independent risk factors for helminth infection. For hookworm infection, no significant difference was observed between the wastewater exposed and unexposed groups. Children living in the wastewater use area had a significantly better nutritional status than those in the area using river water. This suggests a generally higher welfare level of the wastewater use area. In conclusion, this study showed no evidence that rice cultivation with wastewater poses a risk for helminth infection. More detailed studies are needed on the reduction of fecal indicators and helminth eggs in peri-urban wastewater-irrigated rice culture systems and on the relative importance of wastewater irrigation compared to other risk factors for human helminth infection such as poor sanitation and poverty. PMID:17036840

  18. Potential risk of zoonotic infections in recreational areas visited by Sus scrofa and Vulpes vulpes. Case study--Wolin Island, Poland.

    PubMed

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intestinal parasite prevalence in wild boars and red foxes and the sanitary condition of the soil in recreational estates were determined. The analysis was made based on 36 samples of boar faeces and 22 samples of fox faeces, collected in their habitat as well as 60 samples of soil from two recreational areas. Two methods were used for faecal samples--flotation and direct faecal smear; and flotation in NaNO3 for soil samples examination. Zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 25.5% of boar faecal samples; they were Ascaris suum (22.2%) and Trichuris suis (5.6%). Other parasites found were: Metastrongylus sp. (69.4%), Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. (36.6%) and Physocephalus sp. (8.6%) as well as coccidia (69.4%). In fox faeces, zoonotic nematode eggs were recovered from 31.8% of samples, and they were Toxocara canis (27.2%) and Ancylostoma caninum (18.2%). Tapeworm eggs were found in 36.4% of samples including Taenia sp. (22.7%). The presence of Uncinaria stenocephala (45.5%), Capillaria sp. (36.4%), Trichuris vulpis (4.5%) and coccidia (40.1%) was also detected. It was shown that both, flotation and faecal smear, as mutually complementary should be used for higher rate of detection of parasites in faeces. No eggs of zoonotic helminths in soil from recreational areas were found despite these areas were accessible to wild animals and pets. This could be explained by characteristics of the soil (loose sand soil) as well as by behaviour of the parasite hosts in the examined areas. PMID:21174955

  19. [Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates].

    PubMed

    Alves, Jair Rodrigues; Macedo, Heloísa Werneck; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from S o Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piau State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%), Endolimax nana (13.6%), Hymenolepis nana (9.4%), and hookworm (9.4%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years. PMID:12764483

  20. Interactions among urogenital, intestinal, skin, and oral infections in pregnant and lactating Panamanian Ngäbe women: a neglected public health challenge.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Doris; Koski, Kristine G; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa; Del Carmen Pons, Emérita; Murillo, Enrique; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-06-01

    Interrelationships among bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites were explored in a cross-sectional survey of 213 pregnant and 99 lactating indigenous women. Prevalences in pregnancy and lactation, respectively, were: vaginitis (89.2%; 46.8%), vaginal trichomoniasis (75.3%; 91.1%), bacterial vaginosis (BV; 60.6%; 63.3%), hookworm (56.6%; 47.8%), asymptomatic bacteriuria/urinary tract infection (AB/UTI; 56.2%; 36.2%), cervicitis (33.3%; 6.3%), vaginal yeast (24.9%; 11.4%), Ascaris (32.5%; 17.4%), vaginal diplococci (20.4%; 31.6%), caries (19.7%; 18.2%), scabies (17.4%; 8.1%), and Trichuris (12.5%; 8.7%). Multiple regressions revealed positive associations during pregnancy (trichomoniasis and AB/UTI; diplococci and Ascaris) and lactation (yeast and scabies). Negative associations were detected in pregnancy (BV and trichomoniasis; hookworm and diplococci) and lactation (BV and yeast). Vaginal Lactobacillus reduced odds of diplococci in pregnancy and lactation, but increased Ascaris eggs per gram (epg) and odds of trichomoniasis in pregnancy and yeast in lactation. These associations raised a concern that treatment of one condition may increase the risk of another. PMID:25825387

  1. Interactions among Urogenital, Intestinal, Skin, and Oral Infections in Pregnant and Lactating Panamanian Ngäbe Women: A Neglected Public Health Challenge

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Doris; Koski, Kristine G.; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa; del Carmen Pons, Emérita; Murillo, Enrique; Scott, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Interrelationships among bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites were explored in a cross-sectional survey of 213 pregnant and 99 lactating indigenous women. Prevalences in pregnancy and lactation, respectively, were: vaginitis (89.2%; 46.8%), vaginal trichomoniasis (75.3%; 91.1%), bacterial vaginosis (BV; 60.6%; 63.3%), hookworm (56.6%; 47.8%), asymptomatic bacteriuria/urinary tract infection (AB/UTI; 56.2%; 36.2%), cervicitis (33.3%; 6.3%), vaginal yeast (24.9%; 11.4%), Ascaris (32.5%; 17.4%), vaginal diplococci (20.4%; 31.6%), caries (19.7%; 18.2%), scabies (17.4%; 8.1%), and Trichuris (12.5%; 8.7%). Multiple regressions revealed positive associations during pregnancy (trichomoniasis and AB/UTI; diplococci and Ascaris) and lactation (yeast and scabies). Negative associations were detected in pregnancy (BV and trichomoniasis; hookworm and diplococci) and lactation (BV and yeast). Vaginal Lactobacillus reduced odds of diplococci in pregnancy and lactation, but increased Ascaris eggs per gram (epg) and odds of trichomoniasis in pregnancy and yeast in lactation. These associations raised a concern that treatment of one condition may increase the risk of another. PMID:25825387

  2. The influence of endoparasites on selected production parameters in pigs in various housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Knecht, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of lean meat content and daily gains of 400 fatteners infected by endoparasites and kept in two systems (shallow and deep litter). Slaughter evaluation of the pigs was conducted according to the EUROP carcass classification. In order to evaluate the average daily gains (g) during finishing period, body weights were investigated twice: at the beginning and at the end of the finishing period. The housing system affected the presence of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. Infestation was found to be higher on shallow than on deep litter, and it significantly affected selected fattening and slaughter parameters of the fatteners. Infected animals were characterized by gains approximately 60 g lower than those of uninfected ones, while meatiness was higher in fatteners which were not infected at the end of the fattening period compared to animals with parasites (55.2% vs. 52.0%). PMID:25956635

  3. Innate Immune Function of TH2 Cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F.; Paul, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 helper T (TH) cells produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naïve animals, we show here that in helminth-infected mice, TH2 cell numbers increased and became major mediators of innate type II responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen–non-specific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from Ascaris suum infection against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses. PMID:26322482

  4. Soil-transmitted helminth infection and urbanization in 880 primary school children in Nicaragua, 2005.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Robleto, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Barragne-Bigot, Philippe; Amador, Juan José; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is close to half the population in Central America, with the marginalized peri-urban poor disproportionately affected. Previous single province helminth surveys conducted in Nicaragua have shown Ascaris lumbricoides to be the predominant species. In 2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 880 children in 10 Nicaraguan primary schools located in four provinces. We aimed to establish the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and to investigate the factors associated with helminthiasis. Almost half (46%) of the children were infected with soil-transmitted helminths. Tichuris trichiura was the most common infective species (34.7%). The prevalence and intensity of helminthiasis was heterogeneous in the provinces, with children educated in peri-urban schools most affected. Healthy policies are required that favour the peri-urban poor who have inadequate and declining access to water and sanitation. PMID:20555043

  5. [Intestinal parasite infections in rural students of Chiloé archipelago, X Region, Chile].

    PubMed

    Mejías, G

    1993-01-01

    In order to contribute to the knowledge of intestinal parasite infection a survey was performed in 462 primary school children from eight rural localities sited in two islands of the Chiloe archipelago. Stool samples and perianal scotch tape scrapings for intestinal protozoa and helminths were microscopically examined. The prevalence rates of the main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides 43.3%, Trichuris trichiura 26.8%, Enterobius vernicularis 20.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.6%, Giardia intestinalis 20.6% and Blastocystis hominis 63.2%. Poverty, deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections found. A health education program, improvement of basic sanitary conditions and eventual treatment of infected people may contribute to control this undesirable situation. PMID:8110371

  6. Meningococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the ... also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis. Meningococcal infections can spread from person ...

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz; Gray, Darren J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Gomes, Santina J.; Traub, Rebecca; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%). Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and

  8. Prevention of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mascarini-Serra, Luciene

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale); on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i) regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii) health education, (iii) sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv) other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country. PMID:21731306

  9. Seropositivity for ascariosis and toxocariosis and cytokine expression among the indigenous people in the Venezuelan Delta region.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Zaida; Brandes, Sietze; Pinelli, Elena; Bochichio, María A; Palacios, Andrea; Wide, Albina; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Jiménez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens from Ascaris suum (AES) and Toxocara canis (TES) within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9%) and children (28.6%). When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002). Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous. PMID:25651326

  10. SEROPOSITIVITY FOR ASCARIOSIS AND TOXOCARIOSIS AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE VENEZUELAN DELTA REGION

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Zaida; Brandes, Sietze; Pinelli, Elena; Bochichio, María A.; Palacios, Andrea; Wide, Albina; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Jiménez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens from Ascaris suum (AES) and Toxocara canis (TES) within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9%) and children (28.6%). When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002). Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous. PMID:25651326

  11. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Rollemberg, Carla V V; Silva, Marília M B L; Rollemberg, Karla C; Amorim, Fábio R; Lessa, Nayanna M N; Santos, Marcos D S; Souza, Acácia M B; Melo, Enaldo V; Almeida, Roque P; Silva, Ângela M; Werneck, Guilherme L; Santos, Mario A; Almeida, José A P; Jesus, Amélia R

    2015-01-01

    Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores) in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%), Trichuris trichiura (54.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%), Hookworm (17.6%) and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%). Only 59/500 (11.8%) individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8%) were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections. PMID:26054512

  12. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Nazneen, Arifa; Halder, Amal K.; Haque, Rashidul; Siddique, Abdullah; Uddin, Muhammed Salah; Koporc, Kim; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P.; Addiss, David G.; Colford, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors. Methodology We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630) in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1–4 years, 5–12 years, and women 15–49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32%) of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71), but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44) or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08). PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24), 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24), and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27) for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97) but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45) or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33). Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures. Conclusions We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation

  13. Intestinal helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults in Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Wright, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, studies on the prevalence of intestinal helminth co-infection amongst HIV-infected patients as well as possible interactions between these two infections are limited. Aim To investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminth infestation amongst adults living with HIV or AIDS at Mthatha General Hospital. Setting Study participants were recruited at the outpatient department of Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 amongst consecutive consenting HIV-positive adult patients. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained using data collection forms and structured interviews. Stool samples were collected to investigate the presence of helminths whilst blood samples were obtained for the measurement of CD4+ T-cell count and viral load. Results Data were obtained on 231 participants, with a mean age of 34.9 years, a mean CD4 count of 348 cells/µL and a mean viral load of 4.8 log10 copies/mL. Intestinal helminth prevalence was 24.7%, with Ascaris Lumbricoides (42.1%) the most prevalent identified species. Statistically significant association was found between CD4 count of less than 200 cells/µL and helminth infection (p = 0.05). No statistically significant association was found between intestinal helminth infection and the mean CD4 count (p = 0.79) or the mean viral load (p = 0.98). Conclusion A high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was observed amongst the study population. Therefore, screening and treatment of helminths should be considered as part of the management of HIV and AIDS in primary health care. PMID:26842519

  14. Hookworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... in getting the disease is walking barefoot on ground where there are feces of people who have ...

  15. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection. Yeast infections affect different parts of the body in different ways: Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida ...

  16. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  17. Bone Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  18. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  19. Patterns of concurrent hookworm infection and schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lwambo, N J; Siza, J E; Brooker, S; Bundy, D A; Guyatt, H

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 6897 schoolchildren in 59 out of the 155 primary schools in Magu District on the shores of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, was undertaken in 1997 to determine the prevalence of single- and multiple-species helminth infection. Schistosoma haematobium, hookworm (primarily Necator americanus) and S. mansoni were the most common helminth species infecting schoolchildren in the district. The prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were negligible (< 1%). Anaemia and stunting were highly prevalent and widespread. Hookworm and S. mansoni occurred more frequently in multiple infections with other helminths than as single-species infections, but triple-species infection was rare. Analysis of the frequency distribution of infection amongst schools showed that prevalences of S. haematobium and hookworm tended to be normally distributed, with medians 75% and 45%, respectively, while the distribution of S. mansoni was markedly skewed such that only 17% schools had a prevalence greater than 20%. An inverse association between S. mansoni and S. haematobium was observed. Geographical information system (GIS) analysis indicated that S. mansoni infection was highly prevalent only along the shore of Lake Victoria, whilst S. haematobium was homogeneously prevalent everywhere except the lakeshore. This pattern appears to reflect the distribution of schistosome species-specific snail intermediate hosts. The results imply that joint treatment for hookworm infection and schistosomiasis would be beneficial throughout the district. PMID:10696404

  20. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Li, Rui; Ward, Michael P; Chen, Yue; Lynn, Henry; Wang, Decheng; Chen, Gengxin; He, Zonggui; Sun, Liqian; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People's Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum, Ascaris (A.) lumbricoides and Trichuris (T.) trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level), 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%), and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%), respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies. PMID:26618320

  1. Assessment of the health hazards associated with wastewater reuse: transmission of geohelminthic infections (Marrakech, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Amahmid, O; Bouhoum, K

    2005-04-01

    To address the problem of water scarcity, wastewater has long been used for agricultural purposes in Marrakech (Morocco) and its benefits have long been recognized. However, the benefits of urban wastewater reuse may be limited by its potential health hazards associated essentially to the danger of transmission of pathogenic organisms to human beings. The current study aimed to evaluate the risks associated with raw wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes, and the incidence of geohelminthic infections among the children of the wastewater spreading area of Marrakech as compared to a control group. Faecal samples from 610 individuals were examined for Ascaris spp. ova and Trichuris spp. ova (323 children for the exposed group and 287 for the control group). The study duration was two months and a half, and was carried out in the summer period. A questionnaire-interview with children and parents was used to collect data on possible demographic, hygiene and behavioural-contact factors such as gender, age, family size, source of water supply, parental occupation. The investigations resulted in the detection of Ascaris spp. ova in 43 samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group versus 1.7% for the control group. Trichuris spp. ova was detected in 43 faecal samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group, and 3.8% in the control group. The Chi-square test showed that the differences observed between the exposed and control group are statistically significant (p < 0.01). Males are more infected with ascariasis and trichuriasis than females and children of 2-8 years of age are heavily infected as compared to 9 - 14-year-old children. Based upon the findings of this study, it is concluded that wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes presents an increased risk of infection in the exposed group. PMID:16026024

  2. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. PMID:24704609

  3. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using hydrogen peroxide and a Fenton type nanocatalyst (FeOx/C) synthesized by a novel hybrid production process.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ariadna A; Schouwenaars, Rafael; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ramírez-Zamora, Rosa María

    2013-09-01

    Inactivation tests of Ascaris eggs (Ae) were performed using hydrogen peroxide and a Fenton type nanocatalyst supported on activated carbon (AC) (FeOx/C). Blank inactivation tests were also carried out using H2O2 and H2O2/AC as oxidation systems. The FeOx/C nanocatalyst was synthesized through a novel hybrid method developed in this work. The method is based on the incipient impregnation technique, using isopropyl alcohol as dissolvent and chelating agent of the iron salt and the ultrasonic method. The supported nanocatalyst contained 2.61% w/w of total iron and the support 0.2% w/w. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) images permitted verification of the presence of finely dispersed FeOx nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from 19 to 63 nm. SEM-EDS analysis and TEM images also showed good dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles, most probably maghemite; γ-Fe2O3, able to produce hydroperoxyl radical as reported in the literature. The FeOx/C nanocatalyst-H2O2 system showed an average Ae inactivation efficiency of 4.46% Ae/mg H2O2. This value is significantly higher than the result obtained using the support-H2O2 system and H2O2 alone and it is also better than data reported for the classical Fenton process (homogeneous phase) with or without UV light. PMID:23981871

  4. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  5. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Methods Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Results Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 – 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 – 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations

  6. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a

  7. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 at Wondo Genet Health Center and Bussa Clinic, southern Ethiopia. Consecutive blood film positive malaria patients (N=230) and malaria negative asymptomatic individuals (N=233) were recruited. Malaria parasite detection and quantification was diagnosed using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, respectively. Helminths were detected using direct microscopy and formol-ether concentration techniques. Coarse quantification of helminths ova was made using Kato Katz method. Results The over all magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high irrespective of malaria infection (67% among malaria positive patients versus 53.1% among malaria non-infected asymptomatic individuals). Trichuris trichiura infection was associated with increased malaria prevalence while increased worm burden of helminths as expressed by egg intensity was associated with increased malaria parasitaemia which could be a potential factor for development of severe malarial infection with the course of the disease. Majority (77%) of the subjects had multiple helminths infection. T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infestation accounted for 64.5, 57.7 %, 28.4%, and 12.2% of the infections, respectively. Conclusions Populations in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia are multi-parasitized with up to four helminths. Mass deworming may be a simple practical approach in endemic areas in reducing the risk of severe malarial attack particularly for those at high risk

  8. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli. Antibiotics are the usual treatment. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. Each ... infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute ...

  9. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. They are common throughout the world, and they can infect people and animals. Several different coronaviruses can infect people ...

  10. Rotavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  11. Infection Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. Health care workers can take steps to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. These steps are part of infection control. Proper hand washing is the most effective way ...

  12. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most staph skin infections are easily treated with antibiotics or by draining the infection. Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are resistant to certain antibiotics, making ...

  13. Staphylococcal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to prevent staph is to keep hands and wounds clean. Most staph skin infections are easily treated with antibiotics or by draining the infection. Some staph bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are ...

  14. Spinal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgical risk factors include a long surgical time, instrumentation and re-operations. Infections occur in up to 4% of surgical cases despite the numerous preventative measures that are taken. The likelihood of an infection ...

  15. Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host are caused by the common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that also cause infections in the immunocompetent host. Of special consideration is that immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk for infection or disease severity and by pathogens not seen in the competent host. This chapter reviews the various agents, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections in this patient population. PMID:27337464

  16. Epidemiological Study of the Association Between Malaria and Helminth Infections in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Olawale, Temitope; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A. L.; König, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intestinal helminth infection and susceptibility to malaria remains unclear. We studied the relationship between these infections. Seven schools in Ilero, Nigeria referred all pupils with febrile illness to our study center for free malaria treatment during a 3-month study period. At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during the study (controls). We recorded 115 malaria cases in 82 of 354 (23.2%), 16 of 736 (2.2%), and 17 of 348 (4.7%) children ages ≤ 5, 6–10, and 11–15 years old, respectively (P = 0.001). Helminth infection rate in cases was 21 of 115 (18.3%) compared with 456 of 1,327 (34.4%) in controls. Weighted odds ratio stratified by age group for helminth infection in cases versus controls was 0.50 (95% confidence interval = 0.2–0.84, P < 0.01). Ascaris and hookworm were the most common helminths detected, with prevalence rates of 14 (12.2%) and 6 (5.2%) among cases compared with 333 (25.1%) and 132 (10.0%) in controls, respectively (P = 0.001). The negative association between helminth infection and malaria may be of importance in the design of deworming programs. PMID:25624401

  17. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  18. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  19. [Survey on human soil-borne nematode infection in Xining City].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sheng-Hu; Han, Xiu-Min; Lei, Wen

    2013-02-01

    Five fields were selected from Xining City by stratified cluster sampling method for the survey. 4589 people above 3 years old were examined for nematode infections using Kato-Katz method and children under 12 years old were detected for pinworm infection using transparent tape method from June to August in 2011. The results showed that the total nematode infection rate was 3.0% (136/4 589) with the highest of 3.8% (123/3284) in rural area. The major species was Ascaris lumbricoides, and the infection rate in 15-20 age group was 1.5% (4/264), which was significantly lower than that of the age groups of 60-70 (6.9%, 23/335), above 70 (5.3%, 6/114) and of 10-15 (5.1%, 19/372)(P<0.05). The prevalence of A. lumbricoides among the preschool children (9.5%, 12/127) was statistically higher than those in other occupation groups (P<0.05), and the infection rate showed no statistical significance by gender, ethnic and degree of education (P>0.05). Pinworm infection in children under 12 years old was only 0.5% (2/437). PMID:24812844

  20. [Investigation on the current situation of human soil-borne nematode infection in Shapingba district of Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Lian-Jian; Chen, Min; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yin-Zhi

    2013-04-01

    By stratified cluster sampling method, 2 urban and 2 rural fields were selected from Shapingha district of Chongqing for survey in December 2009 to February 2010. According to the Administrating Regulations of National Investigation on Important Human Parasitic Diseases, Kato-Katz method was used to examine human intestinal soil-borne nematode eggs, and adhesive cellophane anal swab method was applied to examine Enterobius infection for children under 12 years old. 203 cases were found positive in 2121 subjects, with an infection rate of 9.6% (203/2 121), and the infection rate of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with mild infection mostly was 9.3% (197/2 121), 0.4% (8/2 121) and 0.1% (2/2 121), respectively. The rate among people over 50 years old was 15.5% (160/1 030), and the farmers was with 22.3%(113/506). The higher the education level, the lower the infection rate (P < 0.01), and there was a significant difference in the prevalence between urban (2.1%) and rural people (17.3%) (chi2 = 140.443 5, P < 0.01). The infection rate of soil-borne nematodes in Shapingba of Chongqing was much lower than the standard of II regions and most infected subjects were with hookworm infection. PMID:24809189

  1. TORCH infections.

    PubMed

    Neu, Natalie; Duchon, Jennifer; Zachariah, Philip

    2015-03-01

    TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25677998

  2. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route

    PubMed Central

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O.; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A.; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). Conclusions Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections among children in central Albania

    PubMed Central

    Sejdini, A; Mahmud, R; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, M; Sejdini, F; Gjoni, V; Xhaferraj, K; Kasmi, G

    2011-01-01

    Although intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) among children remain a global issue, the current information on such infections in Albanian children is very limited. A cross-sectional study of the IPI in 321 children living in the Albanian counties of Tirana (152) and Elbasan (169) was therefore conducted in 2008, with a pre-tested standard questionnaire employed to gather the relevant personal and clinical data. Using formalin–ether concentration and permanent stains, stool samples were examined microscopically for the ova, cysts and oocysts of any parasites. The overall prevalence of IPI was 19% (61 of 321), with protozoan infections (11·5%) apparently more common than infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH; 8·1%). Giardia duodenalis was the parasite most frequently detected (10·9%), followed by hookworm (5·6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1·9%), Trichuris trichiura (0·6%), Cryptosporidium (0·3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0·3%). The results of a univariate analysis indicated that the children from Tirana county were significantly more likely to be found infected with STH compared with the children from Elbasan county (12·5% v. 4·1%; P = 0·006). Children sampled in the community were also more likely to be found STH-positive than the children sampled as they attended hospitals and health clinics (10·5% v. 6·0%) but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The children found STH-positive were five times more likely to be suffering from diarrhoea than the other children checked in clinical settings (P = 0·004) and were also more likely to be suffering from abdominal pain (P = 0·054) and/or diminished appetite (P = 0·016). PMID:21801503

  4. Pathological studies on white spots of the liver in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Yoshihara, S; Suda, H; Ikeda, K

    1983-01-01

    Hepatic lesions were found in fattening pigs derived from a farm where swine had been suffering from the multiple occurrence of white spots in the liver. They were examined at a slaughter-house for 18 months. The white spots were classified into three patterns on the basis of the macroscopic appearance; that is a compact, a mesh-worked, and a lymphonodular pattern. Histologically, the following 3 kinds of lesions were seen: (1) Eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis accompanied with intralobular necrosis, arteriolar degeneration, boring focus, granuloma and the existence of Nematoda larvae. (2) Fibrosis accompanied occasionally with infiltration of a few eosinophils and lymphocytes. (3) Lymphofollicular hyperplasia. As to the relationship between macroscopic and histologic patterns, compact white spots were generally produced by eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis. The mesh-worked pattern consisted of eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis or fibrosis, and the lymphonodular pattern of lymphofollicular hyperplasia. The incidence of eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis was relatively high over a period from July to December and rather low over a period from January to June. That of fibrosis was considerably high all the year round. Lymphofollicular hyperplasia showed no distinct seasonal incidence. Intestinal ascarids were frequently detected over a period from August to October. Pigs having CF antibody against Ascaris suum increased in number over a period from August to December. From these results, the cause of the multiple occurrence of white spots in the liver was regarded as A. suum infection. PMID:6680776

  5. Standardization of a method for the detection of helminth eggs and larvae in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Matosinhos, F C; Valenzuela, V C; Silveira, J A; Rabelo, E M

    2016-05-01

    Despite reports that food-borne parasitic infections have been increasing worldwide, the methodologies employed to detect food contamination by helminths are still largely based on methodologies used to detect these pathogens in feces and water. This study sought to improve the diagnosis of parasitic contaminants in lettuce by standardizing a method for detecting helminth eggs and larvae and estimating their percentage of recovery. Sanitized lettuces were artificially contaminated with different amounts of Ascaris suum and hookworm eggs and larvae. To standardize the method, we tested liquid extractors, vegetable washing steps, and spontaneous sedimentation times. Higher percentages of egg and larvae recovery were obtained using 1 M glycine as the liquid extractor, manual shaking for 3 min and 2 h of sedimentation. Five different levels of artificial contamination (ten replicates each; n = 50) were tested using these standardized conditions, yielding an average recovery of 62.6 % (±20.2), 51.9 % (±20.0), and 50.0 % (±27.3) for A. suum eggs, hookworm eggs, and larvae, respectively. Tests were performed with a different matrix to evaluate the performance of the method. Furthermore, collaborative analytical studies performed by different laboratories produced satisfactory results. The method for the identification of helminth eggs and larvae proposed in this study proved to be simpler and more efficient than previously published procedures, thereby demonstrating its potential contribution to health surveillance and epidemiological studies. PMID:26786833

  6. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in healthy Jamaican carriers of HTLV-I.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R D; Murphy, E L; Wilks, R J; Neva, F A; Terry, S I; Hanchard, B; Figueroa, J P; Blattner, W A

    1991-12-01

    A subsample (1.6%; n = 13,260) of a healthy Jamaican population of food-handlers, studied by Murphy et al. (1991), who were serologically positive (n = 99) or negative (n = 113) for HTLV-I was investigated for intestinal parasitic infection using coprological methods. Helminth infection included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.8%), Trichuris trichiura (7.1%) and hookworms (6.1%). Entamoeba coli was found in 21.8% of samples, while E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Chilomastix mesnili each occurred in less than 10% of responders. T. trichiura displayed a higher prevalence (10.6 vs 3%) (chi 2 = 4.623; P = 0.03) in the HTLV-I negative group. G. lamblia was detected more frequently among HTLV-I carriers compared to controls (9.1 and 3.5%, respectively), but the association was not statistically significant (chi 2 = 2.825; P = 0.09). Infection with intestinal parasites is likely to occur independent of HTLV-I status: however, possible HTLV-I-induced immunosuppression may lead to higher intensity infections of certain organisms thus facilitating easier detection using parasitological methods. The immunomodulatory potential of HTLV-I infection in the aetiology of non-malignant diseases requires further investigation. PMID:1758014

  7. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    PubMed Central

    Omitola, O. O.; Mogaji, H. O.; Oluwole, A. S.; Adeniran, A. A.; Alabi, O. M.; Ekpo, U. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  8. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    PubMed

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  9. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T J; Zizza, C A; Leche, G M; Scott, M E; Solomons, N W

    1993-01-01

    Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 5-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described. PMID:8246757

  10. Risk Factors and Spatial Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni Infection among Primary School Children in Mbita District, Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Sachiyo; Chadeka, Evans A.; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Mutungi, Faith; Justin, Yombo K. Dan; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Njenga, Sammy M.; Hashizume, Masahiro; Shimada, Masaaki; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing risk of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been observed around Lake Victoria, western Kenya since the 1970s. Understanding local transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis is crucial in curtailing increased risk of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross sectional study on a population of 310 children from eight primary schools. Overall, a total of 238 (76.8%) children were infected with S. mansoni, while seven (2.3%) had S. haematobium. The prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 6.1%, 5.2% and 2.3%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite detected (12.0%). High local population density within a 1 km radius around houses was identified as a major independent risk factor of S. mansoni infection. A spatial cluster of high infection risk was detected around the Mbita causeway following adjustment for population density and other potential risk factors. Conclusions/Significance Population density was shown to be a major factor fuelling schistosome infection while individual socio-economic factors appeared not to affect the infection risk. The high-risk cluster around the Mbita causeway may be explained by the construction of an artificial pathway that may cause increased numbers of S. mansoni host snails through obstruction of the waterway. This construction may have, therefore, a significant negative impact on the health of the local population, especially school-aged children who frequently come in contact with lake water. PMID:25058653